J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) Vol. 8, No. 6, p. 101-108, 2016 http://www.innspub.net RESEARCH PAPER
Effect of nano titanium dioxide spraying on essential oil yield and traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Elham Morteza1, Tayebeh Morteza2*, Hadi Saemi3, Ali Joorabloo4 1
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Iran
Department of Plant Protection, Islamic Azad University of Damghan, Damghan, Iran
Department of Horticulture, Guilan University, Rasht, Iran
Department of Agronomy, Agriculture Jahad Office of Garmsar, Garmsar, Iran Article published on June 11, 2016
Key words: Nano titanium dioxide, Cumin, 1000 grain weight, Essential oil yield.
Abstract An experiment was conducted to study the effects of nano titanium dioxide on essential oil yield and other traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Factorial experiment based on a complete randomized block design with four replications was done, in the years of 2013 and 2014, in Garmsar- Iran. Treatments of various concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (0, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%) and times of spraying of this nano particle (vegetative and reproductive stages) were applied. Traits of height, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield, were analysed using the SAS software. Results showed that the effect of concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticle was significant on all traits with the exception of essential oil percentage trati. But the effect of times of spraying of this nano particle, was significant only on trait of height. So that the highest amount of height, was obtained at vegetative stage. Also according to the results, concentration of 0.06% nano-TiO2, in comparison with the other examined concentrations of this nanoparticle and control or no application of it, was the most positive and effective treatment. Therefore, in this experiment, application of nano-TiO2, especially at concentration of 0.06%, was effective for gain the highest essential oil yield of cumin. *Corresponding
Author: Tayebeh Morteza ď€Ş email@example.com
101 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 Introduction
increasing growth of plants (Gao et al., 2006).
Medicinal plants are used to cure many ailments that
Previous studies showed that the activities of nitrate
are either non curable or seldomly cured through
modern systems of medicine. Approximately 80% of
synthase, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were
the world population depends on medicinal plants for
obviously increased by nano-TiO2 treatment. In
their health and healing (Aliyu, 2003). Cumin
(Cuminum cyminum L.) is an aromatic plant included
treatment could promote plant to absorb nitrate,
in the Apiaceae family and is used to flavor foods,
accelerate inorganic nitrogen to be transformed into
added to fragrances, and for medicinal preparations
organic nitrogen (such as protein and chlorophyll),
(Iacobellis et al., 2005). Historically, Iran has been
and enhance plant yield )Yang et al., 2007(. Based
the principal supplier of cumin, but currently the
on research finding, the nitrogen content of plant
major sources are India, Sri Lanka, Syria, Pakistan,
leaves affects their photosynthetic capacity, so that it
has a generally positive correlation with plant
Nanotechnology as the latest innovation has the
photosynthesis. Nanoparticles can transport DNA and
potential to bring about changes as big as the
chemicals into plant cells after interance into plants
European industrial revolution in the late 18th and
cells and leaves. Therefore, it is important in plant
biotechnology to explore of target specific gene's
Hosseiniet al., 2011). Titania (TiO2) nanoparticles
manipulation and expression in the specific cells of
(TNs) have become one of the most important
the plants (Galbraith, 2007; Torney et al., 2007;
substances in nanotechnology. Many studies have
Manzer et al., 2015). The researches on improving
been conducted into the properties of various TNs in
solutions to estimate their behaviour. The effect of
nanoanatase TiO2 could increase light absorbance,
size, pH, ionic strength, crystal phase and presence of
accelerate transport and transformation of the light
proteins and other biomolecules on agglomeration,
energy, protect chloroplasts (Chl) from aging, and
aggregation, hydrodynamic size and the behaviour of
prolong the photosynthetic time of Chl (Lei et al.,
nanoparticles in solution have been thoroughly
should be noted that, nano-TiO2
investigated. Lately interests and ideas have emerged to apply TNs in agricultural practices from pesticide
Many researchers showed that efficacy of NPs
formulations to growth stimulators (Palmqvist et al.,
depends on their concentration and varies from
plants to plants. So that Zhang et al. (2005) reported that, the positive effects of nano-TiO2 on the
According to the finding of Hong et al. (2005a,b) and
germination and growth of naturally aged seeds of
Yang et al. (2006), nano-anatase TiO2 have a
Spinacia oleracea at 0.25-4% nano-TiO2 treatments
photocatalyzed characteristic and improves the light
in comparison with the control treatment. Also
absorbance and the transformation from light energy
to electrical and chemical energy, and also induces
experiment showed an increasing in the plant dry
weight, the chlorophyll formation, the ribulose
chloroplast from aging for long time illumination. The
bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and the
nano-TiO2 treatments also have obvious effects on the
photosynthetic rate during the growth stage. As well
improvement of growth and development in spinach.
nano-TiO2 can increases
decreasing the accumulation of superoxide radicals,
photosynthetic carbon assimilation by activating
hydrogen peroxide, MDA and increasing antioxidant
rubisco (complex of rubisco and rubiscoactivase) that
enzyme activity, which increases the evolution oxygen
rate in spinach chloroplasts under stress (Lei et al.,
102 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 2008).
synthesis (Plasma Chem, Germany). The size of the
nanoparticles can harvest more light energy into
TiO2 nanoparticles were determined by scanning
chloroplast beacause they allow chloroplast to capture
electron microscopy (SEM) at the Rezaei laboratory at
wavelengths of light which is not in their normal
Tehran, Iran (Fig. 1).
range (such as ultraviolet, green, and near-infrared). They emphasized, anatase nano-TiO2, has a large
Seeds were planted on 15 November 2013 in 20 cm
specific surface area, high thermal conductivity, and
row distance, 1.5 cm sowing depth in 2 ×2 m2 plots.
high photocatalytic ability that can inhibit the growth
All agricultural practices were performed in the same
of bacteria, fungi, and algae. Significantly reduction
manner, as it is usually done in the cumin production
leaf lesion areas and lower incidence rates, as well as
areas. Titanium dioxide were sprayed by a portable
promotion of chlorophyll and carotene syntheses by
spray machine on the cumin plants according to the
spraying of cucumber leaves with a 0.35% nano-TiO2
treatments of nano-TiO2 concentrations, at vegetative
semi-conductor sol was shown in one study. Also
and reproductive stages of plant. In this test
characteristics of height, 1000 grain weight, grain
photosynthesis in cucumber, which in turn increases
yield, essential oil percentage and essential oil yield,
root growth (Zhang et al., 2008a,b). Owolade et al.,
was evaluated. Plant height was measured at time of
(2008) as well stated that effects of nano TiO2
50% flowering stage. Plants of 1 m2 in each plot were
spraying on evaluations for traits of grain number per
harvested on 15 May 2014 at the end of growth season
pod, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, leaf area, pod
and after harvesting, branches were dried in the
shade and 1000 grain weight and grain yield was
unguiculata, were significant and evaluations of these
measured using a carriage scale using standard
traits significantly increased compared to the control.
moisture at 14%. Cumin grain s were ground in a
Thus, according to the positive effects of nano-TiO2
laboratory dry grinder and 50 g of powder was
on acceleration of plants growth and importance of
subjected to hydro-distillation. Essential oil of seed
cumin as one medicinal plant, the present study
was prepared and extracted by hydrodistillation of
examined effects of nano-TiO2 foliar spraying on the
ground cumin using a Clevenger distillation. The
plant materials were steam-distilled for 90 min in the full glass apparatus. The extraction was carried out
Materials and method
for 2 h after 4 h maceration in 620 ml of water. The
Preparation of materials and cultivation of cumin
essential oils were stored in dark glass bottles in a
In order to study the effect of nano titanium dioxide
freezer (Sowbhagya et al., 2008). Finally, evaluation
on essential oil yield and other traits of cumin
for the essential oil yield trait was determined by the
(Cuminumcyminum L.), this study was carried out at
one farm in Garmsar, Iran during the winter and spring seasons of 2013-2014. Soil in the test was
Essential oil yield= Essential oil percentage × Seed
sandy loam. A field experiment was conducted as a
randomized block design with four replications.
Treatments used in this experiment, consisted of
After normalization test, data were subjected to
analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Statistical
nanoparticle (0, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%) and times
Analysis System (SAS Institute) and followed by
of spraying of this nanoparticle (vegetative and
Duncan's multiple range tests. Terms were considered
reproductive stages). Nano-TiO2 with average particle
significant at P ≤ 0.05.
size of of 44.17 nm was supplied by chemical
103 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 Results
concentrations of nano TiO2 treatments on the height
amount, were significant at p ≤ 0.05 (Table 1).
The simple effects of spraying times and Table 1. Analysis of variance results of the cumin traits under different concentrations of nano-TiO2 spraying in two stages of plant growth. Mean squares Sources of variation
1000 grain weight
Essential oil percentage
Essential oil yield
Times of spraying
Concentrations of nano-TiO2 3
(Stage of plant)
* and **: Significant at 5 and 1% levels respectively. Moreover, the interaction effects of this nanoparticle concentrations
significant on this trait. According to the results of the Duncan'means comparison (Fig. 2), the highest amount of height (23.4cm) was achieved by the spraying of nano-TiO2 at vegetative stage while the minimum amount of this trait (21.63 cm) was achieved by spraying of this nanoparticle at reproductive stage. The results of Fig. 3 showed that the maximum measure of this attribute (23.75 and 23.18 cm respectively) was related to the application of 0.06%
Fig. 1. Image of nano-TiO2 by scanning electron
and 0.04% of nano-TiO2 respectively, and the
minimum amount of this trait 21.10 cm) was achieved by the no-application of this nanoparticle. While the
As the results of the Duncan' means comparison (Fig.
use of concentration of 0.02% with the height amount
4) shows, clearly that treatment of 0.06% nano
of 21.1 cm, was placed between maximum and
titanium with the amount of 2.52 g, had the highest
weight of 1000 grain and this treatment had no significant difference with treatment of 0.04% nano-
1000 grain weight
TiO2 spraying with the amount of 2.36 g and were
The results of analysis of variance (Table 1) showed
placed in the superior group. While treatments of no-
that, the simple effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations
application of nano-TiO2 with the amount of 2.05 g,
treatment on the weight of 1000 grain, was significant
had the least weight of 1000 grain and whereas this
at the level of one percent (p ≤ 0.01), while the effects
treatment, had no significant difference with the
of spraying times' treatment and interaction of these
concentration of 0.02% nano titanium with the 1000
treatments, were not significant.
grain weight amount of 2.2 g.
104 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016
Fig. 2. Effect of times of nano-TiO2 spraying on height of cumin. Grain yield
The results of means comparison (Fig 5) showed that,
According to the results of analysis of variance (Table
use of 0.06% concentration of nano-TiO2, had the
1), the main effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations
highest grain yield (463.01 kg.ha-1), while the
treatment on the grain yield trait, was significant at
treatment of no-use of this nanoparticle (control) had
the level of P â‰¤ 0.01.
Fig. 3. Effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations on height of cumin. Essential oil yield
(Fig. 6), demonstrated that the highest level of
According to the results of analysis of variance (Table
essential oil yield (9.84 kg.ha-1) was obtained by the
1), the simple effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations
application of 0.06% of nano-TiO2 that this treatment
treatment on the essential oil yield, was significant (p
had no significant difference with the use of
â‰¤ 0.01), whereas the effects of other treatments on
concentration of 0.04% with essential oil yield of 9.14
this trait, were not significant.
kg.ha-1. While the minimum amount of this trait (7.51 kg.ha-1) was achieved by no application of nano-TiO2.
The results for the means comparison of Duncan,
105 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 Discussion
Castiglione and Cremonini (2009), showed that the
In this experiment, spraying of cumin plant with
application of this nanoparticle, increased growth and
nano-TiO2, in comparison with the control treatment,
yield of plant. It should be emphasized, with
caused an increasing in amounts of all traits (1000
increasing of nano-TiO2 concentration, growth of
grain weight, essential oil yield height, grain yield).
cumin, increased. Therefore, stimulation of the plant
Especially for the measured traits, a positive effect of
growth by this nanoparticle because of nanometric
this nanoparticle was very tangible at a concentration
size of nano-TiO2, will be correlated with the
of 0.06%. Consistent with these results, the results of
concentration of nanoparticles (Lin and Xing, 2007).
Fig. 4. Effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations on 1000 grain weight of cumin.
Fig. 5. Effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations on grain yield of cumin. According
the nano-TiO2 treatments have obvious effects on the
experiment, increasing of growth and yield of cumin
improvement of growth and development (Hong et
al., 2005a; Yang et al., 2006), as well, according to
properties and improvement the light absorbance and
the results of Gao et al. (2006), nano-anatase-TiO2 by
the transformation from light energy to electrical and
enhancing the photosynthetic carbon assimilation by
chemical energy, and also induction of carbon dioxide
activation of rubisco (complex of rubisco and rubisco
assimilation, protectection of chloroplast from aging
activase), could promote
for long time illumination of nano-TiO2. Therefore,
thereby increased growth of plants. Furthermore,
106 | Morteza et al.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 2016 based on Cossins (2014) and Giraldo et al. (2014)
leaf lesion areas and lower incidence rates, as well as
finding, anatase nano-TiO2 has a large specific surface
promotion of chlorophyll and carotene syntheses are
other the reasons of yield increasing by nano-TiO2. In
photocatalytic ability that can inhibit the growth of
gneral, these results are in accordance with those
bacteria, fungi, and algae. Significantly, reduction of
Fig. 6. Effect of nano-TiO2 concentrations on essential oil yield of cumin. Conclusion
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Published on Jun 11, 2016
Published on Jun 11, 2016
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of nano titanium dioxide on essential oil yield and other traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum...