Wood Design & Building Fall 2021

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P ubl i c ati ons M ai l agr eem ent #40063877

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APPEALING INTERIORS Sleek Finishes Impeccable detailing and tactile surfaces are even richer with wood

Rustic Charm

Luxurious Kitchens

Live-edge surfaces, natural finishes and hand-cut beams

Creating function and beauty in the most loved rooms at home


Engineer-Build Structural Engineering

Computational Design

Fabrication & Installation

Beautiful Structures The Soto Office Building | San Antonio, TX Client: Hixon Properties | Design Architect: Lake Flato | Architect of Record: BOKA Powell | General Contractor: Byrne Construction | EOR Concrete Structure: Danysh & Associates Inc. | EOR Timber Structure: StructureCraft


c o n t e n t s A b ove a n d o n t h e c ove r: Metrick Cottage and Boathouse/Muskoka, ON

IMAGE: Shai Gil

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Appealing Interiors 17

Some of our favorite recent examples of wood's incredible versatility in brightening up the indoors. D          

Against the Grain 6 BATHING BEAUTIES Wood-based bathtubs ready to soak your troubles away

Wood Chips

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Projects to watch and more industry news

Wood Ware 46 A PORTABLE, ECO-FRIENDLY HOT TUB Speaking of soaking your troubles away...

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WOOD FOR THOUGHT: A Practical Framework for Comparing and Selecting Sustainable Wood 10 Now more than ever, clients and consumers want to know about the environmental impact of their material choices. Here's what the Cities4Forests team had to say about that at the recent United Nations Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow.

APPEALING INTERIORS As we started working on this issue, we looked back at recent Wood Design Award submissions and discovered more than enough inspiration to fill a few magazines. Here are some of our favorites.

SLEEK FINISHES 18 RUSTIC CHARM 20 INDOOR-OUTDOOR LIVING 26 COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS 30 LUXURIOUS KITCHENS 34 BATHROOM RETREATS 39

Technical Solutions 42

For centuries, preserved wood products have proven their worth as an essential vital component of commerce and everyday life. Ongoing research, testing and education will help keep it that way.

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Another Award-Winning Season Begins Fall is an exciting time for the Wood Design & Building team because entries start arriving for the annual Wood Design Awards. The winners will be published in the Spring/Summer 2022 issue and the section will be expanded to include all categories. Each year the award selection process is so rigorous that many projects worth featuring in the magazine don’t make the final cut so, when it was time to plan this issue, the first place I headed to was the award entry archives. The result is a feature collection of more than 20 projects, starting on p.17, that use wood to enrich the indoor experience. Since wood can be adapted to many styles and uses, virtually any project can take advantage of its appealing qualities. Rustic or polished, traditional or modern, wood consistently creates a warm, welcoming atmosphere. As an aesthetic and structural element that is renewable, recyclable and a carbon “sink,” wood’s many benefits are well documented. We need to remember, however, that some people don’t believe there is enough of an upside to using wood. We reached out to Scott Francisco, founder of Cities4Forests and one of Canada’s loudest champions for sustainable forestry, to explain in more detail the criteria for “sustainable.” When we connected with him, Francisco was preparing for COP26 in Glasgow, Scotland, where he was part of the “Sustainable Timber District” team. In this issue’s “Wood for Thought,” Francisco explains the framework for assessing and selecting sustainable wood products, and he highlights several projects and companies that support international forestry communities. Before we deem an exotic hardwood to be “unsustainable,” for example, we need to know more about how it was harvested. Another aspect of sustainability is longevity. A product that lasts – and in the case of wood, that can be for decades, and even centuries – is inherently more sustainable. Of course, one of the keys to wood’s longevity is how it’s treated and maintained. In “Technical Solutions” on p.44, Wood Preservation Canada and the Western Wood Preservers Institute explain the basics of some common treatments and why they are effective. Every issue of the magazine also includes interesting wood products, “Projects to Watch” and other news. There’s always more to report than we can fit on these pages, so be sure to visit the Wood Design & Building website to sign up for the eNewsletter. As we prepare to say goodbye to 2021, the future of mass timber is looking brighter – and busier – than ever.

Popi Bowman Managing Editor Wood Design & Building magazine invites you to submit your project for consideration and possible publication. We welcome contributed projects, bylined articles and letters to the editor, as well as comments or suggestions for improving our magazine. Please send your submissions to wood.editorial@dvtail.com.

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inspiration BOARD

2020 www.WoodDesignandBuilding.com

WHAT I’VE FALLEN FOR LATELY... sponsored by

Fall 2021, Volume 20, Issue 89 PUBLISHER ANDREW BOWERBANK abowerbank@cwc.ca

WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE, PART 4 One year ago, we started using this space to highlight women in the architectural industry after Irish architects Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara, of Grafton Architects, won the 2020 Pritzker Prize. Among almost 50 Pritzkers since the award was launched in 1979, the Irish duo were only the fourth and fifth women to win. The first woman to receive a Pritzker was Zaha Hadid, in 2004. Because this magazine is published by the Canadian Wood Council, we chose to focus on women in Canada. As the list continues to grow, it’s clear that there are many talented women, including BIPOC, who are breaking barriers in this industry. Across different demographics and experience levels, we discovered an ever-expanding list of inspiring female architects, engineers and other construction industry professionals. This is the fourth installment in our series, but it feels like we’re only getting started:

Gloria Apostolou: The principal of Post Architecture is a LEED AP who specializes in

custom home design and residential transformations in the Toronto area. Apostolou worked with Baldwin & Franklin Architects for 10 years before starting her own practice in 2016.

Nazia Aftab: After almost five years at Akb Architects, Aftab joined Hariri Pontarini Architects in 2015, where she is now an associate partner. Jodi Buck is another associate

MANAGING EDITOR POPI BOWMAN wood.editorial@dvtail.com CONTRIBUTOR

SCOTT FRANCISCO

MITCHELL BROWN

ADVERTISING SALES SENIOR ACCOUNT EXECUTIVE DINAH QUATTRIN dquattrin@dvtail.com 905.886.6641 ext. 308 PRODUCTION MANAGER CRYSTAL HIMES chimes@dvtail.com DOVETAIL COMMUNICATIONS PRESIDENT SUSAN A. BROWNE sbrowne@dvtail.com

EDITORIAL BOARD Shelley Craig, Principal, Urban Arts Architecture, Vancouver, BC Gerry Epp, President & Chief Engineer, StructureCraft Builders Inc., Vancouver, BC Laura Hartman, Principal, Fernau & Hartman Architects, Berkeley, CA Randall Kober, Master Lecturer, Faculty of Architecture, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON

Sydney Browne: Since joining Diamond Schmitt Architects in 1999, Browne has worked

Wanda Dalla Costa: A member of the Saddle Creek Cree Nation in northern Alberta,

Dalla Costa was the first Indigenous woman to be certified as an architect in Canada. She founded Redquill Architecture in 2010 to focus on First Nations and tribal clients throughout North America (Turtle Island). Projects include the Niitsitapi Learning Centre in Calgary and several buildings at Red Crow Community College in Alberta. Dalla Costa also was part of the Douglas Cardinal–led “Unceded” project at the 2018 Venice Biennale.

Sonia Gagné: The partner and architect at Provencher_Roy was nominated – along with a large group of women in key roles – for Team of the Year in this year’s World Architecture News Female Frontier Awards, in recognition of the firm’s Grand Quai project in Montreal. The rehabilitated wharf features expansive gardens and viewpoints connected by cedar decking, terraces and staircases. Included in the nominated team were architects Valérie Bier, Sophie Wilkin, Danielle Dewar, Marilina Cianci, Alice Cormier-Cohen, Camille Laforest and Chloé Hutchison, plus three architectural technicians (Krisafie Koulis, Mélissa Boisjoli and Maryia Kamisarava). Rayleen Hill: After receiving her Masters of Architecture degree in 2006 from Dalhousie University, Hill founded RHAD Architects in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. The firm designed the Monocular home featured on p.26. Megan Lloyd is an architect and Passive House designer who joined RHAD as an intern architect in 2016. Eleonore Leclerc: A design principal at Stantec, Leclerc was selected as this year’s

Emerging Architect of the Year by the Female Frontier Awards, which were launched in 2020 by World Architecture News.

Sonia Ramundi: The BEAT executive director won Construction Canada’s 2020 Emerging Leader Awards in the “Demonstrates Initiative” category. Ramundi is an associate architect at Williamson Williamson Inc., led by Betsy Williamson (included in the Fall 2020 “Inspiration Board”). Also at the firm, Irina Solop is a project architect.

COPY EDITOR

ART DIRECTOR SHARON MACINTOSH smacintosh@dvtail.com

partner and has been with the firm since 2005. Other women hold key roles in the Hariri Pontarini project teams, including associate senior project managers Dalia Alajrami and Nadine El-Gazzar.

with academic and cultural clients on the planning, design and construction of postsecondary buildings and other public institutions. In 2010, she became a principal with the firm. Heading the firm’s West Coast office, principal Ana Maria Llanos has over 20 years of experience with Diamond Schmitt. Jennifer Mallard is another principal who has been with the firm for 20 years. Several senior associates are women: Cecily Eckhardt, Antra Roze and Jessica Shifman.

BARBARA MURRAY bmurray@cwc.ca

SENIOR MANAGER, SPECIAL PROJECTS IOANA LAZEA ilazea@cwc.ca

Farida Abu-Bakare: The former associate and project architect at HOK Calgary is now

a project director for Adjaye Associates. In 2019, she co-founded the Black Architects and Interior Designers Association (BAIDA), a Canadian non-profit that promotes equity, diversity and inclusion in the professions of architecture and interior design. Abu-Bakare is currently an elected council member for the Ontario Association of Architects.

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CANADIAN WOOD COUNCIL 99 Bank St., Suite 400, Ottawa, ON Canada K1P 6B9 1.800.463.5091 www.cwc.ca www.WoodDesignandBuilding.com www.WoodDesignAwards.com ISSN 1206-677X Copyright by Canadian Wood Council. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reprinted or reproduced without written permission. Views expressed herein are those of the authors exclusively. Publication Mail Agreement #40063877 Printed on PEFC certified paper Printed in Canada

To be continued….

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Against the GRAIN

Bathing Beauties Wood’s resilience might be tested by fire and water, but when properly finished and maintained, it’s a material that can be used to make almost anything – even a bathtub. For centuries, wood soaking tubs have been popular in Japan, which has a tradition of therapeutic bathing. When it comes to outfitting a modern bathroom, however, most people prefer a polished appearance over rustic wood. Regardless of the style, there is an interesting variety of high-end options.

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A Canadian company with production facilities in Latvia, Aquatica offers several bathtub styles in six types of wood: walnut, padouk, sapele, oak, ash and maple. The True Ofuro is a Japanese-style tub in a choice of four sizes, from 43 to 61.5 inches long and up to 37.25 inches deep, holding up to 155 gallons of water. The longest tub style, Karolina 2, is almost 71 inches long and 27 inches deep, holding 68 gallons. The wood tubs are constructed of LegnoX, a proprietary resin impregnation process derived from the boat building industry. Established in 1960, Vancouver-based Wasou Japanese Design produces traditional Hinoki (Japanese cypress) tubs. The untreated, handcrafted wood bathtubs can be ordered in a choice of shapes: box, rounded corner, deluxe rounded corner, barrel type, oval or Japanese modern. Custom designs also can be arranged, and local installation is provided. Price quotes are determined by wood grade selection, size, features and options such as headrest, backrest, seat, handles and recirculation system. The company also designs and installs Shoji screens and Tatami rooms. NK Woodworking & Design is a Seattle-based business that is best known for its award-winning wood staircases, but the company also makes artistic, handcrafted wood bathtubs. The founder, Nathie Katzoff, was trained as a boat builder in Maine and uses many of the same techniques for architectural applications and custom furnishings. Each tub – a choice of five styles – takes at least 300 hours to build, using sapele and sustainable hardwoods that are finished with a specialized clear composite barrier. The largest of the tubs, the Lotus (which comes in three sizes), stretches an impressive 84 inches long.

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With its North American showroom in Vancouver, Baumeister Eurotech is based in Germany. The company produces 10 sink designs and six freestanding wooden bath models, including a unique corner tub (the Vienna) and an asymmetrical oval (the Barcelona). Eleven woodgrain options include amaranth, zebrano, teak and smoked oak. Most of the tubs are between 71 and 75 inches long. The wood is sealed using a patented nano coating that inhibits dirt, mineral and bacteria buildup. 1. Karolina 2 by Aquatica aquaticabath.ca 2. Custom bath design by Wasou Japanese Design wasoudesign.com

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3. Lotus by NK Woodworking & Design nkwoodworking.com 4. Paris by Baumeister Eurotech baumeistereurotech.com

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From rendering to reality.

When execution matters Innovative glulam and timber solutions Contact us to discuss your project (888) 898-1385 | sales@fwtimber.com www.fraserwoodindustries.com

Photo credit: Kyle Slavin, St. Michaels University School


WOODCHIPS

PHOTOS: Didier Boy de la Tour

2020 INTERNATIONAL AWARD FOR WOOD ARCHITECTURE Due to pandemic-related delays, the nominees for the third annual IAWA (featured in the Spring/Summer 2020 issue) had to wait more than a year for the award announcement at this July’s International Wood Construction Forum in Paris. Three projects for each region are nominated by the editors of six international wood magazines: Lignum (Sweden), Mikado (Germany), PUU (Finland), Séquences Bois (France), Trä! (Sweden) and Wood Design & Building (North America). After independent scoring, the jurors participate in a teleconference to discuss the finalists. 8

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Not surprisingly, the jurors selected the Swatch Omega Headquarters by Shigeru Ban (Biel, Switzerland). As one of the largest hybrid mass timber projects in the world – more than 500,000 sq.ft. – the structures are a testament to Ban’s masterful approach to using wood. Collectively, the three buildings on the campus use 162,000 cu.ft. of Swiss spruce, including a dramatic, curved gridshell roof that consists of 7,700 timber pieces. Another session of the awards will be announced next year. For details about the conference in France, scheduled for April 2022, visit: forum-boisconstruction.com.


WOODCHIPS

PROJECTS TO WATCH CANADA

dera Development is planning its second mass A timber rental building in North Vancouver at 1220 St. Georges Ave. Six storeys will provide 58 homes, six of which will be offered at mid-market rates for the life of the building. Amenities include a rooftop social space, an outdoor dog washing station, parking for 93 bicycles and a bicycle repair area. 8 00 Granville is another exciting proposal for Vancouver. The block-long project designed by Perkins&Will incorporates several heritage facades and the existing Commodore Ballroom, with retail/ commercial space on the lower levels and a 16-storey office tower. On the fourth level, a restaurant and outdoor promenade will span the length of the building, with a wood soffit indicating the use of structural timber. A rezoning application was filed in August, with updates pending. lso in August, a plan was submitted for a mass A timber six-storey, mixed-use building at 1650 Dupont St. in Toronto, with 30 residential suites. Gabriel Fain Architects designed the CLT structure with shou sugi ban (charred) wood siding and an Asianinspired interior courtyard, featuring a Japanese maple as its centerpiece.

UNITED STATES I n Nashville, construction for 1030 Music Row is progressing quickly. The building recently topped out, and the opening is planned for early next year. Tuck Hinton Architecture and Turner Construction worked with StructureCraft to develop the five-storey, 122,000-sq.ft. mass timber and steel office building. The superstructure uses prefabricated spruce DLT panels on glulam columns and beams, with a central structural

steel core as the lateral load resisting system. The steel core was erected first so that the CLT elevator shaft could be dropped in from the top after the first four levels were in place. Fully exposed on both sides, the 7-in.-thick CLT walls provide the necessary fire rating for the shaft; the walls are close to 40 ft. tall, requiring only one splice to go from level one to the roof. The glass skin will show off the timber interiors. Several interesting videos of the construction process can be found at: vimeo.com/crestonparker. I n Portland, Guerrilla Development is a small firm that supports affordable housing projects. One of the firm’s latest projects in the city, scheduled to start construction next year, is Great Scott Trio, a four-storey mixed-use building that will utilize light-frame construction and open-air common areas, including a central courtyard, for passive natural ventilation and cooling. The 40 apartments will be affordable housing, with several apartments reserved for teens that are aging out of Oregon’s foster care system.

INTERNATIONAL fter winning a competition this summer, Danish A studio Adept Architects will be constructing one of Germany’s largest CLT buildings in the center of Hamburg, a public administration office complex that is scheduled for completion in 2026. Many more Projects to Watch can be found in the Wood Design & Building eNewsletter.                    ‒ f a ll 2 0 2 1

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WOOD FOR THOUGHT

A Practical Framework for Comparing and Selecting Sustainable Wood More than ever, clients and consumers want to know about the impacts of their material choices – and it’s about time! At this fall’s United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow, the Cities4Forests team presented the Sustainable Timber District. Here’s an overview of the principles and projects that were included. Scott Francisco

We are witnessing a renaissance of a building material that is strong, light, flexible, lasts hundreds of years and benefits both physical and mental human health. During production, it can restore natural landscapes, create habitats for plants and animals and employ millions of people. Essentially a solar-powered 3D printer, the “technology” pulls CO2 from the atmosphere and converts it into a variety of building materials that can replace polluting alternatives such as concrete, aluminum, steel or plastic. This technology is the tree. Cutting-edge engineering developments now allow us to build wood structures taller than 25 storeys that can be erected faster, at less cost and just as safely as their concrete and steel counterparts, while sequestering millions of tons of carbon instead of producing it. New perspectives on traditional and Indigenous knowledge offer synergies between urban and rural communities, and new sourcing relationships with sustainable wood producers make it possible to procure “good” wood that protects forests and communities, locally and globally. But wood isn’t foolproof. Last year, IKEA came under fire for manufacturing some of its furniture with illegally harvested timber from a Ukrainian supplier. At the height of the pandemic, increasing lumber prices fuelled illegal old-growth “tree poaching” in B.C., and newly completed benches in Oslo were removed after public outcry ensued with questions about the source of FSC-certified tropical wood. These stories are not uncommon. Increasingly, specifiers are required to know where – and how – wood is produced. Choosing wood that actually delivers benefits to the climate and forests can be challenging. It requires understanding the 10

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supply chain, how each forest is managed, how communities are impacted and in what ways the climate has been altered by consumer choices. Currently, this is very difficult to measure given the massive complexity of global supply chains which have sought to produce efficiency often at the expense of transparency. As an architect who loves wood and forests, I have been wrestling with this challenge for decades, bringing hundreds of forest conservationists, designers, researchers, clients and industry leaders to the table over the past decade to better understand what might make wood truly “sustainable.”

HOW DO WE GET THERE?

It has quickly become apparent that we need some kind of industry tool for assessing all of the various wood choices available to us. It is not enough to simply look at the final certification and sequestered carbon in a wood choice. What’s required is a deep dive into all of the possible criteria linked to the material. The main challenge with determining whether the wood used by a project is sustainable is that it depends on the availability of information. Also, we need to be asking the right questions to get the right answers about whatever wood might be chosen. The capacity to identify the right wood choice for a project rests in our ability to pin down the term “sustainable.” We need to know where our wood is coming from, how the forest it came from has been managed, how communities are impacted and in what ways the climate has been altered by our choices. Sustainability should be assessed based on forest impact, socioeconomic integrity, carbon storage and life-cycle


FEATURED PROJECTS BROOKLYN BRIDGE FOREST

Certification + Social Forestry + Strategic Geography + Species and Grade

comparisons. Engaging with the complete forest ecosystem and production system of wood products must be the foundation of a sustainable sourcing strategy. We worked with members of the Wood at Work community to develop a framework that could help clients, architects, procurement managers, contractors, fabricators and suppliers navigate the sustainability benefits of wood. As a result, we found eight pathways that can be used at both project and policy levels. Like any list or framework, these are not fully comprehensive, but rather are flexible and are meant to be adapted to specific uses. They are as follows:

Pathway 1: Forest Certification

Choosing a wood that is certified is a good first step to help reduce deforestation, protect high conservation values, strengthen biodiversity and bolster ecosystem integrity. This general screening tool uses third-party audits to check that specific practices and chains of custody produce sustainable outcomes for forests. Canada has the most third-party certified forests in the world – 36 per cent of all globally certified forests – with over 75 per cent of managed forest lands having some level of certification. But certification is often critiqued for “greenwashing” – not going far enough in terms of promoting healthy forests and forest communities, and not providing rigorous audits of practices or sourcing in some contexts. Moreover, certified wood can be difficult to find, can be more expensive and does not always specify a single origin, so consumers do not know where the wood is coming from. When certification is combined with other pathways, however, a robust framework begins to emerge.

Pathway 2: Social Forestry

Many cities have urban boardwalks beside rivers, lakes or the sea, but only NYC has the Brooklyn Bridge. Last year, a team of architects and sustainability innovators (led by the author) won an international competition to “Reimagine Brooklyn Bridge.” The proposal would redeck the historic wooden walkway with wood sourced from a Partner Forest – a community practicing the highest standard of sustainable tropical forest management, social investment and timber production – which led to Guatemala as a source. In delivering 11,000 new planks for the Brooklyn Bridge, the project will help to protect 200,000 acres of FSC-certified rainforest. The low harvest rate of the wood has allowed the community to generate income while keeping the rate of deforestation at nearly zero for over 25 years. Renovating the Promenade boardwalk is a global opportunity to support sustainable forestry practices at an international scale.

Local people and communities with a vested interest in their forests often have been found to be the best stewards of forests in different contexts around the world, leading many national governments to delegate management responsibilities to local peoples. “Social forestry” engages local people and communities to generate profits through harvesting and selling wood, improving rural livelihoods and providing an incentive to keep forests standing. This type of                    ‒ f a ll 2 0 2 1

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The use of LKS and lower grades is often limited by preexisting technical specifications, general unfamiliarity and supply concerns, but many examples are available, including Whole Forest, which makes countertops, tabletops and parquet flooring from LKS and mixed species timber, and FSC Denmark, which promotes projects featuring LKS in urban applications. Utilizing a wood species without a thorough understanding of its geographical distribution and lifecycle can have unforeseen consequences, so it’s important to consult with forest professionals and suppliers when using these types of wood.

Pathway 4: Strategic Geography

management incentivizes local groups to sustainably manage and protect valuable forests from degradation and conversion to other land uses. Wood products from community forest enterprises (CFEs) can offer some of the highest sustainability benefits per unit of wood, owing to the often high conservation value of these managed forests. And CFEs are not limited to the tropics; many can be found in Canada (for instance, through the B.C. Community Forest Association), the U.S. and Europe. While there are thousands of CFEs around the world, sourcing directly from them can be difficult. Thankfully, many distributors have built relationships with these communities to provide vital logistical support in the supply chain, such as Evergreen Forest Products in Long Island, NY, or Precious Woods in Europe.

Pathway 3: Species and Grade Selection

Often, one or two species take center stage for a given purpose, which can lead to imbalanced demand, overharvesting and monocultures. Spreading demand across a wider range of species or grades can redistribute pressure on forests and provide incentives for diversified afforestation. Specifying lesser-known species (LKS) and lower grades of timber conserves carbon and biodiversity in forests, strengthens business models of managed forests and creates new opportunities for community stakeholders. This pathway offers economic incentives for low-waste practices that diversify the pressure on natural forests, while utilizing more of each tree that is harvested. Examples include LKS such as black locust (temperate) or pucte (tropical), as well as “character” and “calamity” wood (blighted or burnt) with a reduced grade but perfectly serviceable performance. Diversifying timber plantations also can reduce the risk of damage from pests, extreme weather and climate change. 12

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Sourcing wood from a country, region or municipality with a good track record of sustainable practices strengthens the systemic benefits. Building on the idea of “jurisdictional approaches,” wood sourced using the Strategic Geography (SG) pathway is likely to promote biodiversity, the environment and the local economy. SG showcases and rewards best practices in sustainable forest management while building regional recognition and rewarding governments (at all levels) for implementing policies and enforcement that protect forests. It penalizes the illegal operations, poaching and corruption that continue to cause deforestation. Evidence and indicators allow consumers to choose geographies that are effectively managing forest areas and distributing benefits to local people, while avoiding areas with a recent history of exploitation and poor governance. In this way, the market rewards conservation and penalizes deforestation.

Pathway 5: Local and Urban Wood

When trees in urban areas die or need to be removed, more often than not they are disposed of, chipped or even burned, because systems are not in place to process them. According to the NYC Parks Department, an average of 30,000 tons of “wood waste” is generated annually from trees in the five boroughs. This astounding volume is mostly chipped, and the stored atmospheric CO2 is quickly released back into the atmosphere. Forests growing near cities also produce wood that may be available through local sawmills and suppliers. There is currently a renaissance in small sawmill operations that process local and urban wood such as Epilogue Lumber in Portland, SawmillSid in Toronto, Baltimore Wood Project in Baltimore, Angel City Lumber in Los Angeles and City Bench in New Haven. This type of small business can play an important role in local innovation ecosystems, along with providing employment and training opportunities.

Pathway 6: Reuse and Long Life

History shows that wood can remain in service for generations, and can be reused in a variety of ways, from structure to structure, over hundreds or even thousands of years. As long as wood is


WOOD FOR THOUGHT

FEATURED PROJECTS CITY OF MONTREAL & BOIS PUBLIC Local and Urban Wood + Species and Grade

WHOLE FOREST Species and Grade + Social Forestry + High-Efficiency Production + Net Carbon Accounting + Strategic Geography Whole Forest works primarily with a variety of lesser-known tropical timber species in partnership with communities in Ecuador’s Choco rainforest in the Andes Mountains. By selling these wood products as tabletops, flooring and cutting boards, the business supports not only the environmental sustainability of the forest, but also the social sustainability of the community in an effort to curb tropical commodity-driven deforestation. The use of lesser-known species allows Whole Forest and the communities it works with to practice reduced-impact logging and avoid high-grade forests, helping to support biodiversity and local communities.

In 2019, the City of Montreal had to fell 18,000 ash trees (after protecting 50,000) due to the emerald ash borer. Instead of chipping the wood, however, Montreal’s impressive urban timber operation mobilized skilled felling crews and hightech sawmills to produce wood for city planter boxes, furniture, cabinets and art and established a partnership with Bois Public to sell surplus wood to local residents. Since 2016, this program has diverted an estimated 800 tons of CO2 from the atmosphere and returned 3,600 trees to the local community. Perhaps even more valuable is the heightened awareness of urban nature engendered by these useful wood products, which can support urban conservation policies.

SCOTTISH TIMBER DEMONSTRATOR HOME High-Efficiency Production + Local and Urban Wood + Reuse and Long Life + Strategic Geography + Certification The UK has been one of the world’s biggest timber-importing countries. Last year, a team led by the Construction Scotland Innovation Center set out to change that. Just in time for this year’s COP26 Conference, they developed a homegrown mass timber building prototype. The Transforming Timber project is the first two-storey modular home manufactured from Scottish mass timber. As a demonstration project, it is the UK’s first dedicated, hands-on, homegrown timber resource library to showcase best practices alongside training resources and technical guidance for the future use of sustainable timber products across the entire sector. Using high-tech, offsite manufacturing, the project aims to show how local timber sources can be used for high-value, long-life construction in place of climatecompromising materials like concrete.

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WOOD FOR THOUGHT

not burned or decomposed, it stores atmospheric carbon and thus slows climate change. Reusing wood not only retains the carbon storage of the material but it is also associated with quality local employment and manufacturing, predominantly serving customers who are seeking sustainable and unique wood solutions. Selecting reclaimed wood products (upcycling, repurposing, recycling, etc.) and designing structures that can be disassembled and used again are strategies that extend the life of wood products. Design for reuse will result in systems and standards (components, connections, dimensions, etc.) that make reusing wood simple and cost effective. All layers of the built environment can be composed of demountable components that can be reconfigured, especially in a future where energy, materials and carbon storage all have high value. Sourcing examples include: Tri-Lox, The Hudson Company and Sawkill Lumber Co. in Brooklyn; Unbuilders in Vancouver; Brick + Board in Baltimore; and Good Wood and TerraMai in Oregon.

Pathway 7: High-Efficiency Production

Going from forest to board to useful building component requires a wide range of tools and processes, each generating wood waste, consuming energy and emitting CO2. Refining these tools and processes can reduce waste and forest impacts by getting more of each tree into a long-lived wood product. “Efficiency ratios” – the specific percentage of wood material that makes it from the forest into a long-lived building – are impacted by everything from treefelling protocols to the industrial machines that can join smaller pieces of wood into large mass timber elements. A detailed assessment of efficiency also includes energy requirements for kiln drying and transportation, although these tend to be a much smaller contribution to the net carbon footprint. High-efficiency wood products reduce carbon emissions associated with wood waste at all stages of the harvest and manufacturing process. Improved efficiency also can reduce pressure on forests and requires less land because less wood is wasted per structural unit. Improvements in efficiency have some drawbacks. Products that use wood volume efficiently may use extra chemical adhesives or energy inputs in manufacturing, such as oriented strand board (OSB). Many of these elements or comparisons can be identified through Environmental Product or Health Product Declarations. High-efficiency production can be supported by solar kilns, fossilfree freight, using minimally processed wood (e.g., WholeTrees Structures) and implementing mass timber (e.g., Nordic Structures Envirolam) or mass plywood panels.

Pathway 8: Net Carbon Accounting

Calculating an accurate, comprehensive carbon footprint for a wood product is very challenging, and there are few readymade tools to assist specifiers or end users. Meanwhile, this 14

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calculation is the cornerstone of any valid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) that includes wood components. Factors to consider include the complete spectrum of forestry practices, production processes, transportation and manufacturing (i.e., stages A1-A3). Importantly, this also must include land-use factors that may add carbon costs such as the “carbon opportunity cost” of productive landscapes and the possible “carbon debt” incurred by the difference in carbon uptake between the mature (removed) trees and the smaller ones that will take their place. Conversely, it should also include the value added to forest conservation schemes, such as the WholeForest model, which Peter Pinchot, CEO, explains: “Timber is the reason this rural community is able to conserve 10,000 ha of primary tropical forest. Without the sale of timber products, the forest would be reduced to cattle pasture, like the surrounding landscape. We are able to ascribe a specific carbon value to each board foot of wood that our customer uses.” A systems-thinking lens is vital to account for unforeseen consequences and counterintuitive behaviors; for example, increased demand for mass timber buildings could have either negative or positive impacts on forests, depending on how and where that wood is sourced. In-depth analysis can determine the net climate impact so that wood products can be compared more accurately to alternatives like steel and concrete construction. While complete tools and guidance for net carbon accounting are almost non-existent, some helpful examples include: Embodied Carbon in Construction Calculator, Whole Forest Embodied Carbon calculation, NRCan low-carbon assets through lifecycle assessment initiative, Gestimat, PAS 2080.

CONCLUSION

Strategic sourcing is the key to realizing the complete climatic and environmental benefits of building with wood, which – when poorly managed – can drive deforestation and emit large amounts of carbon. The Cities4Forests publication, “Sustainable Wood for Cities,” combines the latest insights from research and practice to help consumers (cities, individuals or industry specifiers) choose and source wood products that have a measurable positive impact on climate and forests. Our work at Cities4Forests shows that simply engaging stakeholders in this conversation changes the way they think about wood, forests and climate. There is something about wood that allows it to become personal. We see it, we feel it and we hear its stories. This may be the untapped superpower of wood. It can change our relationship with both forests and even our most urban built environments. Scott Francisco, founder and director of Pilot Projects, is a designer and systems thinker with a focus on infrastructure that supports long-term cultural goals in cities, organizations and ecosystems. Francisco has taught at the McGill School of Architecture, Parsons The New School for Design, Stanford in New York and other universities. He holds architecture degrees from the University of Toronto and MIT.


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FEATURE

A curved central staircase connects all three levels of the Garden Circle House, while a horizontal window on the landing offers glimpses into the hidden groundfloor study and pantry. Light filters through the operable skylight, providing illumination and ventilation in the center of the home while offering a view of the sky. (Featured on the next page)

Appealing Interiors Don’t judge a book by its cover – especially when it comes to buildings. Often, the exterior is merely a hint at what’s inside.

As we started working on this issue, we looked back at recent Wood Design Award submissions and discovered more than enough inspiration to fill a few magazines. Last year’s winners were featured in the Spring/Summer 2021 issue, but there were many outstanding buildings that didn’t make the final cut – and countless photos of winning projects that couldn’t be included due to space constraints (even with an expanded section). A treasure trove of almost 180 entries in 2020 – and close to 150 in 2019 – displayed many inspiring uses of wood, whether structural or aesthetic, polished or rugged, modern or classic. Among recent award entries, outstanding interiors were the norm. Here are some of our favorites. IMAGE: Scott Norsworthy

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Sleek Finishes Impeccable detailing and tactile surfaces are even richer with wood.

BOLD RENOVATION Ravenhill Residence, Phoenixville, PA When the owners purchased this 1950s ranch style home, it bore most of the original elements. They wanted to open up and modernize the 3,400-sq.ft. house, so the existing 8-ft. ceilings in the living room were vaulted by adding a dramatic, modern Western red cedar-clad dormer. The new dormer creates an interesting counterpoint to the existing horizontal stone facade, immediately updating the traditional home. The wood cladding on the dormer is then pulled into the home to create a vaulted ceiling and partition wall between the living room and kitchen. Cedar also was used to accentuate the front entry with a composition of inserted elements on the facade. ARCHITECT: Studio Robert Jamieson/Wayne, PA STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: J.S. Madaras Consulting/Boyertown, PA GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Cordeiro Construction/Malvern, PA IMAGE: Sam Oberter

MAGICAL MAHOGANY Garden Circle House, Toronto, ON An unexpectedly curvaceous mahogany staircase is the centerpiece in a two-storey residence for a family of four. Sustainability, “inspired by nature,” was the client’s priority, so the design team drew upon biophilic design strategies through the use of natural materials (wood, brick) and biomorphic forms. Partial walls and millwork on the open-plan ground floor provide spatial definition, while still allowing connectivity between spaces. Clad in subtly veined grey limestone and grey-stained white oak slats, a free-standing cabinet with a double-sided fireplace and hidden storage divides the living and dining areas. A raised breakfast bar connects to the kitchen area, while concealing cooking functions from view. The steamed Robinia wood flooring complements the color of the walnut millwork, and provides a counterpoint to the grey-stained white oak slats on the fireplace wall and the kitchen cabinet fronts. Radiant in-floor heating, LED light fixtures, low-flow plumbing fixtures, green roofs and FSC-certified wood products are among the strategies to reduce environmental impacts. Exterior wood detailing includes Western red cedar siding, mahogany-framed windows and soffits detailed with Brazilian massaranduba. 18

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In the back garden, a Cumaru deck steps down to a lap pool, and a cedar-clad pool house conceals a change room, separate W/C and equipment room. ARCHITECT: Dubbeldam Architecture + Design, Toronto ON STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Blackwell Engineering, Toronto ON GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Mazenga Building Group, Toronto ON IMAGES: Scott Norsworthy


SLEEK FINISHES

URBAN RENEWAL Bay Street Condo, Toronto, ON This 1990s one bedroom plus den, corner-unit condo was gutted and completely reconfigured with a contemporary design that juxtaposes oak, stone and steel with the exposed raw concrete structure of the base building. The original configuration had an inefficient layout, with an entry foyer and hallway at 45 degrees to the rest of the unit. The new design reconciles this odd geometry with two bold wood elements: a 21-ft.-long wall of frameless oak closet doors that extends along the corridor from the entry door to the living room; and an oak paneled wall in the living/dining room that incorporates blackened steel shelving, the TV and credenza. The original gypsum board was removed to expose the structural concrete slab and two concrete columns that frame an opening into the kitchen. Each wall folds into a suspended oak ceiling, creating an L-shaped composition that defines the spaces. Over the dining table, the wood ceiling panels change to open wood slats. Slender lighting tracks are incorporated flush into the wood ceiling panels. Engineered oak plank flooring and matching, custom-fabricated oak millwork complete the effect. ARCHITECT: Taylor Smyth Architects/Toronto, ON

CLEAN GEOMETRY

STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: PICCO Engineering/Concord, ON

The Bridge House, North Vancouver, BC

IMAGE: Tom Arban

GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Arcademia Group Inc./Toronto, ON

This project incorporates distinctly regional elements of exposed wood and timber to create a clean, contemporary West Coast aesthetic. The 5,000-sq.ft., three-storey home is laid out on a simple open plan, with the key day-to-day activity areas of kitchen, living and dining situated on the main level, which faces a large patio that connects to the upper garden via a bridge. The bridge becomes a visually dynamic element carried into and through the home, becoming the central stair and the spine of circulation within the house. A dramatic wood screen wraps itself around the ceiling and wall of the living area and extends to the outside. The screen also acts as the wall of the central wood stair. Wood panel walls define much of the main floor and the second level. An oak floor is used on all three levels of the home. The second-floor ceiling is tongue-and-groove fir that extends to the outside to become the soffit of the home, which is partially clad with dark charcoal-stained cedar boards. ARCHITECT: Vallely Architecture/North Vancouver, BC STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Ennova Structural Engineers/Vancouver, BC GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Meister Construction/North Vancouver, BC IMAGE: Ema Peter

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Rustic Charm It goes without saying that wood is often chosen for its “rustic” effect. Live-edge surfaces, natural finishes and handcut beams add to the overall sense of craftsmanship, while honoring the tradition of wood construction.

RECLAIMED BEAUTY Big Barn and Tack Barn, Glen Ellen, CA The 3,686-sq.ft. Big Barn house draws inspiration from the site’s existing Tack Barn, which was renovated into a bunk house the year before (see above). A minimal material palette of reclaimed redwood, corrugated Corten steel and black steel sash windows is reflected throughout the home’s interior, which uses California oak for floors, walls and ceilings. Wherever possible, the interior wood was left unfinished. A steel grated bridge connects the upper sleeping level with the hillside and Tack Barn. For the Tack Barn renovation, no new lumber was used to transform the bare-bones shed into temporary living quarters for the family of four. The project incorporated all existing Douglas fir framing, with additional framing material from the existing attic dormitory. The reclaimed redwood rainscreen is left to weather naturally and requires zero maintenance. An unheated, screened porch serves to ventilate the living space with prevailing southwest winds through a shutter-fitted double-hung steel window. A cook’s sink shares the wall, while facing the valley. The living space is heated with a new radiant concrete slab; a 10,000 BTU propane-fired boiler provides heat (seldom needed) and domestic hot water. ARCHITECT: Faulkner Architects/Truckee, CA STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: CFBR Structural Group/Reno, NV GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Hammond and Company/Penngrove, CA IMAGES: Joe Fletcher

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RUSTIC CHARM

SOPHISTICATED PLYWOOD Veil House, Vancouver, BC A 2020 Citation Award winner (see last issue), this 3,300-sq.ft. single-family home elevates the use of plywood. A family of four wanted a home that would allow them to easily engage with neighbors, while being somehow “veiled” from the street. As such, the front door is tucked behind the primary wall of the building, so that it can be opened with full privacy. Silver-stained Western red cedar cladding creates an understated first impression. Inside, white-washed Douglas fir plywood is accented by blackened steel and concrete floors. The furniture and lighting have been carefully curated to complement the structure. As one of the owners is a chef, the kitchen is the “hearth” of the home. It is open to the living area, but with the ability to be enclosed with a wood butcher block when more intense food preparation is required. In place of drywall, whitewashed plywood frames the staircase and continues up through the media room and the office. The staircases were formed and built from reclaimed hardwood flooring salvaged from another site demolition.

ARCHITECT: Measured Architecture/Vancouver, BC STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Entuitive Corp./Vancouver, BC GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Powers Construction/Vancouver, BC IMAGES: Ema Peter

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RUSTIC CHARM

A TRADITIONAL RETREAT Cox Cove, Penobscot Bay, ME This summer retreat is separated into three structures, creating a small courtyard that is precisely aligned to the meridian to manage the sun and the views to the north. The tool shed defines the south side of the court and screens the parking area. A small sleeping cabin with two bedrooms and a bathroom defines the west side, and a dense copse of trees closes the east side. The main cabin, sited on top of a gentle rise, completes the north side of the court. The shadows from the window mullions act as a sundial and mark the hours of the day and the seasons. Following a long-held New England building tradition, the cabins are framed, sheathed and sided in wood. Choosing wood as the primary construction material keeps the buildings light and gentle on the land. Siding is locally sourced Eastern white cedar shingles, left unpainted as is customary in the local vernacular. The steep pitch of the roof planes shed water, and the overhangs protect the windows and walls from weather and direct sunlight. Rust-red paint connects the design to another New England tradition of using iron oxide barn paint. Interior walls are faced in white pine, finished with a coat of transparent white stain. The oversized south-facing windows ensure ample light all day long, and all structural rafters are exposed. A screened porch extends the living space to the north through a 12-ft.-wide glass overhead door, exposing 270-degree views of the tidal cove. ARCHITECT: Albert, Righter & Tittmann Architects, Inc./Boston, MA STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Webb Structural Services, Inc./Reading, MA GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Stone Contracting & Building, Inc./North Haven, ME IMAGE: Barry A. Hyman

NATURAL LUXURY Hillside House, Atlanta, GA Located near the Chattahoochee River on a site overlooking a golf course, this 6,970-sq.ft. two-storey home was designed according to jurisdictional land disturbance restrictions, with additional consideration for environmental concerns. The six-bedroom house faces primarily south, so passive solar eave extensions shade in summer but allow heat gain in winter. The exterior siding is thermally modified poplar. Ground source geothermal heat pumps provide heating, cooling, lap pool conditioning and hot water. The eco-conscious interior design incorporates high-efficiency plumbing fixtures, LED lighting and uses salvaged pine for flooring, furniture and finishes. Cross ventilation is carefully designed for each space, allowing suspension of heating and cooling during the extended mild climate of Atlanta’s spring and fall. In the living areas, wrap-around custom Douglas fir wood windows face the primary site views to the south. The structure was emphasized by exposing the glulam beams and Douglas fir columns. Throughout, salvaged old growth long-leaf pine floors are finished naturally. The stair adjacent to the foyer serves the lower level of the house and is built primarily with salvaged oldgrowth long-leaf heart pine treads and steel stringers, with LED strips beneath the treads. Natural light filters in from clerestories above and a strip window to the side. The master bed cantilevers out of a multipurpose custom closet and storage cabinet. with sweeping views to the south. Cherry veneer cabinets, exposed structural elements and custom window system are stained to match. The exposed tongue-and-groove Southern yellow pine roof deck is unfinished, supported by large glulam beams. ARCHITECT: Robert M. Cain Architect/Atlanta, GA STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Mike Quinn/Atlanta, GA GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Pinnacle Custom Builders/Decatur, GA IMAGE: Fredrik Brauer

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Indoor-Outdoor Living The ultimate biophilic experience, along with using wood, is to maximize views to the outdoors. Open-concept plans combined with large-scale glazing are particularly effective at creating visual access to nature.

ROOMS WITH A VIEW The Monocular, Chester Basin, NS This 2,750-sq.ft. home was designed with an open outdoor corridor that connects two structures – the main house and a guest bunkie with screened porch – to create a “monocular” through which water views are visible at the entry point. The exterior features bare cedar, which is commonly chosen for this climate because of its minimal upkeep and its tendency to do well with humidity and insects. Otherwise, the use of wood was very much an aesthetic choice, giving warmth and comfort to this seaside home. The lower level of the main house contains an open living/dining/kitchen area that flows onto the breezeway and out to the landscape beyond. The upstairs bedrooms were designed with soaring ceiling heights that follow the gable form, allowing for dramatic views. The plan allows the entire upper level to be opened up with pocket doors, creating an expanded master suite. When the guest bedrooms are in use, the doors allow for privacy. The material palette was carefully selected, using natural wood, light and bright colors, and tactile surfaces. Each building features a central hearth. The Monocular uses these playful, intentional design choices to enhance the spectacular natural views of the site. ARCHITECT: RHAD Architects/Dartmouth, NS STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Andrea Doncaster Engineering/Dartmouth, NS GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Black Diamond Builders/Halifax, NS IMAGES: Julian Parkinson

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INDOOR-OUTDOOR LIVING

AT ONE WITH NATURE Riverbend, Jackson Hole, WY This three-bedroom, 6250-sq.ft. residence, plus 1,000-sq.ft. guest house, is located opposite the Snake River and Grand Teton National Park. The river forms the north and west perimeter of the secluded 18-acre wooded site that features dramatic mountain views to the north. The house is centered on a double-height, open-plan living/dining/kitchen with fullheight windows facing north (to river views) and south. Steps from the kitchen is a generous outdoor space with a dining table, pizza oven/BBQ and a series of terraced platforms that lead to the river. To the south, an ipe deck ties the main house and guest house together while supporting outdoor seating that takes advantage of the southern exposure. Due to the Wyoming climate, which can range from summer highs in the 90s to winter lows in -40s, the house was super-insulated and outfitted with triple-pane glazing to maximize efficiency and minimize heat loss. Heating is provided via a ground source heat pump, and non-VOC and low-VOC finishes were used throughout the house. The site was minimally disturbed for the construction of the house, and the landscape was returned to its previous state upon completion. Western red cedar was used for the interior window cladding, ceilings and the majority of the exterior cladding, which features 10-ft.-deep soffits running the length of the building. Using CVG-grade cedar throughout provided a neutral wood texture with a fine finish. The west end of the master suite features a long cedar wall with shelves and cabinets that disappear into it. This was accomplished by sequencing the cedar boards of the wall and making veneers from the same boards to clad the cabinet doors. The continuous run of boards extends from the south deck, through the master suite and back out the west side of the north deck, covering a span of 52 ft. While concrete floors are located throughout the lower and main levels, the upper level is engineered beech, an economical and durable option that complements the cedar with its warmer tones. Statement decorative lighting pieces are placed throughout the house. The architects also worked with the clients to incorporate furnishings that create a comfortable, casual elegance. In the living room, architectural lighting channels were designed to avoid interfering with the beauty of the ceiling. ARCHITECT: CLB Architects/Jackson, WY STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: KL&A, Inc./Golden, CO GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Peak Builders/Jackson, WY IMAGES: Matthew Millman, Tom Harris

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THE GOOD LIFE Connecticut Pool House, Washington, CT A new pool house is the crown jewel of a scenic, 70-acre farm that serves as a weekend retreat for a Manhattan family with four children. The 1,000-sq.ft. pool building is on a hilltop with distant mountain views. The design takes its cues from historic barns on the property. The classic salt-box form is clad in salvaged, weathered pine siding and punctuated by crisp copper overhangs and lanterns. The building is designed to blur the line between interior and exterior, with fully retractable glass panels facing the pool. The bluestone paving of the pool terrace extends into the building, creating a porch-like interior. All interior walls and ceilings are clad in 10-in.-wide clear, whitewashed pine planks, set at the same height in each space. To provide perfectly aligned boards throughout, the woodworker carefully shimmed each wall to ensure a plumb surface. Electrical receptacles, light fixtures and mechanical devices are centered within boards, and the architects worked with the mechanical engineers to supply air through discrete slots in the wood, rather than through grilles. Flangeless, recessed light fixtures and speakers are trimmed in flush wood to minimize visual impact. A double-sided central fireplace warms both the lounge area and adjacent gym, extending the use of the building into cooler months. In the powder room, whitewashed pine cabinetry is complemented by a bluestone counter and bronze fittings. ARCHITECT: Haver & Skolnick Architects/Roxbury, CT STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: DeStefano & Chamberlain/Fairfield, CT GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Churchill Building Co./Lakeville, CT IMAGES: Robert Benson

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INDOOR-OUTDOOR LIVING

SUNSHINE & OCEAN BREEZES Acton Cove, Annapolis, MD An active family that loves boating found a small but spectacular lot on Chesapeake Bay. As the previous house was demolished, layer upon layer of old bulkheads and fill revealed how generations of previous owners expanded the site into the harbor and reinforced it from the elements. This process of layering inspired the solution to the design challenges, which included privacy issues due to nearby neighbors and active waterways. The new design provides privacy and weather protection, while encouraging connections to the outdoors. The outermost layer is the bulkhead itself, which supports a boardwalk of 2x8 ipe decking that connects several docks on the property. Deep overhangs protect the house and shade the decks. The second floor, also encircled by cantilevered decks and balconies, is wrapped in layers of fixed ipe screens and operable canvas drapes. Riding in a continuous track along the entire perimeter, the drapes can be configured to provide privacy

at the master balcony, a wind block at the outdoor fireplace or shade for the outdoor dining area. The large expanses of glass also are operable, pocketing into the adjacent walls to merge the indoor and outdoor spaces completely, or providing the option of insect screens. Interior linen drapes and roll shades provide the last layer of operable screening. The multiple layers can be configured for a variety of activities requiring different levels of privacy, and for different weather conditions. Traditional materials such as reclaimed heart pine siding are layered with modern insulation and glazing to create a high-performance envelope, contributing to LEED Gold certification. ARCHITECT: Bates Masi + Architects/East Hampton, NY STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: 1200 Architectural Engineers LLC/Alexandria, VA GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Pyramid Builders/Annapolis, MD IMAGES: Michael Moran

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Community Connections Natural wood seems to glow from within when it is well-lit, creating a warm and welcoming atmosphere. A growing number of institutions are choosing wood construction for it's aesthetic appeal as well as it's practical advantages.

A COMPELLING OCULUS The Charles Library at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA Featuring one of the city’s largest green roofs, this 220,000-sq.ft. LEED Gold library serves as a central hub on campus. To impart an inviting, natural look, the design team chose a custom panelized linear wood system. Between the exterior and interior ceiling and wall applications, over 50,000-sq.ft. of linear Western red cedar panels were installed. The wood type was chosen for its versatility, aesthetic qualities and durability, which allows exterior use. Three arched entrances lined with Western red cedar extend from the exterior into the lobby, where they open up into a three-storey domed atrium. The central dome features a curved oculus that allows light to filter into the lobby from the top floor. The oculus is the only area of the ceiling where the wood panels are not bent. The unique geometry for each of the domes was achieved by gently bending the 2x10-ft. wood panels and installing them in a custom curved framing system. The primary dome is a revolved ellipsoid, allowing it to be constructed of a limited number of different panels. The rest of the system is made of single-curvature geometries, using the sameshaped panel. While a high level of skill was required for installation, the key to successful completion was a precise panel manufacturing process and digital coordination with the framing contractor. ARCHITECTS: Snøhetta/NY (design architect, landscape architect, interior architecture); Stantec/NY (architect of record, sustainability, LEED consultant, MEP engineering) STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: LERA Consulting Structural Engineers/New York, NY GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Daniel J. Keating Company/Narberth, PA IMAGES: Michael Grimm

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COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS

COZY SHELTER The Osler Bluff Ski Club, Town of The Blue Mountains, ON A renovation and addition to a 1974 heavy timber and coreslab structure remedied several issues: overcrowded lunchtime seating, poor flow between the change rooms and social spaces, a deafening après-ski experience and no child-minding spaces. The original building also needed to be brought up to current health, accessibility and life safety standards. The design resolution focused on tying together the old and new structures, with an intent to capture the historic and beloved spirit of the existing heavy timber spaces. Carrying through an ethos of craft and timber construction, new Y-columns reinterpret the existing heavy timbers and are CNC-milled to mimic the soft profiles of hand-carved wood skis. A new Douglas fir acoustic ceiling runs through the entire project, acting as a primary surface in both the renovated and new areas, while dramatically reducing the decibel levels of public spaces. The ceiling aligns with the

lower face of the existing timber frames, allowing a sprinkler system and lighting to be concealed. The decision to reuse the existing clubhouse reduced the amount of waste, while using fewer materials and conserving the embedded carbon. Many of the existing solid Douglas fir timber frames were previously exposed to the exterior on one side, so each timber was assessed and repaired, and the accumulated weathering was left intact to preserve the memory of the old building line. Retaining the original structure allowed the spirit of the existing clubhouse to be maintained, while delivering what is essentially a new building. ARCHITECT: Williamson Williamson/Toronto, ON STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Blackwell Engineering/Toronto, ON GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Upstream Construction/Caledon, ON IMAGES: doublespace

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SOUTHERN HOSPITALITY The Hotel Magdalena, Austin, TX

INDIGENOUS HEALING Skeetchestn Health Centre, Savona, BC Located about an hour west of Kamloops, this new health facility is managed by the Q’wemtsín Health Society to provide services for the Skeetchestn community a few minutes away. The building provides treatment spaces for both health administration staff and visiting health professionals, with two exam rooms, dental room, counseling rooms, immunization room, bathing room, fitness/physio room and a multipurpose community health room. The 5,434-sq.ft., one-storey building is wood framed on a concrete slab foundation. The front drop-off area is sheltered by a large overhang with a vertical grain Douglas fir (VG fir) soffit, supported by a sloped, V-shaped glulam column, which accentuates the dramatic wood canopy and ceiling inside the building. Parallel rectilinear wings are connected by the central public space that contains the entrance, reception, waiting area and community health room. The central space is fully glazed at the front and back, and the higher volume has clerestory glazing. The walls of the public space are faced with VG fir wood slats that also provide sound absorption. Wood is also used as an accent material, with naturally finished Douglas fir window sill trims and solid-core VG fir wood veneer doors. Wood was chosen because it has been used as a building material by the local First Nations for generations. The construction project also trained and employed local community members. ARCHITECT: dk Architecture/North Vancouver, BC STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Fast + Epp/Vancouver, BC GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Ledcor Group/Vancouver, BC IMAGES: Martin Knowles

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ARCHITECT: Lake|Flato Architects/San Antonio, TX STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS: StructureCraft (timber superstructure)/ Abbotsford, BC; Architectural Engineers Collaborative (base building steel + concrete)/Austin, TX GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Mycon General Contractors/Dallas, TX IMAGES: Casey Dunn


COMMUNITY CONNECTIONS

With a prefabricated DLT floor and ceiling structure, this is the first mass timber boutique hotel in North America. The 100,000sq.ft. complex consists of four buildings, from two to six storeys, with mostly mass timber construction except for one hybrid structure that is cast-in-place concrete with steel. The design team chose mass timber to honor the history of the site, where The Austin Terrace Motor Hotel – previously torn down – was built in the 1950s. It had been constructed of exposed heavy timber beams and columns in the mid-century modern aesthetic. To help achieve sustainability goals, wood was selected as the primary structural material; by exposing the mass timber panels, the overall embodied energy for construction and finish material areas was greatly reduced. An equally important design goal was to enhance the outdoor experience for guests, with deeply shaded porches to encourage the use of common exterior spaces. A multi-storey timber walkway with gapped DLT walkway panels outside the hotel rooms was designed to accommodate the existing oak heritage trees on the site, which blend in with the structure. The mass timber panels, structural walls and heavy timber porches were prefabricated offsite and installed by StructureCraft. Showcasing the mass timber panels and heavy timber structural components within the guest rooms and common areas ensures

that wood becomes an integral component of the hotel experience. The hotel rooms are glazed on both sides (porch side and street side) to allow for natural light and cross ventilation. Acoustic design was also a key consideration. To meet the necessary STC/IIC ratings, a sound isolation mat was placed over the DLT panels along with a 3-in. concrete topping. To mitigate inter-room acoustic flanking which has caused issues in other mass timber residential projects, the stud party walls were lined with acoustic damping strips. Given the direct exposure of much exterior timber to the sun and weather, the decision was made to stain the surface of the gapped DLT panels with a “weathered” coating that would create a consistent grey color rather than the variegated tones that would occur with natural weathering. These coatings were all shop applied and preserved during shipping to save on both money and schedule, which would have been significant if applied on site. By exposing the wood structure to guests, the materials tell the story of how the structure was built while providing a warmer, more textured material in the guest rooms. The deeply shaded porches and outdoor terraces give guests of The Hotel Magdalena a unique experience, inviting them to gather in outdoor areas throughout the hotel.

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Luxurious Kitchens A classic material for cabinets, wood is being used in innovative ways to create function and beauty in the most loved rooms at home.

ELEGANT LIVING Curio House, Vancouver, BC With two kitchens, this 3,500-sq.ft. single-level home accommodates a multi-generational family that loves to cook. The use of engineered timber was key in the design, which features 1,300 sq.ft. of exposed NLT roof panels supported on glulam beams. Ceiling wash lighting was carefully placed to throw light across the NLT panels, accentuating the alternating profiles. Wood is used extensively in the interior finish palette, including engineered oak flooring, natural Douglas fir veneer millwork faces, prefinished plywood cabinet interiors, a solid white oak curio cabinet and dining table, and solid European beech kitchen countertops. The main kitchen is integrated into the open plan of the main living space, with a remote-controlled adjustable-height island for entertaining or family meals. The adjacent wok kitchen is accessed by a two-way door and accented by solid European beech shelves and counters, including a moveable section for flexible configuration of prep space. The enclosed space allows for the preparation of large, elaborate family meals while keeping seafood and spice smells from entering the main living space. Both kitchens and the guest wing open onto a small courtyard framed by bamboo and wisteria. ARCHITECT: Haeccity Studio Architecture/Vancouver, BC STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Fast + Epp/Vancouver, BC GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Vanglo Sustainable Construction Group/Vancouver, BC IMAGES: Ema Peter

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LUXURIOUS KITCHENS

OPEN-CONCEPT ENTERTAINING Lake Mississauga Cottage, Kawartha Highlands, ON A four-season escape for a busy young family, this luxurious cottage is located on the edge of a quiet bay with a dramatic Mississauga Lake vista. The L-shaped building strikes a balance between privacy and openness, with grand social spaces designed to accommodate large gatherings of extended family and friends. To control scale and impact on the site, the cottage is divided into two forms based on private and semi-private functions. A horizontal wing built parallel to the shoreline joins a large great room

and an open, spacious kitchen which share deck access and expansive views. A second, vertical volume intersects the main form at a 90-degree angle to introduce two floors of sleeping quarters. As key elements of the project, stone and wood emphasize the dialogue between architecture and nature by reflecting the building’s surroundings. Exposed pine walls and ceilings, reclaimed hickory flooring and structural wood help this vacation home feel like it belongs in the wilderness.

ARCHITECT: architects Tillmann Ruth Robinson inc./Toronto, ON STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: BFP Engineering Solutions/Peterborough, ON GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Design Alternatives/Buckhorn, ON IMAGES: architects Tillmann Ruth Robinson inc.

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LUXURIOUS KITCHENS

ZEN IN THE DETAILS Loon Lake Retreat, Lakes Region, NH With generations of family history in this small town, the owner of this lakefront property imagined a home that expressed deep and enduring ties to its place while also incorporating ideas learned abroad, such as wabi-sabi, a traditional Japanese aesthetic that centers on the acceptance of the imperfection and impermanence of nature. A 1,500-sq.ft. home was built inside the previous structure’s footprint to maximize lake views and receive winter sunlight while minimizing site impact. A T‑shape plan implies two courtyards, extending the domestic zone of the home into the landscape. The entry courtyard is to the north and the south courtyard gestures toward the fire pit and lake. The house is clad like a cut log, with “bark” (Western red cedar stained black) and “sapwood” siding (Douglas fir with a natural oil finish). The living space, housed in the vertical leg of the T, opens with glass sliding doors and a corner window to the lake. The horizontal leg of the T contains the bedrooms and bathrooms. The master bedroom opens to a private patio with an outdoor shower facing the lake. Windows high along the north wall of the living space offer light and ventilation while providing privacy. The concept of “beauty in imperfection” can be seen throughout the interior spaces, like in an entry bench constructed from a solid block of Maine ash, with splits and checks. The interior wood cabinetry finishes mirror the dark and light treatment of the exterior cladding. The floor is polished concrete and the walls are unpainted veneer plaster, a nod to New Hampshire’s tradition of veneer plaster.

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ARCHITECT: Whitten Architects/ Portland, ME STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Albert Putnam Assoc./Brunswick, ME GENERAL CONTRACTOR: K.P. Hood Construction/Meredith, NH IMAGES: Trent Bell


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LUXURIOUS KITCHENS

HIGH DRAMA Metrick Cottage and Boathouse, Muskoka, ON A 2020 Canadian Wood Council Award winner (featured in the Spring/Summer 2021 issue), this one-storey retreat and boathouse on Lake Joseph was built in a remote location that required materials to be able to endure harsh seasonal conditions without relying heavily on paints or stains. As a result, Douglas fir timbers (exposed to the interior), cedar and torrified ash were selected as the main material components. The 5,400-sq.ft. property is organized into three distinct “pods” comprising four bedrooms, four baths and an open living area designed around an ample kitchen space. The home offers an unobstructed, panoramic view to the lake and shoreline beyond. In contrast to the more rugged exterior, which is clad in roughsawn fir, the interior was finished with finely milled, torrified ash for the floor, wall and ceiling boards. The overall effect conveys the rugged beauty and elegance of wood.

ARCHITECT: Akb Architects/Toronto STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Moses Structural Engineers/Toronto GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Mazenga North Building Group/North York, ON IMAGES: Shai Gil

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Bathroom Retreats Long associated with saunas and outdoor hot tubs, wood is an essential component in any “home spa” experience. Its versatility suits a wide variety of applications and aesthetics. One reason the Metrick Cottage and Boathouse was a 2020 Wood Design Award winner: the bathroom. This image speaks for itself.

HOME SPA – WITH A VIEW Waterview Condominium, Arlington, VA Encompassing just under 5,000-sq.ft., this project involved renovating a condominium on the 30th floor of a luxury high-rise building originally designed in 2008 by Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Located adjacent to the Potomac River, the building has unequaled panoramic views of all the major monuments in Washington, D.C., and extended views along the Potomac River into the distant Maryland landscape. Materials employed throughout the project were carefully selected. Wood, used in various ways, is instrumental to the palette. Spaces are typically defined with wood volumes constructed of Wenge or riftsawn white oak with the intention of modulating the generally open floor plan. A large, Japanese soaking tub is central to a monastic spa room. Vertical grain Western Red cedar walls combine with flamed Impala black flooring to provide a calm, quiet backdrop to the city views beyond. A Crinoid (watering plant) fossil is merged into the wall. Continuous white oak flooring and white oak and Wenge millwork unify composition. This project exemplifies the power of wood to impact, enrich, unify and organize a very urban interior. It also demonstrates the ability of wood to integrate seamlessly with a variety of other materials, including steel, granite and glass, allowing the juxtaposition of disparate materials to enhance the beauty of each. ARCHITECT: Robert M. Gurney/Washington DC STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Tadjer Cohen Edelson & Assoc./Silver Spring, MD GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Peterson and Collins, Inc./Washington, DC IMAGES: Anice Hoachlander, Judy Davis, Maxwell MacKenzie

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BATHROOM RETREATS

MASTER BATHROOM Riverbend, Jackson Hole, WY Wood-clad walls and ceilings take center stage in the master bath while adding warmth and richness to the space. ARCHITECT: CLB Architects/Jackson, WY STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: KL&A, Inc./Golden, CO GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Peak Builders/Jackson, WY IMAGE: Matthew Millman, Tom Harris

SUBLIME ESCAPE The Rock, Whistler, BC This family house is perched on a rocky outcrop above Alta Lake. Nestled within a forested, hilly topography, wood is a major reference point for the design, which sits comfortably within its surroundings. Timber is used throughout the interior, but it is also used as part of the structural support system. Sitting on top of the concrete base, upper levels are constructed from locally sourced, prefabricated timber panels. The panels were then clad with stained Western red cedar. Interior finishes were primarily selected from a palette of timbers to create warmth, repose and comfort. There is a clear visual relationship between the timber interiors, lined in white oak and Western hemlock, and the trees that are densely packed on the mountainside. Fabricated by the contractors and a bespoke furniture maker, Western hemlock has been extended into the bathroom. The master bathroom is a timber-lined sanctuary with expansive glazing that provides an immersive woodland view. The suite was conceived as a single piece of joinery. Seating is implied by an integrated piece of timber joinery, carved with rounded indentations to create a smooth bench. All elements are carefully considered, including the hemlock step for the family's young children to reach the basin. Overhead, moisture venting is seamlessly fitted within the timber linings to the underside of the soffit. The ceiling consists of flat individual panels which complete the feeling of warm enclosure. 40

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ARCHITECT: Gort Scott/London, UK STRUCTURAL ENGINEER: Equilibrium Consulting/Vancouver, BC GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Dürfeld Constructors/Whistler, BC. IMAGE: Rory Gardiner


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TechnicalSOLUTIONS

Preserving a Place for Wood in North American Infrastructure Co-authored by Wood Preservation Canada and the Western Wood Preservers Institute

What do houses, transportation and electricity have in common? Preserved wood products. From decks and industrial poles to bridges and railway ties, the beauty and sustainability of wood is enhanced by the science and application of preservatives. In a time when there is an increased emphasis on health and wellness, the word “preservative” should be viewed as aligning with this, rather than against it. Preservatives that extend the life of wood products are regulated to ensure their safe use. In Canada, this regulation is overseen by Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). In the U.S., this work is done through the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The need to protect wood from deterioration dates back many millennia to efforts by the Egyptians and the Romans. Since the advent of pressure treating in the mid-19th century, there have been many advancements in preservatives and treatment processes that enhance the durability of one of the world’s oldest renewable building materials. Preservatives extend the service life of wood products exposed to demanding conditions where there is higher risk for deterioration from insects and decay fungi. The treating process integrates the preservatives, which are mixed with an oil or water carrier, into the wood fiber to create a protective barrier. The built-in protection for the wood can extend its use from a few years to decades of long-lasting performance. Once preservatives are approved for use, the PMRA and EPA monitor them through a series of education, compliance and enforcement programs. Preservatives also are reviewed every 15 years or sooner as new information is discovered and as science evolves. 42

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Treating Plant Certification

Wood treating facility owners and operators share with all Canadians the responsibility of maintaining the integrity of our environment, now and for future generations. The Canadian Wood Preservation Certification Authority (CWPCA) was created to ensure that treating plants maintain environmentally responsible practices in plant design and operation. CWPCA-certified plants endorse a set of principles to govern their attitude and action in environmental matters, including a commitment to assess, plan, construct and operate facilities in compliance with all applicable environmental regulations.

The Question of Sustainability

In Canada and the U.S., trees ranging from 20 to 80 years old are harvested to be converted into wood products. If these products are exposed to the outdoor elements, it can take a few years before they begin to show signs of deterioration. When the wood is pressure treated with preservatives, however, its life in service is extended from years to decades. In fact, in many uses, preserved wood can last as long as it takes to grow a tree large enough to become the resource for a replacement product. This sustainability extends into the impacts of preserved wood on the environment compared to alternative materials. Internationally recognized Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) identify preserved wood as having significantly lower impacts on the environment when compared to other building materials. These cradle-to-grave assessments show preserved wood products have lower energy and resource use, as well


as lower impacts for key indicators such as greenhouse gas emissions, water and fossil fuel use, and ecotoxicity.

Are Preservatives Safe?

Both the PMRA and EPA determine whether proposed preservatives can be used safely. These government agencies require rigorous scientific evaluation on an ongoing basis to ensure the production and use of preserved wood products poses no significant harm to human health or the environment. The ingredients in today’s preservatives can be found in a variety of consumer products used in everyday life. For wood products treated for residential use, the main ingredient in the preservative is soluble copper – the same copper that can be found in water pipes and cooking pans. The effectiveness of this copper is enhanced with the addition of cooperating biocides and fungicides; these include azoles, quaternaries and borates, which also are used in disinfectants, cleaning and eye care products. It is important to understand how much preservative is used for any given application. The amount of preservative used in a product is called “retention” and is measured in pounds per cubic foot (pcf). A cubic foot of wood would be equivalent to a 12-ft.-long piece of 2x6 lumber. Treating that lumber for an aboveground application requires a retention of 0.06 pcf. That equates to one ounce of preservative for the entire piece of lumber. That same piece of lumber treated for a ground-contact application has a retention of 0.15, or 2.5 ounces of active preservative. For products sold at retail locations, the preservatives, the retention and the use conditions are identified by a plastic end tag or stamp. The end tag also includes information on the company and location where the product was treated, as well as a mark from an independent third-party inspection agency which ensures the wood was produced to industry standards. In the U.S., the information required on the end tag is defined under the national building codes.                    ‒ f a ll 2 0 2 1

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TechnicalSOLUTIONS

Fire-Retardant Treated Wood (FRTW)

In addition to preservatives, wood can be pressure treated with fire retardants to minimize the potential impacts from exposure to fire. Fire-retardants are intended to protect the wood from contributing to a fire and provide sufficient time for occupants of a structure to exit safely and for fire services to respond. Fire-retardant formulations change the chemistry of the wood so that when it is heated, it gives off water and carbon dioxide, which slows or stops the spread of flames. Infused fire retardants dilute the flammable gases that are created when wood is heated and encourage charring, which insulates the wood below and slows the fire growth. FRTW products are approved for use under North American building codes as an alternative to non-combustible materials in certain applications. These products often are used in multifamily and commercial structures for applications such as wall framing, floor assemblies and roof trusses.

A Rooted History

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For centuries, North America has relied on the preserved wood product industry for the basic infrastructure that is essential for commerce and everyday life. Preserved wood products are used in a variety of applications that benefit people daily – industrial poles used for carrying power and communication services, goods transported by rail and dock facilities for all things shipped by water – with a rooted history of success in residential, commercial and industrial applications. Preserved wood products are, most likely, part of the deck where you spend summer days and the fence that surrounds your home. You can spot them in your backyard, along your street or at a marina. As they have been for more than two centuries, preserved wood products are here to stay. Wood Preservation Canada Wood Preservation Canada (WPC) is the industry association that represents the treated wood industry in Canada. WPC operates under Federal Charter and serves as a forum for those concerned with all phases of the pressure-treated wood industry, including research, production, handling/ use and the environment. WPC members are committed to producing safe, quality products in an environmentally sound and progressive manner. Visit woodpreservation.ca to learn more. Western Wood Preservers Institute With headquarters in Vancouver, Washington, Western Wood Preservers Institute (WWPI) is a non-profit trade association founded in 1947. WWPI serves the interests of the preserved wood industry in the 16 Western states, Alberta, British Columbia and Mexico so that renewable resources exposed to the elements can maintain favorable use in aquatic, building, commercial and utility applications. WWPI works with federal, state and local agencies, as well as designers, contractors, utilities and other users over the entire preserved wood life cycle, ensuring that these products are used in a safe, responsible and environmentally friendly manner. Visit preservedwood.org to learn more.


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A Portable, Eco-Friendly Hot Tub For almost 20 years, AlumiTubs has produced aluminum-lined, wood-fired (a.k.a. “off-grid”) cedar hot tubs that are handmade and fully recyclable, using locally sourced materials. From the company’s headquarters in Sechelt, B.C., the tubs have been sent to international customers “on and off the map,” including many remote locations. The hot tubs can be transported in a standard truck bed, and because each hot tub weighs only 220 lb., they can be towed easily by water, even by kayak. Once unloaded, one or two people can roll the tub into position and, within hours, the first soak can be enjoyed. Two sizes are available: six-foot diameter ($5,095, seating up to five, holding 450 gallons) or seven-foot diameter ($6,195, seating up to eight, holding 650 gallons), with water reaching 38 inches deep. When the tubs are full, they can weigh up to 6,500 lb. The water can be 46

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heated fully in two to five hours, and can maintain 104°F or higher on just a few pieces of wood each day. The insulated, marine-grade aluminum lining is leakproof, enhances heat retention, allows for salt water use and requires minimal maintenance and cleaning. The chimney requires a 10-ft. clearance from any objects, but the enclosed, submerged firebox allows the system to pass most fire regulations, and it is even safe to touch under water. On request, the hot tubs also can be outfitted to run on propane or natural gas. Filtration is optional, but not necessary; regular water changes are recommended, depending on frequency of use. Non-abrasive soap with water is all that’s needed to clean the lining. Due to increasing demand, orders are already booked into next year. alumitubs.com


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