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Âť The science of food and beverage

c i t o x e Tastes Cultural and spicy cuisine

capture consumer tastebuds for 2017

Taiwan focuses on exports

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North American Consumer Food Trends: 2017





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Letter from the editor

feature story

In the spotlight

Consumers are looking for new, hot and exotic flavours.


country profile Taiwan promotes food safety and quality as it looks to increase exports.


A TASTE OF... Cara Rosenbloom


trending now Three square meals a day are a thing of the past as non-traditional snack foods take over the menu.

Canadian Food Business



editor'S letter

Publisher & CEO Christopher J. Forbes Executive Editor Theresa Rogers staff writers Hermione Wilson Kelly Townsend CONTRIBUTORS

William Ickes Marcia Mogelonsky Karen Proper

art director Katrina Teimo graphic designer Houman Hadidi Secretary/Treasurer Susan A. Browne marketing Stephanie Wilson manager vp of production Roberta Dick production Crystal Himes MANAGER account Lynne LeBlanc manager

Canadian Food Business is published 6 times per year by Jesmar Communications Inc., 30 East Beaver Creek Rd., Suite 202, Richmond Hill, Ontario L4B 1J2. 905.886.5040 Fax: 905.886.6615 One year subscription and circulation enquiries: Fax: 905.509.0735 On occasion, our list is made available to organizations whose products or services may be of interest to you. If you’d rather not receive information, write to us at the address above or call 905.509.3511 The contents of this publication may not be reproduced either in part or in whole without the written consent of the publisher. GST Registration #R124380270.


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What’s in a Label? In December, the federal government finalized changes to the Nutrition Facts table and list of ingredients on packaged foods when the Honourable Jane Philpott, Minister of Health, announced amendments to the Food and Drug Regulations. The government says it wants to make the Nutrition Facts table and list of ingredients on packaged foods easier for Canadians to use and understand. This is the next step in Health Canada’s Healthy Eating Strategy, which was announced by Minister Philpott earlier this fall with the launch of the revision of Canada’s Food Guide. The strategy aims to make healthy food choices the easy choice for all Canadians and lays out how Health Canada will deliver on the government’s commitments to reduce sodium in processed foods, eliminate industrially produced trans fat, provide consumers with more information about sugars and food colours, and introduce restrictions on the commercial marketing of some foods and beverages to children. Included in the labelling amendments are changes to the regulation of serving sizes to make comparing similar food products easier. The government says more information on sugars will also be made available, including a % DV for total sugars in the Nutrition Facts table, and the grouping together of sugar-based ingredients under the name “sugars” in the list of ingredients, but there is already confusion in mainstream media about the value of this change in particular. In addition, all food colours will be declared by their common name rather than the generic term “colour”, and the list of ingredients and allergen information will be easier to read. Health claims will also be allowed on fruits and vegetables, regarding the health benefits of these foods. “We have updated nutrition facts tables on pre-packaged foods in a way that is based on science and that will meet the needs of Canadians feeding their families,” said Minister Philpott in a statement. “We are also consulting on innovative ways to present nutrition information on food labels, such as front-of-pack labelling, to help Canadians make healthy choices on sugars, sodium and saturated fat.” These food label changes are being made after two years of consultations with consumers and stakeholders. During the consultations, the majority of respondents said improvements are needed to both how and what information is provided on food labels to reflect the latest science and allow consumers to easily compare products when shopping. Industry has until 2021 to make these changes. The timeline will align with other labelling changes proposed including front of pack labelling as well as some label modernization measures being proposed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. What are your thoughts? Are the new requirements fair? Do they go far enough? Let me know at


editor canadian food business

Theresa Rogers

on twitter @CDNfood


On the Web

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food events

Testing Chocolate for Antioxidants

2017 January 26 The Role of Inspection Equipment in Food Safety – Innovation Breakfast (Mettler Toledo) Brampton, ON January 26-29 Guelph Organic Conference & Trade Show 2017 Guelph, ON February 8-9 Food Processing Expo 2017 Sacramento, CA February 22 BCFT Suppliers Night 2017 Burnaby, BC February 23 Canadian Food Safety Forum Brampton, ON Feb. 27-March 2 GFSI Global Food Safety Conference Houston, TX March 5-9 Pittcon Chicago, IL April 23, 24 Bakery Congress 2017 Trade Show & Conference Vancouver, BC June 25-28 IFT17 Las Vegas, NV




UBC’s Xiaonan Lu and Yaxi Hu are testing antioxidant levels in raw cocoa beans for chocolate bars. Photo credit: UBC and Martin Dee Food scientists at the University of British Columbia (UBC) have developed a faster and cheaper way to quantify antioxidant levels in chocolate. They plan to use the technique in new research that will help uncover when antioxidant levels rise and fall during the manufacturing process, from raw cocoa beans to chocolate bars. If UBC food scientists can identify where in that process antioxidant levels are lowered, that information would be valuable to companies who want to make chocolate products with high levels of antioxidants that will be more appealing to health-conscious consumers. The UBC method uses infrared spectroscopy, a technology that can be used to illuminate infrared light on chocolate samples. The infrared

spectra record the chemical composition of each sample, including the amount of polyphenols, micronutrients with high antioxidant properties. The traditional method relies on biochemical tests to read absorbance values and can be quite timeconsuming and expensive. “Our method predicts the antioxidant levels in chocolate in under a minute, compared to the industry standard that can take several hours or even days,” says Xiaonan Lu, an assistant professor in food, nutrition and health in the faculty of land and food systems, who developed the method alongside PhD student Yaxi Hu. “It’s not a substitute for the traditional method used at the moment, but it does show a strong correlation for being just as reliable.”

Personalized Nutrition Will Have Big Impact on Food & Beverage Industry All the signs point to personalized nutrition being the next big growth area for the food and beverage sector. Like personalized wearable technology that monitors things like sleep patterns, heart rate and physical activity, personalized nutrition has the potential to give consumers greater control over their health decisions. This trend reflects a move away from a one-size-fits-all approach to dietary recommendations, toward one that is tailored to the individual. Personalized nutrition services can include things like genetic profiles, and metabolism and disease risk assessments based on DNA tests. For example, a test

Canadian Food Business

for the biomarkers for chronic inflammation can help consumers make more informed food choices. “The industry can tap into the personalization trend in three ways,” says Director of New Nutrition Business Julian Mellentin. “First, smart companies will create a portfolio of brands, made to meet the needs of different consumer diets and preferences. Second, they will invest in a multi-platform approach, offering support and tailored dietary advice. This means partnering with entities providing advice on diet planning or with fitness gadgets. Finally, they should invest in e-commerce, as it has proven to be a main route to niche consumers.”


Canadian Food Science Company Partners with Hemp Food Manufacturer Hempco Food and Fiber Inc. recently announced it has entered into a letter of intent with Lexaria Bioscience Corp., a Kelowna, BC-based food sciences company, for the licensing of its proprietary absorption and palatability enhancing technology for hemp food products. Hempco and Lexaria will be evaluating proprietary methods of applying Lexaria’s newly patented technology to Hempco’s food products. Hempco CEO Charles Holmes says the company hopes that combining its products with Lexaria’s patented food flavour-masking and nutrient delivery enhancement technology will help put Hempco products ahead of the competition in the hemp food sector. “We [will] immediately begin product formulation testing and evaluation, and will work with all types of hemp food products such as proteins, seeds, oils and derivatives, as we determine the most advantageous methods of embedding superior technology into Hempco’s product mix,” says Chris Bunka, CEO, Lexaria.

Flavour. It’s what we do.

Visit to discover our range of high quality ingredients and to learn about the latest flavour and ingredient trends. Be the first to know! Sign up for our McCormick Flavour Trends e-newsletter to receive the latest ingredient news and trends delivered right to your inbox.


Whether you are looking for a new ingredient or a custom flavour solution, the flavour experts at McCormick Canada are here to help.

Call 1-888-595-1520 or visit us at ®Reg. TM McCormick & Co. Inc. Used under licence.

Canadian Food Business




company profile

Business with a Purpose P r a n a t r i e s to k e e p c l e a n l a b e l s n a c k s a s h e a lt h y a s i ts b u s i n e s s p r ac t i c e s By Hermione Wilson

tw eets @CDN_FOOD BCFPA @BCFoodProcessor liked your Tweet – Nov. 30 Nov. 30: .@TimHortons release #WarmWishes video, documenting more than 150 good deeds accomplished in a single day. Biolabmag @biolabmag – Nov 24 Check out our new sister pub, @ CDNfood! It’s all about the science of #food and #beverage. RT CanadianFoodBusiness @CDNfood: The first issue of #CanadianFoodBusiness is live! Learn about the next generation of Food technologists.

Prana puts a lot of thought into its snacks. Not only is the family-owned, Montreal-based company dedicated to making certified organic, kosher, vegan, gluten-free, GMO-free, preservative-free and sulfitefree products, it has also made sure its business practices match its wholesome, socially conscious image. “From the very beginning... me and my husband, we were not about profit,” says Co-founder MarieJosée Richer. “Profit is important and it’s the way you keep a business sustainable through time, but we always had at heart the social impact of our practices and the environmental impact.” The company received B Corp certification in April 2015, which involved an evaluation on its business and human resources practices, as well as its social and environmental impact. B Corp is a consortium of companies who have pledged to be a force for good in the world. Prana will undergo another audit in May 2017. The level of care Richer and her team apply to their business practices extends to the way the snacks are formulated. Prana is Safe Quality Food (SQF) certified, which means the team must ensure ingredient suppliers have been certified. Random tests are conducted on the ingredients for pesticides, preservatives and hard metals, explains Karine Sicard, Quality Assurance Manager. “Karine works a lot to ensure that first, the ingredients arriving at Prana are fresh [and of] good quality, and after that we ensure the process we 8



Canadian Food Business

have at the plant is assuring a good quality as well,” says Tiffanie Murillo, Research and Development Manager. “We have sensitive ingredients, we have oxidation risks. Nuts, one year later, are not as fresh as in the beginning, but we are trying to have the best conditions to support the shelf life over time.” According to Murillo, Prana’s product development process goes something like this: the team sits down with the marketing department and comes up with a product brief that includes the nutritional, clean label and free-from certification requirements, as well as the target taste profile. When a prototype is ready, it will go to customers and the marketing department for a second opinion, and then back to the drawing board if anything needs tweaking. “We try to [maintain] a clean label and not include too many preservatives,” Murillo says. “We will never use added flavours, added colours, we only use true... wholesome ingredients, and we don’t want to use ingredients that have a [negative] social or environmental impact.” For example, she says, Prana won’t use palm oil because of its link to deforestation. It’s Prana’s determination to be a force of good in the world, through its business practices and the products it sells. “Corporations have so much power,” Richer says. “Yes, we can do business, but we can do it in a different way. We can redefine success and then inspire other businesses to go along so that all those ripples create a current. Business can benefit all shareholders.”

Cdn Food Observatory liked your Tweet – Nov 22 Nov 22: Conference Board of Canada’s 5th Annual Canadian Food & Drink Summit 2016 is taking place Nov. 28-29 @CBoC_Food Amanda O’Connell @ AmandaOConnell5 – Nov 16 Great for Canadian Ag #GayLea RT CanadianFoodBusiness @ CDNfood: .@GayLeaFoodsCoop to invest $140M over 4 years to establish innovative, nutrition and nutraceutical-grade dairy ingredients hub in Canada. Agropur Retweeted your Tweet - Nov 9.@NatrelMilk launch Canada’s first-ever lactose-free butter made with ingredients from @agropur. Bulk Barn liked a Tweet you were mentioned in – Nov 8 RT Diana Zandberg @DianaZandberg – Nov 7: @bulkbarn @CDNfood Tx for letting me know about your reuseable container program, Bulk Barn! This is great news & I can’t wait to try it! Crossmark Canada @ CROSSMARKCAInc – Nov 8 MT @CDNfood Researchers may have found a way to make milk chocolate just as healthy as dark chocolate via @CBCNews



The Arctic Advantage

NONBROWNING APPLES OFFER CONVENIENCE, BOOST CONSUMPTION Obesity continues to be one of North America’s most important challenges, as the number of overweight children has nearly tripled since 1980.1 Yet consumption per capita of apples, one of the world’s healthiest foods, has been stagnant over that same time.2 Apples are consumers’ most requested packaged produce item,3 but they’re rarely eaten in more convenient, “snackable” forms like fresh slices. Why? Browning! Okanagan Specialty Fruits (OSF), a small, grower-led company, has developed an elegant solution with the help of biotechnology – nonbrowning Arctic® apple varieties. By silencing the enzyme polyphenol oxidase, which causes apple browning, Arctic® apples won’t brown when bitten, sliced or bruised. With the same nutrition and composition as conventional apples, Arctic® apples are healthy and delicious!

The Arctic Advantage™ is especially clear for pre-sliced apples, the initial form that Arctic® apples will be sold in. Research from Cornell University4 demonstrates that when apples are served pre-sliced, 73% more children eat over half their apples. However, currently less than 2% of apples are sold as fresh slices.5 For comparison, “baby” carrots doubled carrot consumption when introduced and now make up ~70% of U.S. carrot sales! 6 Anti-browning treatments add up to 40% to the cost of freshcut apples, and often give the fruit an “off-taste”. Arctic® apples avoid these issues and deliver the wholesome, fresh taste consumers are looking for with preservative free, ready to eat slices! Arctic® apple products are being introduced in U.S. markets in 2017, with Canadian introduction soon to follow. We invite you to learn more on our website or by contacting us at

Nonbrowning apples benefit every segment of the supply chain, reducing unnecessary waste and offering improved product quality. The supply chain will profit from reduced shrink and enhanced eye-appeal, while consumers gain convenience, versatility, and a more appealing eating experience. CONVENTIONAL APPLE





5 6

Ogden, C.L. and Carroll, M.D. (Sept. 2012), Prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents; United States, Trends 1963-1965 through 2009-2010, Health E-Stat. USDA ERS (May 2012), Fresh apples: Supply and utilization in the United States, 1980/81 to date, U.S. Apple Statistics. Consumer Attitudes Toward Packaged Fruits and Vegetables (Aug. 2011), Produce Marketing Association. Wansink, B., Just, D.R., Hanks, A.S. & Smith, L.E. (2013). Pre-sliced fruit in school cafeterias: Children’s selection and intake. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 44(5): 477-480. 2015 USApple Production and Utilization Analysis (2015), U.S. Apple Association. Ferdman, R. (2016, January 13). Baby carrots are not baby carrots. Washington Post. Retrieved from © 2016 by Okanagan Specialty Fruits®. All rights reserved. Arctic® is a trademark of Okanagan Specialty Fruits Inc.


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s d n e r t d oo f2017 trending now

North American Consumer


By Karen Proper

new flavours and cultural influences are giving thrill-seeking consumers the intense adventure they are craving. Food is no longer about filling a need – it’s about the experience. Today’s consumers hunger for excitement and are seeking new and unusual food experiences, whether crickets, Carolina Reaper peppers or Ethiopian berbere. Coupled with the drive for innovation, today’s consumers are simultaneously demanding food and beverage choices that incorporate health benefits, sound nutrition and easy-to-pronounce ingredients, while still maintaining food safety, quality and a price point that is uncompromised.

Hot! Hot! Hot! Looking for intense? Think heat! North Americans are obsessed with hot and spicy. The endorphin-heavy neurochemical reactions triggered by hot and spicy foods are responsible for making hot foods such an adventure to consume. All peppers, including habaneros, ghost or the Carolina Reaper, belong to the genus Capsicum. The chemical compound, capsaicin, produces a burning sensation on any part of the body that it touches and stimulates nerve endings in the mouth to alert your body of intense pain. The heat of the tasteless, odourless capsaicin is measured in Scoville heat units (SHU), with the Carolina Reaper currently holding the record for hottest pepper in the world, at 2,200,000 SHU. Any flavour associated with the heat-intense peppers is lost in the experience as the human palate can only experience the heat. However there are a multitude of varieties of less heat-intense peppers that range in flavour from fruity, to chocolaty, to hints of licorice or smoke. For those with a sense of adventure, but a sensitive palate, take comfort – combining sweetness with peppers makes them more palatable. In fact, sweet heat is driving innovative flavour profiles. Sweet flavours, such as honey, fruit and molasses, are being paired with peppers, such as habaneros (ranging from no heat to fiery hot at 500,000 SHU), to evoke the fruity, citrusy flavour of the habanero. Pairing heat with sweet adds another dimension but it doesn’t stop there – heat is also being paired with other basic flavours, including sour and salty, further satisfying consumers’ demands for bold and spicy flavours. These combinations can be found in products ranging from meats, snacks, seasonings, condiments and chocolate to gum and beverages. Canadian Food Business



trending now

Nutrient-dense superfoods like

quinoa, kale, beets, green tea and cauliflower are gaining increased popularity by providing powerful antioxidants to battle cancer and promote heart health

Cultural Cuisine

The desire for the “different and delicious” is unsated – consumers want to taste the world. Thankfully, consumers do not have to travel far to satisfy their desires – immigration from other countries into North America has provided easy access to diverse cultures and ethnicities. Asian, North African, Indian, Ethiopian, Hispanic and Vietnamese are only a few examples of cultures piquing our interest in global flavours. Eyes and mouths are being opened to new tastes, flavours and cooking styles. Without hesitation, North American consumers are embracing these unique and exciting cuisines. Spices, herbs and seasonings are the key to achieving authentic flavours associated with these cultural dishes. Understanding the combination and quantities of these ingredients helps create the desired result: African dishes typically combine cardamom, nutmeg, clove and cinnamon, while Ethiopian dishes commonly incorporate chili peppers, fenugreek, ginger, coriander, cardamom, cumin, black pepper and paprika, often blended in a spice mixture called berbere. Crickets are also “hopping” onto consumers’ plates, as this sustainable, high-protein ingredient is being incorporated in sauces, crackers and energy bars. However, consumers are also comfortable fusing ethnic cuisines – representing multiculturalism in extraordinary ways. “Flavor fusion” and “food mash-ups” such as melding Thai sriracha sauce with a Mexican condiment or mixing an Asian-infused flavour with a Latin flavour profile. There seemingly is no limit to the diverse combinations consumers are willing to explore.

Spices, herbs and seasonings are the key to achieving authentic flavours associated with these cultural dishes. Understanding the combination and quantities of these ingredients helps create the desired result




Canadian Food Business

Health and Wellness

– What’s in it for Consumers? While consumers are “fearless foodies,” they are also very much aware of what they are putting into their mouths. People are craving more exciting food that makes them feel good about themselves, but are also considering nutritional value and quality when making their food choices. Foods that are adventurous and flavourful must also combine an element of health-promoting nutrition to be aligned with today’s healthy and fit lifestyles. When given the option, consumers prefer food and beverages over pills in their continuing goal of achieving a more balanced approach to health and diet. Nutrient-dense superfoods like quinoa, kale, beets, green tea and cauliflower are gaining increased popularity by providing powerful antioxidants to battle cancer and promote heart health. Veggie fries, zucchini pasta and veggie pretzels are making inroads as alternatives within these food categories. Beverages are also rising to the challenge: probiotics that promote digestive health, which had found their niche in cultured dairy products such as yogurt, are now being incorporated into better-for-you juices and drinks. As well as addressing current health needs, consumers are increasingly aware of the heightened stress in their lives and the potential for future implications. Brain and eye health, as well as memory loss, are among the top concerns, and consumers are proactively seeking foods that provide a combative solution. Dark chocolate, sparkling beverages with green tea extract, and hemp seed extract-infused water are only a few examples of responsive products on the market. This future health concerning category will continue to see growth. It is important to understand that forwardthinking consumers are also food-educated. The efficacy of ingredients with functional benefits will come under scrutiny – companies must ensure they have completed their homework to uphold their position on health and wellness.

Clean Label

In addition to demanding exciting and nutritionally dense foods, consumers want simple food ingredients that are easy to understand, authentic and easy to pronounce. Foods made with these ingredients are perceived as healthier and build on consumers’ desire for a healthy lifestyle. Clean label is a dominant trend with staying power and one with anticipated growth in the upcoming years.

trending now

However, confusion does exist around the term “clean label” for many consumers. A formal definition for clean label does not exist and as a result, many different interpretations endure. Some consumers believe that clean label means free-from artificial ingredients, allergens, chemicals and GMOs while others may include organic and natural in their definition. Confusion also persists around whether clean label pertains specifically to ingredients or whether it crosses over into the nutritional content. As one might imagine, clean label formulating is challenging not only due to the plethora of existing perceptions but also from a standpoint of product quality, functionality, safety and price point. Ultimately, it goes without contest – the food must still deliver an enjoyable sensory experience or risk being left on the shelf. Synthetic antioxidants, preservatives, colours and flavours all contribute to the attributes consumers have come to expect and enjoy from their food products. These ingredients extend shelf life; maintain colour, texture and flavour;

address microbiological concerns and provide the functional requirements needed by manufacturers. The replacement of these ingredients with natural, pronounceable alternatives has implications that often consumers are unwilling to accept, leading to increased food waste and product cost. While some consumers are in fact looking for more natural ingredients, they are not willing to sacrifice taste. Implications to food safety must also be considered. In the face of foodborne illnesses, including Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, removing or replacing functional ingredients with clean label alternatives should not be considered lightly. Many chemical-sounding, undesirable ingredients, including preservatives (and even salt and sugar), influence intrinsic food safety factors such as water activity and pH. These factors are directly related to the microbiological stability of food. Caution must be taken and robust testing completed to ensure the efforts to create consumer-friendly foods result in safe foods as well.

Karen Proper is Technical Manager, Product & Process Development, Consulting and Technical Services, NSF International.

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Canadian Food Business



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Mintel Intel

Canadians Like to Snack


The door is open to innovations around snack kits and snacks CONSUMER that have functional attributes OCTOBER 2016



By Marcia Mogelonsky

Canadians are a good audience for a


is an established eating pattern among Canadian number of snack innovations adults, with 89% reporting having snacked at least CANADIANS ARE AS LIKELY TO once during a given according to AS Snacking Eating – Canada. The ismost z Canadians like Habits to snack; between meal snacking popular, as is the after-dinner SNACKweek, ON HEALTHY FOODS SUCH AND VEGETABLES (61%) AS THEY occasion popular time of FRUIT day for snacking is between lunch and dinner, an eating opportunity for ARE TO REACH FOR LESS HEALTHY SALTY SNACKS SUCH AS CHIPS AND z Depending the snack occasion, range from healthy to indulgent 56% of Canadians. Also POPCORN popular(60%) is the post-dinner snackontime, when 47%snacks of Canadians have a snack. Eating between breakfast and lunchz is alsois considerable popular: 41% Canadians reach There room forof innovation as snackers are interested in a number of for a snack during that daypart. (See Figure 1) snack types Figure 1 Canadians like to snack, especially



Between lunchinand thedinner afternoon

Snacking is an established eating


In the evening/before bed Canadian adults, with pattern among 89% reporting having snacked at least once during a given week, according to Snacking Eating Habits – Canada – Between breakfast and lunch September 2016. The most popular time of day for snacking is between lunch and dinner, an eating opportunity for 56% of In place of lunch Canadians. Also popular is the post-dinner snack time, when 47% of Canadians have a snack. Eating between breakfast and In place oflunch dinner is also popular: 41% of Canadians reach for a snack during that daypart. (See Figure 1)

41% 39% 37% 24%

In place of breakfast

The foods that are chosen for betweenmeal snacks are expected to provide a number of qualities: 19% of between-meal Late/middle of the night snackers, for example, choose snacks that are healthy, while 29% are looking for a light snack during this interval. But evening Before breakfast snacks are expected to provide something different: Canadian snackers look for the post-dinner snack to be comforting (29%) and indulgent (28%). (See Figure 2)



Base: 2,000 internet users aged 18+ Source: Lightspeed GMI/Mintel This is an excerpt from Snacking Eating Habits – Canada – September 2016. See databook.

The foods that are chosen for between meal snacks are expected to provide a number of qualities: 19% of between-meal snackers, for example, choose snacks that are healthy, while 29% are looking for a light snack during this interval. But evenaing snacks are expected to provide something different: Canadian snackers look for the post-dinner SALTY SNACKS CONSUMER | 2 snack to be comforting (29%) and indulgent (28%). (See Figure 2)



Figure 2 Healthy

Marcia Mogelonsky, Ph. D., is Director of Insight, Mintel Food and Drink.







Indulgent Comforting %




Energy Portable %





Light %

Between meals












In the evening












Base: 1,778 internet users aged 18+ who have had a snack during the past week Source: Lightspeed GMI/Mintel

Snacks range from healthy to FIGURE 3: SNACK FOOD EATEN OVER THE PAST WEEK, CANADA, indulgent SEPTEMBER 2016 Canadian Food Business Canadians are as likely to snack



Mintel Intel




Interest in innovative snack formulations


Canadians are great snackers, and they have expectations of the type of snack for each snack occasion. There is room to innovate around snack occasions – and the snacks themselves – as Canadians are interested in a range of snack types. About |2 a third of Canadian snackers CONSUMER are interested in snacks that fill them up (36%); snacks that are fortified with benefits (33%); and shareable snacks sizes and formats (32%). (See Figure 4)

Snacks range from healthy to indulgent

Canadians are as likely to snack on healthy foods such as fruit and vegetables (61%) as they are to reach for less healthy salty snacks such as chips and popcorn (60%). Indeed, snack choices range all over the food spectrum: cheese and yogurt, ING ATTRIBUTES BY DAYPART, CANADA, JULY 2016 for example, show that snackers reach for better-for-you (BFY) options, but these healthy choices are balanced by indulgent manufacturers Indulgent Comforting Convenient Habit Energy Portable A number Fun of Filling Tastyhave been Light experimenting with snackstreats. that provide a “fill such as %chocolate, ice% cream frozen (See % % snacks % % % and % % % up.” Hormel, for example, has introduced a Figure 3) Honey Tray 20 which comprises 8 10 18 10 17 10 9 Ham Snack 12 29 cheese and crackers, while Mama Chia Given the propensity to ascribeham, specific snack attributes to Chia has introduced a chia-based snack that 25 29 18 8 14 16 34 18 Canadians’ desire for functional and specific17snack opportunities, it5 is suits likely that evening snackers fortified snacks. Given Canadians’ propensity s aged 18+ who have had a snack during the past week are drawn to the more indulgent options (e.g. chocolate, ice to be adventuresome snackers – almost Mintel a quarter seek ethnic inspiration in snacks cream) while between-meal snackers seek products that are while 13% are interested in non-traditional m healthy to FIGURE 3:and SNACK FOOD EATEN OVERvegetables, THE PAST WEEK, CANADA, healthy convenient (fruit, drinkable yogurt). combinations – and their desire for shareable SEPTEMBER 2016

kely to snack ch as fruit and s they are to reach y snacks such as 60%). Indeed, snack er the food spectrum: for example, show for better-for-you hese healthy choices ulgent snacks such as m and frozen treats.

and heatable snacks, there is considerable room to develop a range of snack options across a number of categories. %

Figure 3 Fruit or vegetables

% Snack or snack kits that 'fill me up'


Fortified snack foods with nutritional benefits (e.g. added protein, vitamins, etc)


Shareable snack sizes and formats (e.g. e.g. big chocolate bars)


Heatable snack foods (e.g. mini pizza pockets)


Individually packaged beverages positioned as a snack (e.g. smoothies/ meal replacement drinks, etc)


Freshly made snack food box available at stores and/or fast food restaurants (e.g. with meat or egg)


Snacks for specific occasions or functions (e.g. fuel for physical activity, brain power food for studying, etc)


Snacks in portion-controlled packaging (e.g. Smarties with three smaller compartments)


Snack foods with ethnic-inspired flavours (e.g. wasabi flavoured tortilla chips, butter chicken potato chips, etc.)


International snack foods (e.g. Indian mixture, Japanese rice balls, baklava)


Non-traditional combination (e.g. chocolate bar with jelly bean filling, bacon cupcake)


Base: 1,778 internet users aged 18+ who have had a snack during the past week Source: Lightspeed GMI/Mintel This is an excerpt from Snacking Eating Habits – Canada – September 2016. See databook.


Salty snack (e.g. chips, cheezies, popcorn, nuts, etc)


Chocolate (bar, bag, etc) or candy


Hormel Gatherings Honey Ham Snack Tray (Canada)

Ice cream or frozen treats Snack/granola/energy bar Cheese (e.g. cheese sticks, cottage cheese)

42 38 37

Sweet baked goods (e.g. muffins, donuts, etc ) Yogurt/ drinkable yogurt Crackers

y to ascribe specific pecific snack kely that evening to the more indulgent ate, ice cream) while kers seek products convenient (fruit, e yogurt).

Figure 4

Foods typically eaten during traditional meals

36 The snack tray includes Hormel 34 honey ham, 33 Sargento mild cheddar cheese and butter crisp crackers. The USDA (small burger, pizza, etc) 27 certified product retails in a 425g pack.

Beverages (smoothie, meal replacement drinks, etc)


Dips (hummus, chip dip, salsa, etc)




Base: 1,778 internet users aged 18+ who have had a snack during the past week Source: Lightspeed GMI/Mintel This is an excerpt from Snacking Eating Habits – Canada – September 2016. See databook.


Mamma Chia Chia Squeeze Green Magic Chia Snack (Canada)

President’s Choice Butter Chicken Flavour Baked

Canadians are a good audience for a number of Snack Crackers (Canada) snack innovations: This product is described These are described as as having deliciously crispy, meal seasoned snacking • natural Canadians like to snack; between goodness with organic bite-sized crackers with elegant chia seeds is infused scalloped edges, baked to popular, as is the after-dinner occasion. with delicious fruits and golden perfection, and said to vegetables to create a be great for snacking or dipping.  • D epending on the snack occasion, snacks range convenient, fun and tasty snack for active souls of The kosher certified product is manufactured in a all ages. It is USDA organic and kosher certified, peanut-free facility, contains no artificial flavours or from healthy to indulgent. free from GMO and gluten, suitable for vegans, and colours, and retails in a 200g pack. provides a high source of fibre. The product contains • There is considerable room for innovation as 1.2g omega-3 and 2g of protein and is described as a satisfying, anytime snack. Canadians are open to new snacks: innovations around snack kits for example, and snacks that have functional attributes.


Interest in innovative snack formulations

2 x 113g snack cups, and ogo.

vour it up a rackers

artificial retails in Facebook


McCain Marché Pizza Boulangerie Grissol Morning Canadians are great snackers, and they have expectations of Pockets Pepperoni Thins Banana Bread Toasted Snacks (Canada) Snack (Canada) the type of snack for each snackBakery occasion. There is room to innovate around snack occasions This – and the snacks themselves These snacks comprise kosher certified product in a tomato 80 calories per two –pepperoni assauce. Canadians are interested in aprovides range ofin snack types. About basil They are pack, and is low saturated fat, baked, not fried, and and free from cholesterol, trans amade third of Canadian snackers are fatinterested inIt retails snacks that fill with wholesome and artificial flavours. ingredients, including in a redesigned 102g pack made them upand(36%); snacks that are fortified with (33%); real cheese, contain no artificial flavours or with 100% recycled fibersbenefits containing 6 x 17g packets of  PREVIOUS colours. two pieces each, bearing a Facebook address. and shareable snacks sizes and formats (32%). (See Figure 4) A number of manufacturers have been experimenting with snacks that provide a “fill up.” Hormel, for example, has introduced a Honey Ham Snack Tray which comprises ham, cheese and crackers, while Mama Chia has introduced a chia-based snack that suits Canadians’ desire for functional and fortified snacks. Given Canadians’ propensity to be adventuresome snackers – almost a quarter seek ethnic  inspiration in snacks while 13% are interested inNEXTnontraditional combinations – and their desire for shareable and heatable snacks, there is considerable room to develop a range of snack options across a number of categories.



Canadian Food Business


in the spotlight


Determination By William Ickes

Top: The BUCHI NIRMaster, with IP54 ingress protection and rugged design for immediate analysis of protein and other critical sample properties on the production floor. Bottom: BUCHI Automated Kjeldahl solutions featuring the KjelMaster K-375, the most automated Kjeldahl system on the market today.

Due to its critical role in diet and health, measuring the protein content of food is more important than ever. Food production companies need to monitor protein content at multiple points along the food process chain. The three most common techniques used to measure protein content are Kjeldahl, Dumas (combustion), and NIR (near-infrared spectroscopy). While all three are valid, each of these methods comes with unique advantages or challenges. BUCHI Corporation is unique in that we have expertise in all three of these techniques. This expertise can applied to help you decide which technique will best work for you. The three major areas in the food production process chain include: raw material inspection, process control, and final analysis for label claim. As processed food, beverage, feed, and forage pass through the production lifecycle, different techniques may be considered to measure protein content. Whether you need fast qualification of raw material, or precise protein declaration of processed goods, the BUCHI protein solutions portfolio cover it all. In the warehouse, where raw materials used in food production are initially screened and inspected, it is important to have a rapid and comprehensive analysis that can quickly give you an indication of the quality of the incoming raw material. Here you will commonly find techniques like NIR due to its rapid measurement, typically less than 20 seconds, and its ability to perform multicomponent analysis such as measuring protein, fat, moisture, ash, and many other components simultaneously. In the production line, it is important to measure protein content and other components to ensure that the formulations meet specifications. Here, a rapid and comprehensive technique such as NIR should be considered. In addition to at-line sampling possibilities, an on-line NIR sensor can be integrated to a feeder, mixer, conveyor belt, or product pipe to provide rapid and continuous measurement results in-process. Measurements may be incorporated into a control system for real-time process adjustments. On-line control helps to ensure goods with consistent quality while maximizing production efficiency and profitability. BUCHI also has expertise in this technique with our NIR-Online solution.

Canadian Food Business



in the spotlight

In the R&D laboratory, you need a primary technique such as Kjeldahl for measuring protein so that you can accurately and reliably calibrate your NIR instrumentation. It is also used to help determine the protein content of unique formulations in which NIR calibrations have not been developed. In the QC laboratory, it is important that your method for determining protein content is compliant with official regulations such AOAC, DIN, an ISO. In this environment Kjeldahl and Dumas combustion are commonly employed. Now that we’ve taken a look at the different places in the process chain that require protein analysis, let’s take a brief look at the different techniques and the factors that will determine which technique is best suited. Kjeldahl is a well-established primary method for determining the protein content in all kinds of food products. It consists of digesting the sample in sulfuric acid and catalyst at a temperature of 420 C for approximately 90 minutes until all organic material is digested in the sample. The nitrogen contained in the amino acids of the protein are released from the sample matrix and converted to ammonium sulfate. Following digestion, the sample digestion mixture is diluted with deionized water before being placed on a steam distillation system. Strong base in the form of sodium hydroxide is added to the sample mixture in excess to completely alkalize the sample and liberate ammonia gas. The ammonia gas is steam distilled into a receiving solution consisting of boric acid solution. When the ammonia reacts with the boric acid solution it forms an ammonium borate complex which raises the pH of the receiving solution. The receiving solution is then titrated to the original pH of the boric acid solution with standardized sulfuric or hydrochloric acid. If the sample weight and milliliters titrated for the sample is known, you can calculate the nitrogen content which is then converted to protein content with a correction factor. Dumas combustion is a method for determining protein content in various food products. It consists of combusting the sample at a high temperature of 910 C in the presence of oxygen to convert all the organic components of the sample into gases. Many gases are generated in this process; all except the nitrogen and carrier gas, which in this case is CO2, are removed at different stages within the instrumentation. In the final stages, nitrogen and carrier gas is analyzed by a thermal conductivity detector. The system then converts the conductivity response to nitrogen content based on a calibration with reference materials of known nitrogen content. NIR is a method for determining protein content and various other parameters in many products. It is a spectroscopic method in which the sample is illuminated by light from the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The light is absorbed, scattered or reflected by the sample based on its composition (e.g. protein, moisture, fat). The resulting signal, or spectra, may then be correlated to the sample’s identity, or quantitative parameters, such as protein content, that have been determined from a primary analysis such as Kjeldahl. Once a calibration curve is generated, the composition of routine “unknown” samples may be measured. Now that we understand each technique, we can see which




Canadian Food Business

Range of applications 3 Low initial costs


Variation in sample types



Unattended operation


Compliance Kjeldahl Dumas NIR

Automated throughput

Environmental sustainability

1 applicable 2 more applicable 3 most applicable

technique is better suited for the different tasks. The spider graph below represents different considerations for each technique and correlates which technique is best suited to accomplish project goals while considering limited resources. In conclusion, Kjeldahl is a technique that can handle all kinds of sample matrices and has the most official methods out of the three techniques. It can be very automated and has a portfolio range that can fit most budgets. It is most commonly found in the R&D and QC label claim laboratories. Dumas is a technique which can handle homogenous, proteinrich samples in both the solid and liquid form. It has a significant number of official methods and is commonly used in the QC setting. The strength of the Dumas combustion technique is that it has a fast four-minute analysis time and does not require hazardous chemicals. If you need to quickly re-analyze a questionable sample, Dumas can do this quickly. NIR is a technique that can handle all kinds of samples. It is the fastest technique with an analysis time of less than one minute and has the added value of being able to perform multicomponent analysis. It does require upfront calibration development unless a global calibration solution already exists, but the potential return on investment is enormous once the calibrations are implemented. Moreover, it is the only technique of the three that can detect adulterants. No matter what your needs are for measuring protein content, BUCHI has a solution for you. If you would like to find out more about our Kjeldahl, William Ickes is the Dumas, or NIR solutions for Kjeldahl and Dumas food analysis, please contact us Product Manager for at or call BUCHI Corporation (302) 652-3000.

Visit us at IFT Booth #501

All about protein determination Kjeldahl, Dumas, and NIR Experience the only provider of all key technologies in protein determination: Kjeldahl: the reliable and proven method for food declaration Dumas: the flexible way for overnight operation without supervision NIR: the robust technology (IP65) for fast screening

Quality in your hands

Taiwan COUNTRY Profile

Small island looks to become a food exporting superpower David Bostwick, Director Trade & Investment, Canadian Trade Office in Taipei

By Theresa Rogers

How important is food in terms of the trade between Canada and Taiwan?


June 2016, I was one of four journalists invited to Taiwan to join 19 buyers to visit and learn about Taiwanese food companies looking to export products overseas. The delegation represented 11 countries including Canada, Holland, the UK, and the U.S., as well as nearby Asian countries with which Taiwan already conducts a lot of trade. The trip was held in conjunction with Asia’s Super 5-in-1 Food Expo which included five food trade shows in one: Food Taipei, Taipei Pack, Halal Taiwan, Taiwan Horeca, and Foodtech & Pharmatech Taipei – a complete supply chain. Our trip took us from the food expo in Taipei, to Penghu Islands, off the western coast of mainland Taiwan. The common themes that stood out were of food safety, quality and convenience, with the Taiwanese eager to distance themselves from any association with mainland Chinese products and their more problematic history, and a younger, more powerful consumer demanding traditional dishes that can be easily microwaved and quickly prepared. Messages of the freshest produce and ingredients, certified and traceable seafood, and the resulting cuisine from the collision of east and west, were discussed frequently throughout the tradeshow and in our many site visits. Indeed, the food and hospitality we experienced was of utmost taste and quality, with many of the buyers, including Canada’s Lisa Chung, President, Kuo Hua Trading Company, delivering positive feedback and looking to make deals. I spoke at length with David Bostwick, Director – Trade & Investment, Canadian Trade Office in Taipei, as we toured the Canada pavilion at the Food Taipei tradeshow. This year marked the 30th anniversary of the Canadian trade office in Taiwan. The office employs 45 people and its job is to connect and help Canadian companies looking to conduct business in Taiwan. 20



Canadian Food Business

Food is a very important part of our overall trade relationship in Taiwan. Our bilateral trade relationship is about $7 billion a year. That’s heavily skewed in favour of Taiwan. Our exports into the Taiwanese markets are $1.5 billion. Of that, we have about $250 million in agri-food exports.

That doesn’t seem like much. It is quite significant, actually, when you compare it to the top exports into Taiwan. Our leading export is minerals – coal, nickel, copper. Number two is forest products; we are the largest exporter of wood products into Taiwan. Agri-food, is number three, at about $250 million, but it could be higher.

In the opening ceremonies, a few people spoke of the need for the Taiwanese government to lower tariffs and exchange rates. They also spoke of a need to innovate and automate with the goal of this show to gain access to new markets. This happens with ginseng, for example. They import Canadian ginseng via Hong Kong and process it in China because labour is cheaper there. Then it’s exported to Taiwan. There are also some Canadian products available through Costco, but Costco is shipping through the U.S.; likely going into the U.S., being consolidated there for shipping to Asian markets. They have Canadian maple syrup there, they have strawberries, and water, so you’ll see a number of Canadian products in Costco and those aren’t necessarily part of the larger $250 million.

And are you working with companies like 7-Eleven or Costco? Very much so. 7-Eleven is a Japanese company now, owned by Seven & I Holdings Co. out of Tokyo, but the 7-Eleven chains here are franchised out to the country’s largest agri-food company, Uni-President… obviously, agri-foods are actually quite significant. And in terms of our success in the marketplace, I think agri-food is really the most obvious of all of our successes. It’s everywhere. You see it in the 7-Eleven, you see it in the hypermarkets, and you see it in restaurants, so it’s the most visible side of our [exports].

To what do you attribute that? Quality? Safety? Canada has a wonderful brand here, in Taiwan. That brand is based upon safety, it’s based upon quality, and it’s based upon an understanding amongst Canadian exporters of working with the local market. This is key. If you spend a little bit of time reading the newspapers here in Taiwan, one of the biggest issues right now is pork.

Because of disease? No, it’s ractopamine. Ractopamine is an additive to feed that helps make pork leaner.

Regional Profile






8. 4.


9. 5.

1. 70% of Hung Yang Foods Co.’s sales are exports. The 30-year-old OEM specializes in non-meat based protein. The company produces more than 100 types of dried soy and textured vegetable protein for its manufacturing customers to rehydrate and create their own products. 2. King’s Cook Frozen Food launched its new Lithe brand in 2016. The product is non-GMO and contains low sodium, no trans fats, and no artificial additives. Traditional foods are packaged for convenience and may be microwaved, steamed, fried, baked or made into soup. 3. Chatime launched four new products in 2016 and is looking for distributors outside of Taiwan. The company says it’s the first in Taiwan to use tea bags which enable the consumer to make the product at home. 4. HGT is a fifth-generation tea company seeking wholesale and OEM partnerships. 5. Japan’s influence is still present in Taiwan as evidenced in this cake manufacturer. Magung Foods produces thousands of brown sugar sponge cakes, seaweed cakes, cactus cakes, and shrimp cakes for customers daily. 6. The Canada Pavilion at the Food Taipei tradeshow was open for trade with booths full of Canadian honey, ginseng, oats, and beans. 7. Sunny Syrup exports its bubble tea ingredients to more than 50 countries. New products for 2016 include a popping tapioca ball, 10 new syrup flavours, and a microwaveable tapioca pearl than cooks in only 3 minutes. 8. Science Biotechnology Co. was established in 2001 and originally focused on coffee. Its new Butterfly Pea drink is unique to Taiwan, nutritious and contains nothing artificial. 9. D.E. Chung Hua Foods Co. is a from-the-ground-up success story. It began with a small cooking stall in the night market and led to many courses about cooking and manufacturing on a large scale. The company now exports to 30 countries such as Canada. 10. TanHou Ocean Development Co. is an open book, even allowing National Geographic to spend two months filming there in 2015. Its fish farm in Penghu is known for its cobia, king grouper and golden pompano which are shipped worldwide. Every fish is bred in seawater, tagged and fed a diet of omega chicken and pork. Quality testing takes place monthly. Photo credits: Theresa Rogers Canadian Food Business





It’s banned here in Taiwan. Canada produces both ractopamine and ractopamine-free pork. Canadian producers saw the way markets like Taiwan are going, and decided to focus on producing ractopamine-free pork. Because of that, Canada is a leading exporter of pork into the Taiwanese market. Pork is the number one source of protein for the Taiwanese. They eat 37 kilograms of pork per person a year. It’s understanding and adapting to the local market needs and conditions. You see that across all sorts of product lines, not just in terms of pork; it’s in terms of processed foods, in terms of organics, all of these different things. I think that’s what really adds to our success. People look at Canada as a big country, expansive nature, clean water, all of these positive things, but part of it is our ability to work with the market and differentiate ourselves from the Americans and others. We’re not forcing our standards onto the Taiwanese; we’re working and adapting to market conditions. Not to say it’s easy. There are some real challenges here. They’re hypersensitive about food safety.

In Canada, people distinguish between products from various Asian countries. The [Taiwanese] government is hypersensitive of the criticism from consumers, and therefore it’s become increasingly aggressive in terms of imported products, especially in terms of testing and of inspections. It makes it challenging for Taiwanese importers, and it makes it challenging for Canadian companies or any foreign companies wanting to export into the markets. It’s constantly changing – it’s not a level playing field for foreign companies exporting into the market even though [Taiwan is] 67% dependent or so on foreign imports. And so with the constantly changing policy environment, it’s really quite challenging for exporters and importers to keep up with what the government’s doing. We spend a lot of our time on advocacy. We have a very good relationship with the Taiwanese authorities on all fronts, but particularly in terms of the agri-food space… It’s a very sophisticated market here in Taiwan, and a very open-minded and healthy environment. In my neighbourhood, there’s a university, and there’s a playing field and a track, and every night they are just packed full of people walking. It’s amazing how health-conscious they are.

We need to import that!

Penghu Islands Facts 90 islands off the west coast of mainland Taiwan. Only 19 are inhabited. Terrain ranges from golden beaches and crystal waters to volcanoformed cliffs. Soil is sandy. Agriculture includes many vegetables such as local pumpkin, loofah, cabbage, and melon. Crops are drought-resistant and able to withstand saltwater spray. Rainfall is extremely low resulting in higher than average salinity of seawater. Fish and aquatic products are sweet-tasting as a result.

Yes, that’s what my wife says. Here as well, there are a lot of eating choices out in the marketplace… but overall, they’re more health-conscious when it comes to food, and very, very particular. They’ll go, when buying a product, look at the country of origin, look at the expiry dates, look at contents… Exporters have to be able to meet that high level of demand; we have to be on our A-game, and I think Canadian exporters really do understand that.

Aquaculture uses sea nets floating in the ocean, or “wild breeding fish” to minimize damage to the environment and boost fish quality. Products are certified and traceable.

If a Canadian company wanted to export something, your office would take them through the process?

Agriculture and fishery specialty products include cactus fruit, tea, aloe, cobia, grouper, mackerel, squid, abalone, cuttlefish, and more.

Yes. They’ll have to do their homework. We want a company to… do their research. They need to figure out who their competition is, where the market is, and we can get help with a little bit of that at home through Canadian trade commission services’ regional network of offices to do a bit of that early stage work on our behalf. If they’re ready, then they’ll be referred to us. They’ll say, ‘I want to get into a Taiwanese market; this is my first time exporting into Asia.’ This is where Karen and her team will come in providing market information, providing key contacts to importers, distributers and the marketplace. We can explain some of the market access challenges and then make these introductions… All of our services are free and we’re really quite successful that way. It’s not as hard to get products in. People are always looking for something new... And Karen has been doing this for 20 years, so she knows everybody and everybody knows her.




Canadian Food Business


What do you think about the vegan diet trend? I think plant-based trends or vegan, semi-vegan, or flexitarian diets are growing because of concerns over how we treat our planet, sustainability, the ethical treatment of animals, and having more plant-based meals readily available at restaurants and grocery stores... I don’t see it as a trend; I see it as a really popular lifestyle choice. It’s been around for a long time and is growing in popularity and is not going anywhere, so that’s definitely not a trend, that’s something that’s here to stay.

In this age where convenience is sometimes king, how can processed or packaged foods play a role in healthier eating? I definitely think that we should differentiate between packaged foods and processed foods because I don’t think they necessarily are the same thing. There are many foods that come in a package as the most convenient way to get them home from the grocery store. Bagged lettuce, plain Greek yogurt, whole grain spaghetti in a box, and frozen peas are in a package but these are certainly not processed foods. I think people should definitely incorporate foods in a package because they can be convenient.



Are people are eating healthier now versus 20 or 30 years ago? There are some things we may be doing better than we did back then, and there are some things that are worse... I think the move toward more and more convenient foods, more restaurant foods, more fast foods, has had a detrimental effect on people’s health, but I think that’s been longer than 20 years.

As a kid, did you like candy and chips? I was always more excited when my mom would make veal picatta with linguine and fresh parsley and lemon sauce, or her chicken... She would cook such amazing meals that were beyond the scope of your typical mom in a kitchen, and it was always inspiring to taste those things that tasted so much better to me than chips or a chocolate bar.

food comes eating, and there’s no better person to ask what to eat than Registered Dietitian Cara

Rosenbloom. The nutritional expert from Toronto delivers much-needed messages about smart eating to consumers, encouraging them to eat wiser. Making regular appearances on television, she’s a familiar face on Breakfast Television, Global’s The Morning Show and news, and even a recognizable voice on the radio. She combines her two passions of writing and food in her blog, Words to Eat By, and her recipe book, Nourish. The blog was named one of the top 100 nutrition resources on the web in 2014. She was also the dietitian for Canadian Living – writing tips and advice for aspiring healthy Canadian eaters. Rosenbloom advocates healthy eating in conferences and cooking classes across Canada and the United States, even appearing in schools to inspire children. Canadian Food Business



Canadian Food Business Nov/Dec 2016  
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