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T H E G ROW I N G I S S U E

JUNE 2016

OREGON

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LEMON SKUNK

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WYLD GUMMIES

DISPENSARY

THE HUMAN COLLECTIVE

BACK TO BASICS

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N AT I O N A L J U N E 2 0 1 6 | T H E G ROW I N G I S S U E E D I TO R I A L

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HEN SELECTING CONTENT FOR our Growing issue, we expanded the conversation about growing cannabis to include a larger discourse on the growth of the cannabis industry as a whole. Cannabis cultivation was never entirely eradicated during the War on Drugs, remaining underground to stay protected. Now, the world is tuning in to the convincing evidence that safe cannabis access is good for personal and social health. Cannabis is currently the fastest growing industry in the United States. An economic analysis has projected our industry will reach $40 to $50 billion within the next 10 years! What makes the cannabis community even more exceptional is that the industry is made up of a groundbreaking 36 percent of women in leadership roles. To celebrate this extraordinary time in history, we chose the power women behind Marley’s Natural, Cedella Marley and Tahira Rehmatulla, to grace our June cover. Our team went to Miami to discuss the Marley legacy, whose name is almost synonymous with cannabis. In this issue of DOPE Magazine , we interviewed producers and processors to bring you insight into the fundamentals of back-to-basic grow processes as well as the latest in modern-day distillate techniques. We also delve into the cultural impact that cannabis has had on communities across the nation. As businesses thrive, communities begin to see the positive economic and ecological impacts that cannabis farming has to offer. Positive awareness of the cannabis industry is beginning to establish it’s roots in mainstream culture. This month, we want to acknowledge the people in our community who continue to cultivate quality cannabis. Many of these individuals have been influential in change for generations and it’s their relentless aspirations that allow us to live out our dreams each day. Stay DOPE!

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DOPE MAGAZINE is a free monthly publication dedicated to providing an informative and wellness-minded voice to the cannabis movement. While our foundation is the medical cannabis industry, it is our intent to provide ethical and research-based articles that address the many facets of the war on drugs, from politics to lifestyle and beyond. We believe that through education and honest discourse, accurate policy and understanding can emerge. DOPE MAGAZINE is focused on defending both our patients and our plant, and to being an unceasing force for revolutionary change.

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TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S JUNE 2016

T H E G ROW I N G I S S U E 14 C A N N A - N E W S

The Medical Unity Conference

18 D O P E N E W S Weed Week

20 B R A N D I N G B U D

From Dime Bags To Dosed Portions

24 C A N N A - N E W S

You Can’t Have Your Goats In The Garden!

30 F E AT U R E

How is Cannabis Affecting our Culture as a Whole?

36 M E E T T H E AU T H O R

T H E G ROW I N G I S S U E

JUNE 2016

Interview with Joshua Haupt

38 R OA D T R I P

Portland, Oregon - Healing Communities

42 B U S I N E S S

The Challenge of Hermaphroditic Plants

44 G R OW

Back to Basics

46 A N A LY T I C S

Chronic Boom

48 T E C H N O L O G Y

52 P R O D U C T S W E L OV E 54 C A N N A - N E W S

The Dark Side of Cannabis

THE MARLEY MANTRA OF LEGAL CANNABIS 32-34

A DOPE THEORY OF HISTORY

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Unveiling the Future of Processing Concentrates

A LION’S LEGACY

BACK TO BASICS H E A LT H Y P L A N T S , H E A LT H Y Y I E L D S

J U N E C OV E R Photo by Devin Christopher Design by Brandon Palma

56 D O P E B I C Y C L E TO U R 58 # E N D 4 2 0 S H A M E

Legitimizing The Industry One Bud At A Time

60 T R AV E L

India’s Holi Festival

62 C A N N A - N E W S

Trainerbees: The Buzz Of The Industry

64 E V E N T S

420 Wedding

24-25

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48-49

YOU CAN’T HAVE YOUR GOATS IN THE GARDEN!

CHRONIC BOOM

UNVEILING THE FUTURE

I N N O VAT I V E B U S I N E S S TO O L S F O R I N D U S T R I A L SIZED GARDENS

CANNABIS SALES IN C O L O R A D O S H AT T E R PREVIOUS BENCHMARKS

THE PROCESS AND A P P L I C AT I O N S O F C A N N A B I N O I D D I S T I L L AT E S


THE RAPID GROWTH OF THE CANNABIS INDUSTRY HAS MADE IT THE FASTEST GROWING SECTOR OF THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY, SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACTING NEARLY EVERY INDUSTRY.

CWCBEXPO 2016

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EDUCATION Learn how to navigate regulatory, legal, financial and logistical challenges. DISCOVERY Explore the technology and services that are revolutionizing the cannabis industry. NETWORKING Meet face-to-face with the top manufacturers and innovators in the industry. GROWTH Gather the keys that you will need to profit in the cannabis industry.


ACRATNI C N LAE- NT EI TWLSE

T H E M E D I CA L U N I T Y C O N F E R E N C E WHER E R ESEAR C H, S C I EN C E , ADVO C AC Y, AN D POLIT I C S C O ME TO GE T HER WRITER / DAVID HODES

“WE ARE CLOSER NOW THAN EVER TO PASSING COMPREHENSIVE MEDICAL CANNABIS REFORM. LET’S JUST DO IT.” -SEN. BARBARA MIKULSKI (D-MD)

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HE 2016 NATIONAL Medical Cannabis Unity Conference in Washington, D.C. was held from March 18 to March 22. It was presented by Americans for Safe Access (ASA), an organization founded by patient advocate and activist Steph Sherer in 2002, now the group’s executive director. Sherer reminded the 250 attendees that ASA was instrumental in crafting the Compassionate Access, Research Expansion, and Respect States Act of 2015 (CARERS), one of the most comprehensive medical cannabis legislation initiatives introduced in Congress. It was the first Senate bill to legalize cannabis for medical use. ASA wants to resolve federal and state confusion on medical cannabis laws, regulate cannabis like herbal medicine, and ensure safe and legal access for the medicinal use of cannabis. Sherer noted how discussions about cannabis have changed over the last few years and how the plant has become more credible in the process. “We used to have to beg people to come present at these shows when I first started putting them together,” she said in her opening speech. “Now we have people here from Johns Hopkins and from universities around the country who are here helping us find solutions. That is a huge step forward for this movement and our cause.” Next was a short video from Maryland Senator Barbara Mikulski. “There is growing support in the Senate for medical cannabis,” she shared, “Get engaged in the process. We are closer now than

ever to passing comprehensive medical cannabis reform. Let’s just do it.” Keynote speaker Dr. Lumír Ondrej Hanuš, a Czech analytical chemist and leading authority in cannabis research, discussed cannabinoids and the chemical structure of the plant. “It is wonderful medicine, but it doesn’t cure every time, it doesn’t cure every body, it doesn’t cure every disease,” he said. “Cannabis has a huge amount of different medicines. And each of us is genetically different, and it affects us differently. We must study it more because it is more complicated.” As the lineup of speakers and topics demonstrated, this was a conference dedicated to scientific analysis and observation of the cannabis plant, its effect on people, and how to work with legislators to get their help in advancing legalization for medical use. The speakers came from all walks of life—business, politics, academia, and science—including Pavel Kub, who founded the International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute and became the CEO of the institute’s research and innovation hub; Steve Berg, a former stockbroker who became the CFO of O.penVAPE, the co-founder of the ArcView Angel Investor Network, and editor of one of the cannabis industry’s leading independent market research reports; Stephen Corn, MD, a professor at Harvard Medical School and a prolific inventor who specializes in anesthesiology and pain medicine; and Stephanie Phillips, a senior legislative assistant for Congressman Earl

Blumenauer (D-OR) with experience in managing marijuana and drug reform policy. Ryan Vandrey, an experimental psychologist and currently an associate professor at Johns Hopkins University, talked about quality control issues with cannabis, referring to his research in which he bought 75 edible cannabis products from dispensaries in California and Washington, and tested them to see if the THC content listed on the package was accurate. “Out of 75 products, 13 were accurately labeled and 17 were under-labeled and had at least 10% more THC,” he stated. “And 45 had significantly less THC than printed on the label. One product labeled with 1,000 milligrams of THC tested at 1,236 milligrams,” he added. “So this research shows how important the need for standardization is. This labeling problem is unacceptable for any other medicine, so I am not sure why it’s OK for medical cannabis.” Marcel O. Bonn-Miller, an assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania, and a leading researcher in cannabis and PTSD, discussed his research about how cannabis can have negative consequences, including a discussion of withdrawal issues for users and cravings that develop when they stop using cannabis. “These are tricky issues and there are lots of gray areas here,” he said. In the afternoon of the last day of the conference, groups who registered with their state representatives went to Capitol Hill to practice their lobbying skills.


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DOPE NEWS

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WRITER / ALEX HALPERIN OF WEED WEEK

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group of prominent Colorado cannabis companies have proposed major changes to state laws. The proposal suggests a “wish list” of events where cannabis could be bought and consumed, and, more controversially, a request to relax pesticide rules. Some agree with Gov. John Hickenlooper that the list suggested that companies are beginning to put profits over public safety. “I think that’s a dangerous place for the industry to be in,” Hickenlooper warned.

inutes before the NFL draft, a two-year-old video surfaced of then-Ole Miss offensive lineman Laremy Tunsil smoking out of a gas mask bong. The discovery likely cost Tunsil, a top prospect, several places in the draft order and millions of dollars. Tunsil can expect a deal worth about $12 million as the No. 13 pick for the Miami Dolphins. The Dolphins said that Tunsil would not go through the NFL’s substance abuse program.

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laska, the only state that has agreed to allow pot cafes, is now creating rules for them. According to one proposal, cafes would be banned from offering happy hours and pot giveaways, but they could serve food and non-alcoholic drinks. In addition, customers would not be allowed to move their purchase off the premises, just like bars that don’t allow to-go cups. The first cafes are likely to open in September or later, after this year’s tourist season is over.

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algreens, America’s largest pharmacy chain, posted some medical marijuana basics on its public blog. Cannabis finance expert Alan Brochstein wrote, “I can’t recall any S&P 500 company ever sharing such a supportive view” of cannabis. Written by a pharmacist, the post goes into the dangers, possible benefits, and legality of medical cannabis. “The content is strictly informative, and nowhere do we take any stance on the issue,” a company spokesman told The Huffington Post.

anada’s Liberal Party wants to legalize cannabis in spring 2017, fulfilling one of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s campaign promises. The left-wing New Democratic Party called for immediate decriminalization. The previous prime minister, conservative Stephen Harper, called marijuana “infinitely worse” than tobacco and now the issue is dividing members of his party. Canada has legalized medical marijuana, and while the country does not technically allow dispensaries, they are able to operate under a “grey area” of the law and can be found throughout the country.

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he Drug Enforcement Administration hopes to decide on rescheduling marijuana in the first half of 2016. The federal government considers the plant a Schedule I substance, meaning that it’s not considered to have any medical uses and is likely to cause addiction. Rescheduling would make it easier for scientists to study cannabis, but experimentation at a state level would still be federally illegal. Many cannabis activists want the drug de-scheduled, which would mean cannabis could be regulated in a similar manner as tobacco and alcohol.


BRANDING BUD

F RO M BAG S TO R I C H E S TH E EVOLUTION OF DIME BAGS TO DOSED PORTIONS WRITER / DAVID A. PALESCHUCK, MBA, CLS

PHOTO / MARK COFFIN & ALLIE BECKETT

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ONG GONE ARE THE DAYS of illegal street trafficking of nickel and dime bags. In fact, right now in at least 28 states, a licensed patient can purchase medicinal cannabis at a local dispensary. Recreational users over the age of 21 can purchase cannabis and cannabis-infused products legally at many recreational stores in Washington, Oregon, and Colorado. Voters in Washington, D.C. recently approved an initiative to allow recreational use. As we see cannabis products coming into the market as packaged goods, we expect to find information and data on the products, similar to the way we would find nutritional facts on almost any other consumable product we purchase.

HOW’S A CONSUMER TO KNOW? There’s evidence from the previous post-prohibition movement that over time (and with government mandates), companies manufacturing new or controversial products will take the time to educate the consumer about its product’s contents and potential adverse effects—or modify its product to fit the market’s needs.

1 Pre-Prohibition Circa 1880’s

INSIDE THE CANNABIS CONSUMER

While cocaine-infused beverages may seem far-fetched to modern readers, these drinks were quite common in the late 19th century. Cocaine was not made illegal in the United States until 1914, and until then, the substance had a variety of (sometimes questionable) medical uses. Cocaine tonics, powders, and pills were popularly believed to cure a variety of ailments, from headache and fatigue to constipation, nausea, asthma, and impotence. But by 1903, the tide of public opinion had turned against the widely used and abused narcotic, leading Coca-Cola to remove nearly all cocaine from the company’s beverages. Modern medical and scientific inquiry into cannabis began with doctors who used it to treat melancholia and migraines, as well as a sleeping aid, analgesic, and anticonvulsant. At the local level, authorities introduced various laws that required non-prescription cannabis mixtures to be marked with warning labels under the so-called poison laws. In 1905, Samuel Hopkins Adams published an exposé in Collier’s Weekly titled “The Great American Fraud.” The evaluation described the patent medicines that led to the passage of the first Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906. This statute did not ban alcohol, narcotics, and stimulants in the medicines: it required medicinal products to be labeled as such and curbed some of the more misleading, overstated, or fraudulent claims that previously appeared on labels.

With at least 2,000 cannabis medicines on the market prior to 1937, why don’t we know more about the cannabis consumer and cannabis itself? Perhaps the advent of the syringe and injectable medicines contributed to an eventual decline in the popularity of cannabis for therapeutic use, not to mention the invention of new drugs such as aspirin. So who exactly is “the cannabis consumer?” What is their lifestyle? What brands speak to them? Is there just one type of cannabis consumer? Are the images of Cheech and Chong, Harold and Kumar, Willie Nelson, and Snoop Dogg stereotyping cannabis smokers? And to push even further, is “smoking” itself a stereotype of cannabis consumption? The truth is, cannabis consumers run the socio-economic gamut and include those seeking to “get high” to those seeking a “nonhigh” cure for their ailments. Some are smoking highly concentrated THC oils, while others use non-psychotropic transdermal patches to alleviate their pain.

2 Post-Prohibition Medical Chocolate with Dosed Demarcations Circa 2014


BRANDING BUD

POSTPROHIBITION BRANDING

WHAT SHOULD A CANNABIS BRAND STAND FOR?

In much the same way as Post-Prohibition alcohol brands were created, so too are Post-Prohibition cannabis brands taking form. From entrepreneurs rushing in to stake their claim and those already in the business now coming out of the darkness like their bootlegging predecessors, they seek to create products that are differentiated either by their taste, efficacy, consistency, or shelf appeal. Some credit Prohibition for creating the habit of requesting liquor by brand. Supposedly, before Prohibition, people ordered their gin, Scotch, or whiskey from the bartender without specifying a brand name. During this time, there were no guarantees about what came in the bottle: poison, colored water, or wood alcohol. Accordingly, people started ordering by brand to ensure quality. Of course, that didn’t ensure anything, but it was an attempt at getting to better, more consistent quality. At the end of the 14-year Prohibition, a dormant beverage industry faced considerable challenges. How could it ramp up production to satisfy demand? What exactly was that demand? And how do the current tastes and trends relate to product desirability? These are the same questions facing cannabis brands today.

Brand essence is at the heart of this issue. In a new segment with varied regulation and split between medical and recreational use, the appeal, approach, and consumption to cannabis is as varied as those who consume it. Some brands are recreationally based while others are patient-focused and ailment-specific. Each brand packages their products in a way that appeals to their specific customer base. Companies like Mary’s Medicinals package their THC-infused transdermal patches in a discreet black and white, child-resistant package reminiscent of a Band-Aid box. Others, like Marley Natural, talk about social inequities through their charitable program, Rise Up. Regardless of the brand’s perspective, promise, or customer base, there are many approaches to this new segment. Think boxed wines versus limited vintages. Or 40-ounce bottles versus small batch, hand-crafted microbrews. Every brand has its niche. The legal cannabis industry has great momentum and is unfolding right before our eyes. How it is accepted by the general public has everything to do with how manufacturers and the government participate together to offer a consistent, safe, labeled product, taking cannabis from dime bags to dosed portions.

3 Post-Prohibition Cannabis Capsules Circa 2016

“THERE’S EVIDENCE FROM THE PREVIOUS POST-PROHIBITION MOVEMENT THAT OVER TIME (AND WITH GOVERNMENT MANDATES), COMPANIES MANUFACTURING NEW OR CONTROVERSIAL PRODUCTS WILL TAKE THE TIME TO EDUCATE THE CONSUMER ABOUT ITS PRODUCT’S CONTENTS AND POTENTIAL ADVERSE EFFECTS—OR MODIFY ITS PRODUCT TO FIT THE MARKET’S NEEDS.”

David Paleschuck, MBA, CLS is a Seattle-based writer, entrepreneur, and marketing expert. He has had a long career in marketing, branding, licensing, and partnership development. He has worked for world-class consumer brands, including American Express, MasterCard, PepsiCo, and Microsoft. He is currently writing a book called Branding Bud: The Commercialization of Cannabis, available in late 2016. Contact him at david@newleaflicensing.com.


EVENTS

DO P E EV E N T S WRITER / JENIKA MAO

CANNABIS BUSINESS SUMMIT & EXPO June 20-22 Oakland, CA

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alling all activists! About 3,000 attendees will come together this year to attend the National Cannabis Industry Association’s Cannabis Business Summit & Expo at the beautiful Oakland Marriott City Center. This event will provide an opportunity to meet policy makers and influencers who are leading and shaping the structure of our future cannabis economy. Bring your game face: this summit means business!

LaceFace Glass representing women everywhere in the glass art industry with grace and passion. Photo by Shelby Starbucks

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I Photo Courtesy of NCIA.

CANNABIS WORLD CONGRESS & BUSINESS EXPO June 15-17 New York, NY

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he Cannabis World Congress & Business Exposition, a business-to-business tradeshow, will be held in New York City for the first time ever. Sponsors and exhibitors will feature exciting new concepts and cutting-edge solutions for owners and managers working within this booming industry, while attendees will have direct access to investors and potential partners. This is one expo you don’t want to miss!

n need of a mind-blowing experience? Cornerstone Studios will be hosting an event filled with inspired artists who will be blowing beautiful glass art right before your eyes! The glass community is strengthening and looking to create more relationships, partnerships, and business opportunities. You don’t want to miss “art glass from the underground.” A word to the wise: bring your welding goggles!


CANNA-NEWS

YO U CA N’T H AV E YO U R GOAT S I N T H E GA R D E N IN N OVAT IV E BUSINESS TOOLS FOR IN D U S TRIAL-SIZED C ANNABIS FAR MS WRITER / SCOTT PEARSE

PHOTO / COURTESY OF KUBO GROUP TRiQ INC.

Matt Cohen is the founder and CEO of TRiQ systems in Bend, Ore., a company designing solutions for cultivating and harvesting cannabis at an industrial level. As the adage goes, you want to be the person selling picks and shovels during a gold rush. For Cohen, that means providing the solutions cultivators need when the average size of cannabis gardens is starting to be measured in acres.

Matt Cohen - Founder and CEO of TRiQ systems

SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODELS IN CANNABIS Cohen has been honing his skills as a cultivator for over 30 years, beginning his career in Northern California. Perceiving a loosening of laws, Cohen co-founded the Emerald Growers Association with the intention of creating a trademark for cannabis grown in the Emerald Triangle. “We wanted to create the Napa Valley of cannabis,” Cohen said. His intention was to protect the businesses created before full legalization became a reality. While Cohen advocated for branded Emerald Triangle produce to be certified sustainable, some growers would only agree to guidelines that included aspects of permaculture. Cohen knew that legalization would bring regulation. “I was saying your reality today is not really reality,” he said. “If this is going to be a real business, you have to have a payroll, meet health codes, and have wheelchair accessibility and proper

zoning. You can’t have goats walking through your garden, or those plants are going to need to be tested for E. coli. Your whole business is going to change.” Despite his best efforts, he couldn’t find a common set of cultivation guidelines that the majority of growers in the Emerald Triangle could agree on. The heritage, beauty, and name recognition of the Emerald Triangle should ensure that the area benefits from cannabis tourism, but whether it remains an area of high production is difficult to predict. “It’s not going to be a retired construction worker with 50 plants in his backyard who automatically stays in business,” he said. “You’ve got to have business acumen, be able to raise capital, manage people, and control marketing, distribution, and sales. You’re still going to have boutique companies with one or two acres for example, growing exclusively

equatorial sativas and supplying a local area like a regional microbrewery.” Regardless, if cultivators want the public to be able to buy their product, it might require putting the goats in a pen. As for the future regulatory environment, Cohen said that full legalization within five years would be likely. He also predicted that canopy restrictions would be eliminated. In a full legal environment, the closest cultivation comparison is to compare cannabis to tomatoes. “The cannabis flower market will be completely taken over by hi-tech greenhouses, just like the tomato industry,” he said. “The only tomato you can buy now that is grown outdoors is a seasonal heirloom. Indoor cannabis cultivation isn’t sustainable, it’s not cost effective, but growing outdoors offers no environmental controls.”


TR i Q | SIMPLICITY THROUGH INNOVATION Much of TRiQ’s innovations are the result of Cohen’s experiences growing in the Emerald Triangle. The first prototype of TRiQ’s drying technology was a shipping container installed with industrial dehumidifiers. However, there was no way to automate the system and the process required constant attention. His solution was the Vulcan50 Dry Curve, a system that controls the environment to reduce water activity in the plant and elongate the drying process to levy humidity before homogenizing the cannabis plants to an exact moisture content. The process is 100 percent automated. For a cultivator, the new process will be as simple as cutting down the plant, placing it on a TRiQ cart, and wheeling it into the drying chamber. Once the chamber is full, cultivators need only to close the door and push start. The system will send an email once the process is finished.

TRiQ has also developed a system of heatbased mold eradication. Working with the UC Davis Department of Plant Pathology and using innovations from the grain industry as inspiration, their research concluded that at certain temperatures it is possible to eradicate 99.9 percent of all common molds. Further research concluded that there was zero degradation to THC and CBD, and nominal degradation to volatiles like terpenes and flavonoids. Heat is typically the enemy in a drying process, but TRiQ and UC Davis found a way to keep the plant from drying out while bringing in heat and flash pasteurizing the cannabis flowers. TRiQ has also developed their own line of airtight bins to store dried product, creating a system of deferred processing. The cannabis remains fresh for up to one year, which makes it possible for cultivators to trim product as need-

ed, saving time and spreading labor throughout the year. If this all sounds like high science to the average consumer, consider that most of the food we enjoy has benefited from innovations like this for decades. It is only possible to apply industrial food techniques to cannabis and have access to university research departments due to the creation of a legitimate industry. “What people consider to be craft cultivation right now is going to become way better in a very short period of time,” Cohen said. The cannabis industry is developing at breakneck speed. How we cultivate is destined to change as well. Where traditions must change, legacy growers like Matt Cohen hold the knowledge and experience necessary to usher in a new generation of technology, methods, and cannabis businesses.

“ W H AT P E O P L E C O N S I D E R TO B E ‘ C R A F T C U LT I VAT I O N’ R I G H T N OW I S GO I N G TO B E C O M E WAY B E T T E R I N A V E R Y S H O RT P E R I O D OF TIME.”


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F E AT U R E

A DO P E T H E OR Y O F H I S TOR Y HOW WILL LEGALIZATION IMPACT OU R COLLECTIVE FUTU RE? WRITER / REILLY CAPPS

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HE RUSSIAN POET BORIS Pasternak once said, “History cannot be seen, just as one cannot see grass growing.” Well right now we’re witnessing a historic amount of grass growing, and watching our national dialogue change from prohibition into a vibrant, legal industry over the course of just a few years.

THERE IS NO CRYSTAL BALL Many overlook Boris’s warning and are quick to offer sweeping answers. Former New Yorker editor Tina Brown tweeted “…legal weed contributes to us being a fatter, dumber, sleepier nation even less able to compete with the Chinese.” The Drug Free America Foundation has made statements that cannabis will hurt the economy and cause industrial accidents. Nancy Grace thinks cannabis users kill each other as casually as they order take-out. All of this dialogue stands as proof that it’s practically impossible to spot cultural shifts before they happen. So let’s take a step back. Let’s take a look into the past and ask how other substances changed history’s course. For now, we’ll stick to two of the most impactful: booze and caffeine.

Pasternak saw both Lenin and Stalin rise and fall. He knew the difference between events and history. Surely, some events since legalization seem big, such as drops in incarceration or increases in school funding via new tax revenue. As cannabis acceptance spreads, how might history—on the grandest scale—look back on this transformation within the United States?

ALCOHOL

CAFFEINE

Alcohol is so old we don’t know what civilization looked like before it. From the beginning, it was currency and medicine, nutrition and hydration. It lowers inhibitions and brings people together, so it fueled both peace conferences and war-planning sessions. For better or worse, civilization was heavily influenced by the fermentation process. As the ages wore on, civilization itself stumbled forward, and sometimes backwards. By the middle ages, men drank beer soup for breakfast and drank until bedtime, according to the book Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol. Booze dampened farm output, expanded waistlines, and pickled ambition. For some, Europe became one big stupid frat party.

About 500 years ago, humanity got its first taste of black coffee and the world quickly changed. “Sparks shoot all the way up to the brain,” wrote French novelist Honoré de Balzac, who stayed up all night writing after drinking very strong coffee. Caffeine is considered to have stimulated the Age of Reason, the Scientific Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. The new Western economy, churning on wheels and clocks, begged for workers who were equally regulated, according to The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. Coffee helped workers arrive early and labor steadily until the end of their shift. This is as true today as the day that book was written, and coffee still greatly influences the output of employees around the world. The average amount consumed per person per day is 200 milligrams.


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COMPARISON

CANNABIS Then, about four years ago, came legal recreational cannabis. The Goldilocks of substances, according to some users. “Alcohol is too slow, caffeine is too fast,” said Michael Backes, author of Cannabis Pharmacy. “Perhaps cannabis is just right.” Unlike booze and caffeine, which have single molecules with (relatively) straightforward effects, the cannabis plant is complex: four classes of cannabinoids, 17 known terpenes, countless strains, and no research-based scientific agreement on how each of these components interacts with the others. There’s not even general agreement on how cannabis feels. For some, cannabis stokes creativity, for others it makes them feel dull. Cannabis relaxes some and unnerves others. What we do know is that cannabis is not encouraging violence. One scientific study says cannabis use is inversely correlated with domestic violence, and legalized states are seeing the rate of violent crimes decrease year after year. Cannabis is also not destroying the arts. The music of The Beatles and Bob Dylan clearly suggest that, if cannabis had never existed, we’d all still be listening to Lawrence Welk. Brain scans back this up; music sounds different when you’re high.

“HISTORY TYPICALLY MOVES IN SMALL INCREMENTS, BUT EVERY ONCE IN A WHILE A PARADIGM SHIFT OCCURS. MUCH LIKE THE FINAL ACCEPTANCE OF GALILEO’S UNIVERSE WHERE THE SUN IS AT THE CENTER, PERHAPS WE’RE CLOSE TO A REVOLUTION OF THE WAY WE THINK ABOUT CANNABIS.“

While alcohol slows your thoughts and coffee speeds them up, neither seems to change their direction. Cannabis is different. Robert Hooke experimented with cannabis around 1681 and is also the inventor of the compound microscope. Carl Sagan admits that some of his best ideas came with the help of cannabis. Cannabis seems to make thoughts zig and zag where they used to just plod straight ahead. Perhaps the most well-understood effect of cannabis is its alteration of short-term memory. Our society, like most, is founded on stories, some of which require keen concentration to follow. Religion, politics, and entertainment all rely on audience captivation to achieve, or maintain, relevancy. What might a breakdown of storytelling do to social cohesion, church attendance, party affiliation, and orthodoxy in general? Cannabis does sensitize users to subtle changes in sights, sounds, and vibrations. You might stare out the window a little bit longer, listen intently to the thrum of a bass line, or notice your heart beating. It’s possible that a high person might stare out a window a few minutes longer than a drunk person or a coffee drinker would. (They might get restless or distracted.) Might smokers, staring longer, notice a few tiny things that they wouldn’t have without cannabis? Might they hear, for example, fewer small birds and notice the increase of fat, prowling housecats? Maybe tune into tiny earthquakes, or perhaps take note of the oil rig fracking next door? Or, dare we say it, notice the temperature while outside on another one of our record-breaking summer days? Cannabis consumers may never become a part of history—they might act as predicted by right-wing zealots and simply sit and watch TV into perpetuity. History typically moves in small increments, but every once in a while a paradigm shift occurs. Much like the final acceptance of Galileo’s universe where the sun is at the center, perhaps we’re close to a revolution of thinking that opens our global community to a new way of living. Only time will tell.


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A LI O N ’S LEGACY TH E MARLEY MANTRA AND TH E AGE OF LEGAL CANNABIS

WRITER / MEGHAN RIDLEY

PHOTOS / DEVIN CHRISTOPHER

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CURATED BY / DAVID A. PALESCHUCK, MBA, CLS

HEN VISITING THE HOME of Cedella Marley, there is an immediate awareness of the presence of a powerful legacy. After all, being the firstborn daughter of Bob and Rita Marley warrants a formidable energy. Placing her in the room to talk business with Tahira Rehmatullah is proof that this legacy is in a skilled set of hands that seek to further solidify the Marley family name. From roots to brands to rising up, these two are the commanding forces leading the Marley legacy into the world of legal cannabis.


C O V E R F E AT U R E

Marley Natural’s Green, Gold Red & Black premium cannabis is crafted with deep respect for Bob Marley’ s legacy and belief in the positive potential of cannabis to heal and inspire.

ROOTED IN HIGH ER EDUCATION

Left to right: Tahira Rehmatullah and

Cedella Marley, Bob Marley’s daughter.

The Black Walnut Collection is made from

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Both from closely knit families and communities, Rehmatullah and Marley bring formative voices to the emerging world of a legal cannabis industry. When it comes to Cedella Marley, this movement resides in her DNA. Pointing out that she is the daughter of Bob Marley is as equally obvious as it is difficult to fathom. With a deeply rooted perspective and wise nonchalance, she commented on her upbringing. “Cannabis has been present in my life since I was a child,” she said. “I saw it used in many ways, for healing, for products, and for personal spirituality.” The daughter of a surgeon and part of the only Pakistani family in their community, for Rehmatullah, cannabis posed an interesting dichotomy growing up. “I grew up in a very traditional Pakistani-American family in Ohio, where cannabis was certainly prevalent but not really a part of my life. In Pakistan, cannabis is very common, but no one really looks twice at it,” Rehmatullah said. “I come from a family that very much believes in natural medicine, so I quickly developed an appreciation for the possibility that cannabis could positively impact people’s lives.”

Prior to her graduation from Yale School of Management, Rehmatullah worked in the private business sector. However, it wasn’t long until her philanthropic side took the wheel and she began working on the development of sustainable housing markets, what she referred to as “utilizing private capital for public good.” Soon thereafter Rehmatullah found herself wrestling with a new professional endeavor: legal cannabis. The inspiration behind this shift was her grandfather’s diagnosis of cancer and her mother’s caretaking of him during his illness. “I navigated my way to this industry because of that,” Rehmatullah said. “I really was fascinated by it. And confused why there wasn’t more being done around it for medicinal purposes and people in pain. But [I was] also thinking through social justice issues and how cannabis has unfairly targeted certain populations. And then I came across this emerging industry—right time, right place. There were so many different things that I was passionate about and never knew how they could possibly roll up into one job or one industry—and then I found cannabis.”


C O V E R F E AT U R E

BRANDING REVOLUTIONS AND REVOLUTIONIZING BRANDS

Cedella Marley’s exposure to the far-reaching capacity of artistry is a major piece of the puzzle in building the Marley Natural cannabis brand. “We were very blessed to learn the art of performance and the music business from our parents,” Cedella said. “They taught us our work ethic and talents could be used far more than our own personal success but also to serve humanity. We are blessed to be a blessing for others. This project reflects those values with the hopes of helping many.” She further elaborated on the pillars of the Marley Natural brand. “One of our goals is to bring forth the many benefits of cannabis. More importantly, we hope brands, companies, and people will begin to follow Marley Natural’s lead and use hemp as a sustainable material and of course as a health food. Like our father, we want to live a natural life, utilizing what the earth has provided.” Nonetheless, together Marley and Rehmatullah have their work cut out for them in ensuring that the Marley Natural brand is a proper reflection of the Marley family legacy. “We hope our platform will further our father’s lifestyle of utilizing the earth to heal,” Cedella said. “More importantly, we hope to see positive change in the decriminalization of cannabis and economic reform for many of the poorest areas of the world.”

RISING UP The notion of rising up—whether a literal definition of a growing plant or a figurative representation of a response to oppression—is an integral piece of the Marley mantra. Cedella is confident that the legacy ultimately transcends music or cannabis. “To me, the greatest element of the Marley legacy is unity, empathy, and love—for family, of humanity, and for the planet,” Cedella said. “We are all a part of this universe and the actions we take as individuals impact all of us. We aim to further our father’s message and hope for collective freedom and justice for all.” While this spirit is a foundational piece to the Marley legacy, current philanthropic programs within the Marley Natural brand prove to back up the talk with a socially conscious walk. As Rehmatullah described, the philanthropic program Rise Up aims to give back to the Jamaican population that is in many ways

The Marley Natural body care line offers naturally derived formulas that blend the moisturizing power of hemp seed oil with Jamaican botanicals.

the foundation of the Marley Natural brand. Here, pillars of economic empowerment, environmental sustainability, and undoing the harms of prohibition keep the social justice movement aligned. As far as their stateside philanthropic endeavors, their recent partnership with Defy Ventures involves collaboration on an entrepreneurship training and employment program aimed at assisting formerly incarcerated individuals. Indeed, the work at Marley Natural is never done. Ultimately, the work being done to simultaneously preserve and grow the Marley legacy is less of a business plan and more of a cultural movement. As one of the most influential individuals of all time, Bob Marley embodies a kinship with the world that is unbreakable. “Kinship to me is a sense of connection to others based on values and goals,” Cedella said. “That message of One Love is reflected in everything I do, from choosing to serve as a voice for initiatives that seek to assist women out of poverty to producing product lines in all of the Marley family brands that are made of sustainable materials. Who we are infuses all that we do.”

“THEY TAUGHT US OUR WORK ETHIC AND TALENTS COULD BE USED FAR MORE THAN OUR OWN PERSONAL SUCCESS BUT ALSO TO SERVE HUMANITY. WE ARE BLESSED TO BE A BLESSING FOR OTHERS. THIS PROJECT REFLECTS THOSE VALUES WITH THE HOPES OF HELPING MANY.”


I N T E RV I EW

I N T E RV I EW W I T H J O S H UA H AU P T AUTHOR OF THREE A LIGHT WRITER / MEGAN RUBIO

PHOTO / PONO PUBLICATIONS


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DOPE: In your book, you use a technique that is not familiar to many growers. How does the Schwazze work? J.H. (Joshua Haupt): After you’ve flipped you’re plants to flower, on Day 1 all large fan leaves should be removed. This happens again at Day 20. What happens when you remove all of the fan leaves from the plant, is that you’re essentially removing all of the micro and macro nutrients that typically help produce flowers. At the same time, you’re also refocusing the plant’s energy. As long as the micro/macro nutrients get replaced in the feed line, you’re good to do that fan leaf removal. DOPE: The nutrient line you use is one you created on your own. How and why did you create your nutrients? J.H.: You know, we didn’t start work on the nutrient line until 8 months into the book. We realized that we were using all sorts of nutrients in ways not specified by the label in order to achieve the right balance of macro and micro nutrients whenever we did the Schwazze on our plants. This line was created by growers, for growers, where as most nutrient lines are not cannabis specific. I couldn’t endorse anyone else’s nutrients, so I built my own. The products were developed with the aid of an agricultural chemist, to be using in combination with the Schwazze process.

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DOPE: The removal of the fan leaves seems like it can be a pretty labor-intensive job. How demanding is this process? J.H.: It’s incredibly intensive. But the good news is that it downplays your harvest big time. After the Day 20 Schwazze, it makes your harvest that much easier because you’re just kind of harvesting a bunch of nugs at that point. You may have to trim some sugar leaves, but that’s about it. DOPE: In most grows, trimming doesn’t occur until after drying and curing. With your process, you don’t do any trimming after the product has dried. Is it fair to say that you’ve just reallocated labor hours? You’re putting in more labor during the flowering process, instead of putting in the labor after the product has dried. J.H.: Of course! More importantly, it compensates in the end because you cannot achieve the same output that we like to see with our flowers and trichomes with post-curing trimmed product. DOPE: What do you have to say to people who are skeptical of your processes? J.H.: There’s a lot of people who call us and say they don’t believe us, or accuse us of being deceptive, but in Colorado, you pay taxes per pound on cannabis. It makes no sense for us to inflate the numbers, only to pay increased taxes on product that doesn’t exist. It costs us $400 per pound. But I get that people might be skeptical. I say the same thing to everyone though. Don’t believe me, come see it for yourself!

PHOTO / KRISTEN ANGELO DIRECTION: MALINA LOPEZ

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DOPE: Who do you think this book will appeal to? Do you have a target audience? J.H.: This book was built pretty much for anyone. It’s purpose is to teach people how to grow cannabis, from A to Z. There’s a lot of cannabis books out there, for sure, but hardly any that encompass the whole process. Not only are we teaching people how to grow, but how to get results 200% higher than average. For those who purchase our book, we have a customer service line dedicated to answering questions and providing guidance to growers who want to implement these techniques. DOPE: How long would you say it took you to dial in the technique? J.H.: So the guy I learned from had grown for about 15 years, and he learned from someone who had been growing for about 20 years. There’s at least 35-40 years worth of experience in the book.

“THERE’S A LOT OF CANNABIS BOOKS OUT THERE, FOR SURE, BUT HARDLY ANY THAT ENCOMPASS THE WHOLE PROCESS. WE ARE TEACHING PEOPLE HOW TO GROW AND HOW TO GET RESULTS 200% HIGHER THAN AVERAGE.”


R OA D T R I P

P ORT L A N D H EALING COMMU NITIES WRITER & PHOTO / SHARON LETTS

PRISM HOUSE: A PLACE FOR PEOPLE

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AKE AWAY THE STATE lines between California and Oregon, and you basically have the United State of the North Coast. Those familiar with the North Coast mindset know what it means to live locally and sustainably for the health of the community and the environment. As a major city, Portland is no stranger to sustainability. In 1993, the city was the first in the country to publish a climate action plan, further reducing its carbon footprint by 29 percent since the 1990s. In 2011, the city stepped up its garbage and recycling programs, resulting in a reduction of landfills by nearly 40 percent. The Solarize Portland campaign even surpassed its own goal of adding 10 megawatts a year. Ironically, when the state legalized cannabis, more healing happened instead of more people getting wasted, as is the popular misconception. Medicine makers feel comfortable to share, farmers get redeemed, and patients arrive in droves from illegal states to be healed.

Samantha and Chris Montanaro came to Portland two years ago for this very reason, as Sam suffers from arthritis. They made the trek from Chicago, where Samantha ran the School of Rock in Evanston, a performance program for kids. “We are hobbyists,” she laughs, with a broad, infectious smile. “My husband’s into woodworking. He just built a boat in the basement!” The announcement of the boat’s completion meets howls of laughter around the couple’s large dining room table, where some of Portland’s finest women in weed are gathered for a crafting event in the couple’s home, which they now call Prism House. The craft at hand is a beaded necklace with a roach clip as the centerpiece. The women in attendance are from every walk of life within the cannabis industry. The boat in the basement represents the North Coast’s hands-on approach to everything sustainable. It also represents the couple’s intention of living life to the fullest, Portlandia style. “There’s an island we want to camp on, but you can only get to it by boat,” Samantha laughs. The couple came to Oregon for the freedom to medicate with the plant, but they also found an entirely new life. “We wanted to create a space where we could do everything we want to, in an environment that’s friendly to my cannabis use as medicine,” Samantha shares. “Life is so much better when I can freely medicate in a legal state. This house is a blessing for us.”


UMBRELLA OF OPPORTUNITY Swell Companies Limited representative Miranda Keenen’s journey to Portland reads like a novel, with every page turned leading her to Portland. “My boyfriend has a dab extraction company and at the lowest point in my career he asked me to fill caps in an assembly line production,” she says. “The company is co-owned by three young men and they needed a woman to add warmth and compassion to the business, asking me to help.” Swell has one farm that’s been Clean Green certified and is in the process of buying another. They grow and sell cannabis, but they also broker and market material and products for other farmers. Its extraction arm is the largest in Portland, but most of its business is done through word of mouth. “We are a big company with a small business feeling,” Keenen explains. The umbrella concept gives power and safety in numbers against the ever-changing battle of ordinances.

COMING TOGETHER FOR THE GREATER GOOD Prism House is a networker’s goldmine, filled with some of Portland’s most connected cannabis professionals. Jen Heduyma and her husband came to Portland from Montana. Initially in an apartment, the two slept in the living room and had a small, medicinal grow in the bedroom. Today, they are looking to expand their operations under the moniker Pacific Craft Gardens. They’ll breed six strains, including the popular Cinex. “It’s great for daytime social situations!” Heduyma laughs, thoroughly enjoying her own handiwork rolled in a perfect fatty. “We provide all the flower to smoke for Samantha’s gatherings. This other strain is Jillybean—a mix of Orange Velvet crossed with Space Queen,” she says as she passes another pre-roll around the table. Titrate CEO Deanna Patamia says her company sponsors “YoGanja” sessions at Prism House. Titrate creates micro-dosed smoking

oils, blending terpenes from other beneficial plants into the mix. Herbal mixtures in Titrate’s lineup are named after assumed effects. For example, Serene has a stimulating mixture of citrus, and Sexy is infused with a sweetly stimulating floral bouquet. Laura Rivera is a newbie to Portland from Flagstaff, Ariz. After running cultivation for one of Arizona’s top dispensaries, she and her partner were offered positions at Yerba Buena in Hillsborough, a region known for its vineyards. Yerba Buena operates a 15,000-squarefoot greenhouse, licensed with the state for recreation. “Hillsborough is a really nice area and the farm is beautiful,” Rivera shares. “We’ve been through a few medicinal runs and are just starting up with a recreational license to get ready to go into flower.”


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“IT’S AS IF THE GODDESS OF GANJA IS COMING THROUGH AND INFILTRATING EVERYTHING YOU DO. AFTER BEING AROUND THE PLANT ALL THESE YEARS, SEEING ITS GOODNESS FLOWERING LIKE THIS IS VERY INSPIRING!” HEATHER BERRY

IN OUR LIFETIME Heather Berry has been a healer involved in bodywork for many years. She and her daughter Sage came to Portland from Southern California just two years ago for the lifestyle Portland offers. Sage is co-owner of a clothing line called Mind Honey. She also teaches yoga, while her mom teaches Reiki. Together they are creating a studio space with an earthen floor in their home in Southeast Portland. Now in her late 50s, Heather admits the plant has been part of her life for 40 years. Though it did not bring her to Oregon, she’s amazed at the progression from rec to meds in her lifetime. “It’s so incredible to hear all of you living your dreams,” she observes. “The lack of ego in this group of women is wonderful.” Another woman in the group added that knowledge of cannabis as medicine has helped the healing community in the city come together for the greater good—and that’s very Portlandia. Heather agrees. “It’s as if the Goddess of Ganja is coming through and infiltrating everything you do. After being around the plant all these years, seeing its goodness flowering like this is very inspiring!” “See, it’s an art form and medicine,” Samantha says. She smiles her broad smile, placing her new necklace around her neck and inserting a burning roach into the clip.


BUSINESS

T H E C H A L L E N GE P R E S E N T E D BY H E R M A P H RO D I T I C P L A N T S HOW CANNABIS MORPHOLOGY IMPACTS BUSINESS WRITER / MEGAN RUBIO

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N THE PROCESS OF growing cannabis, a variety of issues can arise that impact the health of the plant, ranging from physical stress to pests and pathogens. However, one of the more complicated issues to address while cultivating cannabis is hermaphroditism.

THE QUEST FOR POLLINATION Hermaphroditism can only occur in dioecious plants, which require a male and female to be present in order to reproduce. Female cannabis plants produce bud sites, while male cannabis plants produce pollen sacks. If there are male plants and female plants both flowering in the same grow room, the males will likely pollinate the females, which will then cause the females to start focusing all their energy on producing seeds. If an isolated female plant is predisposed genetically, is under stress, or is not pollinated as she reaches the end of her lifecycle, she will release a hormone that triggers the formation of male plant parts for the sake of self-pollination. The characteristics of hermaphroditism require a trained eye to spot, as the appearance of a small, pale green or yellow plant part on the bud tip is the only early warning sign. These growths are referred to as “bananas” due to the resemblance and are not harmful to the crop as long as they are swiftly plucked and not allowed to mature. Once one plant begins to change, hormones can trigger nearby plants to do the same. If left unchecked, this fundamental transformation to the plant’s structure can permanently impair the development of buds within days. Environmental stressors increase the risk of hermaphroditism significantly, especially if there is more than one stressor impacting the plant. Changes to the photoperiod, excess heat or cold, late harvest, drought or overwatering, physical damage to roots or stalks, pest infestations, over fertilization, and contamination are all factors that help induce hermaphroditism.


BUSINESS

“ T H E C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S O F H E R M A P H RO D I T I S M R E QU I R E A T R A I N E D E Y E TO S P OT, AS T H E A P P E A R A N C E O F A S M A L L , PA L E G R E E N O R Y E L LOW P L A N T PA RT O N T H E B U D T I P I S T H E O N LY E A R LY WA R N I N G S I G N. ”

HOW BUSINESSES CAN REDUCE RISK When hermaphroditism occurs, the farmer has three choices—remove the plants, hand prune each changing bud until harvest, or simply hope for the best. Once multiple plants have begun to grow male flowers, the most effective means of crop preservation is removing the affected plants entirely. If the problem has reached a point where sacks are releasing pollen, growers can lightly mist the affected plants with water. Pollen spores fall to the ground or stick to the plant itself, rendering them temporarily immobile. Additional spores will be continuously produced, and misting will need to occur daily. Cannabis plants are wind pollinated, so it is crucial to limit fan use if hermaphroditism is present in your garden. It is likely that the cured bud from a hermaphroditic plant will be less dense and contain seeds, taking away from the amount of consumable product. In the world of retail cannabis, it’s rare to find seeds in flower that has made it to the shelves. When seeds are found, it does not reflect well on the grower. It can significantly impact their ability to build up their brand as well as establish and retain retail clients. For more information on hermaphroditism in cannabis, read Marijuana Horticulture: The Indoor/Outdoor Medical Grower’s Bible.


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BAC K TO BAS I C S H EALTHY PLANTS, H EFTY YIELDS WRITER / DAVID BAILEY

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PROBLEM LARGE ENOUGH to bring down an entire room, no matter the square footage, is rarely a freak accident. We’ve all heard stories of a fire from a brand new lamp or a bottle of nutrients that must have been pH-balanced incorrectly, but in reality, human error plays a more significant role than a manufacturer’s defect when damage occurs. Knowing your space and understanding the science behind cannabis cultivation can give even a novice grower the foundation they need to enter our growing industry. It’s no coincidence that cannabis growers, farmers, and horticultural graduates share an understanding of plant care basics. Elevating the health of a cannabis plant to an expert level requires an understanding of the mechanisms that keep a plant alive. Consistent photoperiods and watering, grow space cleanliness, and integrated pest management are three main factors in ensuring a healthy plant and a hefty yield. Watering is one of the most time-consuming and crucial of all daily garden functions. The physical rigidity of the plant itself and the bioactivity of the rhizosphere is dependent on intentional watering practices. When using soil, the plant isn’t the only living thing that you nourish when watering. Fungi and bacteria that live symbiotically with cannabis plants are as sensitive as the root system. Anything from a brief drought, to a rapid change in pH, to incorrectly mixed nutri-


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ents can cause an imbalance that will permanently affect those microorganisms and crop yields. The best way to think of your soil is as a large, damp sponge. If you water too quickly, or your sponge is too dry, water will run off the surface. When the soil is evenly moist—not wet—the plant and the root zone can exchange available nutrients. Like watering, cleanliness and pest management are fundamental components of any garden. Before you know it, small amounts of plant debris, trimmings, empty bottles, and spilled nutrients can turn into mold spores and homes for pests. An outbreak of botrytis might seem harmless in the vegetative stage, but when flowering, it becomes a significant concern. Alongside regular cleaning, an integrated plan to protect plants from pests, and harmful molds and mildews is critical. Chemical pesticides have been a popular choice for growers over the years, but ecological and health concerns are becoming more important as time goes on. Biological pest management, such as purchasing ladybugs to eat aphids, is an earth-friendly alternative that can be less costly and equally as effective as spraying with chemicals when used correctly. These days, many grow rooms run themselves, at least in part. Technological advances have completely changed the way we grow our agricultural crops, cannabis included. As easy as it is to blame a compost blend for root aphids or low water retention, it’s the focus on overall plant health that creates quality herb. Steady watering and pre-emptive planning against pests and molds will guarantee you get the most out of each crop.

“PURCHASING LADYBUGS TO EAT APHIDS IS AN EARTHFRIENDLY ALTERNATIVE THAT CAN BE LESS COSTLY AND EQUALLY AS EFFECTIVE.”


A N A LY T I C S

C H RO N I C BOO M COLORADO CANNABIS SALES SHATTER PREVIOUS BENCHMARKS WRITER / ROY BINGHAM BDS ANALYTICS

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OLORADO CANNABIS DISPENSARIES continue to roar ahead this year, generating $181 million in January and February, a 36 percent increase over the same period in 2015. Year-over-year sales boosts in any industry is something to celebrate, and these cannabis increases are dramatic. Time to celebrate? You bet it is. According to data provided by Boulder-based BDS Analytics, a firm that tracks retail cannabis sales from point-of-sale data and provides market trend data to dispensaries, grows, and producers, the greatest contributors to growth were concentrates, up 101 percent to $41 million, and infused edibles, which rose 58 percent to $20 million. Flower gained 19 percent to gross $105 million. Although flower still dominated market share with 58 percent of all cannabis sales, its relatively slower growth rate brought shares down from 66 percent in January and February 2015. Concentrates gobbled up that space, rising from 16 percent last year to 23 percent this year. The category differences are even starker in unit and price terms. Flower sales by the gram rose just 10 percent, while concentrate packaged units rose 128 percent. The average retail selling price per gram of flower rose 9 percent to $7.39 in the last year, while concentrate prices fell 12 percent to $30.82 per packaged unit. Shatter, prefilled cartridges, and wax account for 68 percent of concentrate sales so far this year, and together their price grew 127 percent over January and February 2015. A variety of brands drove concentrates’ tremendous growth. BDS Analytics’ data shows 76 brands with concentrate sales in Colorado dispensaries year-to-date through February 2016, up from 49 brands one year ago. The top-selling brand grew 175 percent from last year to claim 13 percent of concentrates’ market share. Five of this year’s top 20 concentrates brands had no sales last January and February. Of the 15 brands that did have sales last year, 11 saw at least triple-digit growth this year.

“THE GREATEST CONTRIBUTORS TO GROWTH WERE CONCENTRATES, UP 101 PERCENT TO $41 MILLION, AND INFUSED EDIBLES, WHICH ROSE 58 PERCENT TO $20 MILLION.”


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TECHNOLOGY

TH E PROC E SS AN D APPLICATION S OF CANNABINOID DISTILL ATES WRITER / BIANCA FOX

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SCIENTIST PEERS DEEPLY into the eyes of a cannabis connoisseur and whispers, “This is not for beginners.” Pupils dilate and adrenaline rushes. What is this magical potion? Interest piques at an alltime high, because distillates—pure cannabinoid concentrates—are being discussed. For the familiar friend of the plant, the next move is clear. The keyword, of course, being “clear.” The distillate reputation precedes itself. The distilled total cannabinoid potency can go above 99 percent. Most hydrocarbon or CO2-extracted concentrates range between 65 and 80 percent. Additionally, the scent and flavors of extracts can be undesirable in many products because of excess lipids, plant matter, and impurities that need further purification. Molecular distillation is the future. “The applications for distillates in the cannabis and hemp markets are literally endless,” said Nenad Yashruti, co-founder of Root Sci-

PHOTO / COURTESY OF HAMILTON FORO

ences. “From the medical patient to the recreational consumer, concentrates of this purity, potency, and consistency will be the cornerstone of future cannabis consumption.” The term that describes this production process is “short path distillation.” “Root Sciences is the exclusive North American distributor for VTA in the cannabis industry,” added Hamilton Foro, a principal at Root Sciences. VTA, a German company, is the leading global manufacturer of distillation equipment. They contracted Root Sciences because of their vast knowledge with molecular separation, specifically with cannabis. Very few companies have that type of expertise due to the global restrictions in processing THC. Until now, few have bridged the gap between cannabis and distillation. “Extraction, which is a primary process done to convert the plant matter into a concentrated mixture, has been performed for two decades,”

said Cory Balma, a principal at Root Sciences and processing engineer for Bare Concentrates, a distillate-based brand and processor in Washington. “However, the purity of extraction is far inferior and has limited uses compared to a pure distillate.” By having access to licensed legal processors in the state of Washington, VTA and Root Sciences are able to provide their clients with valuable product capabilities. “From edibles to vape cartridges and dab oils, the endless uses provide for massive business opportunities for anyone that jumps on this technology,” Yashruti said. “Gone will be the days of making shatter or sugar concentrates that have to be individually weighed, packaged, and processed. With distillate being in a liquid form, automation in the concentrate and edible market will be the clear winner. As more competitors pile into this industry, the lack of automation will be terminal.”


TECHNOLOGY

THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS The molecular distillation process occurs solely through specific, proprietary technology. The process uses a very high force vacuum to be able to distill cannabis oil or any other product at a much lower temperature. In the case of cannabis, there is a very high boiling point for cannabinoids. This is where utilizing the correct technology and process allows the manufacturer to distill the cannabinoids at a much lower temperature. By using the wiped film short path distillation process that Root Sciences is making available to the market, one can distill the cannabinoids at temperatures well below their atmospheric boiling point. Due to VTA’s equipment, “residence time” (the amount of time the substance is exposed to heat as it travels through the evaporator) is reduced to a minimum. The more powerful the vacuum, the lower the temperature that is required to cause the substance to vaporize.

“Due to a short residence time, thermal degradation is greatly limited, leaving a shelf-stable product,” said Foro. “There are several less complex ways of doing distillation that look great initially, but change color. Our method of distillation doesn’t have this problem.” Few manufacturing systems are able to achieve this process. Certain companies market themselves as “short path distillation,” yet they are unable to achieve high levels of vacuum and their heat systems are not designed to process a substance as unique as a cannabinoid. Cannabinoids’ high boiling point results in a very high viscosity, or thickness. The system must be designed to cope with a very viscous substance, honey for example, or cannabinoids in their purest form. In their purest forms, CBD is crystallized, but THC is a very thick substance. It must be handled and processed with care and skill to refine efficiently. VTA is Root Sciences’ company of choice:

a uniquely qualified manufacturing system that can refine cannabis oil properly. As the cannabis and hemp markets mature, this technology could become the standard process for all CBD and THC concentrates. Bare Concentrates achieved 94.5 percent THC and over 99 percent total cannabinoids when tested by Steep Hill Labs in Washington. As an I-502 processor, Bare Concentrates is developing all of its product lines using distillates produced by VTA’s short path units. “When you make infused cookies, you want them to taste like cookies, not like marijuana,” said Balma. “Our vape cartridges and dab oils are already some of the purest and best tasting products on the market. We are just scratching the surface of the thousands of product lines that can be made with distillates.”

“WHEN YOU MAKE INFUSED COOKIES, YOU WANT THEM TO TASTE LIKE COOKIES, NOT LIKE MARIJUANA.” -CORY BALMA


CANNA-NEWS

CA N NA L AW TH E MEDICAL MARKET & RECREATIONAL LEGALIZATION WRITER / KELLY VO

D

ECIDING HOW TO CAST a vote can be as difficult as choosing between your two favorite strains. While no official measure has yet to make it to the ballot, at this stage of state-wide legalization, avoiding the vote isn’t a sensible option for cannabis advocates. Too much is at stake for those who will be affected by changes to the law in California. When it comes to voting for the legalization of cannabis in the state, the most important thing an individual can do is stay informed. DOPE Magazine is here to help those voting better understand the situation and the impact of recreational legalization.

THE MEDICAL CANNABIS MARKET & LEGALIZATION If you’ve watched the legalization of cannabis in Colorado and Washington, you know that it was fraught with issues. It’s not a simple matter to combine two markets with similar products, but different governing bodies and unique goals. “In states such as Washington and Colorado, unregulated medical markets have led recreational businesses to lobby against their medical counterparts, arguing it is unfair for them to compete with the medical market when they are more heavily regulated and taxed,” shared Tiffany Wu, an attorney at Harris Moure. “This may not become an issue in California where we just passed the Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act (MMRSA) to regulate and tax our current medical market. However, it’s very important that any recreational effort take into account California’s existing and future medical marijuana systems to combine their interests in serving medical patients and recreational consumers, and avoid problems down the road.” The good news is, “California has the good fortune of going after those two states, so we’ve been able to be very intentional about the challenges of medical and recreational marijuana,” added Lynne Lyman, the California state director for the Drug Policy Alliance.


CANNA-NEWS

“PROHIBITING MARIJUANA HAS HAD DEVASTATING CONSEQUENCES IN OUR COUNTRY AND ACROSS THE WORLD. SO WHY NOT TRY SOMETHING ELSE?” LYNN LYMAN ASKED.

“We’ve set up California so that there will still be a medical system and a recreational system, and they’ll both be regulated in the same framework,” she stated. By governing all cannabis under the same regime, both the medical and recreational markets will better be able to work together to serve all individuals. At this point, the plan is for California to increase the requirements for patients looking to get a medical card, ensuring that only those who truly need it receive the tax exemption. In this way the medical market will shrink, while the recreational market will open up the use of cannabis to an entirely new community of individuals. “Currently, there are a lot of us who get our medical cannabis recommendation because it’s the only way we can get marijuana legally,” Lyman said, “But if it’s a choice between a higher threshold for medical cannabis and no taxes versus getting it recreationally without hoops, I think a lot of us will choose recreational.” The key is creating appropriate guidelines. The interests of both medical and recreational users should be considered, and neither side should be condemned or pushed aside. “Since we do not know what recreational initiatives will make the ballot, and we see MMRSA rules that are still getting shaped and changed (as well as challenged in the courts), we are likely going to have to wait before we can tell the true effects,” said Tomer Grassiany, CEO of The Art of Edibles. That’s why it’s so important that each resident do their homework about each of the recreational legalization initiatives. Make sure that before you sign your name, you know what you’re voting for.

WHAT DOES THE VOTE LOOK LIKE FOR YOU? If no official recreational initiatives have made it onto the ballot, including the Adult Use of Marijuana Act, the advice DOPE Magazine has to offer is to vote for legalization in any form. “I would quote Albert Einstein, ‘The definition of insanity is doing something again and again in the same way, and expecting a different result,’” Lyman said. “That is what we’ve done with marijuana prohibition and prohibition in general in this country. Prohibiting marijuana has had devastating consequences in our country and across the world. So why not try something else?” The only way to change how cannabis is viewed and managed is to first change the laws that keep it hidden from the public eye. Even if the new legalized market isn’t perfect, once it’s out in the open we can begin to adjust the rules as needed. “Just because an initiative has the word legalization in the name does not mean that it’s not a form of prohibition masked as legalization,” warned Grassiany. “And be realistic, finding the ‘perfect’ initiative is not likely to happen. Weigh the pros and cons of each bill before making a decision.” “The best thing you can do as a voter is to become informed about the facts. Do your research and use any resources at your disposal,” stated Wu, “but most importantly, do get out and vote, that’s the only way your voice can be heard.”


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CANNA-NEWS

T H E DA R K S I D E O F CA N NA B I S DISCOVERING TH E U NKNOWN SCIENCE OF CANNABIS WITHDRAWAL AND ADDICTION WRITER / DAVID HODES

A

T THE 2016 SPECIAL Session of the United Nations General Assembly on the World Drug Problem (UNGASS), one Colorado mother and teacher tearfully claimed that cannabis was causing more traffic accidents, more emergency room visits, and even overdoses that were killing people in her state. She’s not alone in her claims about the evils of cannabis. Studies including cannabis in mental health disorders have grown. The 2013 edition of the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders” by the American Psychiatric Association contains definitions for three cannabis-related disorders not included in previous editions of the manual: cannabis intoxication, cannabis use disorder, and cannabis withdrawal. Labeling and quality control issues that can result in harmful use of cannabis remain to be

GRAPHICS / NARISSA PHETHEAN

resolved. People are also adulterating products to boost sales in dispensaries. In some cases, glass crystals were mixed with cannabis to make the trichomes sparkle to indicate a higher THC value. All cannabis consumers, especially medical patients, need better science to help understand how and when to use cannabis, and the signs of possible addiction or abuse. “Cannabis is a drug of abuse and we have good science that demonstrates that,” Ryan Vandrey, Ph.D. and associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “It fits the profile of all of the other drugs of abuse in terms of people having withdrawal symptoms when they want to quit.” “I think there is a segment of the population that has difficulty with cannabis,” said Marcel

Bonn-Miller, the laboratory director for the Department of Veterans Affairs Substance & Anxiety Intervention Laboratory. “They need a voice just as much as anyone else and [need to] know that there are treatments available.” He said that primarily what they have seen are behavioral symptoms. “There is strong evidence for decreased appetite and pervasive sleep problems during discontinuation of use,” he said. “Most symptoms happen within the first week of quitting. But there are some that continue on for a period of a month or more, like problems with sleep.” Bonn-Miller added that there has been a sharp increase in the problematic use of cannabis with PTSD users since 2009. “We are seeing that with other drugs as well, but there has been an exponential rise in cannabis use problems.” Researchers are discovering that there’s


CANNA-NEWS

“IN SOME CASES, GLASS CRYSTALS WERE MIXED WITH CANNABIS TO MAKE THE TRICHOMES SPARKLE TO INDICATE A HIGHER THC VALUE.”

more to consider about cannabis even as the industry rushes forward with new ways of ingesting it. “There is no shortage of surprises when it comes to cannabis research,” said Jahan Marcu, Ph.D., senior scientist at Americans for Safe Access. With the science of cannabis still in the discovery stage, the rising use of concentrates and dabs is a growing concern for researchers. “With super concentrated amounts of cannabis, it’s really like flooding your system,” Marcu said. There is no evidence that anyone has died from a toxic overdose, but Marcu still advises users to “tread lightly.” Humans have experimented with cannabis in an extracted or concentrated form like hashish throughout history. “But even when Egyptians were using it, they had positive and negative

words for cannabis,” Marcu said. “It was both a healer and soul stealer.” “People have mutations in their cannabinoid receptors that are associated with drug dependency, drug tolerance, anxiety, and other disorders”, Marcu said. To find out what that means to cannabis consumers, research is being conducted in other countries to track how people react to cannabis over several years. “With more analytical equipment, we might find out that there is more than one type of THC with different types of potency, which has tremendous implications, especially for labeling,” Marcu said. “It could even be an inactive form of THC.” People may be experiencing adverse reactions to cannabis because of a rare cannabinoid either not discovered or not completely

understood, he elaborated. “This is something to keep in mind as new formulations are developed and new compounds are investigated,” Marcu said. “They may not behave as we normally think they should because some random cannabinoid was created as a result of bacterial metabolism. So we have to monitor these new cannabinoids that are popping up.” Bonn-Miller said that the science is behind in terms of understanding the addiction potential of concentrates. “If I had to guess, I think the use of dabs and those other things might lead to greater rates of addiction,” he said. “That’s why we need to keep tracking use and making sure we are on top of it.”


AC T I V E

CULT I VATI N G A ZEN MI N D S E T

I

WRITER / SCOTT PEARSE

’M CURRENTLY CRANKING DOWN the West Coast on the DOPE Magazine bicycle tour on a route that will take me from Seattle to Los Angeles, a distance of over 1,400 miles and 52,000 feet of elevation gained (and lost). Nobody said this was going to be easy, but I’ve realized to finish a tour all you need are working legs and the motivation to keep cycling. Cycling is the best option to get a sense of a place while traveling. In a car, you can zip through a whole state without having to stop at all. You can certainly see some interesting and hardto-reach places on foot, but to cover a whole state could take months. A good day in cycle touring is traveling over 50 miles, and if you get a tailwind and the weather is nice, it’s easy enough to do 70. When the weather is against you, sometimes 15 is all you can manage, but you do what you can. If that sounds a little Zen, then consider I’ve been spending five hours a day cycling to cultivate this mindset. I’ve got some exciting and interesting people to meet during this adventure. I’m going to be speaking with John Bai-

zley from the band Baroness about their tour to find out which is more physically demanding: a rock ’n’ roll tour or a cycle tour. I’ll also be speaking with scientists about mapping the cannabis genome, and then I’ll spend the evening in 420-friendly accommodations through the website Bud and Breakfast. I’ll be featuring canna-businesses, profiling canna-folks, and hunting canna-culture wherever it’s hiding. Therefore, to keep the pedals turning, I need words of encouragement from our readers on my Instagram account @DOPEbicycletour. The journey will also be documented in stories, photos, and video at the DOPE Bicycle Tour website, dopemagazine.com/dopebicycletour. If you’d like get involved in Scott’s journey, follow @DOPEbicycletour on Instagram, where he’ll regularly post updates from the road. Visit the DOPE Magazine website dopemagazine. com/dopebicycletour to watch the journey unfold through stories, photos, and videos.


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CANNA-NEWS

CA N NA B I S T E S T I N G

LEGITIM IZING TH E INDUSTRY ONE BUD AT A TIM E WRITER / KELLY VO

O

NE OF THE WORST stigmas associated with the cannabis industry is the idea that walking into a dispensary is no different than heading to your neighborhood dealer. After all, a bud is a bud, right? Wrong. In a legal market, cannabis is a far cry from street weed. Not only is it genetically bred to produce flowers and oils containing specific amounts of THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids, it’s tested to ensure consumer safety and medical benefits. That’s why we sat down with Jeannine Machon, owner and business director at CMT Laboratories in Colorado, and Samantha Miller, president and chief scientist at Pure Analytics in California. We wanted to get the inside scoop about how cannabis testing is making product safer and more effective for everyone.

PURE ANALYTICS Pure Analytics started back in early 2010 as one of the first labs in the nation. In the beginning, Samantha Miller had to fight for every step, dispensaries and growers couldn’t see the benefit of testing their product. They didn’t know about cannabinoid therapeutics, developing dosages for edibles, or improved growing practices. Over the past six years, the concept of cannabis testing has changed significantly. Consumers have become interested in what’s

in their cannabis—THC or CBD—and how those ingredients help them. It’s changed the tide, and now in order to compete, every dispensary must test. “First, it was just potency testing, which was disappointing, but then it started to be about safety testing and creating effective medicine,” Miller said. “Over time, farmers began testing. It was a paradigm shift. Now, growers are proud to complete a full safety and potency screening on their products.”


CMT LABORATORIES For CMT Laboratories, which started in 2011, it was the passing of Amendment 64 in Colorado that changed the game. “It was a vindication of what we had always believed, which was that people really need to know what they’re buying if you want a legitimate industry,” Machon said. “We got started because we believe in the product and what it can do for people. We also believe that if cannabis is ever going to be taken seriously, it needs to have science and quality assurance behind it.”

According to Machon, the improvements made to the industry because of cannabis testing have been most obvious for edibles. In the early days of the medical market, products were only tagged with how many milligrams of THC they contained. It was effectively useless information and had no bearing on the actual dosage of THC, since 20 mg of something with 5% THC is far less than 20 mg of something with 80% THC. Now, thanks to cannabis testing, edibles have risen to a new level of production, control, and consistency.

EARLY TESTING FOR POTENTIAL POTENCY As for Miller and Pure Analytics, they’re trying to change the cannabis industry at the seed by working with growers in their new research and development program, Elevate Your Grow. “We actually do early, vegetative stage testing,” Miller said. “We’re testing the plant early in its growth cycle to help farmers understand which of their seedlings are going to be the highest potency at the end of the season.” The program is not available in every marketplace, but it could very well be the wave of the future. It has already changed

the frequency of CBD genetics being grown in Northern California. They’ve been able to isolate hundreds of 20-to-one CBD-to-THC strains just in the county of Mendocino. “At the end of the day, we’re here to help growers and dispensaries,” Machon said. “We are here to help them remain compliant, to make better products, to understand their processes, and to run cover for public health and safety.”

CONSUMER EDUCATION IS KEY

CMT Laboratories started in 2011 as a mobile lab. They are certified with Colorado for potency and homogeneity, residual solvents, and microbial testing. They also offer testing in shelf stability, terpenes, and cannabinoid profiles.

However, in order for cannabis testing to truly change the industry for the better, consumers need to be educated. “The main thing for a consumer to understand is that the phrase ‘tested cannabis’ doesn’t necessarily mean the same thing at every dispensary,” Miller said. “Just because a product says ‘tested,’ don’t assume it means tested for safety. You need to ask.” Education has always been the gateway to a brighter future, but it’s just one piece of the cannabis industry puzzle. To truly #End420Shame, cannabis needs to be personal.

That’s why Miller always shares a certain story. She remembers a patient from Florida who called her a few years ago. His four-year-old daughter had 800 seizures a day, and her family was without hope until they found CBD. After that, her seizures dropped to just one a week. “I ask every person who opposes cannabis to put themselves in his shoes,” Miller said. “If you had a four-year-old daughter with seizures, what would you do? Would you still say that it’s an evil thing or that it’s shameful?”

“WE GOT STARTED BECAUSE WE BELIEVE IN THE PRODUCT AND WHAT IT CAN DO FOR PEOPLE. WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT IF CANNABIS IS EVER GOING TO BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY, IT NEEDS TO HAVE SCIENCE AND QUALITY ASSURANCE BEHIND IT.”


T R AV E L

E X P E R I E N C I N G VA R A NAS I TH E HOLI FESTIVAL IN INDIA’S HOLIEST CITY WRITER & PHOTOS / SESHATA

V

ARANASI IS INDIA’S SPIRITUAL heartland. Said to be founded by the Hindu god Shiva, who came to live here with his new bride, the goddess Parvati, shortly after their wedding. It is the oldest living city in the world, and it is situated on the west bank of the sacred river Ganges, perfectly positioned to greet the rising sun. It’s late March, a particularly auspicious time in the Hindu calendar. Hindus had celebrated the major festival of Maha Shivaratri just two weeks ago. Now, it is the time of the Holi Festival. Legend has it that Parvati sought to make Shiva her husband, but he was unresponsive to her advances due to his state of deep mourning for his former wife, Sati. His melancholy was so profound that it threw the world out of balance. Parvati enlisted the help of Kamadeva, the god of love, who shot his arrow into Shiva’s heart as he sat deep in meditation. This action so enraged Shiva that he opened his third eye and burned Kamadeva to ashes. However, it also had the desired effect of reopening his closed, unhappy mind. He then became receptive to Parvati and accepted her offer of marriage, restoring balance to the universe. Now, fires are burned on the first night of Holi in imitation of the sacred fire

that burned Lord Kamadeva. Many things are considered sacred to Shiva—the white bull, the snake, the river Ganges itself—and another of his many sacraments is bhang, a traditional cannabis preparation added to drinks such as thandai (a blend of almonds, milk, pepper, and sugar) and snacks such as ladoo (balls of sugar and garbanzo bean flour cooked in ghee). According to the Sanskrit Vedas, long ago the gods churned the ocean like a vat of butter to produce an elixir of immortality; as they churned, some droplets sprayed out and fell to the ground. Cannabis plants sprouted wherever these drops of nectar touched the ground, and the gods wasted no time in making a sacred drink from it, which quickly became a favorite beverage of Lord Shiva’s. During Holi, bhang consumption is unrestrained and ubiquitous in Varanasi, and the government-licensed shops that are permitted here in the state of Uttar Pradesh enjoy a roaring trade. I pass by a shop, its entrance obscured by dozens of local men waving 20-rupee notes. I am afforded mere glimpses of its seated owner as he doles out chunks of leaf-wrapped paste to his clamoring customers.


T R AV E L

“VARANASI AUTHORITIES LIMIT THE COLORFUL CELEBRATIONS KNOWN AS RANGWALI HOLI TO NOON ON THE MAIN FEAST DAY, SO THE CITY’S YOUTHS WILL HAVE JUST A FEW HOURS TO UNLEASH HAVOC ON THEIR FRIENDS, NEIGHBORS, AND WHOEVER ELSE HAPPENS TO BE PASSING.”

On the eve of Holi, I am lucky enough to be permitted to visit the home of a local bhang maker to learn about her trade and take a few photos of her in action. She is a mother of several boys and plies this trade year-round, although festival periods are far more profitable than the usual daily grind. She uses sacks of dried, ground cannabis flour that are legally obtained from the neighboring state of Bihar; a 20-kilo sack costs 800 rupees, and the fist-sized ball she is preparing will fetch around 50 or 60 rupees at retail prices. It takes her half an hour to mix and pound the paste to her satisfaction. Once pounded, she will portion it into individual bite-sized lumps that will be wrapped in mango leaves and sold for one rupee each. The following morning, the sun rises to herald in a bright, clear day, ideal for the color-throwing mayhem that will begin in earnest in an hour or two. Varanasi authori-

ties limit the colorful celebrations known as Rangwali Holi to noon on the main feast day, so the city’s youths will have just a few hours to unleash havoc on their friends, neighbors, and whoever else happens to be passing. Soon, the narrow alleyways and ancient courtyards of the city resound with the excited shouts of groups of dozens of teenaged boys and girls as they rush back and forth, playing and dousing each other with buckets of colored water and handfuls of powder dye. The streets and everyone in them are soon marbled with rainbow streaks, a spectacular celebration of light and life that is perfectly characteristic of this most colorful and ancient culture. While other countries struggle to define and consolidate their approach to cannabis, India’s bhang traditions have persisted for centuries, if not millennia—and by all appearances, they will continue to exist long into the future.


CANNA-NEWS

T H E B U ZZ OF THE INDUSTR Y WRITER / BIANCA FOX

M

ANY FEAR BEES, AND few love to work with them. But no one has trained bees to work with cannabis. Until now. The responsible conductor known as Nicholas Trainerbees has achieved superhero status in the industry by training bees to produce honey from cannabis resin. The feat is impressive in nature—literally. Especially since bees are notorious for having no preference for the plant. Trainerbees, a beekeeper and cannabis advocate, confided in DOPE Magazine about his attraction to bees. Observing insects with his father at an early age led to a longing to understand bees. The fascination progressed to a profession in beekeeping when he quit his job as an ironworker locksmith to fully dedicate his time to the technical training of bees. “I always loved honey and bees and have always had beekeepers as friends, which led me to beekeeping for pleasure,” Trainerbees said. “When I started beekeeping, I started to seek natural swarms that were in chimneys and trees. As an amateur beekeeper, I developed devices to facilitate the recovery of swarms.” Trainerbees’ admiration for cannabis also started at a young age. When he was just 10 years old, he found the plant to be medicinal for his own hyperactivity. Four years ago, he began to train the bees to harvest honey from cannabis resin. Trainerbees then took it to the next level by passing a professional beekeeper course. Now that he’s a professional beekeeper in France, he can sell his honey and other products, so long as they don’t include cannabis. Unfortunately, strict cannabis laws prevent him from reaching his full potential. For this reason, Trainerbees is making his way to Spain. “Smoking marijuana here in France can cost you a 3,750-euro fine and one year in prison,” Trainerbees said. “If you are caught in possession of cannabis, it can cost 7.5 million euros and 10 years in prison. Growing cannabis can cost you 20 years in prison and a 7.5 million-euro fine. We’re not really a country of freedom of expression as talk of cannabis is prohibited, and can make you go to jail. Prosely-

GRAPHIC / JAN DOMACENA

tism is forbidden, even wearing a printed cannabis leaf on your clothing can make you go to jail.” Training the bees to produce honey from cannabis resin is an impressive talent. Many say that bees are not attracted to cannabis, since it contains no nectar, which is honey’s main ingredient. It is also a wind-pollinated plant, so it doesn’t emit a smell that would attract bees, nor is its pollen packed with protein, which sticks to the bees’ “pollen baskets.” For these reasons, I asked Trainerbees to describe his process. “The bees know and naturally like cannabis,” Trainerbees said. “They like pollen from the male, which provides food for future generations. The thing I’ve realized is that they understand that the resin of the female plants can also be used.” Trainerbees explained that he selects and trains bees to recognize and use the resin in the form of propolis, which covers each cell of the hive. “Obviously, I do not give my secret tips, as they are still under development. All the work is done outdoors and each hive demands two hours of work per day,” he said. Very few people have visited Trainerbees on his bee-keeping property, as he wishes to keep the process underground at the moment. His wife and a few select people have witnessed the bees produce cannahoney. Those who have tasted it now have a profound crush. “Many say it is like biting into a fresh plant with a mild, sweet flavor, which is totally different from a honey infused with cannabis,” he said. “Several people have tasted the canna-honey, including Al the Alchemist, Marc Emery, and many others passing by, including reporters, Spanish doctors, engineers, and beekeepers from Poland who want to help develop specific hives.” In the meantime, Trainerbees assists friends with producing extractions and creams. He is also focusing on technical training courses and other symbiotic plant-insect relationships. “We live in a changing world, where many things have not been made or are still needed,” Trainerbees emphasized.

“WE LIVE IN A CHANGING WORLD, WHERE MANY THINGS HAVE NOT BEEN MADE OR ARE STILL NEEDED.” -NICHOLAS TRAINERBEES


SOCIAL MEDIA

TAG : @ DO P E M AGA Z I N E

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NCE UPON A TIME, tag was a game we played on the playground. Now it is an online revolution of information sharing providing access to content and eye candy of all kinds. And when it comes to the wide world of weed that is social

@win dh om e @r ung hc

media @dopemagazine, you tagging us has led to a cornucopia of dank nug shots, epic glass and all things cannabis lifestyle. After sifting through the collection of chronic tags from the month, these ones have been sealed #dopeapproved.


EVENTS

420 WEDDING NU RTU RING NUPTIALS WRITER & PHOTO / SHARON LETTS

T

HEMED WEDDINGS HAVE LONG been the norm for those who want to break away from tradition. Have a penchant for skydiving? Take your commitment to the sky. Your dogs are your family? No problem: Fido can carry the rings. What if your family lineage, livelihood, and way of life revolved around farming? You’d more than likely have it out on the north 40 with guests sitting on bales of hay. Your nuptials might include waxing poetic about your love of the land and the bounty it brings. Gratitude for the garden could come into play, along with your commitment to it and to each other. But what if your life revolved around farming cannabis? Would you bring the bowl to the table? Would your friends and family circle round? For most, tying the knot with cannabis is just not feasible. Even in a legal state, wedding guests may still be on the fence about lighting up in the reception hall.

HEALING GENERATIONS Cory and Justice Schafer each hail from three generations of Northwest cannabis farming families. Their lives both revolve around the seasons of the plant. It’s their medicine, their work, and their good time. Planning a wedding without the plant never crossed their minds. Their choice was easy since both sides of this family are in favor. Matriarchs and patriarchs alike partook before and after the ceremony with custom glass made for the occasion. Planning the wedding took some work. The bride and groom hail from California, where ordinances weren’t copacetic to

cannabis in a recreational setting. Oregon was chosen instead. To make the weekend even more open to cannabis, the couple rented beach cottages for the guests in 420-friendly digs, with a party limo to shuttle them around throughout the evening.

FORMALITY & FUN

No expense was spared on the traditional dress for the ceremony, which was replete with embroidered and beaded cannabis leaves on the bodice, custom made by David’s Bridal. The bride’s train was custom made in New York to match the groom’s tux, which was printed with a micro-photograph of Cherry Pie trichomes—the couple’s favorite strain. The bridal party’s outfits matched the trichome’s colors of purple, lavender, and green. The bride’s reception dress was created by Janay A Eco Bridal and was a vintage up-cycled dress with beaded cannabis leaves on its bodice.

NUPTIALS TO INSPIRE

Justice’s intention of combining the family’s heritage with their wedding vows was clear from the outset, and no apologies were made to anyone for their choices in the ceremony (and in life). Farmers in the cannabis community are still being persecuted while many are healing—a paradox not lost on the couple. Cory and Justice made a formal statement at the ceremony about the importance of the herb in their lives for health, well-being, the family’s livelihood, and its benefits to the community.


EVENTS Their nuptials became not only a statement of commitment to each other but to the plant and all it stands for. It was a moving moment in this historic gathering, with nary a dry eye in the house.

MICRO INFUSED DELIGHTS

The Side Door Café in Gleneden Beach welcomed the small wedding party of trusted friends and family. My Girl Friday Events was in charge of the complicated affair, and the flowers were done by Newport Florist and Gifts, which made all the twine in the garlands from hemp. The groom’s cake was in the shape of Cory’s favorite character, Cookie Monster, and was made by My Petite Sweet. Known for its delicious, organic, and locally sourced foods, the kitchen prepared non-infused appetizers of pulled pork sliders, shrimp cocktail, candied bacon, cheese, and crudité. Infused treats were prepared by Half Baked Labs and included chocolate-covered strawberries and individually wrapped caramels, clearly labeled for THC-tolerant guests. Dinner was an impressive and generous amount of steak and lobster with grilled vegetables. Though micro-infusion is the popular path to take for gradual dosing during most cannabis meals, the couple chose not to infuse the dinner itself, relying on appetizers, candies, and infused punch in lieu of alcohol, though a few guests bought drinks from the bar. The cake, also created by Half Baked Labs, was a chocolate sponge cake with chocolate sauce. One large piece of cake would only yield around five milligrams of activated THC, making it a welcomed micro-dosed desert. The beauty of micro-dosing without alcohol at a party such as this is that no one was out of

control and no one became sick with too much THC. Everything was done in moderation. Table accessories included cannabis starts, centerpieces of large mother plants, and micro-photos of trichomes on a table runner by Cannaflage Designs. The traditional bottle of bubbles was replaced with custom lighters and packs of papers denoting the special day with the couple’s name. They were bundled together in a brown hemp sack along with small bottles of water. Though partaking was limited to the reception hall, the groom sat with a gold-leaf-wrapped joint behind his ear during the meal. Guests were able to slip away in between courses to medicate and recreate—bride and groom included.

YOU MAY NOW DAB THE OIL

The party began in the hall with tunes by Mendo Dope. The couple replaced the traditional Champagne toast as they made their way to the dab station for their first hit as husband and wife. The station was hosted by local Cottage Grove dispensary Apothecaria. After taking their first dabs together, they ripped their first bong hits as Mr. and Mrs. at the custom monogrammed ice bong by ICEovation. Some chose to purchase their own alcohol from the bar, but for the most part, it was an herbal wedding, void of a single drunken moment throughout the entire blessed “This has been the best day of our lives,” Justice said. “I’m grateful for our family and friends— and we are grateful for this plant. It’s a big part of our lives and we were happy to include it in our special day. Hopefully, our coming out in this way for the plant will help others to do the same. That’s our wish.”


and Selection

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OREGON M AY 2 0 1 6 | T H E G R E E N I S S U E E D I TO R I A L

EVAN CARTER President

Robert Lewis Stevenson wrote, “Don’t judge each day by the harvest you reap, but by the seeds that you plant,” and it seems fitting for June’s “Growing Issue.” I take tremendous pride in the fact that each day we continue Defending our Plant Everywhere. As our voice grows, the tides continue to change in favor of cannabis legalization worldwide, and I love seeing our DOPE Magazine family grow. This issue we cover “growing” on a multitude of topics. “From Soil to Oil” and “Hemp Hemp Hooray” are just a couple of titles you’ll see in this month’s celebration of growing gardens and growing enthusiasm for our plant. Coming out of Urban Fields, June’s strain of the month is the high-potency hybrid, “Lemon Skunk,” a delightful pick-me-up with a strong lemon flavor fit for any time of day. You can find Lemon Skunk at Stumptown Cannabis, Alberta Green House, and Ascend. June’s featured dispensary is The Human Collective, also known as “THC.” They have an unbelievable story of growth, including being one of Portland’s first grey-market dispensaries, and suffering a forced closure and seizure of assets because of it. Owner, and one of our favorite activists, Don Morse, recovered when most couldn’t and is a continued inspiration as part of the DOPE family. As the weather heats up out here so does the battle for and against this rapidly growing and ever-changing cannabis market. If we are going to have the right to legal cannabis everywhere, let’s remember that we have to continue to earn that right by practicing conscientious consumption. Simply because you can spark up, doesn’t always mean you should. Educating the masses on the incredible benefits of this plant will continue to turn the tides in our favor, but treating the plant, yourself, and those around you with respect while consuming will change the hearts of earnest naysayers. Stay DOPE!

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DOPE MAGAZINE is a free monthly publication dedicated to providing an informative and wellness-minded voice to the cannabis movement. While our foundation is the medical cannabis industry, it is our intent to provide ethical and research-based articles that address the many facets of the war on drugs, from politics to lifestyle and beyond. We believe that through education and honest discourse, accurate policy and understanding can emerge. DOPE MAGAZINE is focused on defending both our patients and our plant, and to being an unceasing force for revolutionary change.

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STRAIN

LEMON SKUNK FOR WH EN LIFE GIVES YOU LEMONS WRITER / JOSHUA J. TAYLOR

L

EMON SKUNK, BRED BY DNA Genetics, is a cross between two Skunk phenotypes chosen for their sharp, citrusy traits. Holding it in your hand, you can see the dense, tight structure of the bud through its frosty mix of lime green and sunset orange colors. One whiff of this flower and you’ll instantly recognize the lemony bouquet behind this strain’s namesake alongside the unmistakable Skunk lineage. I used a Herbalizer vaporizer set at 340/360/380 F, and the lemon flavor started light and got progressively more intense. After the effects sunk in, I definitely noticed an initial boost in energy and disposition, as well as moderate pain relief

PHOTOS / ALEXANDER FALLENSTEDT

3 EFFECTS

01 Late afternoon tiredness was quickly replaced with focused energy and a sense of well being

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EDIBLES

WYLD GUMMIES FRUITY TREATS FROM TH E PACIFIC NORTHWEST WRITER / NICK HAYASHI

W

YLD’S GUMMIES COME IN an elegant box with four individually wrapped pieces. Each piece averages 25 milligrams of THC, making your dosing experience easy to manage. These gummies come in a four-pack that is perfect for anyone from the cannabis curious to the experienced connoisseur. Using only real fruit from the Pacific Northwest, these gummies are available in raspberry and marionberry. I had the opportunity to try Wyld’s Raspberry Gummies and at first bite the natural raspberry flavor took over my mouth with the right amount of sweet and just enough tanginess. I tasted a subtle hint of cannabis and knew I was in for a treat. After 30 minutes this raspberry goodness had my body relaxed and my mind at ease. Perfect for taking a hike or exploring the wilderness, these edibles are sure to delight. I’ll definitely be taking a box with me on my next outdoor adventure.

3 EFFECTS 1

Muscle relaxation

2

Calm, soothing effects

3

Enhances creativity

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DISPENSARY

THE HUMAN COLLECTIVE CANNABIS REFUGEES FIND A HOME IN PORTLAND WRITER & PHOTOS / DAVE CHACHERE

HISTORY

D

ON MORSE VIVIDLY REMEMBERS the day that local authorities raided his store, The Human Collective (THC) in 2012. “They took everything but the desk and furniture. They took our computers and keyboards, all of our records and files: pretty much everything. Most importantly all of our product and $38,000 in cash which was meant to pay back our growers. Civil forfeiture is a form of highway robbery, similar to what you had in England back in the day. The king’s highwaymen would stop you, pick your pockets, and then let you go on your way.” He said. When Tigard authorities of Oregon’s Washington County confiscated everything belonging to THC, Morse oversaw a move across county lines and brought the collective to its current home of Portland.

BUSINESS Since making the move, they have grown along with the rest of the industry, free to pursue their goal of bringing quality cannabis to patients in need. The dispensary can now provide for people like Morse’s wife, who was diagnosed with fibromyalgia in 2009, without the fear of police interfering. THC isn’t easy to find, and its storefront doesn’t attract attention. Yet within is a modern retail operation with a spacious sales floor, a myriad of packaged products, and an affordable selection of glass. Approximately 83 strains are on-hand, with each on display in a crowded, brightly-lit case. Operations in the backroom are meticulous, and keeping contaminants out of the product is paramount.

9220 SW BARBUR BLVD. #107 PORTLAND, OR (503) 208-3042 WWW.HUMANCOLLECTIVE.ORG MON–SAT: 11AM–7PM SUN: CLOSED


DISPENSARY

“CIVIL FORFEITURE IS A FORM OF HIGHWAY ROBBERY, SIMILAR TO WHAT YOU HAD IN ENGLAND BACK IN THE DAY. THE KING’S HIGHWAYMEN WOULD STOP YOU AND PICK YOUR POCKETS AND THEN LET YOU GO ON YOUR WAY.”

PEOPLE Finding the staff at The Human Collective in the midst of celebrating William Shatner’s 85th birthday was a strong indication of the vibrant culture that comprises the shop. Laughter between staff and patients, as well as an evident camaraderie amongst the team made for a distinctly personable experience on my visit. The budtenders presented themselves in a patient and prideful manner, ensuring visitors of all kinds would feel welcome at The Human Collective. Don’t let the unassuming exterior fool you—once behind the doors of THC, this place is a treasure trove of fine people and cannabis products alike.

Photo by J Cody Robertson


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GARDEN

F RO M S O I L TO O I L GROWING TH E FAMILY BUSINESS WRITER / SARAH JANE GALLEGOS

“I

PHOTO / CHRIS RYAN

STARTED BASICALLY WITH one light in my garage,” said David LaFlamme as he recounted his history as a cannabis grower. Since their modest beginning seven years ago, NW KIND has grown to over 80 lights in a state-of-the-art facility that specializes in soil to oil production. “I’m an electrician by trade and I was between things, I was talking to my nephew—he’s the one I got [the strain] XJ-13 from—and he was setting up a little garden. I was immediately drawn to it; handling plants, watching the progression, just learning about the technology behind it and watching that grow.” With the first clone provided by LaFlamme’s nephew and his two sons working the garden, NW KIND has always been a family affair. NW KIND knows that any great extract starts with quality flower. “That’s where it all starts,” commented Blaise LaFlamme, head of extraction. Sharing an idea passed down from his father, Blaise reiterated “We’re growers first, what drives us is to be able to provide a very high-quality product, whatever it is, based on this plant we are exceptionally good at growing.”


GARDEN

“THE PRODUCT GOING IN DEFINITELY DICTATES THE PRODUCT COMING OUT, NO MATTER WHAT SYSTEM YOU’RE USING.” -BLAISE LAFLAMME

“We got excited right off the bat because our stuff was coming out awesome, we weren’t seeing anything like it at the time,” beamed Blaise about NW KIND’s BHO. This can be credited to the quality control in place during cultivation, “The product going in definitely dictates the product coming out, no matter what system you’re using.” NW KIND looks forward to applying years of research to producing a, “rounded out bouquet of options,” for their recreational and medical customers alike. “From the very beginning I’ve tracked every single room, from what I fed it, when I started it, when I finished it, when I cut it down, to what the yield was. I can tell you back 6-7 years. I’ve got a folder for every single room exactly like that. So everything we have done has been scientifically documented.”


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C O N C E N T R AT E

O N E S TA R BH O RELAXATION AND SEDENTARY BLISS WRITER / JOSHUA TAYLOR

PHOTO / CHRIS RYAN

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X T R AC T E D BY CULTIVATED INDUSTRIES, the One Star BHO concentrate should have its name changed to Five Star. This concentrate resembled a butterscotch taffy that was softened by touch and easy to portion into dabs. With an aroma all its own, I can only sum it up as a fruityspicy combo, like chili-lime dusted mango strips. After two hits of this flavorful concoction, I could feel the knots in my shoulders loosen and relax on their own. Before the third hit, however, I recommend that you review your plans for the rest of the day. If it’s anything other than catching up on your Netflix favorites, two puffs should be enough. This concentrate sends you directly to a warm, pain relieving comfort, followed by a sedentary state of bliss.

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F E AT U R E

AQUA P O N I C S A N D CA N NA B I S TH E DIVERSE FUTU RE OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTU RE WRITER / DRAKE CARNAHAN

W

HEN ATTEMPTING TO GROW cannabis with the use of an aquaponic system, searching the topic online is step one. There, you’ll find countless threads populated by eager-to-try novices, optimistic about the potential a closed-loop system holds. Aquaponics is similar to hydroponics, but uses fish waste to provide an organic fertilizer for plants, while the plant’s root system works to filter the water for the fish. For a natural, nutrient rich method to produce high-quality yield, it seems ideal.

AQUAPONICS IN PRACTICE One important consideration to note is that almost all success using aquaponics has been focused on cultivating small scale vegetables, fruits, and herbs. If growing your own food is what you’re after, aquaponics is a straightforward way to produce your garden indoors or out, while having access to fish protein year around. While aquaponics offers plants a highly nutritious and diverse microbe-infused environment, the output still lacks the full nourishment necessary for a commercially successful cannabis crop. In hydroponics, nutrients can be added directly into the water supply in specific quantities when needed. While aquaponics does produce about 70 percent of a plant’s nutrient needs, about 30 percent will still need to be added in to see

optimum results. Things get tricky when we strive to balance the plant’s health with that of aquatic life. Fish require the close management of pH, ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, and with a typical aquaponic system, any use of fertilizer would mark the end of resident fish. The typical aquaponic system utilizes a single media layer to hold the roots, such as expanded clay pebbles commonly known as Hydroton. This layer is then flushed with a flood and drain system, regularly bringing fresh water to the roots in intervals throughout the day. Plant life requires the addition of phosphate and potassium, and because of this, many aquaponic models fail to keep aquatic life flourishing.


F E AT U R E

APPLICATIONS IN CANNABIS Thankfully, Steve Raisner has changed the game. A pioneer in innovative aquaponic systems, Raisner tirelessly explores methodology that not only supports cannabis growth, but allows it to thrive. As owner of Potent Ponics, he has spent the last four years immersed in aquaponic research and development, with a concentration on producing high-grade cannabis. While other companies have dabbled, few have found the results required to produce a reliable product. In his research, Raisner found the best technique for cannabis growth in the Dual Root Zone method. In this system, the grower uses Hydroton or a similar media at the base and then adds a burlap layer or another root penetrable material directly on top. This is then covered with about 12 inches of soil. After determining the amount of water the soil can hold, it is possible for amendments to

be added directly to the soil, without soaking through and diffusing into the water source. The benefits to this system are numerous. From disease resistance to a decrease in costs previously allocated to fertilizers and water, the Dual Root Zone also doubles the biodiversity and microbes found in a grow operation. The results are a product that is not only more environmentally sound, but with a taste you will find undeniably richer, earthier, and smoother. The ability to raise your own trout, tilapia or blue gill to throw onto the grill at the end of the day is a pretty nice perk, too. While information on using aquaponics as a successful growing method for cannabis is limited, Raisner says he is working to make his research more accessible to the public in the coming months. In the meantime, check out his work at potentponics.com or check out his weekly podcasts on YouTube.

“THE RESULTS ARE A PRODUCT THAT IS NOT ONLY MORE ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND, BUT WITH A TASTE YOU WILL FIND UNDENIABLY RICHER, EARTHIER, AND SMOOTHER.�

IMPACTS ON THE FUTURE Global citizens of today face challenges that will define the generations that follow. Our water supply is in a state of crisis. There are severe soil deficiencies due to the use of monocultures in agriculture. Food injustice runs rampant even in the wealthiest countries where processed foods are subsidized rather than fresh produce. Communities must find alternative ways to provide for each other and heal the land if we are going to overcome these obstacles. Particularly for cannabis growers, aquaponics offers a wealth of potential.


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H E M P H E M P H OOR AY OREGON CELEBRATES H EMP HISTORY WEEK WRITER / JOSH TAYLOR

B

ETWEEN JUNE 6 AND 12, Oregon will participate in the celebration of the seventh annual Hemp History Week. This nationwide event, brought to you by the Hemp Industries Association and Vote Hemp, has a goal of reforming the outdated drug laws to legalize hemp at the federal level. While over 25 states no longer ban industrial hemp farming, federal law still prohibits commercial industrial hemp cultivation and distribution. Oregon’s contribution is the fourth annual Oregon Hemp Convention, running June 11 and 12 at the Portland Expo Center (www.oregonhempconvention.com). The Convention has grown in size each year since it’s founding, and remains a bargain at $20 for a twoday pass. This year the convention will host multiple vendors; an edible, topical and dispensary gallery; and free, live, one-hour tutorials featuring some of the best canna minds in Oregon (Eco Firma, 7 Points, Green Bodhi, Farma and others) teaching what they know best. Classes include tips on how to cure and clone, make solventless concentrates, grow veganic, and much more. The OHC’s executive director, Jerry Norton, believes this is an event for everyone, regardless if they have an interest in medical cannabis, adult recreational use, or how hemp can be used to make over 25,000 products. It drew over 4,000 attendees in 2015, and Norton said demand and interest required a semi-annual convention.

Norton is a long time advocate for industrial hemp, and in 2015 received one of the first commercial hemp production licenses offered to Oregonians in over 100 years. His company, American Hemp Seed Genetics (www.Americanhempseedgentics.com) produced a crop in Salem last year. Norton converted that crop into CBD oil, which he used to produce CBD infused honey sticks, dog and cat treats, as well as seed for the 2016 crop. An acre of Hemp can fit thousands of plants, each growing 10 to 14 feet tall. On average, a single crop grown on an acre of hemp can produce 6-10 tons of hemp fiber, 8,000 pounds of hemp seed, and 40 pounds of CBD oil. Norton’s CBD hemp oil tested at 40% CBD, with less than 0.003% THC. Norton’s plans for 2016 include increasing the total number of hemp plants he grows to his 300 acres to 450,000. Some of the final product will be purchased by a company making fiberboard, some will be used for seed for the next planting, and some will be used for a very Oregon product. Local manufacturer, Hemp Shield, makes a hemp oil wood sealant and is going to source the seed needed for the hemp oil from Norton. Until now, Hemp Shield has had to import their hemp from overseas. Now, it will come from a fellow Oregonian, less than 75 miles away.

“ON AVERAGE, A SINGLE CROP GROWN ON AN ACRE OF HEMP CAN PRODUCE 6-10 TONS OF HEMP FIBER, 8,000 POUNDS OF HEMP SEED, AND 40 POUNDS OF CBD OIL.”


THANK GOD IT’S H EMP DAY: FU N H EMP FACTS One acre of hemp can produce as much fiber as 2 -3 acres of cotton. Cotton requires large quantities of pesticides and herbicides, with 50% of the world’s pesticides/herbicides used in it’s production. Hemp requires no pesticides, herbicides, and only moderate amounts of fertilizer. Hemp can be used to produce fiberboard that is stronger and lighter than wood, and hempcrete, which is stronger and lighter than traditional concrete. Hemp can be used to produce strong, durable, and environmentally-friendly plastic substitutes. Hemp seeds contain a protein that is more nutritious and more economical to produce than soybean protein. Hemp seeds can be used to produce virtually any product made from soybeans, such as tofu, veggie burgers, butter, cheese, salad oils, ice cream, milk, etc. Hemp seed can also be ground into a nutritious flour that can be used to produce baked goods.

H EMP: TH E WEED YOU CAN’T SMOKE Hemp is a “Cannabis Sativa L.” plant, and it’s been cultivated for at least 10,000 years. It’s much higher in CBD than most “marijuana” plants, and has more uses than can be listed. Rope, oil, food, medicine, concrete, cosmetics, fabrics, even batteries. It’s a plant with an unmatched diversity of uses. Many of the products it can replace are made from petrochemicals (aka fossil fuels). Hemp can also be swapped for raw materials that are heavily dependent on chemicals, fertilizers, and growing methods that take a serious toll on our soil and environment. Don’t bother rolling up a fat hemp joint. The endless cough won’t soon be forgotten, as hemp has a THC content of about 0.3 percent or about the same amount in the weed your brother-in-law grows under a desk lamp. The sticky cannabis we’re all so fond of is far higher in THC and lower in CBD that the hemp plant. While cannabis has numerous benefits, it has little value as an industrial crop outside the buds.


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F E AT U R E

THE SECRET LIFE OF PLANTS MUSIC AND CANNABIS CULTIVATION WRITER / DAVE CHACHERE

T

HERE IS NO QUESTION THAT humans have a unique relationship to music. We’re one of three species on the planet known to dance to a beat, swaying alongside cockatoos and elephants. Many animals respond to rhythmic sounds and harmonies, but in their own subtle way. Wolves howl to reinforce pack dynamics, and studies have shown that cows produce more milk when listening to Simon & Garfunkel and Beethoven. Tracks by Jamiroquai failed to increase dairy yields, however, indicating that the music that soothes humans can also soothe animals. So what about plants? On a fundamental level, modern science doesn’t know much about the effect of sound on plants. Considering the potential benefits to agriculture, this lack of investigation is somewhat surprising. Researchers have looked at how sound affects cellular growth and whether plants tend to grow towards or away from music. Many of these studies have found that music can have a positive effect on plants, but one question in particular remains: What bands do they like? Apparently, like people, plants have diverse musical taste. The majority of studies from the last 75 years make the case for classical music as the best genre to enhance growth. Others


F E AT U R E

“BUT WHO AM I TO DOUBT OR QUESTION THE INEVITABLE BEING FOR THESE ARE BUT A FEW DISCOVERIES WE FIND INSIDE THE SECRET LIFE OF PLANTS” –STEVIE WONDER

have found rock-n-roll to cause strange growth patterns or even kill plants outright. On the other hand, a notorious television show called “Mythbusters” concluded that death metal made the best sound-fertilizer. Playing single tones for long periods resulted in either enhanced growth or plant death, depending on the frequency. Some experimenters have suggested alternate musical tunings, while others have attempted to compose music specifically for plants— much of it very unusual and not particularly pleasing to human ears. It’s doubtful that plants have musical taste as we know it, much less an appreciation for the classics. But there’s much more to the subject than meets the eye. The dynamic and rhythmic fluidity of classical music may somehow simulate positive natural influences on plant growth, much like the strengthening effects of a consistent breeze. The jury’s still out on the effect music has on plants, but one thing is known for certain, humans enjoy music. If playing music in your greenhouse makes you happy and linger with your plant babies a little longer, caring for them just a bit more, a tangible benefit to growth is assured.


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F E AU T R E

E T H I C S O F A B U DT E N D E R MORALITY IN A NEW CANNABIS MARKET WRITER / JOSH TAYLOR

W

HEN MARIJUANA DISPENSARIES first opened in Oregon, they were set up with one stated purpose: To help patients with limited or zero access to cannabis flower and products. As such, the mission was fairly straightforward. Assist the patient in accessing the best products to support their intentions and needs; be it pain, sleeping issues, nausea relief, or something else. In October 2015, Oregon began allowing “early sales” to the adult recreational buyer—up to a quarter ounce of flower. On April 1, 2016, dispensaries were given the green light to begin early sales of topicals, concentrates/extracts, and edibles to this same market. Over 600 applications for adult use recreational dispensaries have since been submitted, so by late fall/winter of 2016, there is going to be an unprecedented amount of competition in Oregon’s recreational cannabis market. As we make the jump from exclusively servicing people in need, to servicing the business owner’s need for high return on investment, how do the ethics of our budtenders change?

If a dispensary is catering exclusively to the adult recreational buyer, there is a strong incentive to buy low and sell high to maximize profits. That quickly leads to pushing the products with higher profit margins, not necessarily the products that are ideal for a client’s needs. This scenario is vastly different from working with medical patients, where profit takes a back seat to the needs of those who are sick and suffering. Like any philosophical topic, ethics and ethical behavior can be defined along a wide spectrum. Merriam Webster defines ethics as, “rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and bad, in both ideas and behavior.” Some behavior is both morally wrong and criminal: stealing from the till, pinching an extra couple of buds from inventory or shorting a purchase. That isn’t a complex moral struggle, it’s theft. As cannabis makes the transition to recreational in Oregon, the gray area of ethical questions that budtenders must face on a daily basis widens in depth. Is that pre-roll comprised of top shelf Cherry Pie bud, or is it the shake, trim, or worse?

Is a budtender ethically required to tell a buyer exactly what is contained within? Is a strain or product pushed because it’s going to be in the customer’s best interest, or because the manager needs to move the five pounds of Blue Dream that’s been sitting in the storeroom for three months? Or if vertically integrated—i.e., a dispensary that also grows a portion of their own flower for sale—is the budtender obligated to recommend a strain produced out-of-house if it will serve the needs of the buyer better than the in-house strain with a higher profit margin? If a friend of the budtender comes to make a purchase, should they be given preferential treatment? Before any budtenders ever had the option of being a budtender, they were consumers who were navigating purchases themselves. Budtenders know how they want to be treated as customers, and perhaps that’s the best barometer for how they should treat their own clients. We all remember the old adage, treat others as you wish to be treated. It’s a classic approach that’s as relevant now as ever.

“THIS SCENARIO IS VASTLY DIFFERENT FROM WORKING WITH MEDICAL PATIENTS, WHERE PROFIT TAKES A BACK SEAT TO THE NEEDS OF THOSE WHO ARE SICK AND SUFFERING.”


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S U R NA C OO L I N G S YS T E M S INNOVATION AND CONSERVATION FOR INDOOR GROWERS WRITER / NICK HAYASHI

B

ASED IN COLORADO, SURNA IS an enngineering and manufacturing company that addresses the high-impact nature of growing indoors through innovation and conservation. The company’s main goal is to provide intelligent solutions that improve the quality, control, overall yield, and efficiency within indoor cannabis cultivation. Indoor cannabis cultivation requires vast amounts of energy in order to produce a light source sufficient enough to replicate the sun. The lights themselves need an immense amount of cooled air in order to prevent overheating and maintain a steady climate that is suitable for plants. A traditional HVAC system reduces heat by pulling air over coils filled with coolant, which by modern standards is a highly inefficient process. With Surna’s water-cooling technology the heat is exchanged over cold-water coils. Through this process, the amount of energy used is dramatically decreased, making this system more economically and environmentally sound.

PHOTO / COURTESY OF SURNA, INC


“WITH THEIR CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS AND WATER-COOLED LIGHT REFLECTORS (COMING SOON TO STORES), SURNA HAS SOMETHING TO OFFER TO PRODUCERS AT EVERY LEVEL.” When cooling a commercial environment, there are two techniques to consider—comfort cooling and process cooling. Comfort cooling systems are a standard HVAC for cooling residential houses and office buildings. This style of cooling is primarily designed to create comfort for occupants. Process cooling is not as well known to the average consumer, but equally as common. Designed to remove a large amount of heat from an area, process cooling is generally done through a water chiller system. Buildings that commonly use process cooling include hospitals, airports, data centers and indoor plant cultivation facilities. With their climate control systems and water-cooled light reflectors (coming soon to stores), Surna has something to offer to producers at every level. Proud to be promoting energy efficiency, and operating efficiently themselves, Surna wants people to spend more time with the plants than working on equipment.


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F E AT U R E

C L I F F M AY NA R D, ROAC H A RT I S T MAKING MOSAICS OUT OF LEFTOVERS WRITER / JOSH TAYLOR

ARTWORK / CLIFF MAYNARD, COURTESY OF ROACHPAPERART.COM

“Revolution 420”


F E AT U R E

“TOO BROKE TO AFFORD TRADITIONAL ART SUPPLIES, HE HAD AN “AH HA” MOMENT ONE NIGHT WHILE OPENING UP ROACHES TO SMOKE.”

F

“4:20”

Cliff Maynard creates all his artwork with roach papers.

OR MANY CANNABIS SMOKERS, the sticky, greasy stub left over from a smoked joint, the roach, has three potential uses: for making edibles, as a last ditch emergency stash when you’re running dry, or as a building block for the legendary 7th generation joint. Something that no one was using them for was artwork. Especially remarkably detailed portrait art of various musical icons, historical figures, and members of the Cannabis Pantheon of Weed Warriors. Enter Cliff Maynard, roach paper mosaic artist. Dubbing his work “Chronic Art”—and that’s true in more sense than one, Maynard started 16 years ago at the Art Institute of Philadelphia. Too broke to afford traditional art supplies, he had an “ah ha” moment one night while opening up roaches to smoke. His first effort was a portrait of Jesus that took him over 100 hours to produce. Using the roaches left over by his friends and father, he began experimenting with creating different shades by stacking papers on top of one another and exploring how different quality papers would produce varying shades of colors—mostly in browns and whites. By refining his technique and use of tools, he began producing pieces in 20 hours or less, and has made mosaic portraits of John Lennon, Snoop Dogg, Jerry Garcia, and Jimi Hendrix, along with marijuana luminaries such as Jack Herer, Cheech and Chong, and Vancouver’s own Farmer Tom Lauerman. Farmer Tom thought so much of Cliff’s work, he commissioned Cliff to create his medical brand’s label and logo. Cliff relocated to Vancouver, WA recently and has an indiegogo crowdfunding campaign up now. The perks include a wide array of products including collector cards, limited edition prints and original framed art pieces. His one-of-a-kind artwork, beautiful for its detail and originality of material choice, would make a great gift for any stoner.


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PHOTO / MIKE EMMONS

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ELECT STRAINS’ VAPE PENS have a sleek design and solid weight that make them sturdy, yet discrete. Select Strains works with each farm they purchase from to ensure specific strains and techniques are used during cultivation. Using CO2 extract in their pre-filled cartridges, Select Strains utilizes a process that isolates terpenes and adds them back into the final product. Because of this, you can taste the flavor profile of every individual strain they use. Each puff was consistent in flavor and density, and the coil was able to hold its own in a long session with friends. The exhale was free of any harshness or chemical aftertaste, and this pen delivered quality hits until the end.

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ELEMENTS IN FUNCTION STEAM DISTILLATION DESIGN WRITER / DRAKE CARNAHAN

T

HIS PAST FEBRUARY, Chris Hurley competed in the CHAMPS Glass Games Masters Finals, walking away with the first place prize as well as the People’s Choice Award for this extraordinary design. Using an elemental theme, Hurley combined the periodic table and classical elements into a highly practical, mind-blowing product. Aesthetically entrancing, his piece intrigues upon first glance with a chemistry-set-like look, while the leaves adorning the top bridge symbolically speak to the natural elements. With a functionality that strikes awe, Hurley exemplifies the elements in function through a process known as steam distillation. In this process, essential oils and terpenes can be cleanly extracted from any plant material. This makes for a highly dynamic product for the user. Each section is critical to the overall design, and intricately handcrafted to bring out the full depth of aroma and flavor.

INTERESTING FACTS

With a 14-hour time limit in place, Hurley created this entire piece in front of a live crowd.

This product features a water pipe with separate airflow. Take a break from steam distillation and take a rip!

Uranium-based glass gives this piece serious glow under an ultraviolet light. Hurley made a point to make use of this, to better connect his work to the table of elements theme.

Hurley has been blowing glass since 1995, experimenting with virtually every technique available. Truly unique in his abilities, Hurley reminds us that through creativity and enthusiasm, anything is possible.

PHOTO / MIKE EMMONS


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H E A LT H

OR E GO N GROW E R S PUTTING PATIENTS FIRST WRITER / LEAH MAURER

A

S MORE STATES PASS medical cannabis laws and place this plant into regulated programs, it is essential that those involved remember that this legal industry was first born out of compassion for patients. Several growers in Oregon are making sure that continues to be the case. It is widely known in the cannabis community, and is now even stated on Web MD, that “your body already makes [cannabis]-like chemicals that affect pain, inflammation, and many other processes. [Cannabis] can sometimes help those natural chemicals work better.” Many growers are deeply committed to patient care and several throughout Oregon are making sure that medical patients are put first as they cultivate specific strains for them on their farms. East Fork Medicinal is a small family farm, run by brothers Nathan and Aaron Howard in Southern Oregon, dedicated to growing the state’s highest-quality CBD cannabis for patients and dispensaries. When asked about supplying patients with medical cannabis Nathan said, “As with other medicinal herbs, the very medicinal properties in a plant that humans find useful are often there due to the plant creating defense mechanisms in the wild when posed with different challenges. We use that knowledge and apply it when growing CBD dominant strains like ACDC or CBD-rich varieties like OG-78 and, in turn, they express their medicinal properties and terpene profiles more fully.” Howard says that their patients often use high CBD strains such as these to treat pain and anxiety. “Different strains have to be tended slightly differently just because they grow differently, and we figure out with all of the plants what helps them at their optimal quality and quantity, and modify our cultivation practices accordingly,” added Josh Munk of Master Gardens and Cannley Cannabis Co. in Portland. “Shark’s Breath has been one of our crowd favorites and has fantastic therapeutic benefits,” he said.


H E A LT H

“DIFFERENT STRAINS HAVE TO BE TENDED SLIGHTLY DIFFERENTLY JUST BECAUSE THEY GROW DIFFERENTLY, AND WE FIGURE OUT WITH ALL OF THE PLANTS WHAT HELPS THEM AT THEIR OPTIMAL QUALITY AND QUANTITY AND MODIFY OUR CULTIVATION PRACTICES ACCORDINGLY.” -JOSH MUNK

James Knox of KLR Farms and Savant Plant Tech in Albany alluded to his work on the medical side, “I’ve got the most experience with patients who have chronic pain from spinal injury or rheumatoid arthritis, and HIV-positive patients. The majority of the HIV patients I work with had AIDS at one point and, after using the medical cannabis I grow, their AIDS went into remission and circled back to HIV-positive. Part of this is because they were finally able to keep their pills down since the cannabis helped so significantly with their nausea and sleep. The strain Cinex is a favorite for helping with sleep and appetite stimulation. My arthritis patients generally do well with strains that have a very high CBD and THC count, such as our Banana OG.” Courtney Zehring of Tokie Farms in Ashland added, “I have found in my cultivation practices and in working with patients over the years, that the presence of both THC and CBD are essential to pain management. I have found, when working with genetics, one can have radically different results depending on who grows it and the conditions in which it is grown. I believe adamantly that high-quality medicine is made with high-quality inputs. I focus my cultivation practices less on strain specific and more on inputs to ensure specific terpene profiles which are beneficial to specific patient needs.” Chris and Megan Graham of GEMM Farms in Portland agree with many of the growers DOPE Magazine spoke with, “Every strain is different and every patient is different. With patients’ varying needs, you have to grow a massive amount of product; you can’t just grow one strain. Our Canna Tsu and Frank’s Gift are both high CBD strains that we cultivate and provide for our patients with PTSD or anxiety issues, as well as many of our fibromyalgia patients.” As people in the world of cannabis begin to navigate the adult recreational use industry, it is essential that we continue to defend our plant—and patients—everywhere. These Oregon growers are doing just that as they skillfully cultivate medicinal strains in their gardens.


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Profile for DOPE Magazine

Dope Magazine - June 2016 - The Growing Issue - Oregon  

Dope Magazine - June 2016 - The Growing Issue - Oregon  

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