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Boston Complete Streets Dominic Mack | Fall 2017


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Boston Complete Streets

Table of Contents

Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Boston Transportation Department + Toole Design Group | 2009 (conceptual planning) (See Appendix B.) Boston’s streets are continually evolving with development. The city has a patchwork of iconic streets, squares, and open spaces creating an exceptional walkable city. Boston has a distinctive identity of vibrancy that creates a gateway to new experience for innovations of street design. Ranging from short, meandering streets within the Historic District and residential streets with narrow setbacks to curvilinear parkways and modern high rises in the Innovation District, the question becomes: How can these contextually based networks create a common ground in order to add to the safe, public open space footprint? Therefore the juxtaposition of historic and modern architecture diversify the imperatives for street design within making them multi-modal, green, and smart. Boston’s Complete Street initiative strives to improve the quality of life in Boston by creating streets that are both great places to live and sustainable transportation networks.1 The complete streets will place bicyclists, pedestrians, and transit users on equal footing with motor vehicle users, and embraces innovative designs and technologies to address climate change and promote active healthy communities.2

5 BOSTON

City-Scale Aerial Image | Boston, Massachussetts

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0 mi Site-Scale Aerial Image | Boston Complete Streets

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3 mi

CONTEXTUAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSES

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TOPIC-RELATED MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSES

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PRECEDENT STUDY: INDIANAPOLIS CULTURAL TRAIL

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SWATs + OCs ANALYSES

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APPENDICES APPENDIX A | End Notes APPENDIX B | Case Inventory APPENDIX C | References

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Contextual Morphological Analyses Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. population climate

667,137 Boston lies in the humid continental climate, consisting of 4 seasons including warm summers and cold, snowy winters. The average temperature is 51° with an average snowfall of 44 inches and 43.8 inches of rain per year. 3

cultural attributes

Boston was/is a destination of Irish immigrants. The Irish-Americans have great influence on politics and religious institutions. The universities frame Boston’s culture.4

major events

Head of the Charles, Boston Tea Party Act, Boston Marathon, Boston Pride Festival, Boston Harborfest, ArtWeek, St. Patrick’s Day Parade, Patriot’s Day Celebration

landmarks

Fenway Park, New England Aquarium, Museum of Fine Arts, Faneuil Hall, Acron Street, Quincy Market, Old State House, Trinity Church, Freedom Trail, USS Constitution

view of the Boston skyline | credit: http://www.socialventurepartners.org/boston/

STASIS a reading of equilibrium vs. tension between built forms and open space

ARMATURE a reading of how space communicates the continuity of character and identity

view of the vision of Boulevard on the Greenway credit: http://www.bldup.com/projects/the-boulevard-at-110-broad-street

NETWORK the interconnections of various systems at play

CIRCUITRY a reading of continuity and looping within and among collaborative systems

SPECTACLE a reading of where the urban patterning supports and invests in the public realm to create places of high “imageability”

INTERSTICE a reading of the various systems of ‘in-betweenness’ occurring

LEGIBILITY analyzes impacts of readings

SOLVENCY analyzes the impacts of fragmentation and of disturbances

PRESENCE analyzes the various degrees of habitation

MOVEMENT analyzes the impacts of connectivity and migration (intra vs inter)


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STASIS

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ARMATURE

UNIVERSITIES & COLLEGES PARKS | OPEN SPACE

COMPLETE STREET

HISTORIC DISTRICT

HIGHER DEPENDENCY AREAS

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Boston provides an ideal language of green spaces within the urban fabric. Tensile forces within the city’s layout are developed through the hierarchy of green public spaces of leisure and the city’s built infrastructure. The human dependency on public open space is relatively satisfied within Boston not only from the parks along the Emerald Necklace and the accessibility that comes with it, but also the implementation of the Complete Street network throughout Boston’s core. The mapping of the Complete Street districts, open spaces, and building layouts leads to finding areas of poor accessibility to these safer environments within the public realm.

EMERALD NECKLACE

HIGH TOURISTED AREAS

COMPLETE STREET

URBAN FRINGES / LEAD TO INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS POTENTIAL INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

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Informal settlements usually take place because of migration from rural to urban. Through the armature of the Emerald Necklace Chain and the connections to the Complete Street System through existing bicycle networks, Boston assists existing and potential informal settlements by appropriating land use, tapping into urban assets such as educational and health services, as well as providing a system of predominantly open spaces to create patterns of connectivity, anchoring a sense of identity throughout the city’s spine.


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NETWORK

MAJOR ROUTES

RAILWAY NETWORK

EXISTING BIKE NETWORK

URBAN FRINGE NETWORK

UNIVERSITIES & COLLEGES HISTORICAL DISTRICT

INNOVATION DISTRICT

COMPLETE STREET

RAIL LINES EXISTING BIKE NETWORK

POTENTIAL NETWORK CONNECTIONS NETWORK IMPROVEMENT AREAS

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CIRCUITRY

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Patterns of different networks throughout Boston range from subway lines, rail lines, public transportation routes, bike routes and many more infrastructures. Through the mapping of these different layers, various interconnections of the line segments showed the ease of transit within the city. Although the main arteries of the streets are served, many residential areas lack the means of accessibility to these bike paths, rail lines, etc. Around the core of Boston where downtown, innovation, and other districts strive, there are an abundance of universities that aid the area with internships and other programs that kindle relationships with the city. These districts are served by dense means of network patterning, which can eventually branch out to the urban fringes to allow for more economic opportunities to the exurbs of the urban environment.

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OPEN SPACES

POPULATION DENSITY LEAST TO DENSE

COMPLETE STREET

HUBWAY STATIONS MAJOR ROUTES CIRCUITRY CONNECTIONS

PROPOSED BIKE LANES TO CLOSE LOOP

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Circuitry connection loops developed from incomplete network patterns within the urban landscape. Although there are a multitude of hub stations to pick up from one form of transportation to the next, there are often disconnections within the various independent systems at play. Continuity can be achieved by avoiding truncation of systems. While analyzing the population density, it becomes evident that there is a lack of connectivity from heavily populated areas to the bike-friendly streets. Proposing connectors in order to successfully intertwine with the hierarchical systems can create a more socio-economic city. Truncation often occurred at the complete street locations. Providing a continuity between complete streets and other forms of networking such as rail lines and main routes can establish a sense of multi-modal transportation through the city, providing equal opportunity among the residents to travel.


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SPECTACLE

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INTERSTICE

URBAN ACUPUNCTURE

EMERALD NECKLACE EXPANSION

COMPLETE STREET CONNECTION

COMPLETE STREET

PROBLEMATIC AREAS WITH UNSAFE CONDITIONS DATA COLLECTED FROM VISION ZERO

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The Emerald Necklace system of parks and greenways can be thought of as the Green Spectacle. There are various open spaces abutting the Emerald Necklace that can be an addition to the network of green spaces. The complete streets throughout the city almost seem to be interchange spaces connecting the urban fabric to the open areas, acting as gateways to safer means of travel. These porous spaces along the corridor’s margins increase canopy, connectivity, and identity. The juxtaposition between the Emerald Necklace and the built urban forms show where high imageability formulate in the public realm. Problematic areas of unsafe conditions to pedestrians seem to occur more within areas that do not follow the complete street guidelines.

OPEN SPACES

COMPLETE STREET CONNECTION

COMPLETE STREET

INTERSTITIAL ZONES

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

INNOVATION DISTRICT

HOUSING DENSITY

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Given the density of urban forms within the city of Boston, many interstitial zones surface from street networks and other forms of accessibility. These spaces of in-betweenness create tensile functions within the landscape both culturally and through formations. These interstitial places can be used to capitalize transitional zones to create a cohesive connectivity. More opportunities for greater connectivity lie within the denser housing areas in juxtaposition with the open spaces. The complete streets that frame the boundary and edges of Boston can potentially be perceived as interstitial roadway networks to connect the exurbs to the city systems. Universities are mapped in order to show the apertures within the historical district and lead to example how they can begin to fuel the innovation district.


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LEGIBILITY

OPEN SPACES

CIRCUITRY CONNECTIONS

PROPOSED BIKE LANES TO CLOSE LOOP

COMPLETE STREET

MAIN ROUTE

BIKE ROUTE

HOUSING DENSITY

HUBWAYS

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Given the density of urban forms within the city of Boston, many interstitial zones surface from street networks and other forms of accessibility. These spaces of in-betweenness create tensile functions within the landscape both culturally and through formations. These interstitial places can be used to capitalize transitional zones to create a cohesive connectivity. More opportunities for greater connectivity lie within the denser housing areas in juxtaposition with the open spaces. The complete streets that frame the boundary and edges of Boston can potentially be perceived as interstitial roadway networks to connect the exurbs to the city systems. Universities are mapped in order to show the apertures within the historical district and lead to example how they can begin to fuel the innovation district.

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SOLVENCY

MAIN ROUTES

TOURISTED AREAS

HIGH IMMIGRATION

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

STOP LIGHTS

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Through the mapping of traffic signals and main routes, it is evident that the most transportation disturbance lie within the downtown area because of the high volumes of pedestrian activity. Since there is a high volume of pedestrian activity, there must be safer precautions to road engineering. The hustle of downtown is often more lively but can also lead to a more expensive lifestyle. This, in turn, will lead to informal settlements on the outskirts of the downtown area - because of the want of proximity with expenses. An analysis of touristed proximity, informal settlements, and immigration density shows the fragmentation of habitation in the interstice of these public realms.


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PRESENCE

HOUSING DENSITY

HIGH IMMIGRATION

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

EMERALD NECKLACE

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The presence of population is heavier towards the southern portion of Boston because of the downtown district. The system of open spaces that link to the Emerald Necklace shows how different degrees of habitation are at play because of the different types of spaces chained together. Between the housing density, immigration density, and informal settlements lies a band of housing connecting to the commercial corridor which gives identity to the area.

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MOVEMENT

HOUSING DENSITY

HIGH IMMIGRATION

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

EMERALD NECKLACE

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Given the urban tree canopy, it is easy to see the overlay of bike paths and other means of travel coincide with the layout of plantings. The migration of patterns of circulation do not cluster as much as they do in the dense areas as they do in the potential informal settlements and immigrated areas. This could lead to stagnant nature and in turn cause a slow economic drop to the area with less movement patterns.


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Topic-related Morphological Analyses Boston Complete Streets, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

How can fundamental design strategies of ‘complete streets’ be applied to districts and their interconnectivity to create a scalable, system-wide approach applicable to transitional realms between urban and suburban contexts? credit: www.boston.gov

vantage point from pedestrian zone along river overlooking Boston

COMMUTABILITY -

analyze the context to understand the proximity of pedestrian-friendly environments to act as a tool to connect disadvantaged areas

Disadvantaged areas are caused by poor connectivity low housing density, high unemployment rates and low median income.5 The Boston Complete Streets initiative aims to create a denser means of connectivity which will in turn provide higher accessibility, proximity, and commutability to the dense core of Boston from other parts of the city. An understanding of these various systems of complete streets at play can lead to a seamless network of direct connectivity to destinations with comfortable means of travel. Through hierarchy of commutability, users will be able to utilize long distance as well as communal means of travel. CONDITIONS FOR ANALYSES: • •

Proximity of streets/public transit/pedestrian-friendly environments/bike lanes to housing densities Accessibility of adjacencies

• •

Strong urban patterning Networks of contexts and interactions

ANCHORAGE -

analyze the context for a spatial anchor that leads as a source of reassurance to attract a sense of identity

The spatial anchor of a place can lead to a possible thread of connectivity that can ‘vessel’ outward, creating a hierarchical circulation system. The threading of these spaces can define the anchor to have its own sense of identity in our to have a processional phenomenological value to it. The connectors that thread out of the main corridor are then opening an opportunity for exurban conditions to have a sense of connectivity to the system if strategically placed within transitional areas. Exurban connections to the spatial anchor that leads to the urban core can drive an economic boost to the disadvantaged communities by providing a means of opportunity to thrive. CONDITIONS FOR ANALYSES: vision of protected bike lanes along the Complete Street Corridors credit: http://bostoncompletestreets.org/

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Connections of open spaces Dense areas that integrate dispersed systems

• •

Circulatory system of the city Spatial hierarchies and inter-relationships


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Topic-related Morphological Analyses

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COMMUTABILITY

Boston Complete Streets, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

TACTICS -

analyze the context where image can be re-imagined to increase activity and boost the economic footprint

The Complete Streets initiative creates pedestrian-friendly environments for safer means of travel. What these complete streets can essentially do is create public spaces throughout the street - making them commercial destination for live-work-play opportunities. Providing opportunities for tactical urbanism throughout the corridors can increase socio-economic values by improving the livability of cities and giving potential neighborhood vitality. Whether it is permanent acupuncture or tactical improvements, these steps can show how transitional areas can be re-purposed to generate a proactive attempt to making the city’s neglected areas livable and sustainable. CONDITIONS FOR ANALYSES: • •

Dynamic qualities in the landscape Urban amenities and user groups

• •

Socio-economic drivers Cultural hubs means of transportation connections

ISOLATION -

analyze the context for conditions that can capitalize on dense surroundings through connectivity

Isolated areas are the target when creating complete street networks. Providing equal opportunity to all user groups, isolated areas will be served to connect to higher hierarchies of spaces within the dense, successful areas of the city. Isolated areas should be the driving force to create a means of connection to the main resources of the city. By mapping connection points and areas of poor development - an evident strategy can surface in order to sustain a focus on fostering the relationships between districts. CONDITIONS FOR ANALYSES: • •

Connection points from terminated travel networks Hubs within the city

• •

Disadvantaged areas Connectivity and proximity

NODES + THRESHOLDS -

analyze the context for inter-relationships between gateway conditions and activities that frame the urban area

By mapping the connection nodes and thresholds within the urban fringes of the city’s boundaries and edges, opportunities of connectivity from the exurban settlements to the urban core will begin to surface. The Complete Streets in Boston are prime examples of this because of their existing truncation. At the end of the veining of complete streets can be extended public areas or bike networks in order to sustain the maximum levels of connectivity. CONDITIONS FOR ANALYSES: • •

Bike networking and complete street locations Urban boundaries, edges, and fringes

LOW HOUSING DENSITY • •

Connection points of inter-relationships Transitional areas between districts and public spaces

DISADVANTAGED AREAS

EMERALD NECKLACE

MAIN ROUTE

PROPOSED BIKE

COMPLETE STREETS

BIKE LANE

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Disadvantaged areas are determined through low housing density (with little things to do), high unemployment rates (with less jobs and poor connectivity to the core), and low median income (with less pay). After mapping these areas in conjunction with the complete street districts and connectivity routes, it is easy to see that these disadvantaged areas are lacking a means of commutability to the more successful areas of Boston. Through more bike lanes, complete streets, and other pedestrian-friendly implementations - there can be an increase in visibility, connectivity and commutability.


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ANCHORAGE

COMPLETE STREETS

ANCHORLESS

COMPLETE STREETS

INTERSTITIAL CONNECTION

EXTENSION

INNOVATION DISTRICT

DISADVANTAGED AREAS

EMERALD NECKLACE

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TACTICS

IMPROVEMENT AREAS

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The Emerald Necklace chain can be thought of as a spatial anchor as the city’s green connector corridor. These vessels of green space maintain a source of character and create an identity to Boston’s urban landscape both in plan and experience. Between these connectors throughout the Necklace and complete street systems, they can provide opportunities to the exurbs and disadvantages areas to adapt the character of vision as well as provide safer means of travel. The interconnectivity between the districts of Boston is essentially threaded with this spatial anchor. The transitional areas within this can provide for opportunities to promote a more sustainable growth within the districts themselves and Boston as a whole.

INNOVATION DISTRICT

COMPLETE STREETS

OPEN SPACES

URBAN AMENITIES

INNOVATION DISTRICT

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Urban acupuncture will increasingly become a standard for capitalizing under-utilized spaces for transit corridors in proximity to heavily populated areas. Tactical urbanism can become a form of this acupuncture study in order to increase the amount of people served by open spaces in dense environments. The amount of urban amenities near housing can increase the socio-economic footprint of the city by giving visibility and activity to areas that are in need of it. Places of interest for these acupuncture pieces can be located where systems terminate so that there can be continuity between networks.


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ISOLATION

INNOVATION DISTRICT

COMPLETE STREETS

OPEN SPACES

DISADVANTAGED AREAS

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Because of the lack of connectivity in the southern portion of Boston, there is an isolated feel to the area. The disadvantaged areas mapped out are in neglect of resources of the urban core (downtown). Through series of connection points, there can be an increase in activity and accessibility for those areas of poor development. Through the methods of complete streets this can be achieved in order to improve the economic and intrinsic value to the poorer communities.

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NODES + THRESHOLDS

INNOVATION DISTRICT

COMPLETE STREETS

OPEN SPACES

DISADVANTAGED AREAS

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With the addition of a more dense bicycle networking that works in collaboration with the existing bicycle network and complete streets, more nodes of connectivity are created. The inter-relationships between the routes and activities can become gateways into the following spaces in order to form a procession of experience that can begin to frame to cohesive identity of the area.


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Precedent Study

Indianapolis Cultural Trail, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.

R.W. Armstrong & Rundell Ernstberger Associates | May 2013 (opening of last segment) Indianapolis is comprised of six Cultural Districts: Massachusetts Avenue, Fountain Square, The Canal & White River State Park, Indiana Avenue, the Wholesale District, and Broad Ripple.6 Wrapping through these districts, the cultural trail plays a huge contribution to the quality of life and poses as an economic driver. The trail works to thread all points of interests within the important aspects of the community, anchoring sites such as restaurants, cultural areas, retail, universities, etc.7 The trail is a sense of art and culture itself, because of the virtuous meaning behind the system of interlocking communities. After the completion of the trail system, pedestrians were provided with a safer means of travel throughout the core and to connection veins, businesses hugging the trail thrived and hired additional employees - increasing the economic footprint, and property values increased along and near the trail, having an increase in value to the land.

0 mi view of Acron Street, a Pedestrian and Bike-Friendly Neighborhood street credit: John Santoro Photography

City-Scale Aerial Image | Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.

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8 mi

0 mi Site-Scale Aerial Image | Indianapolis Cultural Trail

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1 mi


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Precedent Study

Indianapolis Cultural Trail, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A.

wayfinding methods and protected shared space on trail

directional wayfindng for safer means of travel

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

artwork serving as signage/wayfinding crosswalks

protected walkway/shared space

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

Precedent Study

Root River Trail System, Fountain - Lanesboro - Whalan - Peterson - Rushford - Houston, Minnesota, U.S.A

pavement pattern to detect cultural trail connecting communities to storefronts and public uses credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

blend of different networks coinciding to bring community together

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

mixing infrastructure with historical setting

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credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

landscaping methods and runoff catchers - increasing sustainability by means of protection credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/


Precedent Study

Root River Trail System, Fountain - Lanesboro - Whalan - Peterson - Rushford - Houston, Minnesota, U.S.A

night time wayfinding lighting

night time wayfinding lighting

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

night time wayfinding lighting

night time wayfinding lighting

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Precedent Study

Root River Trail System, Fountain - Lanesboro - Whalan - Peterson - Rushford - Houston, Minnesota, U.S.A

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/

credit: http://indyculturaltrail.org/


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SWATs and OCs Analysis

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Boston Complete Streets, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

STRENGTHS • Creates a balanced transportation system for all users, bolstering economic growth by proving accessibility and efficient connections • Encourages more walking and bicycling which increase public health and provides an additional means of travel to economically stable parts of the city • Improves safety by creating pedestrian-friendly environments • Boosts the economy by activating storefronts and creating more job opportunities • Using green streets/infrastructure will incorporate sustainability and promote an environmentally sensitive public space • On-going district plans led by BTD to promote sustainable growth and connectivity opportunities for bicycle paths to reach exurbs • Increases vibrancy and livability within cities, neighborhoods, and individual districts to have abroad sense of culturally diverse spaces • Designing a street with pedestrians in mind can reduce risk by as much as 27% 8 • Complete Streets provide more commuting choices, reduces travel time and values health benefits • Places of interest for these acupuncture pieces can be located where systems terminate so that there can be continuity between networks WEAKNESSES • There are many areas that lack connectivity to the main routes, bike lanes, and urban core which in turn leads to economic decline in those areas • There are many reported issues within the Downtown area because of lack of complete street methods in regards to pedestrian safety and visibility • There is a heavy reliance on car use in South Boston because of incomplete streets and unsafe conditions • Areas of high unemployment rates and low density may be more difficult to attend for lack of continuity and community engagement • Climate changes through seasons can affect the productivity and implementation processes of complete districts • Gentrification is arising in the Southern parts of Boston creating a higher carbon footprint because of dependence on car • High traffic speeds unsafe for bicyclists • Implementing pedestrian-only access ways throughout the project area could lead to safety concerns because it would limit the numbers of“eyes on the street” • Conflict of connectivity and accessibility between buses and other modes of transportation • Poor signage and lack of economic growth in the area ASSETS • Boston is already known as the “Walking City” which will allow for easy opportunities to provide connectivity • Protect affordable housing when improving transportation to those who need it the most • Utilization of the Innovation District on the harbor for means of expansion of resources and research • There are many universities and colleges that can be utilized for resources to fuel the Innovation District if there was a better sense of connectivity between them and Downtown • Complete Streets contribute to reducing the carbon footprint through its climate change green street strategy • Allowing more people on the street increases visibility which can make the environment safer • Streets can facilitate civic engagement and human interaction on commercial corridors • Seek ROW expansions to re-purpose and enhance connectivity and transit • Prioritize non-motorized connectivity improvements to services, schools, parks, civic uses, etc. • Require large new developments to provide interconnected street networks and greenways that connect to existing greeway and linkages vision of complete district “D” pattern credit: utile design group


SWATs and OCs Analysis

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Critical Task Analysis

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Boston Complete Streets, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Boston Complete Streets, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

TH R EATS • In areas where there are lack of connectivity nodes, informal settlements are bound to pop-up • High areas of immigration lie near the open space system of the Emerald Necklace • No sense of continuous identity throughout downtown area • Limited roadway widths pose threat to the provision of new bike lanes • Increased development could lead to exacerbation of crime and cause safety concerns for the area • Privacy of on-site private amenities for residential developments should remain secured • Design must address ways to ensure security without eliminating connectivity to other networks at play • Continued disconnect between the residential uses within Boston’s districts • Distance between major urban amenities should be no more than a 1/4 mile walk • Parking demand within Downtown District

CTs • Reduce accidents and fatalities on streets through education and design strategies that reallocate street spaces in order to prioritize moving people safer rather than faster • Develop public spaces and nodes of activity on complete streets and at transit stations in order to provide for an entertaining and culturally vibrant space to maintain a comfortable public realm that can be used by all • Understand how there are different street systems in an overall context that interact with different land uses in order to create various forms of Complete Streets to be context-sensitive to connect to the culture and urban amenities surrounding • When designing complete streets, be sure to place pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users on equal footing with motor vehicles and embrace innovative design strategies • When planning connections and additions to existing complete street networks, overlay bicycle paths in order to capitalize on existing infrastructure and use those connections to bridge towards urban fringes in order to provide equal accessibility to the economic drivers and resources in the city • Complete Streets can become the aesthetic foundation for creating a cohesive character throughout the community to promote a sustainable identity • Transitional zones between complete streets and other means of travel can be urban acupuncture to allow for engagement in order to enhance community • Exurb conditions should be treated equally to the complete street guidelines in order to display interconnectivity between city hubs and outside resources to promote a better economy for disadvantaged areas • Allow urban amenities to foster a distributed network of nodes to address environmental challenges within the suburbs of the city • Increase the commutability of disadvantaged areas of the city to promote a more sustainable, inclusive growth

OPPORTUNITIES • • • • • • • • • •

Expanding accessibility to have a cohesive and convenient network of connectivity to different districts of Boston allowing connection to downtown Improve safety by providing multi-modal, green and smart street design concepts Ensuring reliability to have predictable and consistent roadway networks for transit-corridors to ensure a sustainable economic growth Focusing on experiential quality can ensure an enjoyable trip with unfolding public spaces to accommodate basic needs of entertainment Leveraging innovation and technology by increasing connectivity to the Innovation District Restructure transportation cost burden to accommodate low-income households Connect complete streets to neighborhood residents to improve accessibility to green corridors for health and safety benefits Increase the use of intelligent signals, wayfinding and social networks to boost socio-economic qualities and greater efficiency Better usage and integration of land use patterns and transportation through Complete Streets allows for an attractive environment Complete streets can lead to community involvement

CONSTRAINTS • Land use types may constrict ROW and certain guidelines for complete street strategies • Fiscal constraints can apply to design qualities and may limit capabilities because of city’s budget • ROW ownership can provide restraints • Major utility conflicts can restrict the boundaries and amenities that can go on the edges of sidewalks • Long-term maintainability issues are present because of the cost of upkeep on roads • Various districts have different design identities so there must be conceptual framework to tie in all aesthetics • Truncation within some districts do not allow for connection points to existing, successful roadways and network systems • Low-density, high speed roads are subject to develop in informal settlements because of dependence on cars • Limited physical activity can lead to depression in areas with lack of care to community engagement • Absence of street zone furnishing to promote engagement of public corridors


CONCLUSION AND FINDINGS

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CONCLUSION AND FINDINGS

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WERE BOSTON’S COMPLETE STREETS SUCCESSFUL AT ADDRESSING THE THESIS QUESTION?

HOW DID THE PRECEDENT STUDY FACILITATE FINDINGS AND IMPACT THESIS QUESTION?

Although the project does not directly answer the thesis question, it provides substantiating information on one of the methods that will be used to execute the connection from exurb to urban cores. The Boston Complete Streets initiative aims to create a denser means of connectivity which will in turn provide higher accessibility, proximity, and commutability to the dense core of Boston from other parts of the city. In turn, this will provide a seamless system of networks in order to engage the disadvantaged communities and provide critical public safety. Boston’s Complete Streets are multi-modal as well as multi-functional. Not only are there means of transportation for all users, but within these active corridors of travel, there are systems of urban amenities. This sustainable growth methodology can help foster a potential means of connection to the thesis asked. Boston, aside from it being known as a walkable city, can also be thought of as a Transportation Oriented Development that focuses on tying urban amenities together in order to impact and create a social identity within the public spaces that are threaded together. Within Downtown shows an ideal condition for the thesis question because the complete street network there connects not only people to safer means of travel, but also to the universities, colleges, historic district and Innovation District. These integrated modules provide a sense of kinship to the existing conditions which should lead example to cohesive strategies around the city. The proximity of the complete streets, though, are disconnected from the denser populations which leads to deplorable conditions within those living conditions and economic decline. Where the complete streets are implemented, a socio-economic focus develops through its active corridors and linkages to public open spaces and parks.

Boston’s Complete Streets provides an ideal condition for connectivity of urban cities and suburbs. Through their initiative to create multimodal, green, smart streets - Boston has develop a means of interconnectivity of public spaces and sustainable transportation networks. The Indianapolis Cultural Trail is a great precedent for the Complete Streets module because of its character to form a connection between culture to establish a stronger sense of community. The trail connects 6 cultural districts together, showing its accessibility and potential to create a higher means of commutability for all forms of transportation. The threading of different cultures and districts exemplified essential means of analysis for safe travels, engaging the public spaces along corridors and potentially fostering a new identity along pathways throughout Complete Streets in order to have potential connections to various areas around site-context. The interconnectivity of these spaces will then create a processional phenomenological experience to connect users from disadvantaged areas to more successful urban cores in order to promote a more sustainable, inclusive growth.

HOW COULD THE PROJECT BE IMPROVED?

ADDITIONAL RESEARCH SHOULD BE CONDUCTED...

The project could be improved by providing greater accessibility to the outskirts of the population density to facilitate connections to the dense areas of the city. Through more bike lanes, complete streets, and other pedestrian-friendly implementations - there can be an increase in visibility, connectivity and commutability. The Emerald Necklaces provides vessels of green spaces that can interlock and facilitate transportation between different districts, and the interstitial spaces between can become corridors and locations for implementation of complete streets. These vessels of green space maintain a source of character and create an identity to Boston’s urban landscape both in plan and experience.

• • • •

How landscape typologies can be ways of connection points from residential to existing networks to promote connectivity Analysis on existing plans for Boston 2030, Bike initiatives and other systems of connecting networks together to create a cohesive strategy Investigate where potential land use changes can take effect to create live, work, play environments Investigate how to create better en


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Appendix A

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End Notes

1. Boston Department of Transportation. “Boston Complete Streets Guidelines.” Boston Complete Streets Initiative. 2013. http://bostoncompletestreets.org/pdf/2013/BCS_Guidelines.pdf. 2. National Complete Streets Coalition, “Benefits of Complete Streets,” Smart Growth America, 2010, https://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/app/legacy/documents/cs/factsheets/cs-livable.pdf. 3. US Climate Data, “Climate Boston - Massachusetts,” US climate data, 2017, https://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/boston/massachusetts/united-states/usma0046. 4. Boston Globe Media Partners, “Cultural Aspects of Boston,” boston.com, 2017, https://www.boston.com/section/culture. 5. Elizabeth Kneebone, “Urban and Suburban Poverty: The Changing Geography of Disadvantage,” PennIUR, 2013, http://penniur.upenn.edu/publications/urban-and-suburban-poverty-the-changing-geography-of-disadvantage. 6. Gene and Marilyn Glick, “About the Trail,” Indianapolis Cultural Trail, 2017, http://indyculturaltrail.org/about/. 7-8. Boston Department of Transportation, “Boston Bike Network Plan,” Boston Bikes, 2013, https://www.cityofboston.gov/images_documents/Boston%20Bike%20Network%20Plan%2C%20Fall%202013_FINAL_tcm3-40525. pdf.


Appendix B

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Appendix B

Case Inventory

Case Inventory

Role of Key Participants:

PROCESS:

• • • • • •

Boston Transportation Department, Project Director Toole Design Group, Designer Utilen Inc. , Designer / Policy Charles River Watershed Association Boston Bikes Boston Parks and Rec Department

Financial Issues: • • • •

Design and construction funded by the City and listed in the City of Boston Capital Plan. City of Boston initiated projects are funded through the Capital Plan released annually by Boston’s Office of Budget Management. Note that the City’s Capital Plan may include funding only for planning and design of a project in anticipation of construction funding from federal and state sources Federal earmarks and projects in various bond bills are also routed through the Boston MPO. $15.5 million Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery, or TIGER discretionary grant, to fund alternative transportation projects under the “Connect Historic Boston” initiative. September 29, 2017 Lieutenant Governor Karyn Polito, Department of Transportation (MassDOT) Highway Administrator Jonathan Gulliver, members of the Legislature, and local officials announced the third round of awards through the Complete Streets Funding Program. $7.8 million to 22 communities

inventory information provided by Boston Complete Streets Guidelines

39


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Appendix B

Case Inventory

Case Inventory

PROCESS:

PROBLEM DEFINITION:

PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT • Format for Public Engagement

As the City explores new types of street and sidewalk configurations, there is also a need to explore new ways of engaging people in the design process. Conventional meeting formats are being supplemented with site walks, guided activities, and, where appropriate, easy-to-implement temporary projects to test new concepts before making a larger investment. The excitement around a community-initiated event can be the best way to bring a more diverse crowd into the conversation.

Process for Initiating

Inclusion in Public Process

Public Agency and Commission Approvals

Neighborhood groups can share ideas for new projects with the City in a number of ways: > Participate in neighborhood transportation planning public meetings > Contact your neighborhood services coordinator in the Mayor’s Office of Neighborhood Services > Write a letter to the Commissioner of Public Works or the Commissioner of Transportation All projects may not be funded immediately, but will be considered for future implementation. Many Complete Streets projects originate from insightful community comments. All projects should be guided by an extensive, open to the public, and well-advertised community process. Meetings should be held at each step of the project development process, from concept design through construction. Details of the level of community review and involvement are detailed later in this chapter. Final design approval of all projects impacting the public right-of-way is made by PWD’s PIC. The PIC consists of the Commissioners of PWD, BTD, Property Management, Inspectional Services (ISD), and the Executive Director of the BWSC.

41

Boston’s streets have evolved over centuries of growth and development. Winding streets in the North End and Dorchester contrast with the 19th century gridiron pattern of streets in the Back Bay and South Boston. Historic parkways and treelined boulevards link downtown with neighborhoods and main street districts. The result is a patchwork of iconic streets and squares, and an eminently walkable city. Framed by a mix of historic and modern architecture, and brought to life each day by a diverse population, each street in Boston has a distinctive flavor. This legacy of vibrant, walkable public spaces provides an ideal platform to explore new innovations in street design.

boston complete streets guide - 2013 vision

GOALS: • • • • • •

aims to improve the quality of life in Boston by creating streets that are both great places to live and sustainable transportation networks places pedestrians, bicyclist, and transit users on equal footing with motor vehicle users embraces innovative design strategies and technologies to address climate change and promote active healthy communities Multimodal Streets are designed for pedestrians of all ages and abilities,bicyclists, transit users and motor vehicle drivers. Multimodal designs ensure Boston’s streets are safe and shared comfortably by all users. Green Streets are energy efficient, easy to maintain, and include healthy trees, plants, and permeable surfaces to manage storm water. Design features encourage healthy, environmentally friendly, and sustainable use of Boston’s street network. Smart Streets are equipped with the physical and digital information infrastructure required to move all modes of transportation more efficiently, support alternatives such as car and bicycle share, and provide real-time data to facilitate trip planning,parking, and transfers between modes of transportation.


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Case Inventory

PROGRAM

PROGRAM (cont.):

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Case Inventory

PROGRAM DOWNTOWN COMMERCIAL STREET

PROGRAM DOWNTOWN MIXED USE

Downtown Commercial Streets define Boston’s dense commercial core. These Street Types are found primarily in the Financial District, Government Center, Chinatown, the Leather District, Back Bay, and the South Boston Waterfront. Containing a mix of mid- and high-rise office buildings, the streets serve as international cultural destinations and connect with highways and transit hubs that serve the Greater Boston region. These often iconic streets play a key role in the regional movement of people, and designs must support extremely high user volumes. Congestion, commercial vehicle traffic, and high volumes of pedestrians and bicycles, combined with relatively short blocks and numerous irregular intersections, make achieving the right modal balance a considerable challenge. Lined with a mix of centuries-old and modern building facades and grand lobbies, these streets require wide sidewalks which typically feature enhanced finishes and materials. Designs must also respect the historic significance of these streets.

Downtown Mixed-Use streets serve a more diverse variety of land uses than Downtown Commercial Streets. Found in the downtown neighborhoods such as Back Bay, Beacon Hill, North End, South End, Fort Point Channel, West End, and in the Kenmore Square and Fenway Park areas, these streets support a lively mix of retail, residential, office, and entertainment uses; this wide-range creates many of the city’s most dynamic public spaces. While usually smaller in scale than Downtown Commercial Streets, they similarly serve residents, visitors, and workers. They should support high levels of walking, bicycling, and transit, as well as support frequent parking turnover, including loading zones to foster economic vitality. On Downtown Mixed-Use Streets, a lively and visually stimulating public realm should be supported by greenscape, street furniture (i.e., benches, information kiosks, trash and recycling receptacles, etc.), outdoor cafés, plazas, and public art. Boston’s Downtown Mixed-Use Streets are where people live work and play.

Example Streets > Congress Street (Government Center/Financial District) > State Street (Government Center/Financial District) > Kneeland Street (Chinatown/Leather District) > Summer Street (Financial District/South Boston Waterfront) > Boylston Street (Back Bay)

Example Streets > Newbury Street (Back Bay) > Tremont Street (South End) > Salem Street (North End) > Brookline Avenue (Fenway)


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Case Inventory

Case Inventory

PROGRAM NEIGHBORHOOD MAIN STREET

PROGRAM NEIGHBORHOOD CONNECTOR

Neighborhood Main Streets are typically located in the heart of a residential part of the city. Characterized by dense singlefloor commercial and retail use, they are often concentrated in an area only a few blocks long. They are the nucleus of the city’s neighborhood economies, providing residents with daily essentials, locally-owned businesses, and services ranging from banking to dry cleaning. Similar to Downtown MixedUse Street Types, the curbside uses on Neighborhood Main Streets prioritize walking, bicycling, transit, and short-term parking access and loading for local shops and restaurants. Because these streets are a meeting ground for residents, they should be designed to support gathering and community events such as farmers’ markets and festivals. In addition they are characterized by public facilities such as libraries, as well as community and health centers. Many of Boston’s Neighborhood Main Streets are often the only through streets in a neighborhood, and are linked with well-known neighborhood squares, for example Dorchester Avenue and Peabody Square, or Dudley, Warren, and Washington Streets in Dudley Square. These streets and squares often serve as hubs for bus routes and as destinations for local walking and bicycling trips. In 1995, the City of Boston established the Boston Main Streets program, a community-based, public-private partnership designed to revitalize and strengthen local business districts through strong organizational development, community participation, resident and merchant education, and sustainable development. For more information on the Boston Main Streets program, visit the City of Boston’s website. (Note Neighborhood Main Streets can include corridors not currently participating in the Main Streets Program.) Example Streets > Dorchester Avenue (South Boston/Dorchester) > Center and South Streets (Jamaica Plain) > Dudley Street (Roxbury) > Birch Street and Roslindale Square (Roslindale) > Meridian Street, Maverick and Central Squares

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Appendix B

Neighborhood Connector Streets are through streets that traverse several neighborhoods and form the backbone of Boston’s multimodal street network. They provide continuous walking and bicycling routes and accommodate major bus routes. While they are essential to the flow of people between neighborhoods, the needs of people passing through must be balanced with the needs of those who live and work along the street. Neighborhood Connector Streets may be single or multi-lane streets. Land uses, speeds, and right-of-way widths can vary, and the street typology may change throughout the duration of the street. Design considerations include encouraging efficient movements of vehicle and transit traffic, continuous and comfortable bicycle facilities, wide sidewalks with sufficient buffers to motor vehicle traffic, and safe pedestrian crossings at intersections. Street lighting, tree plantings, street furniture, and other urban design elements should create a unifying identity for the entire street. Example Streets > Cummins Highway (Roslindale/Mattapan) > Washington Street (South End/Roxbury/Jamaica Plain) > Cambridge Street (Allston/Brighton) > Centre Street (West Roxbury/Roslindale/Jamaica Plain)


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Case Inventory

Case Inventory

PROGRAM NEIGHBORHOOD MAIN STREET

PROGRAM INDUSTRIAL

Neighborhood Residential Streets provide immediate access to Boston’s vast residential fabric of town houses, tripledeckers, and single family homes. They are used primarily for local trips and are characterized by lower vehicle and pedestrian volumes. They often have on-street residential permit parking. The primary role of Neighborhood Residential Streets is to contribute to a high quality of life for residents of the city. Typically they are not more than two travel lanes (one in each direction) and are not intended for through-traffic. The design of Residential Streets focuses on encouraging slow speeds. The emphasis is on pedestrian safety, space for children to play, ample street trees, and well defined walking and bicycling paths to nearby parks, bus stops, transit stations, community centers, and libraries. Neighborhood Residential Streets are excellent candidates for Neighborways as well as local community programming such as block parties. For more information about Neighborways, see Chapter 3, Roadways, Design Features that Reduce Operating Speeds.

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Appendix B

Industrial Streets are indispensable to Boston’s economy and support the manufacturing and commercial businesses that form Boston’s industrial base. Boston is committed to a “no net loss of industrial space” policy. These Industrial Streets support truck traffic and accommodate the loading and distribution needs of wholesale, construction, commercial, service, and food-processing businesses. They are typically located away from downtown and residential communities, and connect directly to the regional highway system and other distribution hubs such as Logan Airport, the Marine Industrial Park in South Boston, the Newmarket district, and Moran Terminal in Charlestown. Accommodation of truck traffic, including providing adequate turning radii at intersections, is a primary design consideration for these streets. While pedestrian use may be light, sidewalks and accessible accommodations must also be provided. Traffic volumes and congestion may be higher on Industrial Streets compared to more pedestrian-oriented streets. When designing Industrial Streets, consideration should be given to discourage and minimize cut-through traffic on residential streets in the surrounding neighborhoods. On these Street Types, it is important to consider the use of trees and greenscape specifically for phytoremediation, or the ability of plants to uptake and remove contaminates from the water, soil, and air. Example Streets > Harborside Drive (East Boston) > West First Street (South Boston)


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Case Inventory

Case Inventory

PROGRAM NEIGHBORHOOD MAIN STREET

PROGRAM PARKWAYS

A Shared Street is a street with a single grade or surface that is shared by people using all modes of travel at slow speeds. Curbs are removed, and the sidewalk is blended with the roadway. Speeds are slow enough to allow for pedestrians to intermingle with bicycles, motor vehicles, and transit. Shared Streets can support a variety of land uses, including commercial and retail activity, entertainment venues, restaurants, offices, and residences. They are unique spaces where people can slow down to enjoy the public realm, and create an environment where everyone must pay attention due to the organic movement of people. When designing Shared Streets, special consideration must be given to accommodating pedestrians with disabilities. Because Shared Streets are at one grade, materials can vary and street furnishings such as bollards, planters, street lights, and benches can be strategically placed to define edges. These streets are often surfaced with pavers or other types of decorative surface treatments. Overall, the primary design consideration for Shared Streets is maintaining slow vehicular speeds (no more than 15 mph) in order to minimize the potential for conflicts with pedestrians. Entrances to Shared Streets are usually raised and often narrowed to one lane in order to force drivers to slow before entering. Chicanes can be used to help regulate vehicular speeds along the length of the street, and can be formed using trees, benches, plantings, play areas, and parking areas that are laid out in an alternating pattern to deflect and slow traffic. If desired, Shared Streets may restrict access to personal vehicles but permit use by taxis, commercial vehicles, and buses. They may also incorporate Neighborway treatments. For more information about Neighborways, see Chapter 3, Roadways, Design Features that Reduce Operating Speeds. Example Streets > Winter Street (Downtown) > Cross Street (North End)

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Appendix B

Parkways are typically four lane higher-speed roads, characterized by long, uninterrupted stretches running parallel to Boston’s open space systems such as the Emerald Necklace and the Charles River. Many Parkways have historic elements, including continuous rows of trees and curbing adjacent to the parkland. As Parkways have fewer intersections, which is convenient for motor vehicles, the combination of higher speeds and longer distances between signalized crossings can make Parkways difficult for pedestrians and bicyclists to cross. At intersections along Parkways, it is extremely important to provide safe and accessible pedestrian and bicycle accommodations. Normally, Parkways do not provide transit accommodations or on-street parking, and sight lines are often limited due to hills and the curvature of the roadway. Typically, existing Parkways in the city are under the jurisdiction of the state.

Example Streets > West Roxbury Parkway (West Roxbury/Roslindale) > Riverway (Fenway/Mission Hill)


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Case Inventory

PROGRAM BOULEVARDS

PROGRAM

Boulevards, like Parkways, are defined by a grand scale and specific urban design characteristics such as wide sidewalks lined with street trees and furnishings. Boston has a rich heritage of these streets, with Commonwealth Avenue in the Back Bay being recognized as one of the nation’s premier Boulevards. They usually have a consistent design for the length of the corridor, often with wide planted medians or Greenscape/Furnishing Zones, and they connect important civic and natural places. Also, Boulevards often feature longer block lengths. Significant, mature tree cover, combined with promenades or median malls provide great walking and social spaces along Boulevards. Boulevards differ from Parkways in that they normally have buildings and active land uses along both sides of the street. Medians may also accommodate light rail or bus rapid transit service.

Example Streets > William J. Day Boulevard (South Boston) > Commonwealth Avenue (Back Bay/Fenway/Allston/Brighton) > Huntington Avenue (Fenway/South End)

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PROGRAM

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PROGRAM

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MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT:

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MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT:

UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS / INFRASTRUCTURE

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UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS / INFRASTRUCTURE

UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS / INFRASTRUCTURE

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UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS / INFRASTRUCTURE

UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS / INFRASTRUCTURE

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USE/USER ANALYSIS:

PERCEPTION AND MEANING:

• •

They are designed and operated to enable safe access for all users, including pedestrians, bicyclists, motorists and transit riders of all ages and abilities.

SITE PHOTOGRAPHS:

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Appendix B

The area maintains great justice for the historical impact in juxtaposition with modern architecture. There is potential to link greater means of transit throughout Southern Boston to have a more cohesive strategy.

SCALE:

TIME:

AUDUBON CIRCLE

• •

Audubon Circle is a historically significant gateway from the north into Boston and the Emerald Necklace park system. Located at the intersection of Beacon Street and Park Drive, Audubon Circle has a history of speeding and traffic accidents. The new design will improve safety by eliminating slip lanes, controlling left turns, and adding bicycle lanes on Beacon Street. A new urban design concept will re-emphasize the historic circle with benches, walls, trees and planters that will green the space and treat stormwater from the streets and sidewalks.

Throughout the years the project has steadily phased. There are ongoing investigations to see where the next implementation should take place.

The project is being designed by the City of Boston using state funding and has a construction budget of approximately $5.5 million.

BOYLSTON STREET

Boylston Street between Fenway Park and the Longwood Medical Area is a street in transition. Traditionally a mix of auto-oriented uses (fast food, motels and gas stations) and neighborhood convenience stores, the street is currently being redeveloped to include elegant, mixed use developments with street level restaurants and cafes, and upper story housing and office space. This redevelopment creates a unique opportunity to capture setback space to create wider sidewalks with street trees and other greenscape elements, in keeping with the Emerald Necklace that bookends the space, and to add bike lanes. The plan will unfold over time as redevelopment takes place in the coming years. The project is being designed by the City of Boston using state funding.

CAUSEWAY STREET

The key goals of the Causeway Street project are to transform the corridor into a great pedestrian-oriented boulevard, make it the anchor for the Bulfinch Triangle business and entertainment district, and reconnect the West End and North End neighborhoods. North Station and TD Garden, amongst Boston’s largest generators of pedestrian activity, are both located along Causeway Street. The design will improve traffic operations and safety, provide significant upgrades to existing bicycle accommodations, and improve pedestrian amenities and convenience. Lowell Square and Keany Square, which serve as book-ends to the corridor, process significant volumes of regional vehicular traffic. The block in between, however, processes significantly more pedestrian volumes. As a result, the design solutions for these areas differ from one another.

CENTRAL SQUARE

Central Square is a neighborhood main streets district in the heart of the East Boston community. Laid out in the days of horse and carriage, the square includes vast expanses of pavement and an oval park in the center that is difficult to access. The redesigned square will reclaim much of the pavement for pedestrian use by narrowing the streets, expanding the park, and widening the sidewalks to create spaces for outdoor seating, cafes, and greenscape elements. Traffic will be better organized and bike lanes will be added where possible to improve traffic flow and create a safer environment for cyclists. The design and construction of this project is funded by the City of Boston with a budget of $3.5

CENTER AND SOUTH STREETS

Centre and South Streets form Jamaica Plain’s primary small-business and community facilities spine. The Action Plan proposes a vision to sustain and enhance the corridor’s unique identity and details streetscape guidelines to inform future public and private projects. New concept designs are proposed for Monument Square, Hyde Square and the Mozart Park area to widen sidewalks, create shorter crosswalks, address congestion, introduce greenery and highlight historic monuments and public art. A key early action was the implementation of bikeway facilities along the entire corridor in Fall 2010. Final Draft of the Center and South Street Streetscape and Transportation Action Plan


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Appendix B Case Inventory

MELNEA CASS BOULEVARD

The Boston Transportation Department is working with the Roxbury community to redesign Melnea Cass Boulevard with the goal of making it a neighborhood friendly corridor. The scope includes the development of roadway and streetscape designs that create a pedestrian friendly environment, ensure efficient traffic flow, accommodate transit vehicles and bicycles and promote economic development.

The schedule for completion of 100% design plans is estimated to be Spring 2013.

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Case Inventory

PEABODY SQUARE

Located at one of Dorchester Avenue’s principle crossroads, Peabody Square is re-emerging as a center for community life with thriving restaurants, new housing and a refurbished Ashmont Station. The new design will realign Talbot Avenue to create a plaza for outdoor cafes, emphasize the historic clock tower at the center of the intersection with expanded greenspace, and improve pedestrian safety and bicycle lane connections along Dorchester Avenue. Pervious sidewalks and rain gardens are being installed as part of this project. The street realignments will significantly improve traffic flow Building on the conclusions of the Roxbury Strategic Master Plan and the Urban Ring Phase 2 DEIR, in the area. the design will progress in collaboration with the Roxbury and other surrounding communities and with all relevant city and state agencies, neighborhood groups and corridor abutters. Coordination The project was designed by the City of Boston and is being constructed by MassDOT using ARRA with the designs for the South Bay Harbor Trail and development of BRA parcels 8, 9, and 10 will be funding crucial to the advancement of the project. The initial City of Boston investment of $600,000 for design is being supported by available federal earmark and state matching funds for construction in the range of approximately 7.5 million dollars.

Appendix B

ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY: •

• • • •

> Reduced pollution to rivers and the harbor: Stormwateris the main source of pollution to Massachusetts’ waters. When rain falls, it washes pollutants from the roads, lawns,and built environment into local waterways. Stormwater can also cause overflows of “combined” sewers—sewerpipes that carry both sanitary sewage and stormwater in the same pipe. Reducing the amount of stormwater runoff from urban areas will reduce pollution from direct runoff and from combined sewer overflows. Phytoremediation, or the use of plants to filter pollutants, is another benefit of vegetated stormwater management techniques. > Decreased flooding: By capturing more stormwater in trees and vegetation and by recharging more of it back into the ground, there will be less street flooding and lower peak flows, which often cause flooding of local streams and low lying areas. > Increased groundwater recharge: Healthy vegetation and porous soils dramatically increase how much rainfall filters into the soil instead of running off into storm drains. Increasing recharge and decreasing runoff can help maintain Boston’s groundwater levels. > Reduced energy use: When stormwater flows into the combined sewer system, it is carried out to the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, where it is treated and discharged out into Massachusetts Bay as if it were sanitary sewage. Keeping stormwater out of the sewer system 4reduces the use of energy to pump and treat this water. Increased urban vegetation can also reduce ambient air temperatures, reducing the demand for air conditioning


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Appendix B

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COMMUNITY:

IMPACT ON PROFESSION: •

Reasons for community involvement

• • • • • • •

Wide, attractive sidewalks and well-defined bike routes, where appropriate to community context, encourage healthy and active lifestyles among residents of all ages.6 Complete Streets can provide children with opportunities to reach nearby destinations in a safe and supportive environment. A variety of transportation options allow everyone – particularly people with disabilities and older adults – to get out and stay connected to the community. Multi-modal transportation networks help communities provide alternatives to sitting in traffic. A better integration of land use and transportation through a Complete Streets process creates an attractive combination of buildings – houses, offices, shops – and street designs. National Complete Streets Coalition ! 1707 L St. NW Suite 250 ! Washington, DC 20036 ! 202-207-3355 Designing a street with pedestrians in mind – sidewalks, raised medians, better bus stop placement, traffic-calming measures, and treatments for travelers with disabilities – may reduce pedestrian risk by as much as 28 percent.7 A livable community is one that preserves resources for the next generation: Complete Streets help reduce carbon emissions and are an important part of a climate change strategy.

LESSONS LEARNED: • • • • • •

Prioritize safety improvements in areas where fatal and injury related crashes have been concentrated Reallocate street space to prioritize moving people safely rather than faster Provide people-focused service Implement designs that make streets safer for people who walk and bike Substantially reduce collisions on every street through education, enforcement, and designs that reallocate street space to prioritize moving people safely rather than faster Make Boston’s neighborhoods interconnected for all modes of travel to aid disadvantaged areas


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Appendix C

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References

References

Anita Chandra. “Creating a Healthier, More Equitable Community.” Building a National Culture of Health: Background, Action Framework, Measures, and Next Steps. 2016. Antti Vasanen. “Functional Polycentricity: Examining Metropolitan Spatial Structure through the Connectivity of Urban Sub-centres.” Urban Studies, Vol. 49, No, December 2012.

Heidi Garrett. “Pedestrian and Bicycle Infrastructure: A National Study of Employment Impacts..” Political Economy Research Institute at UMASS, 2011.

Barbara McCann. “Complete Streets: Best Policy and Implementation Principles.” APA. 2017. https://www.planning.org/publications/report/9026883/

Indiana University Public Policy Institute. “Assessment of the Impact of the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick.” School of Public and Environmental Affairs. 2015. http://indyculturaltrail.org.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/15-C02-CulturalTrail-Assessment.pdf. James C. O’Connell. “The Hub’s metropolis : greater Boston’s development from railroad suburbs to smart growth.” Cambridge, Mas sachusetts, MIT Press, 2013.

Borja Ruiz-Apilanez. “Beyond Lively Streets.” Suburban Urbanities: Suburbs and the Life of the High Street Edition 1. 2015.

John Ritter. “Complete Streets Program gives more room for pedestrians, cyclists.” USA Today, 2008.

Boston Department of Transportation, “Boston Bike Network Plan,” Boston Bikes, 2013, https://www.cityofboston.gov/images_documents/Boston%20Bike%20Network%20Plan%2C%20Fall%202013_FINAL_tcm3-40525.pdf.

“Love Where You Live.” Placemaking Indiana. April 11, 2017. https://placemakingindiana.wordpress.com/2017/04/11/trail-usage-and-its-economic-impact/

Boston Department of Transportation. “Boston Complete Streets Guidelines.” Boston Complete Streets Initiative. 2013. http://bostoncompletestreets.org/pdf/2013/BCS_Guidelines.pdf.

Matthew G. E. Mitchell. “Linking Landscape Connectivity and Ecosystem Service Provision.” Ecosystems, Vol. 16, No. 5, August 2013.

Boston Globe Media Partners, “Cultural Aspects of Boston,” boston.com, 2017, https://www.boston.com/section/culture. City of Ames, City of Gilbert, Boone County, and Story County. “Ames Urban Fringe Plan.” City of Ames. July 2006. http://www.cityofames.org/home/showdocument?id=2404. Department of Urban and Regional Planning. “Rural Urban Fringe.” December 2013. https://www.slideshare.net/praneethenfield/rural-urban-fringe-29206636. Elizabeth Kneebone, “Urban and Suburban Poverty: The Changing Geography of Disadvantage,” PennIUR, 2013, http://penniur.upenn.edu/publications/urban-and-suburban-poverty-the-changing-geography-of-disadvantage. Friend of Improvement. “The Bostom Common, or Rural Walks in the cities.” Boston, Massachusetts, G.W. Light, 1938. Gene + Marilyn Glick. “Economic Impact Figures.” Indy Culture. 2015. http://indyculturaltrail.org/2015/07/23/economic-impact-figures-released/. Gene + Marilyn Glick. “Indianpolis Cultural Trail.” Indy Culture. 2017. http://indyculturaltrail.org/.

National Association of City Transportation Officials. “All Guides.” 2017. https://nacto.org/publications/design-guides/. National Complete Streets Coalition, “Benefits of Complete Streets,” Smart Growth America, 2010, https://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/app/legacy/documents/cs/factsheets/cs-livable.pdf. National Complete Streets Coalition. “The Best Complete Street Policies of 2015.” Smart Growth America. 2016. https://smartgrowthamerica.org/app/uploads/2016/08/best-cs-policies-of-2015.pdf. National Complete Streets Coalition. “Complete Streets.” Smart Growth America. 2017. https://smartgrowthamerica.org/program/national-complete-streets-coalition/. Paul O’Leary. “Diversity on the Streets.” Claiming the Streets: Procession and Urban Culture. University of Wales Press, 2012. “Rethinking Streets.” 2017 www.rethinkingstreets.com.


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References

S Braaker. “Assessing habitat connectivity for ground-dwelling animals in an urban environment.” Ecological Applications, Vol. 24, No. 7, October 2014. Smart Growth America; National Complete Streets Coalition (2016). “Context Sensitivity and Implementation” (PDF). The Best Complete Streets Policies of 2015. Street Plans Collaborative. “Tactical Urbanism Vol. 1.” Issu. March 12, 2012. http://www.issu.com/. US Climate Data, “Climate Boston - Massachusetts,” US climate data, 2017, https://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/boston/massachusetts/united-states/usma0046. Victor Dover. “Street design : the art and practice of making complete streets.” Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

Boston Complete Streets Analysis  

an urban and contextual analysis based on the thesis of how the fundamental design strategies of complete streets can be applied the distric...

Boston Complete Streets Analysis  

an urban and contextual analysis based on the thesis of how the fundamental design strategies of complete streets can be applied the distric...

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