DMMO's Virtual Festival program

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2020 Virtual Festival 47TH SEASON


Grinnell College Museum of Art welcomes you to explore our exhibitions, collections and new ways of engaging. Visit our website and follow us on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube for images, activities, and videos. We look forward to welcoming you to the Museum when we reopen. Website: grinnell.edu/museum Facebook: Grinnell College Museum of Art Instagram: @gcmuseumofart Twitter: @GCMuseumofArt YouTube: Grinnell College Museum of Art

Image: RECENT ACQUISITION Nate Lewis, American, b. 1985. Signalling XVII, 2019. Hand sculpted paper inkjet print and ink, 26 x 40 inches Grinnell College Museum of Art Collection. Image Š Nate Lewis, courtesy Fridman Gallery, New York


34 MANON

42 BON APPÉTIT!

46 RUSALKA

54 BILLY BUDD

62 LE COMTE ORY

THE LAURIDSEN FAMILY FOUNDATION IS THE PRESENTING SPONSOR OF DES MOINES METRO OPERA’S VIRTUAL FESTIVAL

CONTENTS 3 CALENDAR 5 7 9

FROM THE GENERAL DIRECTOR FROM IOWA PBS BOARD OF DIRECTORS/ADMINISTRATION STAFF

11

2020 FESTIVAL STAFF

14

YEAR IN REVIEW

34

MANON

13 GUILD 16 42 46 54

SIGNAL BOOSTING

62

LE COMTE ORY

76

VIRTUAL FESTIVAL STAFF

70 ARTISTS 78 80

82 89 90

IN MEMORIAM FOUNDATION AND INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT ANNUAL FUND GIFTS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PRODUCTION HISTORY

92 INDEX

BON APPÉTIT! RUSALKA BILLY BUDD

General and Artistic Director MICHAEL EGEL Music Director and Principal Conductor DAVID NEELY

OUR MISSION

Create distinctive theatrical experiences and inspirational learning opportunities for artists and audiences of the 21st century.

INSPIRE diverse audiences through statewide educational programs and unique community collaborations. ENCOURAGE established and emerging artists and administrators to produce their best work through a creative, inclusive environment. CURATE innovative repertory from four centuries of composition presented at the highest levels of artistic and vocal achievement IMPACT the economic vitality of the Greater Des Moines region through programming that generates national and international tourism.



Virtual

FESTIVAL CALENDAR

FACEBOOK.COM/DESMOINESMETROOPERA | YOUTUBE.COM/USER/DESMOINESMETROOPERA | ALL TIMES ARE CDT

JUNE 16-19

7PM, APPRENTICE SPOTLIGHT | Facebook, YouTube

JUNE 24

7PM, MAESTRO'S MUSINGS: MANON | YouTube

JUNE 25

7PM, DIRECTOR'S INSIGHTS: MANON | YouTube

JUNE 26

7PM, CATCHING UP WITH THE CAST: MANON | Facebook, YouTube

2PM, ARTIST RECITAL WITH JOYCE CASTLE | Facebook, YouTube 7PM, TURANDOT | Iowa Public Radio, iowapublicradio.org

JUNE 27

1:15PM, MANON PRELUDE TALK | YouTube 2PM, MANON | Iowa PBS, iowapbs.org, Facebook, YouTube 4:30PM, BON APPÉTIT! | Iowa PBS, iowapbs.org, Facebook, YouTube

JUNE 28

JULY 1

7PM, MAESTRO'S MUSINGS: RUSALKA | YouTube

JULY 2

7PM, ARTIST RECITAL WITH SARA GARTLAND | Facebook, YouTube

JULY 3

7PM, CATCHING UP WITH THE CAST: RUSALKA | Facebook, YouTube

JULY 4

7PM, DON PASQUALE | Iowa Public Radio, iowapublicradio.org

1:15PM, RUSALKA PRELUDE TALK | YouTube 2PM, RUSALKA | Iowa PBS, iowapbs.org, Facebook, YouTube

JULY 5

JULY 8

7PM, MAESTRO'S MUSINGS: BILLY BUDD | YouTube

JULY 9

7PM, DIRECTOR'S INSIGHTS: BILLY BUDD | YouTube

JULY 10

7PM, CATCHING UP WITH THE CAST: BILLY BUDD | Facebook, YouTube

JULY 11

7PM, FLIGHT | Iowa Public Radio, iowapublicradio.org

1:15PM, BILLY BUDD PRELUDE TALK | YouTube 2PM, BILLY BUDD | Iowa PBS, iowapbs.org, Facebook, YouTube

JULY 12

JULY 15

7PM, STARS OF TOMORROW | Facebook, YouTube

JULY 16

1PM, LE COMTE ORY INSIGHTS | YouTube

JULY 17

7PM, CATCHING UP WITH THE CAST: LE COMTE ORY | Facebook, YouTube

JULY 18

7PM, EUGENE ONEGIN | Iowa Public Radio, iowapublicradio.org

1:15PM, LE COMTE ORY PRELUDE TALK | YouTube 2PM, LE COMTE ORY | Iowa PBS, iowapbs.org, Facebook, YouTube

JULY 19

3



From the

GENERAL DIRECTOR I grew up in Algona in the north central part of Iowa. Opera wasn’t a widely popular pastime there, so I’m often asked about how I came to be involved in this art form. Memories that come immediately to mind are singing a small role in Amahl and the Night Visitors in a local holiday production in high school. Or attending DMMO’s 1992 production of Der Rosenkavalier—which, while beautiful, is not a logical first choice. But these are not my first memories. The real answer dates back to 1988. I was a 15-year-old kid flipping through TV channels when I came across a broadcast of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville by DMMO and Iowa PBS. I paused to watch the entire performance. What stands out in my memory most are the intermission interviews with Doug Duncan, then managing director, and Robert L. Larsen. I probably had no idea what they were talking about, but I couldn’t turn away. Their passion, intensity and sincerity about the Company and the art form had me spellbound and this stuck with me. Could this art form have a place for me? Life has a funny way of turning out. Thanks to DMMO and courtesy of Iowa PBS, this Iowan first found a community where he could belong. I’m grateful to Judy Blank and the entire team at Iowa PBS for stepping in to enable us to still be with you this summer through the Virtual Festival, offered in creative response to a public health crisis. Over 40 years ago, our organizations were in the vanguard of broadcasting live opera to Iowa audiences at home, and they’ve been with us ever since. Now, in addition to television broadcasts, five productions will be available online for streaming anywhere in the world, allowing us to view our organization in global terms. They are our heroes. Even though we can’t be together in person, there is still reason to celebrate. To begin with, our family of donors and board members have maintained their steadfast support for our new digital efforts. Our patrons responded by converting 65% of purchased ticket dollars into contributions to the annual fund. The generosity from in front of the curtain made it possible for us to take care of those behind the scenes. I’m proud to say that our Company has honored each and every contract for over 200 company members—principal singers, apprentices, production personnel, conductors, designers, directors and orchestra musicians. Our support of artists is critical at this time, and they have responded in kind. The generosity of our entire DMMO family has never been more on display, and we should all be proud of what we’ve done together. We also have more work to do. I hope you’ll stay tuned for exciting news and work we plan to do in the future! My hope this summer is that through this Virtual Festival, Des Moines Metro Opera will reach even more people for whom beautiful music and powerful theatre will be a much needed lifeline. And that just as I did, maybe more people than ever might find a place where they too can belong.

Michael Egel General and Artistic Director

5



From

IOWA PBS Iowa PBS is delighted to partner with Des Moines Metro Opera to bring this Virtual Festival to Iowa televisions and worldwide streaming audiences this summer. Iowa PBS’s vision is to enrich lives. One way we do that is by providing the best seats in the house for music, theatre, dance and the arts. The arts enrich our minds, inspire our hearts and lift our spirits, offering us so much more than entertainment. They connect us to each other, and today connection has never seemed more essential. Our Virtual Festival will transport audiences to the lavish world of 18th century France with Jules Massenet’s Manon, the dark fairytale world of Antonín Dvořák’s Rusalka, on board the battleship HMS Indomitable in Benjamin Britten’s Billy Budd, and to the 12th century French castle of Gioachino Rossini’s Le Comte Ory. Opera fans will experience these stunning, rarely performed masterpieces on Sundays, June 28 through July 19 via our broadcasts and on demand for the first time via iowapbs.org, the PBS Video App, Facebook and YouTube. These four encore DMMO performances were expertly recorded by our award winning production team, making them DMMO fan favorites and soon-to-be worldwide opera fan favorites. While it would normally be bad form to chat throughout a performance, online viewers will be encouraged to interact each week using the Facebook and YouTube live chat functions. Audiences on social media may look forward to connecting with fans across the state and the globe and may even be treated to some surprise special guests! Thank you to the Daniel and Ann Krumm Charitable Trust and the Iowa PBS Foundation for making this Virtual Festival possible. It aligns with our ongoing goals to enrich the lives of Iowans, elevate understanding by opening the world to everyone, and help our viewers in discovering the human element in us all. Sincerely,

Molly Phillips Executive Director, Iowa PBS

Daniel J. and Ann L. Krumm Charitable Trust

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Des Moines Metro Opera

LEADERSHIP

BOARD of DIRECTORS OFFICERS

President SUSAN E. VOSS President-elect VIRGINIA CROSKERY LAURIDSEN Vice-president DARREN JIRSA Treasurer KAREN SHINN

Secretary EMILY PONTIUS At-large MOLLIE BAKER At-large JOSHUA KIMELMAN Counsel to the Board JAMES H. GILLIAM

DIRECTORS PAMELA BASS-BOOKEY KATE CAREY ELIZABETH CARTER CARRIE CLOGG ELIZABETH FREESE SCOTT HARRINGTON TIMOTHY J. KRUMM MARLA LACEY DYLAN LAMPE LIZ LIDGETT

NANCY MAIN * ADRIENNE MCFARLAND * ANN J. MICHELSON SCOTT NAIG CRAIG SHADUR * CHERIE SHRECK * STEPHEN STEPHENSON SHEILA TIPTON * JOHN WILD JULIA HAGEN (EX-OFFICIO)

FOUNDATION BOARD of TRUSTEES OFFICERS

President CRAIG SHADUR * President-elect SUSAN E. VOSS Treasurer DENISE WIELAND Secretary BARBARA CAPPAERT

TRUSTEES HARRY BOOKEY VIRGINIA CROSKERY LAURIDSEN WILLIAM LOZIER ADRIENNE MCFARLAND * DIANE MORAIN COLIN PENNYCOOKE JOHN SCHMIDT

HONORARY DIRECTORS MARY BEH PAT BROWN FRANK R. BROWNELL III JAMES M. COLLIER PATTY COWNIE* ARDENE DOWNING DOROTHY ELY JAMES ERICKSON* CHUCK FARR* JUDY FLAPAN BARBARA GARTNER* JO GHRIST BRYAN HALL

CHARLOTTE HUBBELL* SHIRLIE KATZENBERGER MARY KELLY* LINDA KOEHN* JERILEE MACE NANCY MAIN* ELVIN MCDONALD JAMES O'HALLORAN* JANIS RUAN MARY SEIDLER* CHERIE SHRECK* MARILYN VERNON* JUDY WATSON

* Past President of the Board

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May life provide you with curtain calls.

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Administrative

STAFF

General and Artistic Director MICHAEL EGEL

Art Director KIMBERLY DRAGELEVICH

Music Director and Principal Conductor DAVID NEELY

Patron Services Manager DENNIS HENDRICKSON

Anniversary Projects Director ELLEN DIEHL

Development Officer and Network Administrator ADAM BOGH

Director of Development TIMOTHY MCMILLIN

Administrative Assistant CHARI KRUSE

Director of Business and Finance ELAINE RALEIGH

Orchestra Personnel and Operations Manager MARK DORR

Director of Marketing and Public Relations SCOTT ARENS

Director of the Apprentice Artist Program LISA HASSON

Artistic Administrator and Education Director SAMUEL CARROLL

Artistic Director Emeritus and Founder ROBERT L. LARSEN

Director of Production JIM LILE

Assistant to the General Director MICHAEL PATTERSON

Des Moines Metro Opera 106 West Boston Avenue Indianola, IA 50125-1836 P: (515) 961-6221 E: dmmo@dmmo.org W: desmoinesmetroopera.org

facebook.com/DesMoinesMetroOpera instagram.com/DesMoinesMetroOpera twitter.com/DesMoinesOpera youtube.com/user/DesMoinesMetroOpera SHARE YOUR DMMO EXPERIENCE

#dmmo A PROUD MEMBER OF

WITH PUBLIC FUNDING FROM



2020 Festival VIOLIN Concertmaster Eliot Heaton Assistant Concertmaster Lijia Phang Principal Second Pei-Ju Wu Emelyn Bashour Ellen Chamberlain John Helmich Chia-Li Ho Juan C. Jaramillo B. Solomon Liang Nonoko Okada Dawn Posey Edward Pulgar Mary Pulgar Caroline Slack Koko Watanabe

PERSONNEL BASS CLARINET Randall Cunningham E-Chen Hsu BASSOON Principal Debra Loh Matt Lano HORN Principal Erin Lano Mike Daly Amy Krueger Mike Wilson TRUMPET Principal Samuel Huss Donald Creech

VIOLA Principal Elizabeth Oka Christine Prince Erica Schwartz Kurt Tseng CELLO Principal Kevin Kunkel Seth Biagini Hilary Glen Schuyler Slack BASS Principal Jeremy C. Baguyos

TROMBONE Principal Timothy Howe Evan Silloway TUBA Principal Michael Short TIMPANI Principal Andrew Nowak PERCUSSION Principal Mark Dorr

John Tuck FLUTE/PICCOLO Principal Luke Fitzpatrick Alyssa Griggs Kimberly Helton OBOE/ENGLISH HORN Principal Lillian Copeland Leonid Sirotkin CLARINET Principal Sergey Gutorov E-Chen Hsu

ORCHESTRA PERSONNEL AND OPERATIONS MANAGER Mark Dorr MUSIC LIBRARIANS Mark Dorr Cynthia Stacy VIOLIN SEATING IS BASED UPON A ROTATION CYCLE FOR MAINSTAGE SHOWS.

APPRENTICE ARTISTS Brandon Bell Elana Bell Georgia Belmont Cara Bender Michael Butler Cierra Byrd Gabrielle Clutter Peter Scott Drackley Ashley Fabian Véronique Filloux Andrew Gilstrap Dylan Gregg Evan Hammond Symone Harcum Nathaniel Hill Jonah Hoskins Georgia Jacobson Kate Johnson Cadie Jordan Craig Juricka Senhica Klee Jordan Krack Claire Lopatka Quinn Middleman Darrius Morton Kellie Motter Briana Moynihan John Kun Park Bridget Ravenscraft Emma Rothfield Adrian Sanchez Alexander Scheuermann Kellen Schrimper Amanda Sheriff James Stevens Nicole Thomas Andrew Turner Maria Vasilevskaya Samantha Williams Ryan Wolfe Yangjunlog (Frankie) Li Jason Zacher MUSIC AND DIRECTING STAFF Andrew Altenbach Joshua Borths Tessa Hartle Lisa Hasson William Hobbs Jesse Leong Isaac Lerner Elden Little Kristine McIntyre David Neely Yasuko Oura Matthew Ozawa Frances Rabalais

Chas Rader-Shieber Todd Rhoades Kimberly Roberts Dylan Sauerwald Colter Schoenfish Daniel Seth Marcus Shields Gary Thor Wedow Chong Zheng DANCERS Calvin Bittner Anna Pinault PRINCIPALS Corey Bix John Brancy Jonathan Burton Joyce Castle Ben Edquist Alexander Elliott Sara Gartland Zachary James Grace Kahl Joseph Lattanzi Josh Lovell Zachary Nelson Cody Quattlebaum Zoie Reams Christian Sanders Lucy Schaufer Carolyn Sproule Taylor Stayton Elizabeth Sutphen Wayne Tigges Brian Vu DESIGNERS Kate Ashton Phoebe Bock R. Keith Brumley Jacob A. Climer Adam Crinson Jacob Hughes Jonathan Knipscher Heather Lesieur Sarah Norton Sarah Riffle Calvin Stara Nate Wheatley

Keaton Harper Kaylah Hicok Chris Hillhouse Matthew Hrdlicka Piper Kleinberg Brett Logsdon Ryland Mandel Itzel Martinez James Ogle Julius Sanchez Michelle Silva William Sweeney Trevion Walker PRODUCTION Karl Anderson Brian August Alexandra Bell Sarah Bennett Carson Bishop Hannah Boner Caitlyn Buja Irina Christel Jeffrey Clark Emma Cooney Kendall Dayton Sadie DeSantis Steven Doucette Christina Dragan-Dima Meg Edwards Alena Efremova Brittany Essen Mitchell Gavin Beth Goodill Lauren Hawley Brandon Hearrell Natalie Hining Duncan Kennedy Emily King Jim Lile Brandon Loper Nick Mayhugh Suki McCarty Stacey Olson Emily Rosenkrantz Hendrick Shelton Michelle Sparks Lauren Wickett David Willmore

INTERNS Taylor Bartoski Andrea Benn Catherine Bryan Marlee Claassen Jesse Curvin Allison Gammons Erin Haeder

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Des Moines Metro Opera

GUILD

GUILD COUNCIL

Ames Chapter

Des Moines Chapter

President JULIA HAGEN Treasurer CHRIS URWIN Council Members MATT HUTH HANNAH MOELLER MARILU RAMAN JOAN TYLER

President MARILU RAMAN Secretary BARBARA BROWN Treasurer SUE RAVENSCROFT Membership JANE FARRELL-BECK

President MATT HUTH Treasurer WENDY SAMUELSON Membership DENNIS HENDRICKSON MELINDA HENDRICKSON

Volunteer of the Year NANCY MAIN Comprised of over 300 opera enthusiasts, the Des Moines Metro Opera Guild provides the Company with invaluable volunteer, educational and financial support—both during and in preparation for the festival season. With chapters in Ames, Des Moines, Indianola, and Newton, Des Moines Metro Opera enjoys a volunteer reach that spans over an 80mile radius from its home office. Together, these four chapters make up a corps of volunteers that work tirelessly all year to assist the opera in many ways—from acting as official greeters during events to offering valuable adult learning events to sponsoring arias concerts for communities during the OPERA Iowa season. To learn more about the Guild or to become a member, contact the DMMO office at (515) 961-6221.

The year started with a well-attended Potluck Overture in mid-September where chapter members were introduced to DMMO's Director of Development, Tim McMillin. Throughout the year, they enjoyed the presentations of “It’s All Music, Right?” by McMillin, “Selections from Viardot’s Cendrillon” by ISU Opera Studio students, “Different Voice Types,” “Operas by Händel” by Jean Meek, and previews by V.V. Raman on The Queen of Spades and Sue Ravenscroft on Sweeney Todd.

The Des Moines Chapter held many community events reaching a wide variety of audiences that included guild members and Friends of the Guild. They kicked off the fall with the Opera Trivia Night with Nick Renkoski. The annual Holiday Party brought more people together to celebrate the world of opera. In February the Chapter hosted Zack James at a recital Plymouth Congregational Church. This was an incredible event that was very well attended. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, their last event was the Martinis in March fundraiser.

Indianola Chapter

Newton Chapter

President HANNAH MOELLER Vice-president MELODY CLUTTER Secretary ADAM BRADLEY Treasurer ARLEN SCHRUM Membership CHARI KRUSE

President JOAN TYLER Vice-president VIRGINIA BENNETT Secretary JANE ANN COTTON Treasurer KAY FISHER

The Indianola Chapter’s fall and winter months were filled to the brim with fun events, programs and fundraisers that enriched and entertained its members and the Indianola community. The chapter kicked off the season with a meet and greet at the newly renovated Lauridsen Opera Center, followed by a fascinating lecture on the history of DMMO presented by founder Robert L. Larsen in October. The annual Champagne Brunch and Bingo Benefit brought the community together in November for prizes, great food, and live opera entertainment. Chapter members enjoyed a season preview by Michael Egel in January, followed by the OPERA Iowa welcome potluck in February, which ended up being the final event of the year.

Our season began with the Kick-Off Potluck Dinner held at Park Centre, with DMMO's Scott Arens providing a presentation and entertainment. In October, Dr. Michael Patterson presented a poignant program of recollections and beautiful piano music. The annual Christmas Party, filled with mounds of food, joyful laughter, and incredible holiday decorations, took place at the country home of Steve Farver and Eric Lindberg. Additional pleasure was provided by the opera previews of Michael Egel and Sam Carroll for Platée and The Queen of Spades, respectively. These previews, so expertly done, brought to mind visions of heartfelt melodies, beautiful singing, amazing staging and costumes and the sincere joy of being present for it all.

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2020 Season

YEAR IN REVIEW

The Human Voice January 31, February 2, 2020 The Human Voice (La voix humaine), by composer Francis Poulenc, is a one-woman tour-de-force starring mezzo-soprano and DMMO audience favorite Elise Quagliata singing the role of Elle. The one-act opera followed a woman on the phone with her lover, navigating the emotional turmoil of lost love and the difficult process of a relationship coming to an end. As part of the 2nd Stages Series initiative, The Human Voice was fully produced in the intimate Viking Theatre at Grand View University and also featured a reception with the artist and a themed gallery show by students in the art department.

OPERA Iowa February-March, 2020 In early February Des Moines Metro Opera was thrilled to welcome the 2020 OPERA Iowa Educational Touring Troupe to Indianola. For some, this was their very first experience in the Midwest. The troupe spent the month rehearsing productions of Little Red’s Most Unusual Day and Mozart’s The Magic Flute while also working in a mock classroom setting to prepare educational music workshops. In March they began their statewide tour bringing the magic of live performance to communities from Ottumwa to Muscatine. After only two weeks on the road, the tour was unexpectedly cut short as the Company responded to the COVID-19 pandemic, but not before capturing remarkable performances on video that have been shared with students and families across the state and beyond.

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Zachary James on Broadway! February 16, 2020 Plymouth Church, Des Moines A DMMO audience favorite and former Des Moines resident returned to perform in this annual concert. The afternoon featured Broadway and musical theatre favorites, with Scott Arens at the piano. Zachary made his debut on DMMO's mainstage as Claggart in Billy Budd and was Vodník in Rusalka—both operas are being broadcast as part of the Virtual Festival. Zachary was also the Immigration Officer in Flight and the Doctor in Wozzeck.

Wine, Food & Beer Showcase February 21, 2020 Downtown Des Moines Marriott Another record year marked Des Moines Metro Opera's annual Wine, Food & Beer Showcase. The event has become a yearly favorite for foodies, oenophiles and beer lovers alike. In addition to unlimited tastings from over 45 of the finest restaurants, caterers, wineries, breweries and distilleries in the area, patrons took part in a raffle and silent auction filled with one-of-a-kind packages, as well as the popular Reserve Experience.

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Signal Boosting

The partnership between Iowa PBS and Des Moines Metro Opera has been influential to audiences for over 40 years. BY MARK THOMAS KETTERSON

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THE AMERICAN CULTURAL landscape was dealt a devastating blow in 2020 as performing arts organizations across the nation were forced to cancel summer festival seasons due to the ravages of COVID-19. Great challenges can engender resourceful intervention, however, and thinking outside the box has long been what Des Moines Metro Opera is all about. This season, in lieu of an in-house festival as originally envisioned, DMMO is partnering with their friends at Iowa PBS to share online and televised presentations of the company’s recent productions of Billy Budd, Rusalka, Manon, Le Comte Ory and Bon Appétit! These awardwinning broadcasts are being made available outside of Iowa for the first time. The opportunity to finally share these exquisite productions with audiences around the world is an exciting event in DMMO history and also provides an intriguing look at the company’s industrious interface with Iowa’s public broadcasting system—an innovative collaboration that now numbers over 40 years. The development of televised opera has involved a tricky dance between investment and return. In December of 1952, the Metropolitan Opera broadcast a full-length performance of Bizet’s Carmen, which was seen at 31 movie theaters, coast-to-coast, and transmitted for home viewing via closed-circuit television. The results were encouraging enough that a second attempt was made two years later, this time with a pastiche of acts from four different operas. The effort proved to be tremendously

expensive, however, and critics noted that the required compromise of the in-house performance seemed a high price to pay for television images that were barely watchable. Then in 1971 the New York City Opera, astutely capitalizing on the popularity of their star diva Beverly Sills, attempted a color telecast of Rimsky-Korsakov’s rarely-staged Le Coq d’Or. It looked like a new era of performance distribution—at least until the actual broadcast, which sadly emerged in various shades of green (a bootleg of the performance has circulated in good old, dependable black-and-white). Subsequent years saw a few further fits and starts until finally, on March 15, 1977, the Metropolitan Opera debuted its “Live from the Met” series with a successful, and stunning, performance of Puccini’s La Bohème. A new age had dawned. In 1979, a scant two years after the Met’s triumph, Des Moines Metro Opera entered the television arena with a performance of Benjamin Britten’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream shown throughout the state on Iowa Public Television (now Iowa PBS). That a small regional company in the Midwest would so quickly jump onto this extremely complicated bandwagon is nothing short of extraordinary. It was all part of DMMO company co-founder Robert L. Larsen’s determination to show the world that there was more going on in Iowa than, in the words of DMMO board member Timothy J. Krumm, “corn and caucuses.”

Krumm’s parents were passionate supporters of the arts and eager to support Larsen in launching a relationship with public television. "My parents, Dan and Ann Krumm, were big fans of both Iowa Public Television and Des Moines Metro Opera," Krumm recalls. “Their involvement and support of these organizations go back long before I can remember. I do know that my parents' passion for Iowa PBS was really born from a love for the state of Iowa. Mom and Dad loved to travel and experience arts and culture around the world. This only strengthened their appreciation for the quality of life we have here. They saw Iowa PBS as an outstanding service to Iowans and a showcase of what they loved about our state.” DMMO’s telecast of A Midsummer Night’s Dream ended up being memorable for some unexpected reasons. Soprano Jennifer Ringo, who sang the role of the glittering fairy queen Tytania, recalls the evening vividly. An Iowa native, Ringo went on to an impressive international singing career and is now in great demand as a language and diction coach all over the world. She maintains studios in New York and Los Angeles, where she lives with her husband, conductor James Conlon. Ringo recalls that the energy in the house was "electrifying"—even though there were difficulties with the wireless microphones employed, as they would occasionally pick up police signals. "I had to carry a battery pack around," Ringo says. "I'd be in the restroom or somewhere and hear a voice say, 'Jennifer, turn off that mic!'"

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stood about 18 inches high. We put them at the front edge of the stage with tiny PZM microphones in each one. All the singing was crystal clear and separated from the orchestras so we could mix it appropriately. But television was not broadcast in stereo in those days so I went to Iowa Public Radio. If there was a way we could get our audio signal to them, they could feed it over their station. People could then watch the broadcast and hear it over public radio in stereo. That was exciting."

Judy Blank, Iowa PBS executive producer, on the set of Rusalka in 2018.

Then, just as the first act completed, one of Iowa’s infamous electrical storms swept through and knocked out the power for almost three hours. "We were totally in the dark!" Ringo recalls. "We had work lights and we put candles out on the stage. I have such memories of the entertainment that went on! The production team went out and got chips and drinks. Rinde Eckert was in the show. Rinde got his guitar and we did folk songs and sang things from Carousel and the handful left in the audience sang along. We finally got the power back and finished at 2:30 in the morning. Afterward, we went out for breakfast. I don’t think we slept all night. I’m sure we had to rehearse something the next day—there were no days off in Des Moines. It was an extraordinary experience, but we were all in there together. It was our mission. I have taken that work ethic with me throughout my career. That’s how that performance has stayed in my mind, that sense of 'Yes, we can!'" The following year the project fell under the direction of Jerry Grady, the Executive Producer of Cultural Affairs for Iowa Public Television.

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More effective leadership could hardly be imagined. Grady had dedicated himself to bringing to television the best of Iowa’s cultural scene, which included eight regional symphonies. He developed a method of working in which all his camera angles and entrances were meticulously notated in an orchestral score. He then employed a music reader who would sit with the marked score and assist in cueing cameras. (In an endearing bit of history, one of Grady’s music readers was a college kid named Michael Egel, who in 1988 had watched DMMO’s televised production of The Barber of Seville and immediately had become hooked on the art form. Egel is now the Artistic and General Director of Des Moines Metro Opera.) "We had lighting and audio challenges," Grady recalls. "This was back in the '80s and TV cameras were not nearly as sensitive as they are today. My guy would say, 'You need to bring that up another 40 percent.' And the lighting director would say, 'That’s crazy; it will be too bright!’ But if you couldn’t bring the light level up people wouldn’t see anything. We had plexiglass shields made that

Grady recounted another story, a favorite of his: "In 1981 we did Lucia di Lammermoor. The opening scene is on the moors and is supposed to have fog floating on the floor. The first night of rehearsal there were wisps of fog. The lights came up and dissipated the fog; it just didn’t register. The stage manager said, 'Tomorrow there will be fog.' So, he ran around central Iowa and got hold of every dry ice machine he could find. That night the fog was four feet high. It was impressive. But it started rolling into the orchestra pit! You could hear the strings going, ‘Oh!’ It was one of the most hilarious things I have ever seen in my life, but by golly, I got my fog!" Grady speaks of his tenure with pardonable pride and treasures another particular memory: "We had a young tenor who was singing at the Met and came back to perform one year in Des Moines. They were doing an interview with him and he said, 'When I was about 12 years old, I saw a broadcast of Des Moines Metro Opera. I fell in love with it, and that’s what made me want to become a singer.' That touched me. I knew I had made a difference." The young tenor was Sioux City native John Osborn, who made his debut at DMMO in 1993 and now sings all over the world. Today, DMMO’s interface with public television is guided by Iowa PBS Producer/Director Judy Blank, who notes that after a lapse of several seasons in performance broadcasting, technical capabilities have greatly advanced. "For years, Iowa PBS covered DMMO operas


with our mobile production truck," Blank explains. "When time came to update the related technology, costs were prohibitive. However, during this time Iowa PBS continued to partner with DMMO on documentary features including 2003’s Living in Iowa and 2012’s Iowa’s Simple Pleasures. When we resumed covering mainstage performances in 2013, our goal was to have the least amount of impact on the in-person experience and create productions that look and sound as envisioned by the opera’s creators. We have to walk that fine line of changing as little as possible, while stretching technical parameters. An example of the great support we’ve received from DMMO: when covering Manon, the white sheets in the bedroom scene were too bright for our cameras. DMMO offered a low-tech solution by dyeing the sheets slightly off-white." When asked about a favorite moment, Blank says, "I see a vivid montage in my mind of extraordinary feats of creativity, stunning performances and incredible people. I know of individuals who were inspired to seek careers in opera after seeing our coverage of DMMO productions. Our broadcasts can be active experiences for viewers, and that inspires me. Now that these productions are going national, I am grateful that we were able to preserve these world class performances. I am excited that they can be seen by more viewers and that we can extend the reach and continue to inspire where the spark ignites." Since 1979 DMMO has telecast almost 20 productions statewide. Four of these telecasts earned Upper Midwest Emmy Award nominations, with two wins for Iowa PBS for its work on Massenet’s Manon and Britten’s Billy Budd. Such a level of artistic achievement might seem unexpected to the casual observer who sails over the state in a Boeing 747 and idly surveys the bucolic terrain below. Who would have thought of this? "Iowans would have thought of it!" Jennifer Ringo counters passionately.

"Educated people! There are so many musicians who have come out of Iowa. Music education when I was growing up here was fantastic. But to see opera on television from your own state, international level performances from your own state, from Simpson College—that is extraordinary. I was in Santa Fe last summer coaching. I can’t tell you how many of those singers came from Iowa. I’d say to them, 'Say it loud!'"

I see a vivid montage in my mind of extraordinary feats of creativity, stunning performances and incredible people. She’s right. How many people outside the state realize that the Gramma Fisher Foundation, one of the nation’s most important supporters of the arts, is located in Marshalltown? Or that the Maytag family, beyond churning out terrific dairy products and building appliances so reliable their repairmen are lonely, help keep the opera up and running? "If there is one thing about which I am most proud,” Tim Krumm reflects, "it would be the immediate reaction of DMMO to support the artists and creatives who were set to perform this summer. As the parent of a singer (Krumm is the father of mezzo-soprano Laura Krumm), I know how difficult this time must be for artists. Many resources that are helping others

don’t reach the freelance community. The circumstances that bring us to the collaboration that is happening this summer are obviously most unfortunate. That said, my parents would be thrilled that these two essential pieces of Iowa’s cultural fabric are coming together. They would be proud of IPBS and would love knowing that DMMO will be shared with a larger audience. Mom would have had a watch party— socially distant, if necessary!" Ringo agrees. "What Des Moines Opera has set up for this summer is so important. This virtual season is fantastic. It is so uplifting to see a company that keeps its promises. They are putting these operas out now in a way that will not only inspire other companies but will give hope to all these young singers who worked and now have nothing. It inspires hope. People think, 'OK, we’re going to get out of this; we are going to go forward with the arts. I’m going to get another audition, another chance. I’m going to keep practicing.' That is uplifting.” This summer audiences across the nation will be able to revel in some of the most glorious works in the operatic canon, direct from the stage of one of America’s most beloved and innovative performing arts organizations—all borne by four decades of inspiration, hope, and artistic excellence brought to you by Iowa PBS and Des Moines Metro Opera. That’s more than corn and caucuses, indeed. Mark Thomas Ketterson is an American performing arts critic and writer. He is the Chicago correspondent for Opera News magazine and has also written for Playbill and the Chicago Tribune. Ketterson is a regular contributor for the publications of performing arts organizations throughout the United States. including Lyric Opera of Chicago, The Metropolitan Opera Guild, Houston Grand Opera, and Washington National Opera at Kennedy Center. He has lectured extensively on theatre, opera, and arts education.

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Manon JULES MASSENET

2:00 PM June 28 Music by Jules Massenet Libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille after Antoine-François PrÊvost's novel L'histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut First performance: Paris; January 19, 1884 Previous performance at Des Moines Metro Opera: 1976 Recorded by Iowa PBS on July 5, 2016 Performed in French with English supertitles Funding for the broadcast of Manon has been provided by Linda and Tom Koehn

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THE STORY France, first half of the 18th century ACT I

ACT III, Scene II

On her way to join a convent, Manon stops to meet her cousin Lescaut at an inn in Amiens. She is captivated by the busy, cosmopolitan surroundings and is soon wooed by the lascivious nobleman Guillot, but her attention is caught by the handsome young Chevalier des Grieux. They fall instantly in love and steal Guillot's coach to elope.

In Saint-Sulpice, the count congratulates his son on his excellent sermon, but after he leaves, des Grieux admits that his religious faith is still tested by visions of Manon. When she arrives, they fall quickly into each other's arms and once again escape together.

ACT II In the Parisian apartment he shares with Manon, des Grieux writes to his father about his future bride. Lescaut storms in, accompanied by de Brétigny disguised as a soldier. While the other two men argue, de Brétigny begins to tempt Manon with tales of pleasure and riches. Lescaut and de Brétigny leave, followed by des Grieux, to post his letter. Alone, Manon bids farewell to her life with des Grieux. He soon returns and begins to tell her of a dream he's had, but is interrupted by a knock at the door. When des Grieux answers, he is abducted by men sent by his father. Though grief-stricken, Manon does nothing to stop them.

ACT III, Scene I On the Cours-la-Reine, a promenade on the River Seine, Lescaut, Manon and de Brétigny are enjoying the good life. Des Grieux’s father tells de Brétigny of his son's intention to take holy orders. He is to preach that evening at SaintSulpice. Manon cannot believe that des Grieux has forgotten her so completely.

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ACT IV Lescaut and his friends welcome Manon and des Grieux to the Hotel Transylvanie, a notorious gambling house. They urge des Grieux to join the game, and with the encouragement of Manon (who is again bewitched by affluence), he takes a seat. When Guilllot loses to des Grieux, he storms off and summons the count and the police. Des Grieux and Manon are arrested for cheating.

ACT V Des Grieux has been released, but Manon is to be deported as a “woman of easy virtue.” Lescaut’s plan to free her fails; he then bribes the guards to allow Manon time alone with des Grieux. She is too weak to escape and dies in des Grieux’s arms.


CAST

PRODUCTION

Guillot de Morfontaine, a nobleman BRIAN FRUTIGER

Conductor DAVID NEELY

de Brétigny, a tax collector TROY COOK

Stage Director KRISTINE MCINTYRE

Poussette ASHLY NEUMANN †

Scenic Designer R. KEITH BRUMLEY

Javotte EMMA SORENSON †

Lighting Designer BARRY STEELE

Rosette ANTONIA BOTTI-LODOVICO †

Costume Designer ROGER KIRK

Innkeeper SPENCER REICHMAN †

Make-Up/Hair Designer BRITTANY CRINSON

Lescaut, Manon’s cousin MICHAEL ADAMS

Costumes PROVIDED BY OPERA AUSTRALIA

Guardsmen LEE STEINER † NATHANIEL MATTINGLY †

Chorus Master LISA HASSON

in order of vocal appearance

Manon Lescaut SYDNEY MANCASOLA

Musical Preparation ALLEN PERRIELLO KYLE NAIG

Chevalier des Grieux JOSEPH DENNIS

Associate Conductor MICHAEL SAKIR

A Maid AURÉLIE VERUNI †

Assistant Stage Director REBECCA HERMAN

Comte des Grieux, his father JULIEN ROBBINS

Stage Manager BRIAN AUGUST

Sacristan CHRIS CARR † Sergeant CHRISTIAN SANDERS † Street Performers DEBORAH GIDDINGS STEVE GIDDINGS REBECCA MAURITZ

Former DMMO Apprentice Artist

Audio Engineers DAVID FEINGOLD JIM LEASURE Video Engineer NEAL KYER Camera Operators/Videographers PHILIP BLOBAUM MELANIE CAMPBELL STEVE CARNS DARRIN CLOUSE SCOTT FAINE RICK FULLER MARLYN SCHRAM Music Readers FELICITY EWARD ELDEN LITTLE Editors JUDY BLANK NEAL KYER Graphic Artists PHONG DOUNG NEAL KYER Production Assistant TIFFANY HILL Production Interns MARY KAHN SARAH MEILNER KELLEY WERNER Closed Captioning TIFFANY HILL

IOWA PBS Producer JUDY BLANK

Production Supervisor LAURA SHANNON Director of Communications SUSAN RAMSEY Manager of Communications TONYA WEBER

Director ANDREA COYLE Technical Director JULIE KNUTSON Engineer in Charge CHAD AUBREY

Manager of Local Programming CHARLES CZECH Director of Programming/Production JUSTIN BEAUPRE Executive Producer ANDREA COYLE

DIRECTOR'S NOTES by Kristine McIntyre, Stage Director Fragonard and Boucher. Soft silks and delicious taffetas. Ropes of pearls against bare skin. Rococo France was a boudoir world and women were at its heart. In a surprisingly modern way, they wielded great power in 18th century French society. They ran the most fashionable salons and were at the center of French intellectual and artistic life. Their purchasing power drove the economic engines of France and ensured that Paris became the fashion capital of Europe. Furniture, porcelain, clothing, decoration and art were all made to suit their tastes and the male gaze was fixed firmly and obsessively upon them. This was the world of Madame de Pompadour and also the world of the coquette. This is the world that Manon conquers—and embodies. Barely 16 when the opera begins, Manon is both the ingénue and a thoroughly practical denizen of the 18th century. She has not been out of her carriage 15 minutes

before Guillot de Morfontaine offers her "a great deal of money" and says he will send a coach for her "and then...well, you understand..." What Manon does come to understand is that men will give her almost anything because she is young and beautiful. Reveling in her power, she captivates and delights and fully indulges her passions for everything that Paris can provide. But she is also a mass of contradictions and strangely before her time with an almost 19th century obsession with love and a certain penniless Chevalier. Twice she ignores the rules of the game and forsakes richer, more powerful men to pursue her passion for des Grieux. Flawed but irresistible, part femme fatale and part girl-next-door, she is just like the Paris that created her—glittering, full of life and on the brink of destruction. She will be undone by matters of the heart, but for now, as Manon says, we should enjoy ourselves because spring is short and we won't be young forever.

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Manon Her Fall and Rise

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Much like the title heroine, Massenet's Manon became the toast of Paris. BY RICHARD TRAUBNER


L’HISTOIRE DU CHEVALIER DES Grieux et de Manon Lescaut, a novel written in London by a former Benedictine monk and soldier named Antoine-François Prévost, was first published in Amsterdam in 1731. The story of a young nobleman’s intoxication with a flighty country girl and their romantic rise and fall— banned by the French authorities on its first publication—has proved to be irresistible theatrical fodder ever since. Who could resist the tale of an ingénue-turned-courtesan entangled with an amorous chevalier, whose penitent escape to the church utterly fails when he is again confronted with his gorgeous innamorata? Who would not fall for a story set amidst the lavish, dissolute court of the French regent, Philippe d’Orléans, ending tragically in the colony of Louisiana? The plot first reached the stage in 1830 as a ballet for the Paris Opéra, Manon Lescaut, by dramatist Eugène Scribe and composer Fromental Halévy. The amazingly prolific Scribe later wrote a libretto on the subject for Paris’s Opéra-Comique, set to music by the popular DanielFrançois Esprit Auber; this 1856 version departed rather drastically from Prévost’s book. It had a charmingly tuneful score of the

type that had become a bit passé by the end of the 19th century. There had also been a dramatic version of Manon Lescaut for Paris’s Théâtre du Gymnase in 1851, a revival of which Massenet may have seen in 1875. And Giacomo Puccini, who knew a surefire melodramatic plot when he saw one, had the novel adapted for him in 1893 as his first success, Manon Lescaut.

The novel’s Manon is not quite the sympathetic heroine Massenet made her. Massenet’s Manon appeared at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, in 1884, conforming to the rules of this distinctly Parisian musical-theatre form. Opéra comique had evolved rather startlingly over the 150 or so years of its existence, beginning as a satirical fairground skit in the early 18th century and becoming an inflated, generally un-comic affair by the time of Bizet’s Carmen, first heard at the Opéra-Comique in 1875. A

serious, even tragic story would qualify as an opera comique, provided it offered its audiences a bit of comedy, plus glamour, romance, spectacle— and, last but not least, the spoken dialogue that was a requirement of the genre. Carmen had a libretto by the famous team of Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, who had given Offenbach his most celebrated operetta triumphs in the 1860s. For Manon, Meilhac teamed with Phillipe Gille, who had written books for Offenbach, Planquette, and Delibes (Lakmé). With the flowering of Offenbach and his school, the term opera comique could be used by the 1870s for a regulation Parisian operetta; indeed, the translated term “comic opera” was used prominently by Gilbert and Sullivan in the same period. It was Meilhac who spurred Massenet to compose a new opera comique about Manon Lescaut. Asked one morning by Massenet what he thought of the idea, Meilhac said he would think it over. According to a well-worn anecdote (which may be apocryphal) from Massenet’s memoirs, Meilhac surprised the composer at lunch the following day with a draft for the first two acts under his napkin!

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the Louisiana “desert,” where Manon meets her dusty end. Puccini used it, but Massenet instead has Manon die on the road to Le Havre, where she is to be deported to America. It was Massenet, too, who also insisted on the scene at Saint-Sulpice, in which religious devotion and sexual magnetism battle so thrillingly, and rewardingly, for the singers playing Manon and des Grieux.

ACT IV SCENIC DESIGN BY R. KEITH BRUMLEY

The opera’s five-act treatment was very much in the effusive style favored by the Opéra-Comique’s director, Léon Carvalho. It had the picturesque décor and costuming of 1715, from a rustic country inn to the royal elegance of the Cours-la-Reine fairgrounds, from a simple Paris garret in the rue Vivienne and a somber parlor at Saint-Sulpice church to the glitter of the gambling casino at the Hôtel de Transylvanie. The characters were of all classes, from footmen and tarts to nobles and clergy; there were moments of low comedy balanced by the threat of a duel and other scenes of fierce, aristocratic jealousy. And there was the obligatory ballet, here rather cleverly a divertissement for the pleasure-seekers appearing in the Cours-la-Reine scene, giving Massenet a grand opportunity to pastiche the very early-eighteenthcentury French musical styles that had influenced opéra comique. Massenet set both dramatic and comic incidents to music, whether sung or in dialogue sequences, with spoken sections underscored by music (a style known in French opera as mélodrame). This heightened the drama and reinforced the comedy, much as in films from 1930s or 40s’ Hollywood. But there were substantial changes to Prévost’s

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narrative to make the opéra comique more acceptable to the reasonably respectable audiences in that theatre.

Massenet’s legendary tunefulness and theatrical instincts, which greatly pleased the public, would continue to draw critical detractors. The novel’s Manon is not quite the sympathetic heroine Massenet made her: in addition to her rampant infidelity and desire for luxury (welltreated in the opera), she steals and cheats, whereas in the opera she is falsely accused of being a card sharper’s moll at the gambling tables. This scene at the Hôtel de Transylvanie, which does not appear in Prévost, was added at the composer’s insistence to provide spectacle as well as more feeling for Manon’s plight. Meilhac and Gille also totally omit the final scene in

In the novel Manon leaves her young lover des Grieux thrice; in the opera, only once. In Prévost, Lescaut is Manon’s brother, becoming her cousin for Meilhac and Gille. Tiberge, des Grieux’s faithful buddy, is totally absent from the opera. Curiously, this priestly figure does appear a decade later in Massenet’s short “sequel,” Le Portrait de Manon. When considering the Meilhac-Gille simplification of the Prévost story for an operatic libretto, some have commented on the almost total absence of the novel’s fairly cutting social satire at the expense of the degenerate upper classes of preRevolutionary France. However, the easy virtue of the lecherous aristos and the fourth-act gambling scene do much to depict a corrupt society that in some ways mirrored that of the Third Republic and certainly that of the previous Second Empire. With these story alterations in mind, Massenet completed setting the first two acts of Manon by the spring of 1882. He had been busy with other projects—Le Roi de Lahore and Hérodiade, his first major operatic successes. That summer he and Meilhac worked together in the Paris suburb of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. For further inspiration the composer managed to work in rooms at the Hôtel de l’Europe in The Hague, where Prévost himself had resided more than a century before. The score was completed in February 1883 and played for Carvalho, Meilhac and Gille, who adored it. Massenet attended to his (customarily) brilliant orchestrations from March to July. The rehearsals were set for the end of 1883, with a première planned for early the following year.


Massenet was, however, a skillful musical dramatist, who could create memorable characters and knew how to stage-manage scenes for dramatic effect. Manon herself has a wide variety of numbers in each of the five acts: innocent, sentimental, theatrically imperious, seductively alluring, pathetic. The third act’s glittery Cours-la-Reine scene, with its studied frivolity and smacking rather delightfully of operetta, and the organ-drenched scene at SaintSulpice, with its primordial religionversus-sex conflict, are two contrasting studies in human emotions that ceaselessly enthrall audiences.

Who would play Manon? That was the question plaguing the creators. Marie-Caroline Miolan-Carvalho, the director’s wife and formerly a famous prima donna (Gounod’s first Marguerite and Juliette), might have created the part had she been 20 years younger. Because Massenet needed a true singing actress who could also handle dialogue, several operetta divas were considered. Attending a performance of Lecocq’s La Princesse des Canaries at the Nouveautés, Massenet claimed (in his memoirs) to have bumped into Marie Heilbronn, a soprano who had enjoyed conspicuous success in operettas by Offenbach and Lecocq. After an all-night playthrough of the score for Heilbronn at her Champs-Élysées home, she seized the part. Jean-Alexandre Talazac starred opposite her as the first Chevalier des Grieux. The premiere on January 19, 1884, drew conflicting criticism. Raoul de Saint-Arroman, writing in L’Art Musical, liked the richness of the score but remarked on its “congestion of pictorial effects.” He also disliked hearing the pastiche ballet music in the theatre (“I would be happy to listen to it in the concert hall”). Louis de Fourcard, in the more conservative Le Gaulois, noted a “confusion” of musical styles.

Massenet’s legendary tunefulness and theatrical instincts, which greatly pleased the public, would continue to draw critical detractors. In 1912, on the composer’s death, Debussy somewhat disparagingly noted Massenet’s “wit, grace, and popularity, perfect for his time.” And in 1925 the critic Henri Malherbe— after noting that Auber’s Manon Lescaut was remembered only for a danse nègre and a chanson créole— haughtily claimed that Massenet’s work, while possessing a “carnal grace,” was also “full of spirit and emotion and admirably created to delight the less difficult-to-please music-lovers.” Massenet’s style for Manon, eclectic, well-pointed, often luxuriant, was derived from Gounod, but still adhered to the old opera comique formula of “couplets, duets, trios, quartets,” as one critic somewhat wearily noted. Others thought the use of leitmotifs throughout the opera was fashionably Wagnerian, but these had existed plentifully in earlier opéras comiques. (Curiously, when Parsifal was first performed in 1882, at the time of the creation of Manon, some avant-garde French composers thought certain parts of Wagner’s opera sounded just like “bad Massenet!”)

Manon's nasty end in the opera had its real-life counterpart. Marie Heilbronn, the creator of the part, died at the age of 35 after a short illness in similarly reduced circumstances. Heilbronn's viscount husband had gambled away their fortune, and she was forced to auction off her townhouse and its contents in a sensational Paris sale. She only sang the role of Manon a few times before the opera was dropped from the Opéra-Comique’s schedule. The public, however, would not let it go once it returned to the theatre in 1891 with Sibyl Sanderson in the title role. By 1915 it had received 580 performances at that theatre, second only to Carmen in popularity. Massenet’s sure, theatrical instincts have made sure that this piteously fallen creature will always rise again to conquer audiences anew. The late Richard Traubner was the author of Operetta: A Theatrical History (Routledge, revised edition), the standard text in this genre in English. He translated and designed many operettas, and wrote program notes for opera companies internationally, as well as articles for Opera News, Opera, The Economist, and many other publications. This article originally appeared in the program of Lyric Opera of Chicago and is reprinted by permission.

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Bon AppĂŠtiT! LEE HOIBY 4:30 PM

June 28

Music by Lee Hoiby Text by Julia Child, adapted by Mark Shulgasser First Performance: Washington, DC; March 8, 1989 Company Premiere Recorded by Iowa PBS on July 18, 2019 Performed in English and in one act By arrangement with G. Schirmer, INC. publisher and copyright owner.

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CAST

IOWA PBS

Julia Child JOYCE CASTLE

Producer JUDY BLANK

Performance Pianist ELDEN LITTLE

Director ANDREA COYLE

PRODUCTION Stage Director NATHAN TROUP

Technical Director JULIE KNUTSON Engineer in Charge CHAD AUBREY

Scenic Design ADAM CRINSON

Audio Engineers JIM LEASURE KEVIN RIVERS

Lighting Design NATE WHEATLEY

Video Engineer NEAL KYER

Costume Design HEATHER LESIEUR

Camera Operators/Videographers PHILIP BLOBAUM DARRIN CLOUSE SCOTT FAINE RICK FULLER LUCAS LOVIG

Make-Up/Hair Design SARAH NORTON Stage Manager HESTER WARREN-STEIJN

Music Readers ANNIE PENNER

SUPPORTING SPONSORS

Editors JUDY BLANK JULIE KNUTSON NEAL KYER Graphic Artists PHONG DOUNG BRENT WILLETT Production Assistant TIFFANY HILL Production Interns ALYSHIA DOBSON ZACH HESS Closed Captioning TALKING TYPE CAPTIONS Production Supervisor LAURA SHANNON Director of Communications SUSAN RAMSEY Manager of Communications TONYA WEBER Manager of Digital Content TAYLOR SHORE Manager of Local Programming CHARLES CZECH Director of Programming/Production JUSTIN BEAUPRE Executive Producer ANDREA COYLE

CHARLOTTE AND FRED HUBBELL MARLA LACEY AND D.T. DOAN JAMES AND ALLISON FLEMING

ABOUT THE OPERA When Bon Appétit! made its debut at the Kennedy Center in 1989, the pastry chef there said of the subject of the opera, Le Gateau au Chocolat l'Eminence Brune (or Bittersweet Chocolate Cake), ''It was very simple but very elegant.''

Julia Child and her husband Paul were at the West Coast premiere, and Child was reportedly delighted with Jean Stapleton's performance, remarking, "I only wish I could have sung it like that when I originally did it. Wasn't it just wonderful?"

The same could be said of the opera as well. Lee Hoiby based his musical creation on a telecast of one of Julia Child's 1961 episodes. At the premiere the composer himself sat at the piano, accompanying television legend Jean Stapleton (of "All in the Family" fame) as she stood at a simple aluminum table and whipped up her best impression of America's most beloved French chef.

Stapleton, though no stranger to musical theatre herself, protested the idea of Bon Appetit! turning her into an opera singer. The actress insisted, "Candide is the only real opera I've ever done."

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ARecipe Music, comedy and a culinary icon all come together in Bon Appétit! BY MARK TIARKS

IF YOU WATCHED TELEVISION between 1971 and 1979, the sound of Jean Stapleton’s singing voice may still be ringing in your ears, thanks to her unforgettable screech on “And you knew who you were then!” during All in the Family’s opening credits. At least we thought it was Stapleton’s voice—it was really her idea of what Edith Bunker should sound like. Stapleton was actually a trained singer who rose to fame in the original Broadway productions of Damn Yankees, Bells Are Ringing, and Funny Girl, in which she sang “If a Girl Isn’t Pretty” and “Find Yourself a Man.” After All in the Family’s nine-season run, Stapleton was understandably anxious to broaden her horizons, returning to Broadway in Arsenic

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forSuccess

and Old Lace, portraying Eleanor Roosevelt in the film Eleanor, First Lady of the World, which she later turned into a one-woman play, and guest-starring in a wide variety of films and television shows. In 1984 she made her operatic debut as The Old Lady in Candide with the Baltimore Opera Company. At the same time, Stapleton was working with composer Lee Hoiby on another project for the Baltimore company, the stage premiere of his one-woman opera, The Italian Lesson. The Madison-born Hoiby was a precocious musician who learned the piano at age five and went on to study at the University of Wisconsin and Curtis Institute of Music. He originally intended to become a concert pianist, but classes with Gian Carlo Menotti at Curtis

fueled his interest in composition, especially after Menotti involved him in the Broadway productions of his operas The Consul and The Saint of Bleecker Street. While he composed in many different genres, music for the voice was at the heart of Hoiby’s output, most of which was in the 20th-century Romantic tradition of Menotti and Samuel Barber. Leontyne Price championed his songs and gave many their first performances. The Des Moines Metro Opera commissioned his setting of The Tempest and premiered it in 1986. Hoiby’s best-known work is Summer and Smoke, an operatic version of the Tennessee Williams play. A Chicago Opera Theater staging was broadcast nationally on PBS, and DMMO produced it in 1998.


Hoiby and Stapleton relished their collaboration on The Italian Lesson. (It’s a 45-minute solo piece in which a Jazz Age society matron is beset by myriad interruptions while trying to translate the first line of Dante’s Inferno with her Italian teacher.) The obvious next step was to add a companion piece to make a fulllength program, which led to the idea of musicalizing an episode of Julia Child’s The French Chef. Child’s celebrity status, hearty good humor, and characteristically warbly voice were irresistible, with her famous “Bon Appétit!” sign-off providing both the title and the final words of text. Stapleton broached the idea to Child via letter in 1986, and Child responded enthusiastically, saying, “I would certainly be honored and delighted to be part of your program.” She went on to write that “something with lots of drama to it would be best for your purposes, I would think,” and suggested two possibilities—a bouillabaisse (“You could have amazing-looking fish, and the cleaning of the fish, and the chopping…”) and Chicken

Marengo, a dish prepared for Napoleon immediately after a battle, with his chef reportedly using a saber to kill and cut up the fowl. In the end, Hoiby, Stapleton, and text adapter Mark Shulgasser focused on something with slightly less potential for onstage gore—a chocolate cake. They took their text from episode 228 of The French Chef, which aired in 1971, with Child preparing Le Gâteau au Chocolat l'Éminence Brune, “a wonderfully chocolatey and amazingly light soufflé-like cake that doesn’t fall!” The creators retained almost all of Child’s instruction, including her stream-of-consciousness ad libs. “Chocolate is much more complicated than any of us suspects,” she announces conspiratorially at one point. A very funny segment from another episode was also incorporated, with Child staging a race between an electric mixer and her hand-powered whisk to see which could beat egg whites to firm peaks faster. “If you’re in good physical trim, it shouldn’t take more than a couple of minutes

LE GÂTEAU AU CHOCOLAT L'ÉMINENCE BRUNE Adapted from Julia Child's Kitchen, Alfred Knopf, 1975 CAKE

2 teaspoons instant espresso 1/4 cup boiling water 7 ounces semisweet chocolate 2 ounces unsweetened chocolate 4 large eggs, separated 1 cup extra fine sugar plus 2 tablespoons 4 ounces soft unsalted butter 1/4 teaspoon cream of tartar Pinch of salt 3/4 cup cornstarch Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Butter two 8-inch cake pans; place parchment paper in bottom of each, and then spray. Blend coffee and water in top of double boiler over simmering water. Remove from heat. Add chocolates; cover and set aside to melt. Beat yolks and gradually add 1 cup sugar. Continue beating until yolks are thick, pale yellow. Beat melted chocolate until smooth. Beat in butter, 2 tablespoons at a time; gradually beat chocolate and butter into yolk mixture. Beat whites until foamy; beat in cream of tartar and salt. Continue beating until whites form soft peaks; gradually beat

to beat up your own egg whites!” she proclaimed mid-whisk, although the actual race was judged a tie. Hoiby’s setting amplified Child’s characteristic vocal mannerisms, while the piano accompaniment provided both harmonic support and comic commentary. In Stapleton’s portrayal, the ingredients and equipment were mimed. Most subsequent productions have gone all out with the cake’s preparation, and some, including the Des Moines presentation with the superb mezzo-soprano Joyce Castle, have recreated The French Chef’s television studio environment, with both changes providing opportunities for additional comedy. The 2020 Virtual Festival broadcast of Bon Appétit! on June 28 gives us all the opportunity to welcome Julia Child to our homes once again. Why not make it a truly gala event by adding your very own version of “really one of the best chocolate cakes” Julia knew? Her recipe is shown below. Bonne chance!

in 2 tablespoons of sugar and beat until whites form stiff, shiny peaks. Sift in 1/4 of cornstarch and scoop on 1/4 of whites; stir with spatula. Scoop rest of whites on top; sift on 1/3 of remaining cornstarch and fold. Sift half of remaining cornstarch on top and fold in; sift on remaining cornstarch and fold to blend. Spoon batter into pans and smooth. Bang once on work surface to settle batter, and then bake for 15 minutes. A cake tester inserted near the edges should come out clean. Cool pans on racks. Wrap and chill for an hour before unmolding. CHOCOLATE FILLING AND GLAZE

4 ounces semisweet chocolate 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate 1 teaspoon instant espresso 2 tablespoons boiling water 2 ounces unsalted butter.

Melt chocolates with coffee and water; beat in butter. If mixture is too liquid to spread, beat over cold water until lightly thickened. Unmold one layer of cake onto serving plate and spread top with 1/4 inch of icing. Unmold second layer on top of first and cover top and sides with remaining frosting. Serve, refrigerate or freeze. Return to room temperature before serving. Yield: 16 servings.

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Rusalka ANTONÍN DVOŘÁK 2:00 PM July 5 Music by Antonín Dvořák Libretto by Jaroslav Kvapil First Performance: Prague; March 31, 1901 Company Premiere Recorded by Iowa PBS on July 3, 2018 Performed in Czech with English supertitles Licensed by arrangement with Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., agent for DILIA – Theatrical, Literary and Audiovisual Agency, Association of Authors Funding for the broadcast of Rusalka has been provided by Frank R. Brownell III

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THE STORY ACT I

ACT III

Rusalka, a water nymph, has fallen in love with the mortal Prince and wishes to become human to be with him forever. Her father, the water goblin Vodník, tries to dissuade her, but she invokes the help of the witch Ježibaba to achieve her goal. The witch offers her aid with two conditions: first Rusalka must give up her voice in payment; and second, should the Prince ever be untrue, the couple would be cursed forever. Rusalka is determined and agrees to the pact. When the Prince next sees her, he falls instantly in love and takes her away to his home.

Rusalka is despondent, broken by the Prince’s rejection and damned by the witch’s curse. The repentant Prince returns to Rusalka, desperate to reclaim her love. Now able to speak, she explains that she cannot love him as he desires and that a single kiss would cost him his life. He begs her to free him from his despair over losing her. As he dies, Rusalka returns to the water; forever cursed to be an unwilling siren, doomed to lure her victims into the watery depths.

ACT II Speculation and rumor run rampant in the palace—is the silent Rusalka a witch? The Prince has already turned his attention to the glamorous Foreign Princess, who plots on behalf of her own desires. Abandoned, Rusalka leaves the palace at the insistence of her father, as the Foreign Princess rejects the fickle Prince in disgust.

^

Dvorák’s summer sojourn in Iowa Over 125 years ago, Antonín Dvořák spent a summer in Iowa.

By 1891 Dvořák had become one of the world’s most famous composers. In June of that year, a remarkable woman named Jeannette Thurber, president of New York’s National Conservatory of Music in America, asked Dvořák to become the school’s artistic director and professor of composition, beginning in October 1892, at an astronomical salary. Dvořák eventually said yes to Mrs. Thurber, and his wife and two of their six children traveled with him to New York for his

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first year in America. The composer originally planned to return to Europe for the summer of 1893. At the suggestion of his Czech-American secretary, he decided instead to travel to the Czech emigrant community of Spillville, Iowa, where the family’s four younger children joined their parents and older siblings.

conversations with older residents in the evenings. The two remarkable works composed in Spillville reflect Dvořák’s delight at his time there: a string quartet in F major (subtitled “The American,” it included the call of the scarlet tanager in the third movement) and a string quintet in E-flat major.

Dvořák reveled in his Iowa sojourn, where his daily routine included an early morning walk along the Turkey River to listen to the birds, Mass in the local church (during which he played the organ), time for composition and the family during the day, and long

After three years at the National Conservatory, Dvořák returned to Bohemia. He brought with him notebooks of musical themes to be developed in future compositions, some of which made their way into Rusalka, which was composed five years later.


CAST

in order of vocal appearance

1st Wood Sprite DOROTHY GAL †

Make-Up/Hair Design BRITTANY CRINSON

2nd Wood Sprite CADIE JORDAN †

Choreographer ISAAC MARTIN LERNER

3rd Wood Sprite NAOMI BRIGELL †

Chorus Master LISA HASSON

Vodník, the water goblin ZACHARY JAMES

Musical Preparation YASUKO OURA

Rusalka, a water nymph SARA GARTLAND †

Associate Conductor CODY MARTIN

Ježibaba, a witch JILL GROVE

Assistant Stage Director MO ZHOU

Hunter HARRY GREENLEAF †

Czech Diction Coach KLÁRA MOLDOVÁ

Prince EVAN LEROY JOHNSON

Stage Manager HESTER WARREN-STEIJN

Gamekeeper GREGORY WARREN

Millinery ELIZABETH FLAUTO, Costume Crafts SORRELL ORIGINALS

Kitchen Boy GRACE KAHL † Foreign Princess LAURA WILDE Dancers TANNER MYLES HUSEMAN ISAAC MARTIN LERNER ANDREW SCOTT PESTER OWEN PRUM COOPER STANTON DEVIN TOKARSKI

PRODUCTION Conductor DAVID NEELY

Stage Director CHAS RADER-SHIEBER Scenic and Costume Design JACOB A. CLIMER †

Lighting Design NATE WHEATLEY

Costume Construction JEFFREY WALLACH, New York Theater Workshop COLIN DAVIS JONES STUDIO Scenic and Drafting Assistants BRYCE CUTLER LIBBY STADSTAD

IOWA PBS Producer JUDY BLANK

Video Engineer NEAL KYER Camera Operators/Videographers PHILIP BLOBAUM DARRIN CLOUSE SCOTT FAINE RICK FULLER MARLYN SCHRAM EDWARD TOOMIRE Music Readers BRIAN AUGUST ELDEN LITTLE Editors JUDY BLANK NEAL KYER Graphic Artists PHONG DOUNG NEAL KYER BRENT WILLETT Production Assistant TIFFANY HILL Production Interns ASHLEY LONG TAYLOR WEBB KAZEK ISRANI-WINGER Closed Captioning TIFFANY HILL Production Supervisor LAURA SHANNON Director of Communications SUSAN RAMSEY Manager of Communications TONYA WEBER

Director ANDREA COYLE Technical Director JULIE KNUTSON KEVIN RIVERS Engineer in Charge CHAD AUBREY

Former DMMO Apprentice Artist

Audio Engineers JIM LEASURE DAVID FEINGOLD

Manager of Digital Content TAYLOR SHORE Manager of Local Programming CHARLES CZECH Director of Programming/Production JUSTIN BEAUPRE Executive Producer ANDREA COYLE

DIRECTOR'S NOTES by Chas Rader-Shieber, Stage Director Dvořák’s remarkable opera Rusalka takes a thoughtful step away from Hans Christian Andersen into a realm of melancholy and explores a darker side of desire than one usually finds in a traditional fairy tale.

alluring. To forget this is to risk becoming totally alone in the world, trapped in the branches of the forest forever, imprisoned in the terrifying glamour of the palace, or doomed to live life underwater.

The Prince is a foreigner in the forest/swamp world, just as Rusalka is out of place at court. Tragically, these two beings who seem to need each other so desperately cannot find a way to connect, and ultimately both are destroyed. In the end everyone pays for the tragic desires of the water creature who dreamed of human life.

These ideas are reflected in the scenic world of this production. A single space allows each half of the doomed relationship to feel apart from the comfort of the world they think they know. From swamp to palace and back again (although discovered anew and transformed not by nature, but by circumstances), the characters of the opera find fear where kindness should exist and anxiety where peace might better serve. Such is life—in the fantasy of a fairy tale and the reality of our own world.

Dvořák’s Rusalka reminds us that, for someone else, we are the exotic, we are the different, we are the unknown and

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Slavic Beauty The opera Rusalka was a high mark for composer Antonín Dvořák, as well as Czech national pride BY MARK TIARKS

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Twenty years ago we Slavs were nothing. Now we feel our national life once more awakening and hope that the glorious times may come back which five centuries ago were ours, when all Europe looked up to the powerful Czechs, the Slavs, the Bohemians. —Dvořák, as quoted in London’s Pall Mall Gazette, October 13, 1886 FOR A 19TH-CENTURY Czech composer, music was a political and cultural statement as much as an artistic one. Opera in particular was expected to help advance a national revival, restoring a proud and sophisticated culture that had been systematically dismantled during centuries of control by Austria’s Hapsburg Empire. The revival, which started in the late 18th century, began with resurrecting the Czech language itself, which had nearly vanished, then spread to literature and the performing arts. Bedřich Smetana, Dvořák’s elder by 17 years, established the heritage of Czech national opera with a patriotic epic, The Brandenburgers in Bohemia, and a village comedy, The Bartered Bride, both of which premiered in 1866 at the Provisional Theater. The first Czech-language theater in Prague, four of Smetana’s operas premiered there, as did three of Dvořák’s early works. (Dvořák played viola in the Provisional Theater’s orchestra for nine years, from its opening in 1862 to 1871, acquiring a first-hand knowledge of French, German, and Italian opera, as well as Czech works and operetta.) Rusalka was the ninth of Dvořák’s 10 operas and his greatest stage success. Poet and playwright Jaroslav Kvapil wrote the text, inspired by a summer spent on a Danish island, where he was reminded of Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Little Mermaid.” He transformed the prose tale into a rhymed verse libretto and its characters into their Czech folklore counterparts. It’s impossible to imagine a subject and a text better suited to Dvořák’s musical gifts or more resonant with his passion for Czech folklore and fairy tales and for the natural world.

A NOTE ABOUT THE DESIGN Once upon a time in an Iowa warehouse, a painting crew spent so many days painting blue vignettes onto the ivory set for Rusalka that they actually started to dream in “Blueberry,” otherwise known as Benjamin Moore No. 2063-20. Clearly, Rusalka had cast its first magic spells even before the first performance. To realize scenic designer Jacob A. Climer’s vision, six painters spent most of May obsessively covering the set in a decorative style known as toile. They painted everything: chairs, tables, armoires, curtains—even the floor and walls, which were built in Boston and reassembled like a puzzle here in Indianola. Climer chose to use toile (which comes from the French word for linen or canvas) after months of brainstorming with director Chas Rader-Shieber. They needed the set to suit both Rusalka’s watery world and the Prince’s palace on dry land, something outdoors and indoors, something natural and man-made. They scoured the internet for underwater inspiration. They pored over books about castles. “And then one day,” the director said, “Jacob sent me an email with just two words: ‘Think toile.’” The style originated in Ireland in the mid-1700s and quickly spread to France and America, where it caught on during CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE

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In Acts I and III, Dvořák created an enchanted atmosphere, with sensual, impressionistic depictions of the forest, rippling water, and moonlight. (The moon makes important appearances in all three acts.) Act II’s music reflects the conventionality and artifice of the Prince’s human world. Dance music, of which Dvořák was a master, runs throughout the score, with the freeform frolicking of the wood nymphs in sharp contrast to the formal dances at the palace. Musical motifs are masterfully presented and manipulated throughout, representing attitudes and emotions as well as characters, all deployed in Dvořák’s brilliant orchestration. Act I, which begins with a playful, energetic trio by the wood nymphs, features three arias by Rusalka. The first, sung to Vodník, her water-gnome father, exquisitely describes her love for the young man who comes to swim in the lake. Her celebrated “Song to the Moon” is a request for celestial aid in telling him of her love. Finally, she implores Ježibaba to make her human. The witch complies, brewing up a magic potion in an off-kilter waltz with a comic text, complete with “Čury, mury, fuk,” the Czech equivalent of “Abracadabra!” The transformation comes with a mandate—Rusalka must not speak to any humans—and a warning—if her lover is unfaithful, both will be eternally damned.

The Prince arrives, to a grand brass fanfare, and sings of his mysterious attraction to the lake. Rusalka had been embracing him as he swam, but was invisible to him until now.

It’s impossible to imagine a subject and a text better suited to Dvořák’s musical gifts or more resonant with his passion for Czech folklore and fairy tales and for the natural world. When she appears, their immediate and intense attraction creates a compositional challenge—a love duet would normally occur here, but Rusalka must be silent. Dvořák’s graceful solution is essentially a duet for tenor and orchestra, an impassioned aria with a magnificent accompaniment, which ends as the Prince leads her away, repeating, “Come with me, my fairy-tale!” The gamekeeper and the kitchen boy, two servants in the palace, begin Act II with a gossipy conversation about the Prince and his strange

fiancée, in an idiom related to Czech bagpipe songs. (The bagpipe is just as central to the Czech folk tradition as it is to the Scottish and Irish.) In just a week, the prospective marriage has run into a major problem. Even as the wedding guests are arriving at the palace, the Prince has become frustrated by Rusalka’s detachment and silence. He is now being wooed by a foreign princess of “fierce human beauty,” with whom he dances, leaving Rusalka alone. Thanks to a conveniently placed pond, the water-gnome Vodník is able to arrive. His sorrowful, sympathetic aria describing Rusalka’s forlorn state is juxtaposed against the guests’ traditional bridal chorus. After a tripartite aria by Rusalka, expressing her desperate agitation in her most spectacular vocalism, the Prince and Princess begin a passionate but slightly icy duet. It becomes clear that his passion is for her, while hers is to destroy his relationship with Rusalka. When the Prince pushes Rusalka away in favor of the Princess, she responds, “You can follow your loved one into the depths of hell!” Rusalka has returned to the forest to begin Act III, where she laments her fate in a probing, melancholy aria. She now belongs to neither the human world nor the domain of water and longs for death “In vain I seek to rejoin my sisters, in vain I long for the world of men.” Ježibaba tells her she can return to her original state, but only if she murders the Prince, which she refuses to do, in a dramatic confrontation with the witch. The opera ends with an extraordinary 16-minute final scene between the Prince and Rusalka, a reconciliation duet of great lyricism and variety during which the lovers sing poignantly but never simultaneously. The Prince begs for her kiss, knowing that it will result in his death. Rusalka complies, asking for mercy on his soul. She gently sinks into the lake, as the opera ends on a pianissimo major key chord.

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Even though their names suggest stereotypicality, Rusalka, the Prince, and Vodník are each delineated with subtlety and depth. Rusalka is the most fully developed of all Dvořák’s female opera characters, thanks especially to the number and diversity of her arias. We see three sides of the Prince—ardent wooer in the first act, conflicted lover in the second, and repentant seeker of forgiveness in the third. Vodník has a Sarastro-like depth of character and wisdom, along with the same vocal range. He warns his daughter of the dangers she faces in seeking human love, but also lets her follow her own path.

Rusalka is the most fully developed of all Dvořák’s female opera characters, thanks especially to the number and diversity of her arias. Rusalka premiered on March 31, 1901, at the National Theater, a glorious, 1,000-seat auditorium that replaced the Provisional Theater in 1883 and is still used today for opera performances. Despite its home-country success, Rusalka was slow making its way abroad and overseas. The American premiere was given in 1935 by the “CzechoslovakAmerican Legionnaires’ Society” in Berwyn, Illinois; the first American professional production was by the San Diego Opera, in 1975.

the Colonial era and resurfaced in the 1970s, during the United States bicentennial. It’s often seen on upholstery or wallpaper, where whimsical pastoral scenes (picnics, gardens, canoodling lovers) repeat in a single color (often blue, black or red) across a light background. Intrigued by toile’s symbolic contrasts, with its notion of wilderness captured in an orderly pattern, Climer added an extra layer of meaning to the Rusalka set by designing six custom scenes from the story itself, including Ježibaba’s cottage and the Prince out for a swim. The designer assembled a file of images, called a look book, and delivered it to Emily Rosenkrantz, the lead scenic artist. From there, Rosenkrantz used a projector to enlarge the images to almost-human scale and then traced them, first with charcoal, then with a Sharpie, and finally with an electro-pounce, a special pen that perforates paper by burning it with tiny zaps of electricity. The perforated papers became stencils, which the crew then taped to the set and dusted with charcoal to make templates for all that Blueberry paint. But keep in mind: All of the painting was done by hand. The crew attached an array of brushes and rollers to bamboo sticks to avoid long hours of hunching over the panels, which were spread across the warehouse floor. They tiptoed around in their stocking feet to keep the panels clean. The real challenge was keeping the vignettes uniform across every surface, including the double sets of furniture—the first that seems to sink under the sea and the second that furnishes the palace on dry land. “I love creating something beautiful and then tearing it down. It’s so frightening,” Climer said. “We build the world. Then we right the world. Then we destroy the world.”

The Rusalka toile painting crew (left to right): Hannah Joy Hopkins, Kiah Kayser, Emily Rosenkrantz and Sarah Lozo. (Not pictured: Samantha Galvao and Angela Zhang)

Now, thanks to enterprising companies such as Des Moines Metro Opera, this superb opera is finally receiving the widespread applause and admiration it deserves. Mark Tiarks began his professional opera career as a stage manager and stage director in DMMO's 1978 season. Since then, he has been Artistic Administrator for Opera Theatre of Saint Louis, Producing Director of Court Theatre, General Director of Chicago Opera Theater, and Director of Planning and Marketing for the Santa Fe Opera.

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Billy Budd BENJAMIN BRITTEN

2:00 PM July 12 Music by Benjamin Britten Libretto by E. M. Forster and Eric Crozier, based on the short novel Billy Budd by Herman Melville Revised orchestration by Steuart Bedford First Performance: London; December 1, 1951 Company Premiere Recorded by Iowa PBS on July 11, 2017 Performed in English with English supertitles By arrangement with Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., publisher and copyright owner. Funding for the broadcast of Billy Budd has been provided by the Lauridsen Family Foundation

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THE STORY

PROLOGUE

ACT II

Captain Vere, as an old man, is haunted by memories of a disturbing incident in “the summer of 1797.”

Claggart asks to register a complaint with the captain—who is irritated by his sycophancy. They are interrupted by the call to engage. The French have been spotted but escape into the mist. Claggart returns to making his complaint and Vere agrees to talk to Billy. Back in Vere’s cabin, Claggart formally accuses Billy of attempted mutiny. Billy is incensed and, unable to get any words out, strikes Claggart dead. Vere orders a court martial and Billy is condemned. The following day, Dansker tells Billy that the ship is on the edge of mutiny, but Billy urges him to keep the peace—otherwise more will hang. Just before he is hanged Billy calls out his blessings on the captain (“Starry Vere, God bless you”).

ACT I The H.M.S. Indomitable receives newly press-ganged recruits taken from merchant ship The Rights o’Man. One of them, the stammering Billy Budd, is sent to the crow’s nest; Billy sings of his happiness, “Farewell, old Rights o’Man,” which alarms the officers, who think he is referring to political rights. Claggart, the master-at-arms, instructs his corporal Squeak to make Billy’s life difficult, and Billy is warned to stay out of Claggart’s way. In Vere’s cabin a week later, two officers tell him about Billy’s song but he advises them not to worry. Below deck the men are singing when Billy leaves to fetch some tobacco from his kitbag. He finds Squeak going through his things; Squeak pulls a knife but Billy knocks him down. Claggart is forced to put his spy in chains. Left alone, Claggart sings of his hatred for Billy.

EPILOGUE Vere, an old man, mourns his actions. He knows that he could have saved Billy, but takes some comfort from his final words.

DIRECTOR'S NOTES by Kristine McIntyre, Stage Director Why does evil exist? Are we really powerless to stop it? And why does Billy have to die? These are the central questions of Britten's Billy Budd, and I'm not sure the opera provides many answers. E.M. Forster wanted to craft a story about Goodness and about the redeeming power of love. He wanted to "tidy-up Vere"— which is British intellectual speak for making Vere less obnoxiously indifferent and more human than Melville's version. Forster wanted certainty and he wanted redemption. In the hands of Benjamin Britten, the opera becomes a masterpiece of moral crisis, an exploration of regret and loss, what is just and what is right. It was Britten who added the Prologue and Epilogue, turning the opera into a memory play with Vere as its tortured and perhaps unreliable

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narrator. For Britten's Vere, forgiveness is elusive and the opera ends just with Vere's voice, a man alone in a universe where God may not exist. Redemption may have been out of reach for Herman Melville, too. He began Billy Budd right after the death of his youngest son Stanwix and was still haunted by the suicide of his older son Malcolm, who shot himself to death in his bedroom at age 18. His boys became Billy and the novel an elegy from a regretful father to his two dead sons. Forster said the novel "reaches straight back into the universal, to a blackness and sadness so transcending our own that they are indistinguishable from glory." Britten has given us an opera that is just as glorious, even if it leaves us to answer these questions for ourselves.


CAST

in order of vocal appearance

Edward Fairfax Vere ROGER HONEYWELL

Conductor DAVID NEELY

1st Mate BRANDON HENDRICKSON †

Stage Director KRISTINE MCINTYRE

2nd Mate JESSE STOCK †

Scenic Design R. KEITH BRUMLEY

Mr. Flint FEDERICO DE MICHELIS

Costume Design JONATHAN KNIPSCHER

The Bosun TIMOTHY BRUNO

Lighting & Projection Design BARRY STEELE

Donald MICHAEL ADAMS

Make-Up/Hair Design BRITTANY CRINSON

Maintop CHRIS CARR †

Chorus Master LISA HASSON

Novice CHRISTIAN SANDERS †

Musical Preparation GEOFFREY LOFF

Squeak RYAN C. CONNELLY †

Fight Choreographer BRIAN ROBERTSON

Mr. Redburn DENNIS JESSE

Associate Conductor JOHN SPENCER IV

Lieutenant Ratcliffe KRISTOPHER IRMITER

Assistant Stage Director OCTAVIO CARDENAS

John Claggart ZACHARY JAMES

Children's Chorus Master BARBARA SLETTO

Red Whiskers STEVEN SANDERS †

Children's Chorus Pianist RUTH DORR

Arthur Jones TED PICKELL †

Stage Manager BRIAN AUGUST

Billy Budd CRAIG VERM Novice’s Friend EMMETT O'HANLON Dansker THOMAS HAMMONS Cabin Boy BENJAMIN SARVIS Midshipmen ADAM KOCH GABRIEL MCKEE KYLE MERFELD ISAAC NOBLE Powder Monkeys NATHAN BROXSON JOSEPH CRABB MICHAEL CRABB HENRY GOLAY JACOB GRAUERHOLZ AMOS HANSER LUKE KUMMET AARON WETZLER

PRODUCTION

IOWA PBS Producer JUDY BLANK Director ANDREA COYLE Technical Director DAVID FEINGOLD Engineer in Charge CHAD AUBREY Audio Engineers JIM LEASURE KEVIN RIVERS Video Engineer NEAL KYER Camera Operators/Videographers PHILIP BLOBAUM STEVE CARNS DARRIN CLOUSE SCOTT FAINE RICK FULLER Music Readers JOHN COCKERILL ELDEN LITTLE Editors JUDY BLANK NEAL KYER Graphic Artists JOE BUSTAD NEAL KYER Production Assistant TIFFANY HILL Production Interns ANTHONY CALIGIURI VICTORIA CARRA Closed Captioning TIFFANY HILL Production Supervisor LAURA SHANNON Director of Communications SUSAN RAMSEY Manager of Communications TONYA WEBER Manager of Local Programming CHARLES CZECH Director of Programming/Production JUSTIN BEAUPRE Executive Producer ANDREA COYLE

Former DMMO Apprentice Artist

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You Must Choose a Mighty Theme The complex relationship between good and evil is the central theme in Billy Budd BY MARK TIARKS

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IF YOU ASKED A WELL-READ American citizen of the mid-19th century about Herman Melville, he or she might have responded enthusiastically about his novels of the sea. But this did not mean Billy Budd, which was not published until 1924, more than three decades after his death, or Moby Dick, which was widely considered an artistic as well as commercial failure. Melville’s popularity was based instead on tales of nautical adventure set amid exotic South Sea locales, such as Typee (1846) and Oomo (1847). Born in 1819, Melville spent four years of his early life as a sailor, serving first on a merchant ship, then whaling boats and finally aboard the frigate United States. Ships were, as he put it, “my Yale College and my Harvard.” He also participated in a mutiny from one of the whalers, for which he was briefly jailed in Tahiti. His celebrity peaked in 1850, with White-Jacket; or, The World in a Manof-War, due not to its artistic merits, which were slight, but because it prompted a national uproar about flogging in the American navy, with Congress banning the practice later in the same year. In 1851 Moby Dick was published, to dismissive reviews and dismal sales. From then on, his literary reputation declined and he spent the rest of his life in near obscurity, eventually becoming a customs inspector in New York and focusing his literary activities on poetry. Melville worked on Billy Budd over the course of several years, starting with it in 1885 as a brief poem, and then expanding it to a short novel. Two incidents in American naval history prompted its writing. In 1842 aboard the USS Somers, three sailors were convicted of attempted mutiny and hanged; one of Melville’s cousins was an officer in the court-martial. Four years later, a sailor serving on the USS St. Mary’s struck an officer and was hanged. The captain asked the

sailor to forgive him for imposing the death sentence, to which the sailor replied, “Yes, sir, and I honor you for it. God bless that flag!” In Billy Budd Melville drew substantially on themes and events portrayed in White-Jacket, especially the metaphor of a sailing ship as the entire world in miniature. He based the title character on Jack Chase, a fellow sailor on the USS United States, who was handsome, popular, captain of the maintop, and had a singular physical defect, in this case a hand with four fingers, rather than the stammer he gave Budd.

Like Peter Grimes, it is a tale of the sea, having at its center a visionary character transposed against an intense, claustrophobic society. Melville finished the draft in April 1891, but his death five months later meant he was never able to put the work into its final form. The manuscript was discovered in his papers after his death and was first published in 1924. Billy Budd played a key role in the “Melville revival,” fueled by a 20th-century appreciation for its ambiguity and its concern with moral and ethical issues. Its central theme—the perplexing relationship between good and evil—stands as an example of his search for universal truths, which he stated when referring to Moby Dick: “To produce a mighty book, you must choose a mighty theme.”

The writer E. M. Forster was one of Melville’s early British admirers, having discussed Billy Budd in lectures at Cambridge University in 1927. The composition of Peter Grimes was inspired by an article Forster wrote on the poet George Crabbe; Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears read it in 1941 during their self-imposed exile to the United States as pacifists at the beginning of World War II. Britten and Forster had been introduced before the war by W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood; in 1948 Britten dedicated Albert Herring to Forster and the two men began considering the possibility of collaborating. Forster was a very successful novelist and literary critic, but had no theatrical experience, so he was partnered with Eric Crozier, a stage director and the Albert Herring librettist, in crafting the text for Billy Budd. Like Peter Grimes, it is a tale of the sea, having at its center a visionary character transposed against an intense, claustrophobic society. Billy Budd features the largest opera orchestra the composer ever utilized, giving the score a richly symphonic quality beyond even that of Grimes. In keeping with a work on a military theme, percussion instruments are in the forefront (six players are called for), and trumpets and flutes are also prominently featured, in part no doubt to provide the high musical tones that would otherwise have been supplied by sopranos and mezzo-sopranos. The story takes place late in 1797, during the long-running naval warfare between England and France that ended with Lord Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar in 1805. During the latter 1700s, fear and paranoia in Great Britain about individual liberties and rebellion reached great heights, fueled by the American and French revolutions. More specifically, the Royal Navy had been shaken early in 1797 by two mutinies, which threatened the success of their naval

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campaign against the French, causing great public and political concern. The opera focuses on the triangular relationship between Billy Budd (the innocent and charismatic young sailor), Edward Fairfax Vere (the admired but aloof captain of the H.M.S. Indomitable), and John Claggart (the ship’s Mephistophelean masterat-arms). As the action begins, Billy has just been “pressed” from a merchant ship called The Rights o’ Man and is forced to join the Indomitable’s crew. Most of them take an immediate liking to Billy, except for Claggart. When he accuses Billy of attempted mutiny, the tongue-tied young sailor lashes out, killing him with one blow. Vere immediately convenes a court-martial, which finds Billy guilty and condemns him to death. The next morning, just before he is hanged, Billy cries out his forgiveness, “Starry Vere, God bless you!” In a masterful stroke, Crozier and Forster expanded Vere’s prominence, framing the action proper with a prologue and epilogue featuring his recollection of the events. They also transformed Vere from Melville’s one-dimensional disciplinarian to a much more complex character, trapped between his obligation to duty in finding Budd guilty of mutiny and his inner conviction that Billy was essentially innocent:

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I have seen the divine judgment of Heaven. I’ve seen iniquity overthrown. Cooped in this narrow cabin I have beheld the mystery of goodness. And I am afraid. Before what tribunal do I stand if I destroy goodness? The angel of God has struck and the angel must hang through me. Beauty, handsomeness, goodness, it is for me to destroy you. In this solo, Vere echoes Claggart’s words in the latter’s Iago-like soliloquy, during which the masterat-arms speaks of his determination to destroy Billy, the so-called “Handsome Sailor,” whose arrival has threatened his authority on board the ship:

first taken on board. Claggart is portrayed throughout using snakelike and satanic imagery. Vere is Pontius Pilate, ruler of his “fragment of earth” who consigns Christ/Billy to death. The character names are symbolic: The Celtic equivalent of Apollo was called “Beli” and “Budd,” Vere stands for “vir” (man), and “claggart” means to cling to something in a harmful way.

Oh Beauty, oh handsomeness, goodness! Would that I’d never seen you! Having seen you, what choice remains to me? None, none! I am doomed to annihilate you, I am vowed to your destruction…With hate and envy I am stronger than love…If love still lives and grows strong where I cannot enter, what hope is there in my own dark world for me?

Melville’s treatment of what seems as if it should be one of the most dramatic moments—Vere conveying the death sentence to Billy, along with the latter’s reaction—was unusual and continues to be controversial. For the reader, it happens “out of sight.” As Melville put it, “Beyond the communication of the sentence, what took place at this interview was never known.” Britten’s musical match to Melville’s silence is a sequence of 34 seemingly straightforward chords, played slowly during the off-stage meeting, which when well conducted and played create a devastating emotional response in listeners.

The three central characters are clearly based on Biblical models. Billy is described in various Christand Adam-like terms, the natural man of goodness before his fall, an orphan who can’t read but can sing, as he proudly announces when

Britten used an extensive system of musical key symbolism in Billy Budd; the relationships between the keys and their associated themes was consistent throughout much of his work. The opera’s “home key” is B-flat major, which represents


salvation and reconciliation. It is immediately contrasted in the Prologue with B minor, the key of unrest and mutiny. This conflict of major and minor keys a semi-tone apart embodies Vere’s inner conflict and it is not resolved dramatically or musically until the Epilogue, with the final movement to B-flat major. The key for Billy is A major, standing for youthful beauty and innocence; Claggart’s music is dominated by F minor, embodying his innate depravity and perhaps, as has often been suggested, a self-loathing born of repressed sexual desire for Billy. Homosexuality is a subject clearly present in the novel and the opera, but its significance is ambiguous. Some commentators see it as the central theme, with both Vere and Claggart physically attracted to Billy, but unable or unwilling to act on their desires. Others see it as less important or even non-existent. Although both Britten and Forster were gay, they were reticent to focus public attention on this aspect of Billy Budd, for “the love that dares not speak its name” was a criminal offense in England until 1967.

in four acts, with three intermissions, making for a long evening. Tenor Peter Pears excelled in Vere’s intimate scenes but lacked the vocal thrust to dominate the large-scale action sequences, especially in his first appearance, during which he gave an intended-to-be-rousing speech to his crew that had an unintended comical quality.

The image of a ship as metaphor for the world and its voyage our passage through life returns as the opera’s final moment. Whatever the case, there are other, ultimately more important themes, especially that of beauty’s power to destroy as well as to enoble, and the need in turn for beauty to be destroyed. Britten returned to this theme in Gloriana and The Turn of the Screw, written two and three years, respectively, after Billy Budd. His most complex exploration of the theme followed two decades later, with Death in Venice (1973). Billy Budd was first performed by the Royal Opera in 1951, to a decidedly mixed response. The opera was given

Stung by the tepid response and by the lack of productions after the premiere, Britten set out to revise the opera in 1960. Vere’s first scene was eliminated entirely, others were tightened, and the four acts of the original were transformed into two, with a corresponding gain in dramatic intensity. The revised version was first performed on BBC Radio in December 1960, with the stage premiere taking place at the Royal Opera House in 1964. Billy Budd has since risen in acclaim to become recognized as one of the 20th century’s most dramatic and

compelling of operas, on the same plane as Elektra, Wozzeck, and Kátya Kabanová. The image of a ship as metaphor for the world and its voyage our passage through life returns as the opera’s final moment. In music recalling the unseen interview and Billy’s soliloquy in chains the night before his execution, Vere finally achieves a sense of concord: But he has saved me, and blessed me, and the love that passes understanding has come to me. I was lost on the infinite sea, but I’ve sighted a sail in the storm, the far-shining sail, and I’m content. I’ve seen where she’s bound for. There’s a land where she’ll anchor forever.

Mark Tiarks began his professional opera career as a stage manager and stage director in DMMO's 1978 season. Since then he has been Artistic Administrator for Opera Theatre of Saint Louis, Producing Director of Court Theatre, General Director of Chicago Opera Theater, and Director of Planning and Marketing for the Santa Fe Opera.

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Le Comte Ory GIOACHINO ROSSINI 2:00 PM July 19 Music by Gioachino Rossini Libretto by Eugène Scribe and Charles-Gaspard Delstre-Poirson after their own play First performance: Paris; Paris Opéra, August 20, 1828 Company Premiere Recorded by Iowa PBS on July 15, 2014 Performed in French with English supertitles above the stage Licensed by arrangement with Boosey & Hawkes, Inc., Sole Agent for Leonard Bernstein Music Publishing Company LLC, publisher and copyright owner. Funding for this broadcast of Le Comte Ory has been provided by PMC Grand LC in honor of Nancy J. Main

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THE STORY ACT I

ACT II

The Count of Formoutiers and most of the men have left for the Crusades in the Holy Land, leaving behind the count’s sister Adèle and her companion Ragonde. The young Count Ory is trying to win the countess, and with the help of his friend Raimbaud he has disguised himself as a hermit and taken up residence outside the castle gates. Ragonde is among the village girls and peasants gathered to get the holy man’s advice. She tells the disguised Ory that Adèle is suffering from a strange melancholy and will come to consult him, much to Ory’s delight.

That evening the women angrily discuss Ory’s plot. Cries for help are soon heard outside from a group of women who claim that Ory is pursuing them—but are, in fact, the count and his men disguised as nuns. Adèle admits them, orders a simple meal for the guests and leaves. Raimbaud, who has discovered the castle’s wine cellar, enters with enough to drink for everybody. The men’s carousing gives way to pious chanting as soon as Ragonde comes within earshot.

Ory’s page Isolier arrives with Ory’s tutor. The tutor, suspicious of the hermit’s identity, leaves for reinforcements. Isolier, however, does not recognize his master and confides to the “hermit” that he is in love with Adèle and has planned to enter the castle disguised as a pilgrim. Ory, impressed by the idea, agrees to help but secretly plans to use it for his own ends. Adèle appears, lamenting her condition. Ory prescribes a love affair to cure her, which leads her to confess her feelings for Isolier. The “hermit” warns her away from the page of the libertine Ory, and, thankful for his advice, Adèle invites Ory to the castle. They are about to leave when Ory’s tutor returns and unmasks him. When news arrives that the Crusaders are expected back in two days, Ory resolves to stage another assault on the castle before their return.

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Isolier informs the countess that the Crusaders will return that night. When Ragonde offers to tell their guests, Isolier realizes who they are and decides to play a joke on Ory. He extinguishes the lamp in the countess’s bedroom as Ory approaches to pay her an unexpected visit. Misled by the countess’s voice, Ory makes his advances towards Isolier. When trumpets announce the return of the Crusaders, Isolier reveals his identity and Ory is left with no choice but to make his escape.


CAST

in order of vocal appearance

Raimbaud STEVEN LABRIE Alice, a peasant girl ABIGAIL PASCHKE † Ragonde, the Countess’ stewardess MARGARET LATTIMORE Le Comte Ory TAYLOR STAYTON Isolier, page to Ory STEPHANIE LAURICELLA The Tutor WAYNE TIGGES Comtesse Adèle SYDNEY MANCASOLA Herald/Courtier BRAD BARON †

PRODUCTION Conductor DEAN WILLIAMSON Stage Director DAVID GATELY Associate Conductor AARON BREID Assistant Stage Director NATHAN TROUP †

Former DMMO Apprentice Artist

Chorus Master LISA HASSON

Video Engineer NEAL KYER

Musical Preparation ALLEN PERRIELLO SCOTT ARENS

Camera Operators/Videographers PHILIP BLOBAUM STEVE CARNS SCOTT FAINE RICK FULLER MARLYN SCHRAM JOHN TORPY

Scenic Designer R. KEITH BRUMLEY Lighting Designer BARRY STEELE Costume Designer HOWARD TSVI KAPLAN Costume Supervisor JONATHAN KNIPSCHER Make-Up/Hair Designer JOANNE WEAVER Production Stage Manager LISA KELLY

FOR IOWA PBS Producer JUDY BLANK Director ANDREA COYLE Technical Director CHAD AUBREY Engineers in Charge CHAD AUBREY RUSSELL WALL Audio Engineers DAVID FEINGOLD JIM LEASURE

Music Readers DAN JACOBSEN NATE WHEATLEY Editors JUDY BLANK NEAL KYER Graphic Artists ALISA DODGE NEAL KYER Production Assistant TIFFANY HILL Production Interns JENI ZELLER MATT RHOADES Closed Captioning TIFFANY HILL Production Supervisor LAURA SHANNON Director of Communications KRISTEN GRAY Director of Programming/Production JUSTIN BEAUPRE Executive Producer ANDREA COYLE

DIRECTOR'S NOTES by David Gately, Stage Director Early in my career I had experienced some success with a production of Rossini’s The Barber of Seville that led to others, then others, and I quickly became a bit of a Rossini specialist. (The total number of Barbers clocks in at about 35 productions now.) Next came La Cenerentola, which led to about a dozen productions—the last being with the remarkable Isabel Leonard in her debut in the role. Following that was L’italiana in Algeri, one of Rossini’s most madcap comedies, then a single production of Il turco in Italia in Chicago in the ‘80s and two productions of Le Comte Ory in the ‘90s. And finally at Wolftrap I directed the odd, but wonderful Il viaggio a Reims. These Rossini operas came to make up what I saw as my own private “Ring Cycle” of Rossini comedies. Ory, though not the last, came rather late in the canon for me because it was a piece that was just not done all that much in the past few decades and it is hard to tell why. The piece is full of humor and vivid comic characters, perhaps not as

well drawn as those in Barber, but still loads of fun. It has amazing music and a wildly unlikely and funny story set during the Crusades. Add to that a scene in the second act where all the male principals and chorus appear disguised as nuns and you have a wonderful comic romp. It’s the only comedy that Rossini wrote in French, and in my opinion that change in language infuses Ory with a lighter touch than some of his Italian comedies. And other than a perhaps too brief ending, I think it is one of his most consistent comedies. Dramatically, there is not a lot to dissect. It’s the kind of piece, rather, where one just needs to sit back and let the comedy roll over you. That is my wish for you with this production. Although the action of the piece takes place during the Crusades—we made a decision to update the costumes to a period closer to the time period when the piece was written, more in keeping with the style and spirit of the writing and to give the piece a sexier look. Enjoy!

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BubblingBel Canto

Medieval France ferments a vocal champagne in Le Comte Ory BY ROGER PINES

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THE LIBIDINOUS HERO OF Le Comte Ory goes to outrageous lengths to woo a noblewoman with whom he’s infatuated. He peals out high Cs and seduces with delicious legato phrases, all the while exuding irresistible charm. In medieval times (the era originally intended by the libretto), wines from the Champagne region were already being produced, and we can easily imagine Ory practically living on champagne. In this opera, it’s not just Ory’s music that sparkles— everyone else’s does as well. That quality of effervescence, of course, is certainly part and parcel of any Rossini comedy, but it pervades virtually every note of this one, ultimately leaving the listener deliciously lightheaded as only the most sparkling champagne can do. Le Comte Ory is a mix of both high and low comedy—the grand emotions of the ravishingly beautiful but exaggeratedly lovelorn Countess Adèle, in contrast with the wild disguises and ribald antics of Ory and his cronies. Whatever doings a character may be up to in any particular scene, Rossini brings to the music what critic Peter Heyworth cited as “a unique quality of exhilarating high spirits, unrivaled even by Donizetti, Offenbach, Sullivan or Johann Strauss.” In Heyworth’s view, “no other composer has ever so fully tapped

to equal that of the more familiar Rossini comic masterpieces. It’s no surprise that it languished, given the superhuman vocal demands of the title role (the other principals’ music is no walk in the park either, one must hasten to add). The composer fashioned the title role for Adolphe Nourrit, a magnificent vocalist as well as an interpreter of incomparable stylistic flair, and the protagonist in many operatic world premieres, including works of Rossini, Auber, Meyerbeer, and Halévy. It’s staggering to think that the tenor who created Eléazar in Halévy’s La juive (a searingly powerful role we associate today exclusively with dramatic tenors) was also the same tenor who introduced audiences to the scintillating wit and dazzling lightness of touch that characterize Ory’s character and music. Once the florid brilliance of Rossini gave way to a tonally heftier, less coloratura-centered style in Bellini and Donizetti, and then later to the heroics of Verdi and finally the heavyduty theatricality of verismo, voices predestined for florid, high-flying Rossini grew fewer and farther between. That dearth applies particularly to leggero tenors capable of doing justice to the filigree, the coruscatingly graceful phrasing, and the innumerable stratospheric top notes that abound in Ory’s music.

In this opera, it’s not just Ory’s music that sparkles—everyone else’s does as well. the springs of an almost physical hilarity.” Another notable British critic, Desmond Shawe-Taylor, aptly characterized Rossini’s score as “delicious, and in workmanship is far more elaborate and ingenious than anything in L’italiana [in Algeri] or in The Barber [of Seville] either, for that matter.” Audiences internationally have taken quite a while to embrace the brilliance of Le Comte Ory, which fully deserves a popularity

For that reason above all, Le Comte Ory remained neglected for much of the nineteenth century and right through the first half of the twentieth. It had a significant revival in Italy during the early 1950s, but more than anything else, it was a 1954 production at Glyndebourne, Britain’s venerable opera festival (plus that production’s subsequent revivals and a 1956 recording featuring much of the same cast), that brought the work back into circulation. It takes a performer possessing not

only extraordinary vocal dexterity but also an astonishingly vivid personality to play the rascal who singlehandedly turns the castle of Formoutiers upside down. Ory is fortunate indeed to have arrived there at this particular moment— fortunate because all the men, including the brother of Countess Adèle, are off on their latest crusade, leaving Adèle and her ladies fair game for any bold wooer (although during the crusaders’ absence the castle is officially off limits to any man). Ory initially attempts to ingratiate himself with Adèle by masquerading as a wise hermit, eager to proffer advice to the lovelorn. When Adèle consults the “hermit,” he slyly suggests that love will take care of her despondency. But once Ory discovers that his page Isolier is himself infatuated with Adèle, the Count’s jealousy leads him to discourage her from pursuing love. It’s Ory’s long-suffering tutor, having had it with his charge’s amorous shenanigans, who makes clear to everyone exactly who this “hermit” really is, but when Ory learns that the men are expected to return in just two days, he’s more determined than ever to get into the castle. In Act Two the proceedings turn even more rollicking, as Ory and his courtiers manage to gain entrance to the castle disguised as female pilgrims. After “Sister Colette” (a.k.a. Ory) pays excessively affectionate respects to Adèle, the disguised nun finds her way to the Countess’s bedroom that night, feigning terror and asking to stay with her. The problem is that Isolier is there too, and—in the dark— matters turn very complicated! But the menfolk return from their crusade, and Ory, with Isolier’s help, is able to escape just in time. Rossini was certainly not a stranger to the Paris audience—he’d already given them Il viaggio a Reims, Le siège de Corinthe, and Moïse et Pharaon (still to come was his last stage

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work, the magnificent Guillaume Tell, which premiered in 1829, exactly one year after Le Comte Ory). The Ory-Viaggio connection is crucial: a pièce d’occasion if ever there was one, Viaggio— written for the 1825 coronation of King Charles X at Reims— required staggering virtuosity from a large cast, and there was little chance of it entering the repertoire (fortunately, history was proven wrong—it’s had many productions worldwide during the past three decades). Rossini was, however, intent on recycling as much of Viaggio as he could. If you listen to it and then to Ory, you’ll find that four major numbers have been transferred brilliantly from the one opera to the other. The Count’s delightful opening aria, for example, originated as the entrance of Madama Cortese (lyric soprano), the gracious innkeeper who gets Viaggio off to a wonderfully elegant start. Rossini needed to make very little alteration in the vocal line to adapt the glorious scena of his Countess di Folleville to suit his somewhat less giddy—but similarly captivating—leggero soprano heroine of Ory, Countess Adèle. The first-act finale of Ory has its source in the “gran pezzo concertato” of Viaggio, originally written for 14 solo voices. One’s initial impression of Ory would prompt the logical assumption that it would have been highly suitable for Paris’s intimate Opéra Comique, but the world premiere occurred instead at the majestic Opéra de Paris. Philip Gossett, the most eminent Rossini scholar of our time, has noted that the work is “not short numbers connected by dialogue (the usual format for repertoire encountered at the Opèra Comique) but grandscale (occasionally massive) scenes connected by recitativo accompagnato.” Gossett also reminds us that the musical forces required in Ory are actually comparable to Guillaume Tell, while the vocal demands are most

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definitely well beyond those of the standard opéra-comique repertoire. The musical riches of Ory show a composer working at the absolute top of his game, with literally every number proving a major highlight. The episodes already mentioned above are delectable not just for being so expertly shaped and so melodically graceful, but because of their spot-on revelation of character: for example, the Count’s unflappable confidence and command of the situation, in contrast with the Countess’s vulnerability and

Isolier are everywhere in evidence, beginning with the duet with his master; Rossini’s vocal line lends itself to a good-natured spirit of competition between the mezzosoprano and tenor. The florid element is at its most electrifying in Adéle’s entrance scene; she moves from a grandiose cavatina to a hairraisingly challenging coloraturaladen cabaletta, in which frenetic scales and complicated ascending and descending sequences of fast 16th-note figures that, technically speaking, truly separate the women from the girls. By the time we reach

The musical riches of Ory show a composer working at the absolute top of his game, with literally every number proving a major highlight. palpitating femininity. The selfimportance of the Tutor is delightful in the extremes of range and the trills of his cavatina (how very seriously he takes himself at those repetitions of “Quel honneur d’être gouverneur”). The endearing impetuosity and ardent nature of

the end of the first act, Rossini has already required his singers to demonstrate their ease in very rapid articulation of text. That skill comes even more vividly to the fore in this act’s great finale, one of the most exhilarating ensemble showpieces in opera.


The initial numbers of Act Two are duets involving Adèle: first, a brief one with the imposing contralto matron Ragonde, the Countess’s companion, who in this passage must match her in terms of sheer delicacy; and then a much lengthier scene between Adèle and the disguised Ory. Their music provides an enchanting opportunity for soprano and tenor to demonstrate the degree of detail and musical sophistication with which they respond to each other’s vocalism and style. The subsequent discovery of the Countess’s wine cellar by our baritone, Ory’s friend Raimbaud, gives him a chance to dazzle with verbal dexterity: his description to his cohorts (all, of course, disguised as nuns!) of his adventure in stealing the wine bursts forth in an astonishing barrage of tonguetwisting text. The final section of

his scene has the voice darting all over its range, including a couple of upward leaps of an octave and a half—truly hair-raising stuff, for which only the hardiest vocal techniques need apply! All of this leads up to a passage so musically sublime that, if an opera lover were forced to take just one Rossini piece to a desert island, this would be a logical candidate. This is the Ory/Adèle/Isolier “bedroom trio”: it begins with a legato melody sculpted magically by the composer, leading into an equally luminous extended close-harmony passage for the three singers. The scene of strange bedfellows in the dark then turns frantic: we hear the trumpets signaling the crusading heroes’ return to the castle, prompting a final burst of virtuosity from all three before Ory makes his getaway.

Le Comte Ory is lighter-than-air, sitcom diversion, but unforgettable thanks to the humor of its composer, the greatest of all operatic comedians. With Rossini as sommelier, this particular vintage of champagne provides enough bubbles to leave us sailing out of the theater not merely delighted but utterly intoxicated. Roger Pines, dramaturg and broadcast commentator at Lyric Opera of Chicago, writes frequently for recording companies and major music publications internationally. He has appeared annually as a panelist on the Metropolitan Opera broadcasts’ “Qpera Quiz” since 2006.

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The

ARTISTS

MICHAEL ADAMS

R. KEITH BRUMLEY

TIMOTHY J. BRUNO

Baritone, Fort Worth, TX Lescaut, Manon, Donald, Billy Budd

Designer, Kansas City, MO Scenic Designer, Manon, Billy Budd, Le Comte Ory

Bass, Toledo, OH Bosun, John Claggart (cover), Billy Budd

DMMO DEBUT Manon, 2016 SPONSORS Marla Lacey and Steve Znerold

JOYCE CASTLE

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DMMO DEBUT Die Fledermaus, 1989

DMMO DEBUT Turandot, Billy Budd, 2017

SPONSORS SPONSORS Phil and Judy Watson Sarah and Sam O'Brien/O'Brien Family Foundation

JACOB A. CLIMER

RYAN CONNELLY

Mezzo-Soprano, Lawrence, KS Julia Child, Bon Appétit!

Designer, Dallas, TX Costume and Scenic Designer, Rusalka

DMMO DEBUT Elektra, 2013

DMMO DEBUT The Abduction from the Seraglio, 2015

DMMO DEBUT Apprentice Artist, 2015

SPONSORS Daniel M. and Mary Kelly

SPONSORS Ellen and Jim Hubbell

SPONSOR Diane Morain

TROY COOK

ADAM CRINSON

BRITTANY CRINSON

Baritone, Quakertown, PA de Brétigny, Manon

Designer, New York, NY Scenic Designer, Bon Appétit!

DMMO DEBUT Manon, Galileo Galilei, 2016

DMMO DEBUT The Tragedy of Carmen, 2014

Designer, Chicago, IL Make-Up/Hair Designer, Manon, Rusalka, Billy Budd

SPONSORS Barbara and Michael Gartner in memory of Christopher Gartner

SPONSORS Joshua and Susie Kimelman

Tenor, New Freedom, PA Squeak, Billy Budd

DMMO DEBUT The Tragedy of Carmen, 2014 SPONSOR Stanley Ransom


FEDERICO DE MICHELIS

JOSEPH DENNIS

BRIAN FRUTIGER

Bass-Baritone, Buenos Aires, Argentina Mr. Flint, Billy Budd

Tenor, McKinney, TX Chevalier des Grieux, Manon

Tenor, Wichita, KS Guillot de Morfontaine, Manon

DMMO DEBUT Billy Budd, 2017

DMMO DEBUT Jenůfa, 2015

DMMO DEBUT Manon, 2016

SPONSORS Susan E. and Carl B. Voss

SPONSORS Nancy and Bill Main

SPONSORS Barbara and Fred Brown

SARA GARTLAND

DAVID GATELY

JILL GROVE

Soprano, Plano, TX Rusalka, Rusalka

Director, Seattle, WA Stage Director, Le Comte Ory

Mezzo-Soprano, Galveston, TX Ježibaba, Rusalka

DMMO DEBUT Regina, 2008

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

DMMO DEBUT Rusalka, 2018

SPONSORS Nix and Virginia Lauridsen/ Lauridsen Family Foundation

SPONSORS Carleton and Barbara Zacheis

SPONSOR Daniel J. and Ann L. Krumm Charitable Trust

THOMAS HAMMONS

LISA HASSON

BRANDON HENDRICKSON

Bass-Baritone, Loveland, OH Dansker, Billy Budd

Director, Fort Thomas, KY The Irene Graether Chorus Master and Director of the Apprentice Artist Program

Baritone, Baton Rouge, LA 1st Mate, Billy Budd

DMMO DEBUT Billy Budd, 2017 SPONSORS Roger and Kay Berger

Manon, Rusalka, Billy Budd, Le Comte Ory

DMMO DEBUT Amahl and the Night Visitors, 2004

DMMO DEBUT La Cenerentola, Ariadne auf Naxos, 2004

SPONSOR Doris Salsbury Endowment Fund

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ROGER HONEYWELL

KRISTOPHER IRMITER

ZACHARY JAMES

Tenor, Ontario, Canada Edward Fairfax Vere, Billy Budd

Bass-Baritone, Clemson, SC Lieutenant Ratcliffe, Billy Budd

Bass, Spring Hill, FL Vodník, Rusalka, John Claggart, Billy Budd

DMMO DEBUT Peter Grimes, 2012

DMMO DEBUT The Girl of the Golden West, 2015

DMMO DEBUT Billy Budd, 2017

SPONSOR Steve Marquardt

SPONSORS Jane and Steve Bahls/ Easter Family Foundation

SPONSORS Drs. Bruce Hughes and Randall Hamilton

DENNIS JESSE

EVAN LEROY JOHNSON

GRACE KAHL

Baritone, Baton Rouge, LA Mr. Redburn, Billy Budd

Tenor, Pine Island, MN Prince, Rusalka

Soprano, Queens, NY Kitchen Boy, Rusalka

DMMO DEBUT La Traviata, 2001

DMMO DEBUT Rusalka, 2018

DMMO DEBUT A Little Night Music, 2017

SPONSORS John and Louise Grzybowski

SPONSORS Linda and Tom Koehn

SPONSORS Tom and Marsha Mann

HOWARD TSVI KAPLAN

JONATHAN KNIPSCHER

STEVEN LABRIE

Designer, Oceanside, NY Costume Designer, Le Comte Ory

Designer, New York City, NY Costume Designer, Billy Budd

Baritone, Dallas, TX Raimbaud, Le Comte Ory

DMMO DEBUT Ariadne auf Naxos, 2004

DMMO DEBUT Dead Man Walking, Tragedy of Carmen, 2014

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

SPONSOR Pat Brown in memory of Doug Brown

SPONSOR Cora Hayes in memory of Edward R. Hayes

SPONSOR Trudy Hurd


MARGARET LATTIMORE

STEPHANIE LAURICELLA

ISAAC MARTIN LERNER

Mezzo-Soprano, Port Jefferson, NY Ragonde, Le Comte Ory

Mezzo-Soprano, Wading River, NY Isolier, Le Comte Ory

Dancer/Choreographer, New York City, NY Dancer/Choreographer, Rusalka

DMMO DEBUT Dead Man Walking, Le Comte Ory, 2014

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

DMMO DEBUT Orphée et Eurydice, 2016

SPONSORS Stanley and Mary Seidler/ The Seidler Foundation

SPONSOR Joan O'Harra Burke

SPONSOR Jo Ghrist

HEATHER LESIEUR

ELDEN LITTLE

SYDNEY MANCASOLA

Designer, Devine, TX Costume Designer, Bon Appétit!

Pianist, East Lansing, MI Performance Pianist, Bon Appétit!

Soprano, Redding, CA Manon, Manon, Adèle, Le Comte Ory

DMMO DEBUT María de Buenos Aires, 2017

DMMO DEBUT The Rake's Progress, Rigoletto, 2006

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

SPONSOR Janice Walter

SPONSORS Dana Quick-Naig and Scott Naig

SPONSORS Harry Bookey and Pamela Bass-Bookey

KRISTINE MCINTYRE

DAVID NEELY

SARAH NORTON

Director, Portland, OR Stage Director, Manon, Billy Budd

Conductor, Washington, DC Conductor, Manon, Rusalka, Billy Budd

Designer, Ann Arbor, MI Make-Up/Hair Designer, Bon Appétit!

DMMO DEBUT La Bohème, 2011

DMMO DEBUT The Crucible, Falstaff, 2003

DMMO DEBUT Bon Appétit!, 2019

SPONSORS Adrienne McFarland and Joe Clamon, Cherie and Bob Shreck

SPONSORS Marshall and Judy Flapan

SPONSORS Emily and Jason Pontius, Ann and Brent Michelson

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EMMETT O'HANLON

ABIGAIL PASCHKE

CHAS RADER-SHIEBER

Soprano, Armonk, NY Alice, Le Comte Ory

Director, St. Louis, MO Stage Director, Rusalka

DMMO DEBUT Billy Budd, 2017

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

DMMO DEBUT The Abduction from the Seraglio, 2015

SPONSORS Mollie and Britt Baker

SPONSORS Paul J. Meginnis, II and Jo Sloan

SPONSORS Charlotte and Fred Hubbell

JULIEN ROBBINS

CHRISTIAN SANDERS

STEVEN SANDERS

Bass-Baritone, Oberlin, OH Comte des Grieux, Manon

Tenor, Westcliffe, CO Novice, Billy Budd

Tenor, Ninnekah, OK Red Whiskers, Billy Budd

DMMO DEBUT Manon, 2016

DMMO DEBUT A Little Night Music, Billy Budd, 2017

DMMO DEBUT La Traviata, 2001

SPONSORS Janis and John Ruan III/The Ruan Foundation

SPONSOR Dr. Darren Jirsa

SPONSOR Rusty Hubbell

BARBARA SLETTO

TAYLOR STAYTON

BARRY STEELE

Tenor, Sidney, OH Comte Ory, Le Comte Ory

Designer, Brooklyn, NY Lighting Designer, Manon, Le Comte Ory Lighting and Video Designer, Billy Budd

Baritone, Manhasset, NY Novice's Friend, Billy Budd

Founder and Artistic Director, Heartland Youth Choir, Naples, FL Children's Chorus Master, Billy Budd DMMO DEBUT Street Scene, 1999 SPONSORS Andrew and Dr. Katherine Hauser, M.D.

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DMMO DEBUT Don Pasquale, 2011 SPONSORS Jim and Patty Cownie/ Cownie Charitable Foundation

DMMO DEBUT Lighting Designer, 2004 SPONSORS Stephen and Martha Stephenson


JESSE STOCK

WAYNE TIGGES

NATHAN TROUP

Baritone, Bennett, IA 2nd Mate, Billy Budd

Bass-Baritone, Dubuque, IA Tutor, Le Comte Ory

Director, Boston, MA Stage Director, Bon Appétit!

DMMO DEBUT Billy Budd, 2017

DMMO DEBUT Dead Man Walking, Le Comte Ory, 2014

DMMO DEBUT La Traviata, Le Comte Ory, 2014

SPONSORS John and Peggy Wild

SPONSORS Kate and Tom Carey

SPONSORS William Dawe and Sheila Tipton, Robert G. and Kay J. Riley Jr.

CRAIG VERM

GREGORY WARREN

JOANNE WEAVER

Baritone, Pittsburgh, PA Billy Budd, Billy Budd

Tenor, Longview, TX Gamekeeper, Prince (cover), Rusalka

Designer, Kansas City, MO Make-Up/Hair Designer, Le Comte Ory

DMMO DEBUT Peter Grimes, Romeo and Juliet, 2013

DMMO DEBUT Rusalka, 2018

DMMO DEBUT Make-Up/Hair Designer, 1992

SPONSOR Frank R. Brownell III

SPONSOR Margot Burnham

SPONSORS Melanie Porter and Wayne Halbur

NATE WHEATLEY

LAURA WILDE

DEAN WILLIAMSON

Designer, Kansas City, MO Lighting Designer, Rusalka, Bon Appétit!

Soprano, Watertown, SD Foreign Princess, Rusalka

Conductor, Chattanooga, TN Conductor, Le Comte Ory

DMMO DEBUT The Tragedy of Carmen, 2014

DMMO DEBUT Rusalka, 2018

DMMO DEBUT Le Comte Ory, 2014

SPONSORS Dennis and Betty Keeney

SPONSORS Dr. Craig and Kimberly Shadur

SPONSORS Roger Brooks and Sunnie Richer

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Virtual Festival VIOLIN Concertmaster Eliot Heaton R Hiromi Ito MBO Assistant Concertmaster Deb Akerlund MB Kenneth Liao R Dawn Posey O Principal Second Ke Mai B Dawn Posey M Jung-Min Shin O Pei-Ju Wu R Emelyn Bashour R Ellen Chamberlain MRBO John Helmich MRBO Chia-Li Ho MRBO Juan C. Jaramillo B. MRBO Beth Kirton O Jennifer Lee M Kah Yee Lee MRB Victoria Wolf Lewis R Sara Matayoshi M Nonoko Okada MRO Dawn Posey RB Edward Pulgar MBO Mary Pulgar BO Caroline Slack MRBO Azusa Tashiro RBO Florence Wang O Koko Watanabe RB Pei-Ju Wu MBO Hanna Zhdan M VIOLA Principal Kostadin Dyulgerski M Wanda Lydon O Elizabeth Oka RB Linda Benoit BO Charles Miranda MRBO Elizabeth Oka M Christine Prince MRBO Kurt Tseng R CELLO Principal Andrew Dunn MO Kevin Kunkel RB Grace An R Kevin Bate O Jacob Hanegan RB Natalie Helm MO Charles Miranda M Elizabeth Rice M Schuyler Slack RB James Clayton Vaughn MBO

PERSONNEL

BASS Principal Jeremy C. Baguyos MRBO Elizabeth Rice M John Tuck MRBO

TROMBONE Principal Timothy Howe MRBO

Alyssa Griggs MRBO Kimberly Helton RO OBOE/ENGLISH HORN Principal Lise Glaser MO Christine Soojin Kim B John Upton R Kevin Schilling B Leonid Sirotkin MRBO Jennifer Wohlenhaus R CLARINET/BASS CLARINET Principal Sergey Gutorov MRB Ralph Skiano O

ALTO SAXOPHONE James Romain B BASSOON Principal Evan Epifanio MRB Rudi Heinrich O Matt Lano MRBO CONTRABASSOON Kevin Judge B Matt Lano R HORN Principal Erin Lano RB Joshua Paulus MO Mike Daly MRBO Josh Johnson R Amy Krueger MRBO Margaret Tung O Mike Wilson MB Kevin Winter R

VIOLIN SEATING IS BASED UPON A ROTATION CYCLE FOR MAINSTAGE SHOWS.

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James Bovinette R Mary Bowden MBO Andrew Classen R Patrick Corvington B

FLUTE/PICCOLO Principal Kayla Burggraf O Luke Fitzpatrick MRB

Randall Cunningham E-Chen Hsu MRBO

TRUMPET Principal Jeremy Garnett M Kathryn Miller RB Mason Tyler O

RB

David Roode RB Michael Short B David Stuart MO J. Mark Thompson MRBO BASS TROMBONE/ CIMBASSO J. Mark Thompson MRBO TUBA Principal Michael Short RB TIMPANI Principals Jim Benoit B Scott Christian R Andrew Simco MO Stacey Ramirez B Blaise Rothwell B PERCUSSION Principal Mark Dorr MRBO Chad Crummel RB Matthew Ernster B Andrew Foerschler RB Alina Grimm B Steve McCombs B Stacey Ramirez B Blaise Rothwell MB Benjamin Shellhaas MO HARP Principal Nuiko Wadden MRBO KEYBOARD Yasuko Oura R Allen Perriello M Elden Little B! MUSIC LIBRARIANS Sara Baguyos MBO Mark Dorr MB!RBO Mary Johnson B Lisa Lopez MBO Danielle Meier B Rose Rydberg O Cynthia Stacy R

M B

MANON B! BON APPÉTIT! R RUSALKA BILLY BUDD O LE COMTE ORY

FULL CHORUS Derrell Acon O Tyler Alessi M Charles Anderson B Andrea Baker M Zachary Ballard O Joshua Baum B Vanessa Becerra O Daryl Becicka B Quinn Bernegger B!B Rachel Blaustein M Melisa Bonetti M Adam Bradley R Michael Brandenburg O Lindsay Kate Brown R Nolan Brown B Susanne Burgess R Daveed Buzaglo R Jeff Byrnes O Thomas Capobianco MRB Joshua Conyers M Dustin Damonte B Scott Denhart B Ashley Dixon O Will Donaghy B Darren Drone B Andy Eaton B Charles H. Eaton MB David Bowles Edwards B Courtney Elvira MR Jessica Faselt O Natasha Foley M Brittany Fouché O Isaac Frishman B Dorothy Gal M Sean Galligan MB Elena Galván M Wesley Gentle O Robert Gerold B! Paxton Gillespie B Rodolfo Giron MR Catherine Goode MB!R Ethan Greene M Seth Hammond B Jonathan Harris M James Held R Alexander Henderson RB Arthur Hill B Bevin Hill O Joyner Horn B!R Will Hughes B Brian Hupp B Braeden Irvine B Peter Johnson O Tyler Johnson R Craig Juricka R Emily Kern R Duke Kim M Ian Koziara O Gretchen Krupp M Amy Kuckelman R Erik Earl Larson RB Cody Laun O

Madison Leonard M Reuben Lillie MO Shannon Love O Timothy Madden R Alyssa Martin O Remy Martin R Nathaniel Mattingly MB Katherine Maysek M Conor McDonald M William Meinert RB Danielle Messina O Lindsay Metzger O Felicia Moore M Jameon Moss M Cody Müller RB Monica Music R Katie Nadolny O Ashly Neumann O Paul Nicosia O Samuel Nolte B Christina Pezzarossi R Ted Pickell B Bryan Pollock M Margaret Potter O Samantha Puckett O Jóhann Schram Reed B Spencer Reichman M Aaren Rivard R Alexandra Rodrick M Kyle Roeder RB Brandon Russell M Brenton Ryan O Gabriella Sam R David Sanchez B Christian Sanders M Ben Schaefer M Stephanie Schoenhofer O Emily Secor R Catheryne Shuman M Richard Smagur M Brent Michael Smith M Janani Sridhar R Lee Steiner M Ryan Stoll B Nickoli Strommer O Seth Tack B Rhys Lloyd Talbot R Mark Thomas RB Olivia Thompson R Alex Tillinghast B Emily Triebold R Emily Tweedy M Sarah Vautour R Aurélie Veruni M Spencer Viator MR Reuben Walker M Gregory Warren B Nicole Weigelt M Joshua Lee Wheeker O Kyle White R Nataly Wickham O Jacob Wright O Kasey Yeargain O


ADMINISTRATION/STAFF Scott Arens MB!RB Adam Bogh MB!RB Christopher Brusberg MO Samuel Carroll MB!RBO Ellen Diehl MB!RBO Mark Dorr MB!RBO Kimberly Dragelevich MB!RBO Michael Egel MB!RBO Dennis Hendrickson MB!RBO Chari Kruse MB!RBO Jim D. Lile B Timothy McMillin B! Michael Patterson MB!RBO Elaine Raleigh MB!RBO Nick Renkoski O Deanna Sargent M Danielle Taylor B!R Anne Todey B! Greg Padget O Lindsey von Holten R FESTIVAL INTERNS Anastasia Abraham O Wade Adams MBO Carmen Alfaro M Rebecca Anapol O Abigail Andrews B! Maria Barnes B! Jack Bebinger B Alexandra Bell B! Sarah Bennett B Jessica Bertke M Samuel Biuk R Bryan Blackburn B! Hannah Boner B! Maslin Boten B! Graham Brooks B Emily Carey B! Brooke Carlson M Bradley Carter O Myjoycia Cezar B! Ashley Champion R Becca Chapin O Rebecca Claborn O Chris Compton M Alex Connor O Emma Cooney B Tyler Correa B! Faith Craig B Bailey Crawford B! Sarah Curtis B Casey Daniel R Venetia Delgado MB John Diver B! Tyler Donovan O Steven Doucette R Brandon Douglas M Emily Dworak O Alena Efremova R Samuel Elliott-Rude R Brittany Essen R Felicity Eward M

Caitlin Fanning M Mitchell Finger B Elizabeth Fisher B Logan Fleming B! Mary Flynn R Tyler Frankhouse O Jolie Frazer-Madge R Hannah Freisen B Patricia Garvey O Kristina Goings O Beth Goodill B Michael Gray B Taryn Greenwood B! Rosa Gude R Adam Guss M Hankel Haldin B Malory Hartman B! Jeff Hauser O Luke Haynes M Brandon Hearrell B! Christy Hernandez R Kaylah Hicok B!RB Shay Holihan R Andrea Horton B! Matthew Hrdlicka B!R Jacob Hughes M Avery Hunt B Jose Iregui O Colleen Kane B! Kristin Kelley M Eliza Knopps M Danielle Kropveld B Mallory Lammers O Paige Lang R Abbigail LaRocque B! Mollie Lawler B Emma LeValley O Brett Logsdon B! Ivy Loos-Austin R Shea Lueninghoener MRB Shelby Marquardt B! Sidney Martin B! Nick Mayhugh M Katie McLean MB Morgan Merrill B! Amber Moldrem B Christella Morere B! Darby Newsome R James Ogle B! Madeline Palmer-Chase M Sarah Parker B Grace Peck R Annie Penner B! Logan Perin M Nicholas Peters O Kelley Pfeiler O Adam Pfluger O Madison Prentice B Vanessa Quigly O Cheyenne Raney B! Douglas Roberts B! Matthew Robson B Joshua Rusinov R

Elizabeth Russell B! Elizabeth Ryan-Small B Bridget Rzymski O Aolani Santiago B Benjamin Schaefer O Kiah Schaeffer R Devin Schupp R Shannon Seals O Rachel Shapiro B!R Molly Sharples R Hendrick Shelton R Laura Smalley M Kalli Smith B Madison Stinemetz M Nate Stone B!R Cassondra Takas R William Thompson MB Walter Tucker B Shannon Veguilla R Lindsey von Holten MB James Warren M Bethany Weed O Michael White O Trey Wise B! Avery Woodruff B! Annie Yonge M Angela Zhang R MUSIC, DIRECTING AND DESIGN STAFF Scott Arens O Aaron Breid O R. Keith Brumley MBO Octavio Cardenas B Jacob A. Climer R Adam Crinson B! Brittany Crinson MRB Ruth Dorr B David Gately O Lisa Hasson MB!RBO Rebecca Herman M Howard Tsvi Kaplan O Roger Kirk M Jonathan Knipscher BO Isaac Lerner R Heather Lesieur B! Elden Little MB!RBO Geoffrey Loff RB Cody Martin MRB Kristine McIntyre MB!RBO Klรกra Moldovรก R Kyle Naig MB! David Neely MRB Sarah Norton B! Yasuko Oura MR Allen Perriello MO Chas Rader-Shieber MR Todd Rhoades B!B Brian Robertson B Michael Sakir M Barbara Sletto B John Spencer IV B Barry Steele MBO

Nathan Troup B!O Nate Wheatley B!R Dean Williamson O Mo Zhou R PRODUCTION Karl Anderson MB!RB Brian August MB!RBO Jason Barroncini R Christopher Bell O Sarah Bennett B! Jessica Bertke B Jarrod Bodensteiner MO Nathan Brauner MB Marissa Brink B!RB Corey Brittain R Hank Bullington O Cody Cava B Denisse Cedeno R Audrey Chait M Irina Christel B! Vanessa Chumbley MO Katherine Clanton O Jeffrey Clark MB!RB Lucy Coarsey R Emma Cooney B! Greg Coppolo O Beth Crock O Kendall Dayton B!RB Nathan DeMare MRB Danielle Dickinson MO Michele Dormaier B Alex Doyle O Lauren Duffy MO Alena Efremova B! Brittany Essen B! Jessica Faisant B! Caitlin Fanning R Jake Fedorowski B!R Tracy Floyd O Adam Fulmer B Elizabeth Galba R Lauren Gallup MB Samantha Galvao R Lou Gerstle M Roxanne Goodby M Beth Goodill B! Katherine Greve B! Carolyn Hardin B! Alisa Hartle O Natalie Hining B! Hannah Joy Hopkins R Cassie Hoppas M Mary Elizabeth Hosford O Jesse Hoyer O Jacob Hughes RB Braeden Ingersoll RB Jennifer Rose Ivey R Derek Jay O Aaron Justice M Kiah Kayser R Daniel Keenan M Lisa Kelly O

Duncan Kennedy B! Austin Kilpatrick M Emily King R Julie Langevin M Chris Largent MBO Brittany Lawrence R Heather Lesieur B Brandon Loper B!R Sara Lozo R Aurelia Lyman R Nick Mayhugh B!RB Kyle McAnally M Jeanette Mieses M Daniel Morency R Ashley Nguyen O Huy Nguyen R Emily Parker B! Dan Petersen O Kelley Pfeiler M Kevin Proemsey B Katie Pulling B! Elizabeth Rankin R Logan Reagan BO Jessica Reaves R Jessica Rechin O Delia Revard B Sarah Riffle MRB Gregory Rishoi RB Jacee Rohlck B Emily Rosenkrantz B!R Carolyn Schar B! Jessica Schloskey R Margaret Schuelke M James Scotland B! Bailey Sheehan MB Hendrick Shelton B! Edda Simone O Peter Sommers B Michelle Sparks B! Calvin Stara B Hester Steijn B!RB Alix Strasnick MB!RB Holly Sverdrup O Aleesha Tapp B Danielle Taylor MB!RB Connor Thompson R John VanRoosendaal M Carli Werner O Allison White O Rachel Wier B Bridget Williams B! Jacourtney Williams B David Willmore B!R Garrett Wilson M Randy Young M SUPERNUMERARIES Wade Adams M Brandon Douglas M Luke Haynes M William Thompson M

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In

MEMORIAM

Carol Booth

Heath Huberg

Nanette Borzewski

Irma Hughes

James P. Collins

Carol Johnson

Anne Crane

Stephan Lowry Jones

Selma Duvick

Lori Kalainov

Bob Gomez

Patricia Krantz

Irene Graether

Dorothy Egger Dutcher Logan

Barbara Graham

Anita Mandelbaum

Chuck Green

Teri McAnally

J. Barry Griswell

Larry Moore

Gary Haines

Charles "Pat" Patterson

Mary Hendrickson

Larry Richards

Sara Carpenter Hill

Helen Simpkins

Laurent Hodges

Richard Wood

PATRON

ROAD SCHOLAR MEMBER

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

FRIEND

FRIEND

PATRON

PATRON AND FORMER BOARD PRESIDENT

PATRON

Glory Denied 2019 82

PRINCIPAL ARTIST

PATRON

PATRON AND AMES GUILD MEMBER

PATRON AND BOARD MEMBER

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON AND NEWTON GUILD MEMBER

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON

FRIEND

PATRON

PATRON

PATRON


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FOUNDATION AND INSTITUTIONAL Des Moines Metro Opera’s endowment was established at the 20th anniversary in 1992 to give permanency to the dream of quality opera performances in Iowa. Doris and John Salsbury of Charles City, Iowa, made the initial gift and today, thanks to the generosity of so many, the endowment and long term reserves total more than $11 million. Annually, the endowment provides around 15% of the operating budget. Planned gifts benefit the endowment unless otherwise donor designated. Permanent funds can be created with a gift of $250,000 or more. ENCORE SOCIETY By making provisions for DMMO in estate plans, the legacy of donors' generosity will continue for

La Bohème 2019 84

generations to come. Their planned gifts will benefit one of our existing endowed funds to support the highest artistic quality performances, better serve youth through exceptional programs such as OPERA Iowa and the Apprentice Artist Program, or make opera more accessible in our community. We invite you to consider making a planned gift to Des Moines Metro Opera. Perhaps you have already made arrangements but have not told us of your thoughtful generosity. Informing us of your plans in writing gives us the opportunity to include you in the Encore Society. If you would like more information about planned giving opportunities, please contact Ellen Diehl at 515-961-6221 or ediehl@dmmo.org.


SUPPORT Des Moines Metro Opera is deeply grateful to create art in a vibrant city among corporations, foundations and institutions that support our work and appreciate the regional impact of the Company. Because of the generous support of our corporate, foundation and public partners, Des Moines Metro Opera has taken its place as one of America’s leading summer opera festivals. Without the generosity of these partners, we would be unable to fulfill our mission.

LAURIDSEN FAMILY FOUNDATION

The Coons Foundation Daniel J. and Ann L. Krumm Charitable Trust

FRED MAYTAG FAMILY FOUNDATION GABUS FAMILY FOUNDATION

THE JOHN RUAN FOUNDATION THE VREDENBERG FOUNDATION

BANKERS TRUST BROWNWINICK LAW ELDER CORPORATION EMC INSURANCE COMPANIES FAEGRE DRINKER BIDDLE & REATH LLP FREDRIKSON & BYRON, P.A. KEMIN INDUSTRIES RAMSEY SUBARU SIMONSON & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS LLC W.T. AND EDNA M. DAHL TRUST

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ANNUAL FUND Des Moines Metro Opera is deeply grateful to the long-time contributors and new donors who made gifts during the 2019-2020 season. Now more than ever, these gifts sustain DMMO and its commitment to supporting artists. This season, part of our mission is to ensure that members of our artistic family will be there, on our stage, when this crisis is behind us. Thank you for helping us rise to the challenge and fulfill our mission through your generous support.

IMPRESARIO $100,000 and above BRAVO Greater Des Moines Partner Local Governments: Altoona, Ankeny, Bondurant, Carlisle, Clive, Des Moines, Grimes, Indianola, Johnston, Norwalk, Polk County, Polk City, Urbandale, Waukee, West Des Moines, Windsor Heights

Frank R. Brownell III *^ The Coons Foundation ^ Des Moines Metro Opera Foundation John Graether * Thomas K. and Linda Koehn ^ Nix and Virginia Lauridsen/Lauridsen Family Foundation ^ The Fred Maytag Family Foundation Doris Salsbury Endwoment Fund Marian W. Sharp Trust *

FOUNDER’S CIRCLE $25,000 - $99,999 Mollie and Britt Baker ^ Harry Bookey and Pamela Bass-Bookey *^T Roger Brooks and Sunnie Richer ^T Joan O'Harra Burke Corteva Agriscience ™ Des Moines Metro Opera Guild Gabus Family Foundation William Randolf Hearst Endowment for Educational Outreach Daniel J. and Ann L. Krumm Charitable Trust Robert L. Larsen T Nancy and Bill Main ^ Principal Foundation Simpson College

LEADERS $15,000 - $24,999 Jim and Patty Cownie/Cownie Charitable Fund Marshall and Judy Flapan ^T Barbara and Michael Gartner ^T Iowa Arts Council, a Division of the Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs Estate of Carol Johnson * Daniel M. and Mary Kelly ^T National Endowment for the Arts Janis and John Ruan III/The Ruan Foundation ^ Dr. Craig and Kimberly Shadur ^ * all or a portion of this gift made to DMMO Foundation ^ donated 2020 Festival tickets T

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a portion of this gift made the Ticket Challenge Fund possible

DIRECTOR’S CIRCLE $10,000 - $14,999 Kate and Tom Carey ^ Joyce Castle ^T John and Louise Grzybowski Charlotte and Fred Hubbell ^T Ellen and Jim Hubbell City of Indianola Dr. Darren R. Jirsa ^ Marla Lacey and Steve Znerold ^ Steve Marquardt ^ Meredith Corporation Foundation John and Mary Pappajohn * Prairie Meadows Principal Charity Classic "Birdies for Charity" Program Stanley and Mary Seidler/The Seidler Foundation Cherie and Bob Shreck ^ TruBank The Vredenburg Foundation Wellmark Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Iowa

GUARANTOR $5,000 - $9,999 Bankers Trust Babette C. Brenton ^ Fred and Barbara Brown ^ BrownWinick Law Frederick Crane *^ W.T. and Edna M. Dahl Trust Elder Corporation EMC Insurance Companies Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP Fredrikson & Byron, P.A. Robert and Elizabeth Freese ^ Jo Ghrist ^ Andrew and Dr. Katherine Hauser, M.D. ^ Cora Hayes in memory of Edward R. Hayes Dr. Bruce Hughes and Dr. Randall Hamilton ^T Rusty Hubbell Family Fund T Trudy Hurd Kemin Industries Marylee Lankamer Tom and Marsha Mann ^ Paul Meginnis, II and Jo Sloan ^ Ann and Brent Michelson ^ Sarah and Sam O’Brien Stanley Ransom ^ Robert G. and Kay J. Riley Jr./Riley Family Foundation ^T Schiller Family Foundation Simonson & Associates Architects LLC Mary Stuart and David Yepsen ^


Susan E. and Carl B. Voss ^ Janice Walter ^ Phil and Judy Watson Wells Fargo John and Peggy Wild ^ Carleton and Barbara Zacheis ^

BENEFACTOR $2,500 - $4,999 Jane and Steve Bahls ^ Roger and Kay Berger ^ Sue Rutledge and J.C. "Buz" Brenton ^ Pat Brown ^T Margot Burnham ^ Jeanine and Bob Carithers ^ Carrie Clogg and Josh Barlage ^ William L. Dawe III and Sheila K. Tipton ^ Enterprise Holdings Foundation Charles and Marilyn Farr Dr. Sarah Garst ^ Julia Hagen ^ John Hawkins Randy Holt ^ Homesteaders Life Company Barbara Jackman ^ Josephs Jewelers Dennis and Betty Keeney Joshua and Susie Kimelman ^ Ed and Elizabeth Mansfield ^ Adrienne McFarland and Joe Clamon ^ Merchants Bonding Company Diane Morain ^T Steve and Erna Morain Dana Quick-Naig and Scott Naig ^ Network For Good Bill and Pauline Niebur Jim and Jeanne O'Halloran ^ Dr. Carolyn and Martin Pease ^ Anastasia Polydoran Melanie Porter and Wayne Halbur ^ Ramsey Subaru Dr. Stephen and Martha Stephenson ^ Terri Combs and Thomas Swartwood ^ U.S. Bank Foundation Willis Auto Campus Paul Woodard ^ Denise and John Wieland ^

PATRON $1,500 - $2,499 Achilles Avraamides and Dilys Morris ^

Barbara Beatty Stephen and Margaret Blake ^ Barbara and Steven Cappaert Casey's General Store Jeff Chelesvig Dr. and Mrs. Ronald D. Eckoff ^ Thomas G. and Rita Fisher ^ Roswell and Elizabeth Garst Foundation Michael and Ann Gersie ^ Wesley Hunsberger Dr. James and Mary Ellen Kimball ^ Timothy J. and Sarah Krumm ^ Phil and Karen Langstraat ^ Eric Lindberg and Steve Farver ^ Diana Lee Lucker ^ Andy and David McBeth ^ MidAmerican Energy Foundation Craig and Betty Miller ^ Michael Patterson David and Joan Paulsrud ^ William Phillips ^ Jason and Emily Pontius ^ Marilu and V.V. Raman ^ Alvin and Sue Ravenscroft ^ Peter and Rita Reed Randall Daut and Patricia Ryan ^ Alan J. Savada and Will Stevenson ^ Deb Wiley and John Schmidt ^ Robert and Sandra Tatge ^ Andrew Thomas ^ Tom and Mary Urban Zachary and Sarah Voss

PRODUCER $500 - $1,499 Roberta and William Abraham ^ City of Ames Bob and Elizabeth Angelici Anonymous ^ Sarah Antin Erick Apland and Kimberly Gooch, M.D. Jerry Artz ^ Betty Augspurger ^ Yvonne Aversa ^ Linda Avraamides Tom and Betty Barton ^ Sally and Dennis Bates Mary Beh Joby Bell ^ Roger Bethard ^ Kathleen and Russ Bitterman ^ Mark and Deborah Blaedel ^ Don and Margo Blumenthal

Martha Boesenberg ^ Charles and Lisa Bogh ^ Margaret Bradford ^ Donald and Patricia Brandt ^ Woody Brenton and Michelle Book Martin and Rochelle Brody Nathan and Katherine Brown ^ Denise Brown ^ Vicki Bunker ^ Nancy and Wayne Byal Richard and Anita Calkins ^ Bruce Carr ^ Elizabeth and Jared Carter ^ Linda Casas Richard Boyum and Louie Chua ^ Forrest Chumley ^ Janine Clark ^ Thomas and Sharon Clarke ^ Melody Clutter ^ Robert Cox ^ R. Keith Cranston ^ Peter Dahlen and Mary Carlsen Don and Connie Decker Denman & Co. Mary Lou and Thomas Detwiler Ronald A. Dierwechter ^ Douglas B. Dorner and Carole Villeneuve Thomas Dorr Bob and Ardene Downing/ Downing Construction ^ Nicholas and Kimberly Dragelevich William Dull and Jan Utter ^ Jon Duvick and Carol Hendrick Michael Egel George Ehrenberg ^ Dorothy Ely ^ Bennett and Leisa Ely ^ Bob Epstein ^ Jane Farrell-Beck and Marvin Beck ^ Cary Feick James C. and Martha Fifield ^ Dr. Louis and Lois Fingerman Kathleen A. Finkenauer Kay and Joseph Fisher ^ Rebecca Foerschler ^ Nancy Foster ^ David Friedgood ^ Richard and Joan Frohock ^ T. and Roy Fuller ^ Katrina Guest and Andrew Gangle Charles Garmen Liz Garst Carla Gillotti

Robert Gomez Mary Gottschalk ^ Bruce and Jeanne Graves John Greer ^ GuideOne Insurance Joel and Debra Hade ^ Bryan Hall and Pat Barry ^ Carrie and Joe Hall ^ Esley Hamilton ^ Charles Hample and Frances Bly ^ Kiera Harris Roger L. Hatteberg Dr. Gary and Kamie Haynes Richard Healy Larry and Vicki Hedlin ^ Larry and Carolyn Hejtmanek ^ Dan Herdeman ^ Gladys Hertzberg ^ Kathie and Kent Hicok ^ Gunda and Dave Hiebert ^ Janet Hoyne ^ Indianola Chamber of Commerce City of Indianola Iowa ENT Center ITA Group Mary Jack ^ Dale J. Jansen ^ Paul Jansen and Janet Hopper ^ Todd and Peggy Janus ^ Jack L. Jenkins ^ Robert E. and Kathryn Jessup James Leymaster Johnson ^ Donn Jones ^ LuAnn Julstrom ^ Lori Kalainov ^ Mary Keithahn Richard and Annette Kerr ^ Bob Klassy ^ Thomas Koertge ^ Larry Ladd and Shirley Hanson ^ Frederick and Joyce Lock ^ William Lozier and Kristi Lund Lozier ^ Carolyn Lynner and Keith Thorton Jerilee Mace and T. J. Johnsrud ^ Leslie Mamoorian and Richard Johnson ^ Joan Mannheimer ^ Larry McConnell Elvin McDonald and John Zickefoose ^ Sarah McDougal ^ Murray and Elizabeth McKee ^ Brian and Julie McLean Teresa Hay McMahon ^

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ANNUAL FUND John A. McTaggart ^ Jeffrey Means and Diane Glass ^ Don and Janet Metcalf Microsoft Matching Gifts Program John B. and Kathryn Miller ^ Charles and Tracey Mohns ^ Margie Schaefer Moore Candy Morgan ^ Roscoe and Cheryl Morton ^ Briana Moynihan Ted and Carolyn Neely Arthur Neis ^ Lee E. Nickelson, Jr. ^ Robert Oberbillig ^ Michael and Ginger O'Keefe John W. Olds, M.D. Martine and Nathan Olson-Daniel ^ Ellen Osborn ^ Greg and Travis Padget ^ Mary and Richard Parrish ^ Muriel A. Pemble ^ Colin Pennycooke Henry G. and Norma A. Peterson Charitable Trust Anne Petrie and William White Jr Craig Porter ^ Neva L. Pruess ^ Darren and Elaine Raleigh Gerald and Kay Randleman ^ Nick Renkoski and Liz Lidgett ^ Ted and Susan Rights ^ Dianne S. Riley ^ William Robinson ^ Jean M. Rommes ^ Jack and Marty Rossmann ^ Dr. James Rutherford Christine Lauridsen Sand and Rob Sand Steve and Marina Sandquist ^ Patrice Sayre ^ Scott and Janean Schaefer Denhart ^ Michael and Karen Schoville ^ Daniel Seth Rebecca Shaffer ^ Alan and Linda Shapiro ^ Cindy Ann Shelton ^ Sherinian and Hasso Law Firm Martha Jane Sheston ^ Karen and Gordon Shinn Dr. Heidi Shreck and Dr. Brian Shellenberger Linda and Bruce Simonton ^ Charles and Meg Smith ^ Jeanie and Bill Smith ^ Linnea Sodergren ^ ^ donated 2020 Festival tickets

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Hope Solomons Howard and Margaret Soroos Steve Spencer ^ Ken Stinson ^ David Stuart ^ Donald Stumbo and Janene Panfil ^ Catherine C Sullivan ^ Elizabeth Sutphen Darrell Taylor ^ Diane L. Thiessen ^ Robert Toon ^ Jim Trenberth ^ Dr. Beth Triebel ^ Thomas D. Turnbull and Darrell Smith ^ Margaret VanHouten ^ Louis Veneziano ^ Catherine Vesley ^ Warren County Economic Development Corporation Fred and Emily Weitz Wellmark Foundation Dennis Wentz ^ West Bancorporation Foundation, Inc. Bernard and Linda White ^ Gaye Wiekierak ^ Dolores Willemsen ^ Gladys and David Winter ^ Wendy Wintersteen and Robert Waggoner John Robert Wise ^ Dawn Work ^ Sumner and Karen Worth ^ Brad Young Mildred and Robert Youngquist ^ Dr. Robert H. and Eleanor Zeff ^ Elliot and Sharon Zucker ^

SUSTAINER $250 - $499 Kim and Patti Abild ^ Steven Adelman and Katherine Elsner Grace Ambrose ^ Joyce Andrews and Frank Hoffmeister ^ Kristin Aschenbrenner ^ Sandy Axness ^ Richard Bach ^ Cynthia Baker Sarah Ball Thomas Barland ^ Judson and Heidi Barr ^ Lawrence E. Bechler Lawrence Beeson ^

George Belken ^ Virginia Bennett ^ Linda Bernadt ^ Todd and Karey Bishop Gordon Bivens ^ Margaret and Arden Borgen ^ Kathy and Ben Brackney ^ Gregory Burley Brown ^ Sandra Bruggemann ^ Bob and Judy Camblin Mary Casady ^ Emily Chafa Earl and Judy Check ^ Philip Chen ^ Bill and Nancy Child ^ Robert Claassen ^ Karen and William Claypool ^ Jane Cotton ^ Pauline Cragun ^ Shannon Crain ^ E. Glion and Marilyn Curtis ^ Jeffrey Danoff ^ Jacqueline Decroo ^ Lisa Ann Dodge ^ James Fitzgerald ^ Fran Fleck and Terry Greenley Todd Fraaken Steve A. Gentile, Jr. ^ James Glen ^ Cynthia and Don Glover ^ Cassandra L. Goble ^ David and Hanna Gradwohl Scott and Kathy Green Jan Grimes ^ Kay Grother ^ Klaus and Claudia Grunewald Norman Gunder ^ Dan Hart ^ Sue Haskell Bob Haug and Anne Kimber ^ Eliot Heaton ^ Larry Heikes ^ Wesley A. Heitzman ^ Myrna and Arnold Hershman Laura S. Higgins ^ John C. and Fay G. Hill Linda Hodges ^ Esther Kauffeld Hoffa ^ Betsy and Joe Hrdlicka Nikolas Huffman ^ IBM Jean M. Isaacson ^ Thomas Iseman ^ Jorgen Johansen ^ Carl B. Johnson ^

Dr. Colin and Sandra Kavanagh ^ Rosemarie Kelling ^ Chad Kennelly Margaret F. Keshen ^ Dorothy Knight ^ Karen Sue Kolbe ^ Karen Kraemer ^ Martha Kroese ^ Matt and Chari Kruse Charles Kucera ^ Dylan Lampe William Larson George Lauber ^ Kristine Legler Kaplan ^ Janet Leslie ^ Evelyn and Jerold Levin ^ Nancy Lickiss Scott and Denise Linn Susan Loomis Jean E Lory ^ Kurt and Rose Loth James Luke ^ Evan Luskin ^ John Macy ^ John R. and Cyril A Mandelbaum ^ Miles Maner ^ Jean Marie Marsden ^ Debra Martin ^ Barbara and Bruce Martin Charles and Marleta Matheson Robert and Joan Matheson ^ Cheri May ^ Lynn McClannahan ^ Patricia McCleese ^ Michael McCombs ^ Bruce McKee ^ Mary McKinley ^ Meredith McLean and Todd Carroll Dru McLuen ^ Mary McManus ^ Tim McMillin and Seth Robb Sheila A. Meginnis Polly Moore Susan B. Moore ^ Joseph W. Nagle Robert D. Nelson ^ Donald Newsom ^ Warren Obluck ^ Liz O'Hara ^ Denis O'Pray ^ Shellie Orngard ^ Lynsey Oster ^ Gregory Palermo and Olivia Madison Jean Parker and Maggie O'Dea ^ Ann Peirce ^


Stephen Perlowski ^ Kathleen Picken Bill Pollak ^ Susan Porter Tamara Jo Prenosil and Frank Potter ^ Don Priest ^ Indira Raman and David Ferster Mackenzie Retzlaff Jon Reynolds ^ Shirley M. Riney ^ Ellen Robinson ^ Lois Roets Jill Rossiter and Dennis Lamport ^ Valerie Sandford ^ Gretchen Sauer Susan Schaefer ^ Mike and Traci Schaefer Mark F. and Leila Schlenker Joyce M. Schmidt ^ Paul K. Schulte ^ V. Scott ^ Craig Seamands ^ Kay Shapiro ^ John and Patsy Shors ^ Stacey Sieloff ^ Lily Smith ^ James A. Sohre Douglas Sokol ^ Neil Solomon ^ Sandy and James Spencer ^ Sandra Stephens ^ Dr. LeRoy I. Strohman Mary Susman and Thomas Herm Thrivent Financial Joan Tyler ^ Jim and Wendy Wallace ^ Liz and Joel Weinstein ^ Marlene Weisshaar ^ Wayne Wildman ^ Tim Wilson ^ Mitchell Wilson Camilla Wisgerhof ^ Alan Wolf ^ Ekhard and Wendy Ziegler

FRIEND $50 - $249 Aetna Foundation Debra Akerlund Stephanie and Zach Alexander ^ deEtt Allen ^ Sandra and Donald Allgood AmazonSmile John Andres

Anonymous ^ Anonymous Linda D. Appelgate Scott Arens Christina Arnone Mary Aronson ^ Lori Bade Charlotte Shivvers and Robert Baker Cynthia Baker Nancy Barnett Nita and Ty Beal Mary Jo Bennett Stephen and Catherine Biagini Kathleen Boese Paul and Phyllis Breddin Liz Bredeson ^ Linda and Lynn Bridie ^ Andrew Brittingham Ella Broadbooks ^ Catherine and Gary Broadston MIchael and Dometa Brothers Jeffrey and Gretchen Brown Mary I. Brown Nancy E. Brown ^ Michael Bruner ^ Sandi and Bill Bruns Daniel Burden Luretta Bybee and Greer Grimsley, Jr. Randal and Margaret Caldwell ^ Nancy Calltharp ^ Jan Campbell Linda Campbell ^ Arthur and Miriam Canter Faye Carey ^ Cherie Carl Donna Carlson Linda Carroll ^ Eric and Fany Chicas Larry Christensen Hosung and Won Hi Chung Polly Clark and Jim Slife Sandra and Walter Clark Paula Coffey ^ Dennis Cohen ^ Sharon Garvey Cohen Ann Cole Kendell Amy Cope Phyllis Core Barbara and John Cortesio John and Jeanne Cound Charlie Cowell ^ Chris Croft John Crouch Russell and Sue Currier

Adam da Ros Don and Patricia Dagenais ^ Molly Dahlberg and Travis Richter Donna Davilla ^ Judy Davis ^ John and Connis Dayton ^ Diane DeBok ^ Joshua Dennis Steven and Stephanie DeVolder David Devonis Caitlin Dickson ^ Ellen and Jim Diehl ^ Kerry Dixon ^ Chad Dobson Judith Doorenbos Andrew and Sarah Dorr ^ Janet M. Drake ^ John Dresser Richard Drews Eric J. Drexler Linda Halquist Drucker Robert and Barbara Drustrup ^ Nathaniel E. Dubin ^ Steve and Kathryn Duffy Dorothy Egel Stephen Ely Marc Alon Embree Karen Engman Audrey Essen Jessica and David Faith Kathie and Al Farris Jim and Jill Ferguson Darlene Fett Maureen Fialkov ^ Timothy Filliman Chris Fischer ^ Lance and Marcy Fortnow Meredith Francom ^ Jolene Frankhouse ^ David and Michele Gabel Joan Gacki Sara Gartland Patrick H. Goeser Marge Gowdy Marlys A. Graettinger Kevin and Lisa Gregg Mark Groenheide ^ Amelia Groetsch Mick Grossman ^ Elizabeth Grunin Pam Guthrie Karl E. and Barbara Gwiasda H.B. Fuller Company Foundation Layna Chianakas Haddad Lowell Hanson ^

Lois and Wendell Harms Cindy Melson Harris Rita Harvey-Berg Crystal Haskins ^ D.J. Hassel ^ Lisa Hasson Homer Hauke Brad and Rae Anne Havig Denise Hawks ^ Stephen Hay ^ Ellen Hayes ^ Edward Hegstrom ^ Dennis P. and Melinda Hendrickson Beth Henning Jane Herbold ^ Teri Herron Kay Hesse ^ Grant and Cliftona Heuer Quelly Hicklin Susan Himes ^ Harry and Starr Hinrichs ^ Kim Hiscox ^ Katie Hitchcock ^ Mary and Bill Holtze Cynthia A Hoque Roger and Sue Hudson Irma Hughes Norm Hunke ^ Dennis and Linda Hunt Iowa One Gift Program Jessica Jaggers Gerald W. Jansen ^ Dennis Jesse Louise M. Jirsa Janet A. Johnson Jeff and Julie Johnson Gwendolyn Jones Charles Kauffman ^ John Keene Melanie Keiper ^ Berne Ketchum ^ Daniel Ketterer Sue and Dan King Robin Kline and William A. Summers Daniel J. Knepper Mary M. Knosby ^ Peter Kohn Geoffrey and Nancy Kolb Joanne and David Kolenda Chakrit Kongtahworn ^ Marina Kraeva ^ Leroy and Cheryl Kraske Mary Krier ^ Gary Kruempel ^ Leon Kuehner ^

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ANNUAL FUND Carol and Greg Lamansky James and Ann Lano Mr. and Mrs. Gregory H. Largent Donald Lee ^ Selva R. Lehman ^ Duane and Harriet Leitch ^ Meg Lesieur ^ Myrt Levin ^ Jeanne and Dick Levitt Denise Libby ^ Jim Lile Gerald Loewen ^ Dorothy Logan Jane W. Lohnes Barbara Lueder Carol Lytle Matt and Deanne Main Peter Mamerow ^ Matthew Manning Marsha Marlow ^ Tim Marshall ^ Julie McBeth David McCord ^ Jason McCullough ^ Dugg McDonough Adele McDowell Ray McHenry Harry and Marilyn McIntyre Richard and Kristen McKlveen ^ Andy McMahan Eunice McMillin Lester and Eileen Meltzer J.L. Mercer-Klimowski Virginia Michalicek ^ Peg and Jim Mikulanec Larry Mitchell ^ Susan Mitchell Kevin Mitrisin ^ Jared Monroe Dave Moore ^ Robert and Wynette Moore Robert Moore Michael T. Morain ^ Jolene Moran George M. and Ruth Mosher Dr. Marilyn Mueller Devon Murphy-Petersen ^ Kathleen Murrin ^ Solveig Nelson Thea Nicholas Barb and Andy Nish Frank Nowasell Jay and Cheri Nugent ^ Susan O'Brien Household ^ donated 2020 Festival tickets

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Matthew Oltman James "Jeff" O'Riley Paolo Orlando ^ Marcy Welch Ostrander Gina and Cara Overstreet Janwin Overstreet-Goode David Pace ^ Heather Palmer ^ Paul Palmer Deborah Pappenheimer ^ Aaron Parry Jodi Wyss Patman Michael Patterson Allen Perriello Eleanor and James Perry Paul Petersen Nancy Pinkerton Martin Lowen Poock ^ Donni Popejoy Lettie Prell and John Domini Tom Press and Donna Paulsen Gretchen Price ^ Wendy Prigge ^ Marti Puff Ladislav Pugel ^ Joshua Rabe ^ Timothy and Rosemary Rahm John Rahn ^ Daphne and Jaime Reyes ^ Victoria Reynolds Jami Rhodes Mary E. Richards ^ Sylvia Richards Suzanne Riehl Jennifer Ringo and James Conlon Judy Robinson Timothy Rose ^ Harlan and Audrey Rosenberg Melanie Ross ^ John and Andrea Pham Schrack Ken and Leslie Schrimper Arlen and Jean Schrum Kate Scruggs Christine Seitz Jennifer Senne Jeanne Serb ^ Sara Sersland ^ Kenneth and Shirley Shaw Rev. Al Sherbo Rachel Sherman ^ Amie and Kevin Shires William and Mary Beth Shomos Ashley Sidon ^ Wesley and Cheryl Siebrass

Joanne Sigler Katherine Sircy and David Wright ^ Constance Skinner Barbara Sletto Eugene and Eleanor Smith Carol Sovern Paul and Susan Stageberg Valerie Stickel-Diehl Jesse Stock Susan Stogdill Ellen and Larry Strachota Susan Street ^ Jodi Stubbs ^ Steve Stucki ^ Ben and Joyce Swartz Coreen K Sweeney ^ Jean and Paul Swenson Tamara and Mark Swessinger Jerry Syslo ^ Jane TanCreti ^ Dawn Taylor Harold and Joyce Templeman Paul Tetreault ^ Gary M. Thelen ^ Gloria Thielking Erin Roth Thomas Jacqueline Thompson ^ Mark Tiarks Cecilia Tomlonovic Laurie Topaz ^ Betty and J.N. Torgerson Joanne Tubbs ^ Barbara Van Sickle Owen Vandenberg ^ Thomas J. Vanhon Marilyn Varley Joann Vaske ^ Bob and Molly Veenstra Virginia Ver Ploeg The Vernon Company Jon and Margaret Vernon Steven Vosatka Kay Ward ^ Robert Warde ^ Carol and Eric Weber Joe and Karen Weinman ^ Michael West ^ Jeff Wiemiller ^ Allison Wild Dr. Richard Wilker John Williams ^ James H. Williams ^ Stephen and Lee Anne Willson Susan and Peter Wilson

Marvin and Robbie Winick Craig and Elizabeth Winjum Daniel Witkowski Michael and Melissa Wolnerman Janet Wood Ben and Donna Wright Susan Wright Maryann Wycoff Margaret Yungbluth and David Balling

MEMORIAL GIFTS In memory of Nanette Borzewski Kathleen Boese Judy Robinson Joanne Sigler In memory of C. Robert Brenton Babette C. Brenton In memory of Betina Bourjaily Thea Nicholas In memory of Beverly Carey Mary and Bill Holtze In memory of Linda Jean Christensen Larry Christensen In memory of Anne Crane Nancy Barnett Frederick Crane Grant and Cliftona Heuer Janet A. Johnson George M. and Ruth Mosher Solveig Nelson Eleanor and James Perry Betty and J.N. Torgerson John and Joan Wetherell Susan Wright In memory of Robert Gomez Chris Croft Dennis P. and Melinda Hendrickson In memory of Irene Graether John Graether In memory of Sara Hill Jo Ghrist Robert L. Larsen Michael Patterson In memory of Irma Hughes Joan O'Harra Burke Margot Burnham Robert L. Larsen Daniel Witkowski


In memory of Carol Johnson Robert L. Larsen Michael Patterson

In honor of Tim McMillin Dr. Marilyn Mueller

Bob and Ardene Downing/ Downing Construction Glenn Doyle In honor of Dr. Michael Patterson Richard Drews In memory of Harriet Macomber Barbara Jackman Michael Egel Bob and Cherie Shreck Dorothy Ely In honor of Marilu and V.V. Raman Stephen Ely In memory of Charles "Pat" Patterson Indira Raman Marc Alon Embree Michael Egel Tad Ennen In honor of Dr. Mark Ravreby's Robert L. Larsen Jessica Faisant 95th Birthday William Larson Charles and Marilyn Farr Jo Ghrist Tim McMillin and Seth Robb Jane Farrell-Beck and Marvin Beck In honor of Mary Seidler Timothy Filliman In memory of Rich Richards "Sages over 70" Marshall and Judy Flapan Sylvia Richards Marshall and Judy Flapan Paula Forrest Marvin and Robbie Winick In memory of Patty Struck Robert and Elizabeth Freese Lawrence E. Bechler Penny Haus Gallagher In honor of Dr. Robert Larsen's 85th Birthday for Giving Tuesday Helene Garner In memory of Andrew Varley Kim and Patti Abild Sara Gartland Marilyn Varley Roberta and William Abraham Kathy and Tim Gedler Jo Ghrist In memory of John and Ruth Vosatka Anonymous Scott Arens Patrick H. Goeser Steven Vosatka Christina Arnone Karla Goettel In memory of Dr. Forrest I. Achilles Avraamides and David and Hanna Gradwohl Wanninger Dilys Morris Amelia Groetsch Kathie and Al Farris Lori Bade Madeline Gude Kara Joy Lambert Baker Rosa Gude In memory of Judith Williamson Mollie and Britt Baker and Russell Clark Janella and Bob Guilford Nita and Ty Beal William Phillips Layna Chianakas Haddad Mary Beh Joel and Debra Hade Virginia Bennett HONORARY GIFTS Julia Hagen Roger Bethard In honor of Dr. Virginia and Jim Bryan Hall and Pat Barry Bennett, Ed and Margot Wickman Harry Bookey and Cindy Melson Harris Bennett, Susan Bennett and Shane Pamela Bass-Bookey Rita Harvey-Berg Swanson Elizebeth Brazeal Lisa Hasson Mary Jo Bennett Sue Rutledge and Roger L. Hatteberg J.C. "Buz" Brenton In honor of Dorothy Ely's Birthday Dennis P. and Melinda Hendrickson Susan Brooks Robert L. Larsen Teri Herron Fred and Barbara Brown Kaylah Hicok and Jordan Rude In honor of Marshall and Judy Flapan Mary I. Brown Andrea Horton Pat Brown Evelyn and Jerold Levin Betsy and Joe Hrdlicka Joan O'Harra Burke Fred and Charlotte Hubbell In honor of Dennis Hendrickson Margot Burnham Roger and Sue Hudson John Greer Kate and Tom Carey Dr. Bruce Hughes and Dr. Cherie Carl In honor of Charlotte Hubbell's Randall Hamilton Joyce Castle 70th Birthday Irma Hughes Sharon Garvey Cohen Karen Engman Dennis and Linda Hunt James Conlon Randy Jack In honor of Nancy Main Amy Cope Jessica Jaggers Matt and Deanne Main Jane Cotton Dennis Jesse R. Keith Cranston In honor of Adrienne McFarland Dr. Darren R. Jirsa John Crouch Principal Foundation Kathy Reece Johnson William L. Dawe III and Gwendolyn Jones Sheila K. Tipton In honor of Meredith McLean John Keene Joshua Dennis Brian and Julie McLean Steven and Stephanie DeVolder Dennis and Betty Keeney

Janara Kellerman Daniel M. and Mary Kelly Daniel Ketterer Dr. James and Mary Ellen Kimball Joshua and Susie Kimelman Meghan Klinkenborg Carol and Greg Lamansky Phil and Karen Langstraat Nancy Lickiss Jim Lile Eric Lindberg and Steve Farver Dorothy Logan Jane W. Lohnes Kurt and Rose Loth Shea Lueninghoener Carol Lytle Nancy and Bill Main Tom and Marsha Mann Gary Martin Charles and Marleta Matheson Julie McBeth Sarah Barber McCurdy Elvin McDonald and John Zickefoose Dugg McDonough Dru McLuen Andy McMahan Tim McMillin and Seth Robb Ellen Bedecarre McNamara Paul Meginnis, II and Jo Sloan Sheila A. Meginnis Lester and Eileen Meltzer Peg and Jim Mikulanec Jared Monroe Diane Morain Dana Quick-Naig and Scott Naig Janet Neis Bill and Pauline Niebur Jim and Jeanne O'Halloran Matthew Oltman Marcy Welch Ostrander Aaron Parry Jodi Wyss Patman Michael Patterson Joseph Perniciaro Allen Perriello Abby Plymale Martin Lowen Poock Donni Popejoy Melanie Porter and Wayne Halbur Neva L. Pruess Marilu and V.V. Raman Victoria Reynolds Jami Rhodes Jennifer Angarano Ricci

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ANNUAL FUND Dianne S. Riley Kimberly Roberts Judy Robinson John and Janis Ruan III Gretchen Sauer Deb Wiley and John Schmidt Arlen and Jean Schrum Kate Scruggs Stan and Mary Seidler/ The Seidler Foundation Christine Seitz Jennifer Senne Craig and Kimberly Shadur Kenneth and Shirley Shaw William and Mary Beth Shomos Bob and Cherie Shreck Barbara Sletto Jesse Stock Susan Stogdill Kirk and Denise Stuart Tamara and Mark Swessinger Gloria Thielking Erin Roth Thomas Jacqueline Thompson Mark Tiarks Lisa Rai Trewin Tara Mianulli U'Ren The Vernon Company Susan E. and Carl B. Voss Jenny Herzig Wacker Phil and Judy Watson Carol and Eric Weber Rick Wendorf Caroline Whisnant Bernard and Linda White John and Peggy Wild Noel Graves Williams Mark Willson Craig and Elizabeth Winjum Janet Wood Carleton and Barbara Zacheis

Gifts received after 6/16/20 will be acknowledged in next season's program

2019 SEASON GIFTS RECEIVED AFTER 6/14/19 $2,000 and above Kim Lauridsen Jones

Clayton Murphy Anne Murr Kay Myers Ted and Carolyn Neely Bill and Pauline Niebur Donald Stumbo and Janene Panfil Anne Petrie and William White Jr. Neva L. Pruess Alvin and Sue Ravenscroft

$500 - $1,999

Janet Starks Allan Bradley and Derrill Pankow Imre Torok Joe Traylor Carol Domina Don and Connie Decker Dr. Louis and Lois Fingerman Gary Gerlach and Karen Conner Elvin McDonald and John Zickefoose Lily Smith

$250-499 Chris and Gretchen Blunt Larry Brody Sue Green Dr. Gary and Kamie Haynes Gerald and Dorothea Lalonde Sheila A. Meginnis Dr. Luis Pagan-Carlo J. Tuszynski Dee Willemsen James and Sandra Windsor III

$45-249

All Plan Insurance Anonymous Nancy Barnett Linda Bernadt Jerry Blow Kate and Robert Brooke Douglas and Lorna Caulkins Ellen Lacey Cioccio Janine Clark Benjamin and Laura Cooper CORPORATE MATCHING Don and Patricia Dagenais GIFTS Jeffrey Danoff Aetna Foundation Thomas Dillingham Athene Mary Gottschalk H.B. Fuller Company Foundation Larry and Carolyn Hejtmanek Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Myrna and Arnold Hershman IBM Jean M. Isaacson Meredith Corporation Foundation Lori Kalainov Microsoft Matching Gifts Program Martha Kroese Principal Foundation Marla Lacey and Steve Znerold Thrivent Financial John McKay Wellmark Foundation Lesley McLaren Wells Fargo Community Diane Moore Support Campaign

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Darrel and Michelle Mullins

WINE, FOOD & BEER SHOWCASE Presenting Sponsor TruBank

Automobile Sponsor Ramsey Subaru

Reserve Experience Sponsor Elder Corporation

Director Sponsor Homesteaders Life Company

Partner Sponsors BrownWinick Law

2ND STAGES SERIES SPONSORS Iles Funeral Home Mollie and Britt Baker Fredrikson & Byron, P.A. Darren Jirsa Marla Lacey and Steve Znerold Principal Foundation W.T. and Edna M. Dahl Trust Wellmark Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Iowa

EDUCATION DIVISION SPONSORS OPERA Iowa Premier Sponsor The Coons Foundation

Generous Support

Piano Sponsor West Music

Vendor Sponsors Denman & Company Iowa ENT Center

Reserve Experience Vendors Fleming's Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar Table 128 The Wine Group

Grand Tasting Vendors

515 Brewing Co. 515 Pi Gabus Family Foundation Allora Iowa Arts Council Big Grove Brewery Iowa Department of BRAISED Bone Broth Cultural Affairs Catering DSM by St. Kilda National Endowment for the Arts Cat's Eye Distillery Prairie Meadows Cedar Ridge Whiskey Principal Foundation Chocolaterie Stam The Vredenburg Foundation Confluence Brewing Company Country Club Market Additional Support CRU9 Wine Babette C. Brenton in memory Des Moines Embassy Club of C. Robert Brenton Des Moines Marriott Mollie and Britt Baker Dimitri Wine & Spirits Bankers Trust DorĂŠ Bakery & The Purveyor Casey's General Store Exile Brewing EMC Insurance Companies Enterprise Holdings Foundation Foundry Distilling Company Fresko GuideOne Insurance Gateway Market Catering Homesteader's Life Co. Heavenly Asian Cuisine Merchants Bonding Company Meredith Corporation Foundation Iowa Distilling Company MidAmerican Energy Foundation J.A. White Riverboat Jasper Winery U.S. Bank Foundation Johnson Brothers of Iowa Wells Fargo Kathmandu Restaurant West Bancorporation Foundation, Inc. Bravo Greater Des Moines


GIFTS

and

Louie's Wine Dive and Fresco Maytag Dairy Farms Mistress Brewing Co. Okoboji Wines Palm's Caribbean Cuisine Papa Keno's Pizzeria Peace Tree Brewing Co. Prairie Berry Winery River Center Riverwalk Hub Southern Glazer's Wine & Spirits of Iowa Sweet Swirls Rolled Ice Cream Tassel Ridge Winery Taste! to Go, Catering & Events The Tangerine Food Company Trellis Café & Catering West Hill Brewing Company

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Fleming's Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar Gong Fu Tea Greater Des Moines Botanical Garden Guthrie Theater Harbinger Restaurant Heartland Dermatology and Skin Cancer Center Hilton Des Moines Downtown HoQ Hoyt Sherman Place Iowa Cubs Iowa Wild Ism Public Relations Darren Jirsa J's Cleaning Kansas City Lyric Opera Katherine McClure Photography Auction Donors Mary Ellen Kimball 5 Borough Bagels Kitchen Collage Timothy J. Krumm 801 Chophouse Aimee Kum & Go Akebono515 La Mie Bakery Americana Restaurant Marla Lacey Amour Living History Farms Art Terrarium Look @ You Boutique Mollie Baker Lucca Big Acai Bowl Lyric Opera of Chicago BikeWorld Nancy Main Blank Park Zoo MBooth Art Brenton Arboretum Minnesota Opera Bubba Mr. B's Cabot Creamery Cooperative National Balloon Classic Elizabeth Carter Nitefall on the River Cedar Rapids Opera Theatre Opera Omaha Cedar Ridge Distillery Orchestra Iowa Civic Music Association Power Life Yoga Cooking with Alessandra Principal Charity Golf Classic Crafted Food Services Projects Contemporary Furniture Crafted Food Services Raelyn Ramey Photography Crafted Food Services Ramsey Subaru Crossfit Valley Junction RoCA CycleBar Jordan Creek Scenic Route Bakery Des Moines Art Center Seven Oaks Recreation Des Moines Community Playhouse Bob and Cherie Shreck Des Moines Metro Opera Sleepy Hollow Des Moines Performing Arts State Historical Museum of Iowa Des Moines Symphony and Steve Stephenson Academy Stylin' Paws Salon and Day Stay DMACC - Iowa Culinary Institute The Class Act Restaurant Dornink Couture The Escape Rooms at West Glen Town Center East Village Spa eden Thomas, Kaldenberg, Barnes Group: Merrill Lynch Estilo Salon and Day Spa Wealth Management Faegre Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP

Noce, Max Wellman Saley Nong Yasuko Oura Dr. Michael Patterson Dawn Pierce Plymouth Church, Christopher Goodson Emily Pontius Des Moines Metro Opera acknowledges with appreciation Marilu Raman the individuals and businesses Nick Renkoski who provided in-kind donations Christine Rie or assisted in meaningful ways Seth Robb during the 2020 season: Wendy Samuelson Ana de Archuleta Monika Sehic Patti Barbalato Bravo Greater Des Moines, Sally Dix Karen Shinn Cherie Shreck Joshua Borths Simpson College, Marilyn Johnson Pat Brown Cynthia Stacy Elizabeth Carter Scott Stouffer Joyce Castle Danielle Taylor City of Indianola, Ryan Waller Vickie Till Dan Corron Mark Tiarks Mark Davitt and Amy Duncan, Indianola Independent Advocate Joan Tyler Chris Urwin and Matt Huth Belle DuChene Susan Voss Cyd Dyer Judy Watson Tara Faircloth Nathan Wentworth Sara Gartland Justin Werner James H. Gilliam John Wild Melissa Grieser Jonathan Yentis Julia Hagen

Trieste Karla Walsh John and Peggy Wild WineStyles Yoga & Co

Jon Hapke, Skold Companies Melinda Hendrickson Iowa Public Radio, Jacqueline Halbloom Iowa PBS, Judy Blank, Andrea Coyle Dale Jansen Darren Jirsa Mark Ketterson Matt Kruse Dylan Lampe Nix and Virginia Lauridsen Jesse Leong Elden Little Jeri Mace Nancy Main McCoy's True Value Elvin McDonald Kristine McIntyre Meredith McLean Meredith Corporation Minnesota Cabinets, Mark Main Anri Moore Kellee Mullen Mary Muller Yannick Nézet-Séguin

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Des Moines Metro Opera 1973 Puccini La Rondine Menotti The Medium Benjamin Prima Donna Britten Albert Herring

1983 Mascagni Cavalleria Rusticana Leoncavallo I Pagliacci Lehár The Merry Widow Donizetti The Daughter of the Regiment

1992 Donizetti Lucia di Lammermoor Strauss Der Rosenkavalier Puccini The Girl of the Golden West Humperdinck Hansel and Gretel

1974 Puccini Madama Butterfly Ward The Crucible Verdi Falstaff

1984 Mozart The Marriage of Figaro Poulenc Dialogues of the Carmelites Verdi Aïda

1993 Donizetti Don Pasquale Verdi A Masked Ball Menotti The Saint of Bleecker Street

1975 Puccini Il Trittico Mozart The Magic Flute Stravinsky The Rake’s Progress

1985 Gounod Faust Rossini La Cenerentola Floyd Of Mice and Men

1994 Bizet Carmen Verdi Rigoletto Blitzstein Regina

1976 Rossini The Barber of Seville Massenet Manon Floyd Susannah

1986 Verdi Falstaff Hoiby The Tempest (World Premiere) Gounod Romeo and Juliet

1995 Sondheim Sweeney Todd Moore The Ballad of Baby Doe Mozart The Marriage of Figaro

1977 Mozart Così fan tutte Verdi La Traviata Offenbach The Tales of Hoffmann

1987 Puccini La Bohème Wagner The Flying Dutchman Britten The Turn of the Screw

1996 Puccini La Bohème Verdi Macbeth Mozart Così fan tutte

1978 Bizet Carmen Puccini La Bohème Menotti The Consul

1988 Rossini The Barber of Seville Puccini Turandot Mozart The Magic Flute

1997 Mozart Don Giovanni Puccini La Rondine Britten Albert Herring

1979 J. Strauss Die Fledermaus Verdi Rigoletto Britten A Midsummer Night’s Dream

1989 Offenbach The Tales of Hoffmann J. Strauss Die Fledermaus Ward The Crucible

1980 Verdi Il Trovatore Donizetti Don Pasquale R. Strauss Ariadne auf Naxos

1990 Mussorgsky Boris Godunov Flotow Martha Verdi La Traviata

1981 Puccini Tosca Moore The Ballad of Baby Doe Donizetti Lucia di Lammermoor

1991 Puccini Madama Butterfly Britten Peter Grimes Mozart The Abduction from the Seraglio

1982 Verdi Otello Donizetti The Elixir of Love Mozart Don Giovanni

The Human Voice 2020 94

PRODUCTION HISTORY


1998 Puccini Tosca Lehár The Merry Widow Beethoven Fidelio Hoiby Summer and Smoke

2004 Puccini Madama Butterfly Rossini La Cenerentola R. Strauss Ariadne auf Naxos

2013 Gounod Romeo and Juliet Britten Peter Grimes Strauss Elektra

1999 Rossini The Barber of Seville Verdi Il Trovatore Weill Street Scene

2005 Offenbach The Tales of Hoffmann Donizetti Lucia di Lammermoor Britten Gloriana Menotti Amahl and the Night Visitors

2000 Bellini Norma Menotti The Consul Offenbach Orpheus in the Underworld

2006 Mozart The Magic Flute Stravinsky The Rake’s Progress Verdi Rigoletto

2014 Verdi La Traviata Heggie Dead Man Walking Rossini Le Comte Ory Menotti Amahl and the Night Visitors Bizet/Brook The Tragedy of Carmen

2001 Puccini La Bohème Verdi La Traviata Puccini Il Trittico Barber Vanessa

2007 Bizet Carmen Britten A Midsummer Night’s Dream Verdi Otello

2002 Puccini Turandot Strauss Salome Bernstein Candide 2003 Verdi Falstaff Gounod Faust Ward The Crucible Menotti Amahl and the Night Visitors

2008 Verdi A Masked Ball Blitzstein Regina Donizetti The Elixir of Love 2009 Puccini Tosca Weber Der Freischütz Rossini The Barber of Seville 2010 Mozart The Marriage of Figaro Verdi Macbeth Floyd Susannah 2011 Puccini La Bohème Donizetti Don Pasquale Poulenc Dialogues of the Carmelites 2012 Mozart Don Giovanni Puccini La Rondine Tchaikovsky Eugene Onegin

2015 Mozart The Abduction from the Seraglio Puccini The Girl of the Golden West Janáček Jenůfa Heggie Three Decembers Catán Rappaccini’s Daughter 2016 Verdi Falstaff Massenet Manon Gluck Orphée et Eurydice Schubert Winterreise Glass Galileo Galilei 2017 Puccini Turandot Sondheim A Little Night Music Britten Billy Budd Little Soldier Songs Piazzolla/Ferrer María de Buenos Aires 2018 J. Strauss Die Fledermaus Dvořák Rusalka Dove/De Angelis Flight Kaminsky/Campbell/Reed As One Copland The Tender Land 2019 Puccini La Bohème Bernstein Candide Berg Wozzeck Cipullo Glory Denied Hoiby Bon Appétit! 2020 Virtual Season Poulenc La Voix Humaine Massenet Manon Hoiby Bon Appétit! Dvořák Rusalka Britten Billy Budd Rossini Le Comte Ory

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Program

INDEX

Des Moines Metro Opera thanks our advertisers, whose support helps us provide this complimentary program for our Summer Festival. For advertising information, call our office at 515-961-6221. Faulconer Gallery, Grinnell College INSIDE FRONT Scottish Rite Park INSIDE BACK Tassel Ridge Winery BACK COVER American Enterprise 26 Bankers Trust 12 Bravo Greater Des Moines 2 Corteva Agriscience 4 Country Inn and Suites 32 EMC Insurance 32 Gib’s A & W 33 Gong Fu Tea 29 Iles Funeral Homes 23 Indianola Chamber of Commerce 33 The Iowa Clinic, P.C. 25 Iowa ENT Center 21 Iowa PBS 6 Iowa Public Radio 8 Josephs Jewelers 29 Kemin Industries 25 Meredith Corporation 22 Olson-Larsen Galleries 28 Ramsey Subaru 24 Shull, Schrum, McClaflin & Co. P.C. 33 TruBank 10 Wellmark Blue Cross and Blue Shield 20

PHOTOGRAPHERS Mark Davitt, Jen Golay, Ivory House Photography, Tim McConnell, Michael Rolands, Duane Tinkey, Eric Weber PROGRAM ADVERTISING Tom Smull, Associations Inc. facebook.com/DesMoinesMetroOpera instagram.com/DesMoinesMetroOpera twitter.com/DesMoinesOpera youtube.com/user/DesMoinesMetroOpera SHARE YOUR DMMO EXPERIENCE

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