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TAILORING TECHNIQUES A CONSTRUCTION GUIDE FOR WOMEN'S WEAR

ROBERTO CABRERA /PATRICIA FLAHERTY MEYER


Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2012

http://archive.org/details/classictailoringOOcabr


CLASSIC TAILORING TECHNIQUES: A CONSTRUCTION GUIDE FOR WOMEN'S WEAR


CLASSIC TAILORING TECHNIQUES: A CONSTRUCTION GUIDE FOR WOMEN'S WEAR Roberto Cabrera Assistant Professor Fashion Design Department Fashion Institute of Technology

Patricia Flaherty

Meyers

Fairchild Publications

New

York


1

Book Design by Catherine Gallagher Barbara

Woolworth

Photographs by Gustavo Candelas

Illustrations

by Roberto Cabrera

CopyrightÂŽ 1984,

Fairchild Publications Division of Capital Cities Media, Inc.

All Rights Reserved.

No

part of this

any form without permission

book may be reproduced

writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote sources in connection with a review written for inclusion in a magazine or newspaper.

in

in

Standard Book Number: 87005-435-X Library of Congress Catalog Card

Number: 84-80058

Printed in the United States of America

FIT.

COLLECTION


To

my

family, Elvira, Robert

and

Liliana.

R.C.

To Jonathan,

my husband — my joy. P.F.M.


Preface When

I

took

watched him so

my

tailoring

first

course with Roberto Cabrera, and

transform a length of fabric into a beautifully living suit, was both delighted and overwhelmed. What Professor Cabrera was offering to us was the sum total of his forty years of tailoring effortlessly

I

experience— construction techniques nowhere detailed

in

the available

tailoring textbooks.

The question was

how

to absorb

all

of this information before

it

disappeared again at the end of the course. This book, Classic Tailoring Techniques: A Construction Guide for Women's Wear is our joint attempt to present these tailoring techniques in

and precise manner, so that they can be understood and performed by any serious student from novice tailors to home sewers a detailed

ready for the next challenge.

and an expansion of our earlier work, Classic Tailoring Techniques: A Construction Guide for Men's Wear. Since women's tailoring is an adaptation of an art which originally belonged excluThis

sively to

book

is

a sequel to

men's wear,

many

construction procedures outlined

book are repeated here with only

slight

in

our

adjustments— pockets,

first

lapels,

vents, etc.

We

and for on the straight skirt, in order to respond to the almost endless variety of style and detail in women's wear. To afford yourself the best opportunity for success, we suggest that you complete the construction of the classic jacket and the basic straight skirt before moving on to the include construction techniques for three jacket styles,

three variations

variations of each.

Although pattemmaking

is

an

integral part of the art of tailoring, this

book, as its title indicates, concentrates on the construction techniques used in classic tailoring and deals with pattemmaking only indirectly in

Chapters

2,

The

Pattern,

and

3,

The

Fit.

We offer our sincere gratitude to those students and colleagues whose encouragement and assistance Patricia

De

Georges,

Sarita

Cabrera, Joan Kinateder,

Sew and Show, On-ke Street's Inc.,

S.

and

the presentation of

de Castro, Mary Gray, Suzanne

Edward

Barnes, Betty

Wilde, Steven Stipelman,

A

this

work-

Galimir, Coli

Novak and her students at Randy Dana, and Orchard

word of thanks to William Fioravanti Robin Ryan and Dara Lamb of Darabin Ltd., who most

Beckenstein to

facilitated

Inc.

special

graciously allowed us to photograph their work.

1984

Patricia Flaherty

Meyers


121

.

7

.

Contents 1.

TAILORING

1

Saddle Stitch Prick Stitch

5

Back

5

Stitch

Running

Length

The

Fly

5

13.

Pants Inseam

5

14.

Pants

15.

Knee Width Width of Pants

4

6

6

Cross Stitch

Double Cross

6

Stitch

Overcast

Stitch

/

Whip

Diagonal

Stitch

/

Pad

Roll

1

12 12

Line

2.

Shoulder Seams

Vents

4.

Revised Facing Pattern

5.

Pants Cuffs

30

Narrow

12 13

14

32

33

Sloped Shoulder Square Shoulder

34

Neckline— Too High/Too

Low

14

35

36 36

Tight Neckline

THE

FIT 15 Measurements 15 How to Take Measurements Center Back/Neck to 1

Waist

16

Center Back/Neck to Hip 16 3. Back 16 Sleeve Length

6.

Bust

7.

Bust Level

8.

Waist Hip Level

9.

Low

17

One

40 Much

42

Hip Higher than

the Other

17

39

Waistline— Too Little/Too Ease 41

Swayback 17

37

38 The Muslin Skirt Too Tight/Too Loose

Tight

16

17

16

Waistband— Too Loose/Too

16

Shoulder

5.

Loose Neckline Armhole— Too High/Too

Across Hips

2.

4.

18

Too Loose/Too Tight Below Waist 31 Shoulder— Too Wide/Too

Lengthening or Shortening

3.

Hem

29

Waist

3.

Patterns

at

19 The Muslin Fitting The Muslin Jacket 20 Lapels— Too Wide/Too Narrow 20 Lapels— Too Long/Too Short 21 Jacket Balance 21

Short

1

Adjustments Jacket

Outseam

Too Loose/Too Tight Above

8

Preliminary Pattern

1.

18 18 18

1

8

Pressing Techniques Tailoring Supply Sources

The Jacket Pattern The Skirt Pattern The Pants Pattern

18

9 9

7

THE PATTERN

1

"

Stooped Posture 22 22 Overly Erect Posture Low Shoulder 23 Bust— Very Full 26 Bust— Very Flat 27 Misplaced Front Dart 28 Front Dart— Too Long/Too

6

Stitch

Pressing Supplies

2.

6 6

Stitch

Stitch

6

Blanket Stitch

Hem

1

16.

5

Stitch

Slip Stitch

1

17

Skirt

2

Understructure Supplies Stitching

Hips

12.

General Tailoring Supplies

Hand

10.

44

Hips Thrust Forward

44


44

Flat Seat

Assembling the Canvas and

Protruding Stomach/

110 113 114

The Taping First Fitting

The Facing

47

Waistline— Too Little/Too 48 Ease Too Tight Across Hips Too Loose Across Hips Protruding High Hips

Much

Attaching Facing by

49

Attaching Facing by

115

Machine

50

Hand

52

Bowlegs/Knock-knees

54

Prominent Seat 55 Protruding Stomach 56 Rise— Too Long/Too Short

121

The Facing The Lining The Lining The Shoulder The Shoulder

51

Crotch— Too Short/Too 51 Long Flat Seat

125

Pocket 1

28

FABRIC

Seams Pads

Inserting Shoulder Pads

The

56

57

142

Collar

Constructing the

144

Constructing the

57

Selecting the Fabric

Properties of

Woven

58

Fabrics

60

Straightening the Grain

61

Shrinkage

The Nap 5.

62

LAYOUT/CUTTING

63

Chalkmarking, Cutting, Tacking 66

6.

JACKETS

Welt Pocket

Constructing the Buttonholes

The Handworked

Double-piping Pocket

88

Stitch

The Unlined Jacket Darts

in

Pockets

99 100

187

the Unlined

187

Jacket

95

102

184

186

Final Pressing

94

Patch Pocket (Plaids/Stripes)

The Pad

182

Setting the Buttons

Double-piping Pocket with Flap

Preparing the Canvas

The Bound Keyhole 181 Buttonhole The Bias Bound Buttonhole

89 The Cash Pocket The Double-piping Pocket with Flap 91

The Patch Pocket

179

Buttonhole

83 83

The Double-Piping Pocket

(Plaids/Stripes)

174

The Sleeve Head 176 177 The Plaid Sleeve Buttons and Buttonholes

(Plaids/Stripes)

(Plaids/Stripes)

1

Tacking the Armholes

76 78 78

in

the Unlined

188

Jacket

The Facing Jacket

in

70

70 173

Lining the Sleeve

76

Darts and Seams The Jacket Pockets The Welt Pocket

1

Setting the Sleeve

Tailor

70

Plaids or Stripes

Plaid and Striped Collars 155 The Collar Draft 156 The Sleeve 162 Reinforcing the Armholes 162 The Muslin Sleeve 164 The Sleeve Vents 168

Sleeves without Vents

63

Oaktag Patterns

150

Topcollar

58

The Grain

134 1 36 137 140

Pocket

Undercollar 4.

107

Padstitching the Lapels

46 The Muslin Pants Waistband— Too Loose/Too Tight

103

Jacket

45

Buttocks

the Unlined

191

177 179


Covering Shoulder Pads the Unlined Jacket

Assembling

in

195 196

Interlining

The Peplum The Peplum

8.

198

The Peplum Jacket Lining 201 The Mandarin Collar 203 Constructing the Mandarin

205

Collar

Attaching the Mandarin

206

Collar

The Peplum Jacket Sleeve 7.

SKIRTS 1

.

207

208 208

Basic Straight Skirt

Curved Double-Piping

Piping

9.

218

Hem

ALTERATIONS

282

Tapering the Jacket Lapels

The Skirt Hem 222 Waistband backed with

Adjusting the Pants Waistline

289

Altering Skirts

Tapering the Pants Leg

224

282 284 287

Width

Altering the Jacket

Adjusting the Pants Length

289 290 290

Straight Skirt with

PATTERNS

226

Shirring

232 and

Side

227

Back

229

The Crescent Pocket Shirring at the

Center

Front

Assembling Skirt

Skirt

Lining

The Self-backed Waistband

Side

Seam Pocket

297

Slant Pocket Facing

297

Back Pocket Facing

234

299 Shoulder Pad Crescent Pocket Yoke

with Pleats 236 Three Pleats from Waist to Hem at Left Front

&

232

Skirt

The

291

291 Western Yoke 293 Western Facing 293 Western Shaper 295 Back Pocket Piping 295 Slant Yoke

Kick Pleat at Center

3.

277

Overlap Vent at Center Back 221

Grosgrain Ribbon 2.

248

Adjusting the Sleeve Length 286 Re-lining the Jacket

219

Finish

PANTS

Skirt

Side Zipper Closing

Hong Kong

245

Pleated Pants

212

Pocket

The Grosgrain Waistband

248 The Pants Pockets 249 The Slant Pocket 253 The Side Pocket 257 The Western Pocket 262 The Back Pocket The Pants Fly 265 268 The Pants Side Seams Belt Loops 270 271 The Pants Waistband 272 The Pants Lining 274 The Pants Hem 275 The Heel Stay 276 The Pants Cuffs

Reinforcement 197 Assembling the Peplum Jacket

and

244

Skirt

194

The Peplum Jacket The Full Canvas

Skirt

Lining

191

Crescent Pocket Facing Facing Pocket

301

303

305

236 241

About the Authors

307


Courtesy of Darabin Limited and William Fioravanti

Inc.


1 Tailoring The least to

art of tailoring

can be traced back

the fourteenth century,

when

at

became

it

in Europe to add an underlayer of padding in the chest area of men's jackets. Rather than taking its form from the contours of the wearer's body, the garment fabric was cut and carefully shaped to fit over the padded form. Through the ages the padding was extended,

fashionable

according to fashion, to the sleeves, the shoulders, even to the stomach area. The padded understructure provided

what was considered

to

be improvements over the contours of the body. It also enabled the garment fabric to lie neatly, relatively

unaffected by the body's wrinkling

movements. The construction techniques developed to create these structured garments were quite different from those used to produce shirts and dresses. By the sixteenth century the makers of men's jackets had formed a separate branch of the clothing makers' guilds, complete with precise specifications for

the quality and color of

padding materials and linings for gentlemen's silk brocade jackets. By the late seventeenth century women's fashion began to be influenced by the mantailored coat. Tailors were presented with the new challenge of adapting their craft to feminine form and fancy. Not until the early nineteenth century did careful

fit

become

sharp, without noticeable bulk.

The

collar,

and

curved edges of the garment were to incline ever so slightly inward toward the body, a grace-

all

ful

avoidance of the awkward, upward curl of and pocket flaps. Pockets were never

collar tips

to

gape open

expected to

when

lie

not

and

flat

and vents were The result was a

in use,

firm.

clean definition of design

controlled yet

lines, a

graceful presentation of the

garment

fabric, im-

fit, form and detail. The construction techniques presented in this book and practiced today, with minor variations, by the finest tailors all over the world, have changed very little in the past 100 years. Although new machines and new methods of

peccable

fusing layers of fabric together offer today's tailor

speedy alternatives to time consuming handwork, relatively few of these faster methods have been adopted by custom tailors. The sewing machine is used for almost all seams and darts, but almost 75 percent of all stitches in a custom-tailored suit are still done by hand, to ensure the most accurate shaping of the fabric. The new fusible interfacings are being used by most custom tailors to reinforce certain small areas, such as dart tips or the inside of some pockets, however, they are not considered acceptable substitutes for the multi-layered, handstitched canvas interfacing which gives body to the entire front of the jacket.

a criterion of well-tailored gar-

Today's

continue to practice their

tailors

art

ments. The understructure remained, but the

almost exactly as

shaping became more subtle, its purpose now being to complement rather than to distort the

Not because slower is necessarily better, but because these methods produce body and form,

natural lines of the body. Great attention also given to the flawless lay of the fabric

over the canvas form. The lapel

gracefully

open

was

to

without pulling the from the body. All edges

were

to belie the existence of the

several layers of fabric beneath,

by being

flat

detail

and

and

was

durability

practiced a century ago.

which newer

faster

methods

of tailoring are simply unable to equal.

We

roll

at the chest,

garment forward, away of the jacket

was

garment

it

encourage you

process as

much

as

its

to enjoy the tailoring

afford yourself the necessary time to

become

and to and patience

beautiful product,

proficient in these

time-honored

skills.


GENERAL TAILORING SUPPLIES

Bent Handle Shears

Tapemeasure

These shears are designed

for the most convenand careful cutting of fabric. In use, the handle bends up and away from the cutting

Necessary

ient

able with inches printed

surface while the blade

also available for taking the

is

allowed to

slide

along

the surface without disturbing the lay of the fabric. A 10" (25.4 cm) to 12" (30.5 cm) pair will

handle most best service

when

tailoring needs. Fine shears will give if

they are oiled and sharpened

necessary,

and

if

they are not used to cut

materials other than fabric.

for taking

body measurements. on one side and

Availcenti-

meters on the other. Special tapemeasures are

ment

for

inseam measuretrousers. These tapemeasures have

cardboard stiffening at one end. The cardboard, and not the tailor's hand can then be placed at the top of the inseam for measuring. Plastic, rather than cloth tapemeasures should be purchased, since those

made

of cloth are inclined to

shrink.

Thread Snips Small, sharp, pointed scissors.

cess to small areas,

and

Used

for

easy ac-

for cutting threads.

Ruler Flexible, plastic

see-through rulers are very con-

venient for measuring curved areas on patterns

Clay

Tailor's

Chalk

and fabric, as well as for flat them away from the iron!

surfaces.

Do

keep

White

clay chalk. Used for marking pattern information onto the garment fabric. The edge of the chalk should be sharpened before use, for a clean, fine line. Clay chalk can be brushed away easily when no longer needed, however, avoid

on top of the chalkmarks, as this will make removal more difficult. Darker colored chalks are used for markings on interfacings. pressing

Hip Curve Ruler A

gracefully curved ruler essential for

and

adjusting pattern lines.

making


Needles

Straight Pins Either

dressmaker

thickness, or

silk

which are of medium which are somewhat thin-

pins,

pins,

ner, are appropriate for tailoring

needs.

Hand sewing needles variety

called

for tailoring

come

in

a

and widths, in categories sharps and betweens. Betweens are of lengths

Sharps are medium to each category, the needle sizes are numbered. The higher the number, the shorter and thinner the needle. A #7 sharp needle might easily take you from beginning to end of your tailoring project. shorter, stronger needles.

long

Basting Thread White cotton thread #40-#50, easy removal

when

to break for

necessary.

General Sewing Thread #0 or WO, or size A, both hand and machine

in

length. Within

Buttons

Mercerized cotton thread, silk

thread,

is

suitable for

The button

size

is

measured across the diameter

40 lines to the inch. 30-line buttons on the jacket front, 24-line buttons can be used for the sleeves, the pants, and back pocket. Dull bone or horn buttons are most attractive on the classic suit. Plastic buttons break easily and sharp edges in the hole of the button in "lines,"

stitching.

are used

Buttonhole Twist #8

making handworked buttonholes. It is also used for sewing on buttons. The twist comes on large spools, six strands of silk loosely intertwined. The strands are separated and used singly. If tailor's twist is Silk tailor's

twist

is

best for

often tear the thread.

Zipper

unavailable, size D, buttonhole twist, will do.

Gimp

1

garment the edges of hand-

cord, in a color close to that of the

Stiff

Use a strong zipper with metal teeth for the pants fly; one which is at least " (2.5 cm) longer than the fly measurement. For a skirt, the zipper should be the length of your hip level measurement (see page 7).

Used to reinforce worked buttonholes. fabric.

I

Muslin

Beeswax

A

hand sewing, to prevent the thread from knotting and gnarling. For hand topstitching the thread is also pressed between sheets of paper after having been drawn through the beeswax. This process keeps the several strands, which constitute the thread, flat and uniform. Used by

tailors to

Tailor's Worn area

coat thread for

Thimble

as a protection for the middle finger, the

which covers the

fingernail

is

used to push

the needle through the fabric. Tailor's thimbles are

open

at the

top for comfort.

which tailors Used to check

lightweight cotton fabric, from

make

a prototype of the

fitting details.

suit.


UNDERSTRUCTURE SUPPLIES Undercollar Melton A

strong

wool

fabric in a color that coordinates

with the garment fabric. Used to give and sharp edges to the jacket collar.

/

crisp

body

French Canvas A

/

stiff,

used

linen interfacing;

in

the undercollar.

Waistband Interfacing

Wool Canvas Woven

Interfacing

from wool and hair

used as a

fibers,

supporting fabric for the jacket front. The

and body

A layer of stiff interfacing; the garment fabric

in

used to give support to

the waistband.

inter-

Shoulder Pads

garment fabric, and reduces wrinkling. It should be soaked in cool water, allowed to drip dry and

Gracefully shaped layers of cotton

pressed before use, to ensure against

ered with muslin. Used to define shoulder area.

facing adds shape

to the

its

shrink-

wadding cov-

ing in the finished garment.

A used

if

weight wool canvas interfacing is your jacket has a full canvas (see page

lighter

A

100).

Head

Sleeve strip

of cotton

wadding

of wool canvas interfaccap of the sleeve. The head out the sleeve cap and helps create the

forced with a bias ing,

Pocketing Fabric strong cotton fabric, tightly

Soft,

without ets,

fills

sizing.

Used

woven and

and as a stay, or reinforcement on the jacket and pants.

graceful

for several

smooth

fabric of rayon,

silk

or

used in jackets, skirts, and pants. Debeing lightweight and soft, the lining must

polyester;

be strong enough to endure constant, long-term wear.

/s"

of the sleeve fabric.

(

I

cm) wide, used to define the outer edges

and jacket front, and to control the lapel roll line. The tape should be soaked in cool water, and pressed before use to ensure against shrinkage

Prepadded Collar Melton fabrics— French canvas and

melton—

machine-pad-stitched together, from which the jacket undercollar is constructed. The melton

should be of a color that matches or coordinates with the color of the garment fabric. Since this prepared undercollar fabric

is

often

difficult to

find in the color or guality desired, tailors often

buy the melton and canvas separately and handstitch them together.

in

the finished garment.

Grosgrain Ribbon A

Two

fall

of the lapel

Lining

spite

strip

into the

Cotton Twill Tape 3

lightweight,

sewn

to form the insides of pock-

areas

A

or lamb's wool, rein-

closely

woven corded

ribbon, usually of

silk

or

rayon. Used as a waistband or waistline backing.

Shirring Tape A

thin,

loosely

woven

underside of gathers.

bias tape;

used on the


HAND If

you

STITCHING hand sewing, we can you will begin by:

are not used to

A

• Pulling

more necessary in tailoring than in other hand sewing, because of the added pressure needed to drive the needle through several layers of fabric. The tailor's thimble is open at the top for comfort. The fingernail

area of the thimble, instead of the top,

almost guarantee that

your thread much too long your stitches much too tightly Resisting the use of a thimble until your

• Cutting

finger begins to bleed.

thimble

is

the middle finger of the

you can manage to pass through this beginning stage quickly, you will save yourself a great If

deal of aggravation.

ily

Using a very long thread does not necessarthat you will be threading your needle

mean

less often.

On

the contrary,

it

usually

means

that

your thread will gnarl and tangle, and that you will have to break off the tangled area repeatedly, losing all satisfaction in your work. Use a comfortable length of thread, one which does not require you to stretch your arm with each stitch. If you still have trouble with tangles, draw the thread through a piece of beeswax. Tightly pulled stitches are

usually placed with great care and concentration, and unfortunately, their intensity

is

usually clearly visible

the front of the garment. There isjust nail

no need

the layers of fabric this tightly together.

on to

Any

which goes through to the right side of the garment should pick up only one thread of the garment fabric, and should be drawn softly enough to leave that thread's appearance unchanged on the right side of the fabric. stitch

is

pressed

on and

against the needle. Simply place the thimble

hand you sew

with,

your finger will figure out how best to use it. Innumerable rows of basting are required in producing a tailored garment. Basting is more accurately done if the two layers of fabric to be joined are

laid flat

on the

table to avoid shifting.

With one hand holding the fabric flat in place, and the other hand placing the stitch, your work will progress quickly and accurately. Basting stitches, like other hand stitches, should be placed without tension. Since these are temporary stitches, more attention should be given to their location than to their appearance.

Each row of basting

is

to secure the thread.

begun with

a backstitch

Basting thread

is

never

would make the the basting more difficult

knotted at the end, since knots eventual removal of

and more hazardous to the fabric. The most common hand stitches are trated here. Others will

the text as their need

saddle stitch

back

prick stitch

running

stitch

stitch

illus-

be presented throughout

arises.


cross stitch

slip stitch

double cross

overcast stitch/whip stitch

stitch

stitch

hem

stitch


PRESSING SUPPLIES

Hl-STEAMO*

Heavy, Dry Iron About

12

pounds or more

Pleater in

weight; preferred

over lighter weight irons by most of the

tailors,

because

added pressure the weight affords, espethe job of flattening and reducing bulk

A wooden

on one side and flat on Used as a pressing surface or as

block, curved

the other.

pounding block

for flattening

bulky edges.

cially in

by

pressing.

Brush Used

Steam Iron

for

brushing the

fabric,

and

for

pounding

delicate areas.

Professional models offer a powerful surge of

by those

who

steam;

preferred

weight

irons difficult to manipulate.

find

heavier

Presscloth which is free of sizing. Used to garment fabric from direct contact with the hot iron. With a dry iron, the presscloth is dampened to produce steam. Soft cotton fabric

protect the

Sleeve Board A

small ironing board convenient for pressing

the sleeve and other

Tailor's

A

tightly

difficult

to reach areas.

Ham

packed, large or small, curved pressing

surface, preferably stuffed with sawdust.

Press Mitt A padded in

mitt

worn on

pressing areas that

tailor's

ham

sleeve cap

or

the hand. Used to assist

do not

ironing

and shoulder

lie

comfortably on a

board, area.

especially

the


PRESSING TECHNIQUES Pressing

an

is

on the presscloth until steam is produced. Pressure is added while the fabric is being steamed. Remove the iron and the press-

the hot iron

integral part of the tailoring proc-

ess. Besides ridding the fabric of wrinkles,

producing neat,

darts

flat

and seamlines, the

and iron

used in tailoring to gently shape the fabric. Using heat, moisture and pressure, fabric which is suitable for tailoring can be shrunk in some

you

and stretched in others, so that it will hang most gracefully as a finished garment. The amount of heat, moisture and pressure necessary to accomplish yourjob depends upon the weight and quality of your fabric. Therefore, before using the iron on your fabric, it is essential that you pretest, using a fabric scrap. If your heat setting

is

too high, the fabric

cloth

too wet, the fabric

is

Wool

fibers will flatten

fabric

is

will

very vulnerable

grain, the iron

A

etc.

lifted,

tween the

damage

and

iron

the iron,

to

and

placed and

is

this

the fullness can,

in

in

desired

fit

will shrink

as

ham

Using a dry

much

excess— dampening, ric

ham

damp

is

iron,

limp.

fabric

is

Remember

pressing,

pounding the

that the surface

quite vulnerable, as are the

and semi-bias

raw edges which can

life

many

all

fab-

of the bias

too easily

be stretched out of shape. If each of the several pieces of your garment are handled carefully during the tailoring process, and aside

the best procedure for

when

needed

to cover the fabric

with a uniformly (not dripping) presscloth, and then to lay

pressing

surface of your

will probably be able to eliminate it by lightly steaming the shiny area, and then using a soft brush to coax the fibers back to life. The beginning tailor usually sins by

into this limited space. For

so that the

on the

extreme heat or pressure,

you

might fill out the shape of the garment. Steam pressing a curved area in this manner will not result in shrinkage, since the fabric is being pressed in conformity with its own shape. tailor's

edge.

fabric as the result of

reason, curved areas of the garment are laid

over a

crisp

flat,

a shine appears

If

the fabric

order to

and rob

fibers

or heavier woolens will remore than the normal amount of pressure create sharp, flat edges. Pressing on a wooden

to the fabric.

seams can be safely pressed on flat However, if a curved area of the garment is placed on a flat surface for steam pressing, and restricted by the flat surface of the hot it

out the wool

its life.

surface— the area to be flattened can be struck sharply with a pounding block while the fabric is still steaming. This extreme pressure, coupled with the instant drying produced by the blow and the wooden surface, usually produces the

Flat

iron,

absorb the mois-

quire

surfaces.

as

particles will

Some worsteds

out

when damp.

lifted,

wood

will flatten

the fabric of

always needed beand the garment fabric to prevent

presscloth

not

in use,

the

laid

amount

carefully

of pressing

be greatly reduced.

will

TAILORING SUPPLY SOURCES Beckenstein

S.

Inc.

Louis A.. Lew Co., Inc.

125 Orchard Street

108

New

New

York, N.Y.

}0002

Fifth

Steinlauf

York, N.Y. 1001

9027

New

1

1

8

Greenberg & Hammer 24 West 57th Street

New

York,

New

York

Stoller Inc.

York,

Street

New

York

100U

Nat Gelfman Company Inc. 237 West 35th Street New York, New York 1000

Tailor

River

Gubi Linings and Trimmings Co. 6 Delancey Street New York, N.Y. }0002

&

239 West 39th

Avenue

and Cleaning Supply Corp. Sew and Show 401 North Avenue Road Garwood, N.J. 07027 Edgewater, N.J. 07020

Bergen

If

flat areas of the garment, the fabric can simply be hung up to dry. Drying the fabric completely before lifting

stretching the fabric off

placed and

is

sawdust the

If

Therefore, rather than pulling the iron back forth over the fabric,

being produced.

still

ture fairly quickly. After pressing

your pressshrink and matt.

unattractive shine.

is

are pressing a curved area of the garment,

allow the fabric to lay oyer the ham for a few minutes while it dries. If the ham is stuffed with

areas

and produce an

steam

cloth while the

is

Inc.

1

00

1


2 The Pattern Unless you are

skilled

enough

to

The

create

your own pattern, your job now is to carefully choose and adjust a commercial pattern in order to produce a personally flattering style and fit. Beautifully detailed construction is wasted on a garment which does not fit, or on a style which does not suit the wearer.

size of

the

skirt

and pants

patterns

is

determined by the hip measurement, and, for most women, the bust measurement will be the best

gauge

to determine the size of the jacket

If, however, your bust is very full or very check the information on pages 26 and 27 before purchasing and adjusting yourjacket pat-

pattern.

flat,

tern.

THE JACKET PATTERN In selecting

the jacket style of the pattern,

niques outlined

in this

book,

all

you

will

use from

moment,

the pattern envelope are the basic pattern pieces:

such things as styles of pockets, or whether there is a back vent, or if the jacket pattern includes a lining. Fortified with the tech-

panel and back, the sleeve, and the undercollar. You will be able to create the rest of the jacket on your own.

look to the broad style

lines.

For the

ignore

gorge

line

Look to the shape of the collar and lapel as they meet at the gorge line, and choose your jacket pattern.

width is a matter of taste and current trend. A safe width for a lapel which you would be able to wear for many years would be about 3" (7.6 cm). Remember that out of style, wide lapels may always be tapered (page 282), but lapels which are too narrow can only hang in the closet until fashion welcomes them back

The

again.

lapel

the jacket

front, side


double piping pocket welt pocket

double piping pocket with flap

You

patch pocket

be able to interchange patch pockets with double piping pockets, or to add a welt breast pocket \f there is none. You will not need your pattern envelope to help you with making these changes. will

If you will be working with a plaid fabric, choose a pattern that eliminates the seam below the pocket by using a dart instead of a separate side panel. The plaid below the pocket is then undisturbed by seamlines, and matching the

plaid during the construction of the pockets

not

!0

difficult.

is


THE

PATTERN

SKIRT

basic straight skirt

We

straight skirt

suggest that you begin with a basic

Once you have a wellyour pattern can easily be

straight skirt pattern. fitting

straight

skirt,

with shirring

skirt

with pleats

modified to create a variety of skirts

which

styles.

The three

are constructed in Chapter 7 are

adapted from the same

straight skirt pattern.

THE PANTS PATTERN

side pocket

slant pocket

In selecting a

pants pattern, select a high or

Western pocket

modified to create

all

three pockets using the

low rise, whichever your client has found to be more comfortable, and decide for or against

patterns included in this book.

pleats.

your option for a Western pocket.) The width of the pants leg should not be a determining factor in choosing the pattern, since this is a minor pattern alteration (page 290). Cuffs also can be added or subtracted without

No like,

matter

what

pockets you would

the best pants pattern to buy

side pockets rather ets.

style

This will give

waistline

is

one

that has

than Western or slant pocka pattern with side and

you

seams intact— a pattern that can be

(If

you choose a you forfeit

pattern with front pleats, of course,

difficulty

(page

14).

11


PRELIMINARY PATTERN ADJUSTMENTS

1.

2. Shoulder Seams

Jacket Roll Line

on your pattern if Draw the lapel not already indicated. The roll line begins is about 5 /s" (1 .6 cm) above the top button, and is 3 /s" drawn at an angle which would bring cm) out from the neck cutting edge at the (1 shoulder. Notch the top and bottom of the roll roll line

The jacket back shoulder seam should be

it

it

at

least V2" .3 cm) longer than the front shoulder seam, to allow for ease of movement. Measure your pattern shoulder seams. Add 'A?" (1.3 cm) to the back shoulder seam if it has not been (

1

included.

line.

JJ 3. Vents you would like to add a center back vent jacket which does not have a back vent,

If

If

to a

extend your pattern out 2" (5 cm) from the stitchline at the top of the vent, and 3" (7.6 cm) at the bottom. The top of the center back vent is

about

1"

(2.5

cm) below the waistline.

your pattern includes a back vent and you

wish to eliminate

it,

simply treat the vent foldline

and trim away the pattern beyond seam allowance.

as a stitchline,

the

If

V2" (3.8 cm) from and the undertopsleeve both the

the vent

the foldline

on

is

not at least

sleeve patterns, extend

it

1

to that

amount.


4. Revised Facing Pattern the outer edge of the facing pattern

If

is

curved to match the shape of the outer edge of the jacket lapel, the facing pattern must be

re-

drawn. This procedure is an inconvenience, but one which will produce a far more professional product.

We

are redrawing the facing pattern in

order to create a pattern that will enable us to place the straight of the grain

on the

the outer edge of the lapel. This

is

essential for a

controlled, graceful lay of the fabric.

add ease

facing at

We will also

to the facing to assist in the

roll

of the

lapel.

although detailed here,

This adjustment,

made

should only be

when

after the muslin fitting,

the jacket front pattern corrections have

been completed. Use the jacket front pattern as a guide, and a new facing pattern on oaktag or brown paper. Trace around thejacket front pattern leaving '/z" (1.3 cm) margin at the shoulder, neck and top of the lapel. The front of the facing

draw

pattern

a

is

straight

line,

which

is

drawn

h" (1 .3 cm) away from the center of the lapel and continues to O2" .3 cm) below the bottom ]

(

1

of thejacket.

The

front

edge of the facing does not yet

take the shape of the front of the jacket. This

shaping will be accomplished later with the help of the steam iron. Indicate the

waistline notch

move

bottom of the

on the

lapel

facing pattern,

and the and re-

thejacket front pattern.

The facing extends 3" (7.6 cm) past the center of the roll line, and should be 3" (7.6 cm) wide at the shoulder. The facing should be cut 5'/2" 4 cm) wide at the bottom for a jacket that curves in at the center front hem. For a straight front jacket, the bottom of the facing is 4" (

1

(10.2 cm) wide.

Add the

lapel,

a ]

seam allowance notch at the top of h" (1.3 cm) in from the edge. Your

revised facing pattern

is

complete.


5. Pants Cuffs your pattern does not include cuffs and you would like them, extend the bottom of your pants pattern below what will be the bottom edge of the finished pants— an amount equal to at least three times the cuff width. The average 72" (3.8 cm). If you have the cuff width is fabric, it would be wise to leave slightly more If

1

fabric, since

length

is

the

made

final

determination of the pants

only after the pants are com-

pleted.

LENGTHENING OR SHORTENING PATTERNS you have had

With the preliminary pattern check comskirt, and pants patterns as indicated by your measure-

flat

ments. Follow the instructions for length adjust-

If

ments given on your pattern. As a general guide pants should be long enough to reach to the middle of the back of the shoe. Leave yourself a generous hem at the bottom of the pants for now. Length of skirts and jackets is a matter of taste and the current style trends.

ories regarding pattern alterations, leave the ad-

pleted, lengthen or shorten yourjacket,

14

If

successful experience with

pattern alterations,

further adjustments to

you have no

you may wish

your pattern

to

make

at this point.

experience, or only painful

mem-

justments for the moment. The needed pattern alterations will become very obvious in the muslin

fitting.


3 The

Fit

MEASUREMENTS The following are standard measurements taken by tailors, and used by them to draft patterns which will fit their clients as closely and as comfortably as possible. In conjunction with

the measurements, the

tant information

tailor also

about the

notes impor-

client's

body:

whether her posture is stooped or overly erect; whether her shoulders are square or sloped; whether her bust and buttocks are full or flat, whether her stomach protrudes; whether one hip or one shoulder is higher than the other, etc. In order to get an uncensored picture, the keeps the

tailor

client

away from

the mirror

during these observations. The temptation to suck

in

mirror,

and stand up straight for the If the tailor were to note that the body, the suit would fit only in

the stomach is

too strong.

version of

front of a mirror.

tailor applies his craft to build into

whichever If

characteristics are

you

are, therefore, using a

and

tain fitting

the pattern

needed.

are not a skilled patternmaker,

style

commercial

adjustments

and

pattern, cer-

will

undoubt-

edly be necessary. Your pattern will have to be

customized

after the fact,

by means of a muslin

fitting.

measurements taken in this chapter will, therefore, most likely be used by you only to choose a commercial pattern closest to your client's fit, and to adjust the

The standard

tailors'

length of the pattern.

All

other adjustments of

the pattern will be diagnosed and the muslin

fitting.

/

\

While making the pattern, the

\

made

during


HOW TO TAKE MEASUREMENTS

The the best

first

five

fitting

measurements are taken over

jacket the client has available.

Don't be concerned if the jacket is not a perfect We will have an opportunity to improve the fit during the measurements and the muslin

depends on the style you have chosen. Take your measurement to the hip level as a point of reference for adjustments in the muslin

fitting.

fit.

fitting.

Center Back/Neck to Waist 1

With the jacket collar up, measure from the seam to the waist at center back.

3. Back At about center armhole level, measure across the back from the armhole seam to the center back seam.

4. Shoulder

collar

seam

Measure the shoulder seam from to armhole seam.

collar

2. Center Back/Neck to

Hip With the tapemeasure touching the body at the waist, measure from the collar seam to the hip level. Of course, the length of your jacket

16

5. Sleeve Length Measure the sleeve from the shoulder seam to the

hem

slight rise of

fold,

taking into consideration the

the sleeve over the shoulder pad.


JI 6. Bust Measure around the body at the fullest part of the bust. This measurement can be taken over a blouse, but not a sweater. Check that the tapemeasure is at the same level at the back as in the front. The measurement should be comfortable, neither

too loose nor too

belt.

The measurement should be comfortable,

but without additional ease.

9. Hip Level Measure

tight.

seam, to the

7. Bust Level Measure from the shoulder (about cm) from the base of the neck) center of the bust. Be aware that

ment can change bra that

significantly

down this

1"

(2.5

to the

measure-

depending on the

worn. Therefore, the type of bra that be worn under the jacket, should be this measurement.

is

will usually

worn

for

1

The waist measurement can be taken over a blouse, but not over a

skirt

level at

from the waist

which the

at the side

hips are

fullest.

0. Hips

The hip measurement can be taken over an unbulky straight skirt or trousers. The pockets, if any, should be empty and the client's feet should be together. With two fingers under the tape for ease, measure around the fullest part of the hip.

1

8. Waist

down

1

Skirt Length Measure down from the .

waist at the side seam, to the desired length of the skirt.

waistband, or a

17


12. The Fly Have your trousers she

body

is

wearing

at the crotch.

high on the

client,

position, the fly

the waistline of the

client raise

is

until

they just touch the

the waistband

If

when

is

much

the pants are

too

too long.

she cannot get the waistline of the pants up to her waistline, without the pants becoming the crotch, the

in

fly

is

too short.

from what should be the top of the waistband, down to the beginning of the curve of the crotch.

Measure the

inseam.

in this

If

uncomfortable

cardboard attached, so that the cardboard, and not the tailor's hand reaches to the top of the

fly

1

level

the shoe.

With the pants the

client,

waistline at a comfortable

measures

8

client,

there are special tape-

measurement. The top of the tapemeasure have a piece of

for taking this

few inches

Knee Width

crease to crease.

measure the pants inseam

from the crotch to the middle of the shoe. As a courtesy to the

5.

Measure across the knee of the pants from

3. Pants Inseam

level for

Outseam

With the pants waistline at a comfortable for the client, measure down the outseam

from the top of the waistband to the middle of

1 1

4. Pants

1

6.

Width

of Pants at

Hem

Measure across the bottom edge of the pants leg from crease to crease.


THE MUSLIN FITTING

The next pieces from a

check the

We

step

good

to cut the basic pattern

is

quality muslin fabric

and

to

on the

assume

that

you

on you support you

are anxious to get real suit,

and

that

can think of hundreds of reasons to in avoiding this seemingly over-cautious step. However, unless you are a tailor with years of cutting experience, a muslin fitting must be made. The muslin will serve as an inexpensive prototype of your suit, through which you can become aware of, (and then avoid) creases and wrinkles caused by the fact that your body is unique, and the pattern is an "average" size. These creases literally "point at" and advertise the peculiarities of your body, such as knockknees or protruding seat. for the

first

time

creases in the finished

you

suit,

it

are

aware

may be

too

of the

you will find you smoothly from a

the hip curve, takes

significant,

Now

and

then.

it

would be wise

all

to verify the correc-

you have decided be aware that is not an that

it

to

make

the

entire suit in

muslin. For the jacket, cut only the front, back

from muslin, and the undercollar from French canvas (for body). Eliminate the side panel

ets,

fit,

line.

by changing the muslin accordingly. Only then can the cutting of your suit fabric be done with full confidence.

procedure

to correct the

'//'

tions

facing

diagnose the problem, determine

that

the pattern correction has been at

If

which note their presence will. The pattern corrections given here are for some of the most common fitting problems. The to

new

contour of the

and

is

it

turn

of the original line as a general guide for the

ing seat will not disappear,

amount needed

you a place on newly added If

cm), back into the seamline. Use the curve

(1 .3

muslin,

the

will

cide with the contours of the body.

an early warning system. The knock-knees and protrudbut the wrinkles

at certain points

have to attach paper to the areas of the pattern that need expanding, so that new lines can be drawn, blending the corrected amounts gracefully into the original lines. A hip curve ruler is an essential tool for this procedure. The contours of the hip curve coin-

late to

eliminate them; but the muslin offers

amount

pattern.

You

fit.

with the job of making the

If

to apply the corrected

lin,

and the

topcollar.

lines that indicate

the buttons,

A

Chalkmark on the mus-

the placement of the pock-

and the center

muslin sleeve

will

front

not be cut at

this point.

19


When

the jacket

is

almost finished, the armhole

be cut will now. You for sleeve to fit (page 164). Forget the will need shoulder pads for the jacket fitting. Use a pair of commercial pads. (On page 137 there are instructions for making your own shoulder pads, however, you may wish to make them only after the fitting, when you will have determined the amount of padding best for you.) be measured and a muslin sleeve

will

The skirt and pants muslin should include and simple waistbands, so that you get a the actual hang of the garment. The of sense

zippers

pockets can simply be chalkmarked. Cut the muslin fabric with full attention to

the grain.

If

the muslin

is

be quite misleading: they draping, rather than

Machine

may be

fitting

may

indicating bias

problems.

seam allowances and and press the seams open.

stitch

darts accurately,

off grain, wrinkles

the

The muslin jacket should be

fit

over a well-

blouse. A sweater should not be worn under the muslin, unless one will be worn regularly under the finished suit jacket. Attention

fitting

should be given to the height of the shoe heel, since variation here may significantly alter the length of the pants.

The

add

you wish

widen or narrow the

to or subtract from the top of the outer

of the lapel, roll line.

20

to

and taper

figure.

Although the

below the

edge

suit

provides

hip, a

may

and

style line for

classic blazer

woman

length

is

the just

with long legs and a

comes well below her hips in order to create an attractive balance between top and bottom. Wide lapels and pleated trousers may combine to create too heavy an impression for a short torso

require a jacket that

shorter, slightly built

woman. A

long lapel

may

be better than a short one on a tall, broadshouldered woman. None of this is gospel. Use your eye and trust your judgment. If necessary, lengthen or shorten the jacket according to your pattern instructions, and then make whatever style adjustments you think best, using the guidelines on the following pages.

NARROW

Adjusting the shape of the lapel

lapel,

a line to the bottom of the

view of the muslin

vide a pleasing balance

LAPELS— TOO WIDE/TOO

If

first

important information about the overall impression. The jacket and skirt (or pants) should pro-

prove a problem with the facing since

will

not

we

will

eventually redraw the facing pattern using the

new

line of

the lapel as a guide.


LAPELS— TOO LONG/TOO SHORT

too long

/

you would prefer to raise or lower the draw a line from the top of the existing roll

If

lapel,

line to

the

the desired height of the lapel

roll line,

roll.

Below

too short

If you wish, the design of the collar can be completely changed during the construction of

the collar (page 142).

the jacket front tapers to a straight

line.

JACKET BALANCE

With the preceeding we will move on

the way,

The procedure

style

problems out of

to the problems of

fit.

be to correct the most obviand to work our way down to the finer details. The major corrections often eliminate the minor ones before we get to them. ous problems

will

first,

Far and away, the most obvious fitting problems are those caused by posture and body imbalance. If the client's posture is stooped or overly erect, or if one shoulder is higher than the other, the jacket will not

hang

correctly.

21


STOOPED POSTURE a woman with stooped posture towards the back and upwards. To prevent the jacket from pulling, fold the pattern h" (3.8 cm) at the back side seam about below the armhole. Approximately h" (1 .3 cm) to 3 A" (1.9 cm) is folded out of the pattern at the seam, and tapered across the pattern back. On the pattern front, about h" (3.8 cm) below the armhole, and about 2" (5 cm) in from the cutting edge of the side seam, draw a line

A jacket on

will

pull

l

1

l

l

1

across the pattern to the lapel edge, at a level just

below the top of the

W

(1.9

the

lapel,

cm)

fabric

The top of the equal

is

in

About 72" end

side panel

of the

1

.3

cm) to

is

line.

lowered so that

seam from waist notch to length with the newly ad-

seam on the jacket back

justed side

(

folded out of the pattern at

tapering to the

the side panel back

armhole

dart.

is

pattern.

OVERLY ERECT POSTURE A

a woman with overly erect towards the front and upwards. To prevent the jacket from pulling, slash the pattern, beginning on the back side seam, about h" (3.8 cm) below the armhole. The slash

posture

jacket

on

will pull

]

1

continues across the back of the pattern to about 2" (5.1 cm) from the center back seam. The pattern (1.3

is

cm) to

A

spread apart at the side seam

W

slash

is

]

h"

(1.9 cm).

cut into the pattern front from the

edge to about 2" (5.1 cm) from the side seam. The pattern is spread apart at the slash lapel

*h" (1.3 cm) to

W

The top of the the side panel back

armhole

is

justed side

22

equal

in

(1.9 cm).

side panel

is

raised so that

seam from waist notch to length with the newly ad-,

seam on the jacket back

pattern.


—

LOW SHOULDER

Many people have one shoulder lower than the other, usually as a result of their work, or some other regular activity which places the

hole smaller, which,

in turn,

would

necessitate

tion of this peculiarity of the

making the sleeve smaller. The fact is that the correction has nothing to do with the armhole. It has to do with the rib cage area. The shoulder is low because the body

sagging diagonal creases

is

body

in

an unbalanced

position.

A

clear indica-

body is visible in the along one side of the

jacket only. Pin the fabric

up

at the

shoulder

trated) until the creases disappear,

(as illus-

and measure

amount of the needed adjustment. It would appear that the logical pattern correction would be a deeper, slanting seam at the shoulder. Doing this would make the arm-

the

armhole and the

somewhere between the waist, on one side. The adjust-

ment required

is

contracting

able to

ment

somewhat complicated

The adjustment requires new muslin, or your confidence in being make the correction directly on the gar-

however, either a

itself

it

fabric.

works.

You decide.

23


Place the three main jacket pattern pieces on your fabric so that the side of the jacket which does not need the correction will be traced on the top layer of the fabric. In

the

right sides

jacket

is

illustration,

the fabric

is

folded with

together and the right side of the

being traced on the top layer of

This

is

low

shoulder.

to illustrate the

first

fabric.

step in correcting a

left

Arrange the pattern pieces so that all seams will eventually be joined are closest to

which each

other.

Using

onto the

tailor's chalk,

trace the pattern pieces

and remove the pattern. row of the pins horizontally across

fabric

Place a

the fabric at approximately the level of the top of the dart. The pins should go through both layers of fabric.

Cut through only the top layer of fabric (as illustrated) about h" (1.3 cm) away from the cutting edge of the armhole and the side panel. The fabric layers are still anchored together by ]

the

row of Now,

pins.

at the top of the lapel,

layer of fabric in "A" (6

the jacket front,

down an amount

move

move

the top

mm). At the shoulder

of

the top layer of fabric

equal to one half the needed

correction.

With one hand, hold the top layer of fabric its new position. With the other hand, smooth the fabric downward toward the pins, and outward towards the side seam. An excess of fabric will appear just above the row of pins. A second row of pins is now placed

flat,

in

through both layers of fabric, confining the of fabric to this area.

should be about

I"

The two rows

(2.5

cm) apart

ripple

of pins

at the side

panel.

With the fabric pinned in this manner, cut through both layers of the jacket front and side panel. Be attentive as you cut the rippled area. Follow the chalk guideline.

24


When

both layers of the front and side panel are placed together on the table it will be obvious that the underlayer is shorter between the underarm and waist, yet both armholes are equal.

The back of the jacket is adjusted in the same manner. The top layer of fabric is moved in •A" (6 mm) at the center back neck, and down at the shoulder an amount equal to one half the needed correction. The fabric is smoothed downward and outward towards the side. The excess of fabric which appears above the pins is pinned in place, and both layers of the jacket back are cut together.

25


BUST— VERY FULL

princess line

A

woman

with a very full bust who purchases her jacket pattern according to her small

bust measurement, as find herself

with a

size

we 1

have suggested, may

4 pattern even though

and hips indicate a size 10. and most flattering way to handle these many corrections is to begin by choosing a her shoulders, waist

The

easiest

princess line pattern. In a princess line the darts

are incorporated into the seamlines,

contrast

between

a large bust

can be made very smoothly.

26

and

and the

a small waist

you choose a classic line jacket, taper the pattern below the bust using the front dart, the side panel, and the side back. Reduce the shoulder seams equally on front and back. In order to maintain the jacket balance and prevent the If

from gaping open, the lapel dart is in'/2 (1 .3 cm) and the same amount is then added at the top of the outer edge of the lapel. The pattern is lengthened or shortened as lapel

creased by

ff

needed, using the pattern guidelines.


BUST— VERY FLAT

The bust measurement guide for choosing the

is

size of

usually the best

your jacket

pat-

however, you are an average- to largesized woman, with a flat bust, we suggest that you purchase your jacket pattern using your tern.

If,

waist

and

hip

measurements as a guide.

Any

excess fabric in the chest area should be tapered out of the armhole, the front underarm seam, and the jacket back.

21


MISPLACED FRONT DART

If

in line

the dart on the jacket front

is

with the center of the breast, the dart

and must be moved. A released at the end of the

misplaced, fabric

not directly

is

fullness

is

directed to a

is

fullness of dart.

If

this

point other than the

center of the breast, there will be a restriction of fabric across the breast, filled

and most

bulge of fabric off to the

likely,

an un-

side.

The correction is a simple one. Using a hip curve ruler, redraw the existing dart on your pattern at the correct position.

28


FRONT DART— TOO LONG/TOO SHORT

too long

The job of the

too short

front dart

is

to help create the

restricting the fabric where body is narrow, and releasing the fabric where the body is fullest. The front dart should, therefore, end about 1" (2.5 cm) below the

necessary shaping by

the

center of the breast. If

the dart continues

the breast, there

beyond the center

be noticeable pulling

will

in

of

the

below the center

of

the breast, there will be unnecessary fullness

in

fabric.

\f

the dart stops well

an area lower than

needed. of your dart lower or higher on your pattern, as needed, and with the help of a hip curve ruler, taper the sides of the Simply

it

is

draw the top

dart to the waistline.

29


TOO LOOSE/TOO

TIGHT

too tight

too loose

If

the jacket

is

wrinkling above the waist

because of too much or too little fabric, determine the amount of the correction by pinning (too much fabric), or by opening the side seams (too

little

fabric).

On

the pattern, add or subtract the cor-

rected

the

amount not only from

hip,

the underarm to

but also at the armhole.

The

horizontal line at the top of the side

seams, back and front,

When

is

equal to the side seam

your pattern correction is complete, that horizontal line must measure the same as it did before you began to correct the pattern. Therefore, whatever amount is added or subtracted from the side seam must inversely be subtracted or added at the armhole. Failure to do this will result in a gap at the back of the armhole which will destroy the armhole contour. allowance.

30

ABOVE WAIST

!


TOO LOOSE/TOO

TIGHT

too loose

too tight

There should be no wrinkling on the jacket below the waist, on front or back, and the vent should lie closed, without pulling to one side or to the other.

On rected

the pattern, add or subtract the cor-

amount

at the

and taper gradually

bottom of the

to the waist.

BELOW WAIST

side

seam,


SHOULDER— TOO WIDE/TOO NARROW

too wide

If

the jacket

is

too narrow

too wide or too narrow

amount

across the shoulder, determine the

of

the adjustment by pinning (wide), or measuring (narrow),

and add

or subtract that

amount on

the pattern shoulder, at the armhole.

32


SLOPED SHOULDER

If

your

client

has sloped shoulders, and the

jacket has been cut for normal shoulders, diagonal creases will appear,

on

front

and back,

at the

bottom of the armhole. These creases can most often be eliminated by increasing the amount of shoulder padding.

When padding cannot solve the entire problem, open the shoulder seam and re-pin it to eliminate the creases. Measure the amount of the pinned correction at the armhole edge of the shoulder.

On the pattern front and back apply that measurement from the neck edge of the shoulder. The lapel is also raised by the amount of the pinned correction. The center back neck is raised by that amount plus '/s" (3 mm).

33


SQUARE SHOULDER

your client has square shoulders and the jacket has been cut for normal shoulders, circular creases will appear at the base of the collar, on If

front

and back. Decreasing the amount of shoul-

der padding will sometimes solve the problem,

but not always.

Remove seam,

the collar and re-pin the shoulder

eliminating

amount

the

creases.

Measure the

of the pinned correction at the neck edge of the shoulder. On the pattern front and back, apply the amount of the correction down from the neck edge of the shoulder. Also, lower the lapel and the back neck by that amount.

34


NECKLINE— TOO HIGH/TOO

LOW

too high

too low If the bottom of the collar does not sit on the shoulder at the back, but sits above or below shoulder level, the collar must be removed and the back neckline raised or lowered.

Apply the depth of the adjustment to the pattern neckline at center back.

35


TIGHT NECKLINE

If

hole

the jacket neckline

seam

pulling

is

shoulder

at the

too

tight,

the arm-

will

show

signs of

towards the neck. There

on the

front shoulder,

tight,

if

the neckline

but the height of the collar

will

be

is

less

LOOSE NECKLINE

will pull

and

in

too loose, the jacket from the body at the back neck;

the jacket neckline

away

is

the front, the lapel will gape

open uncom-

fortably.

Remove center back

body more

the

collar,

seam

until

and

pin a tuck in the

the neckline hugs the

closely.

Apply the depth of the adjustment neck edge of the center back seam.

36

der

and

obvious than the pulling of the fabric in the shoulder and neckline area. Once the neckline is

If

height.

be creases

reaching out from the

neck towards the armhole. The collar will be a bit high too

will

released, the collar should settle to a comfortable

at the

Remove the collar. Open the muslin shoulseam and the top of the center back seam, let

the jacket

settle at

the neckline.

The adjustment should be distributed between the shoulder seam and the center back seam.

equally at the neckline


ARMHOLE— TOO HIGH/TOO LOW

too high

too low

Contrary to popular belief, the most comarmhole for a sleeve is one which is cut as high as possible without restricting the for-

Raise or lower the pattern the depth of the adjustment at mid-underarm, and at the top of the side seam, back and front. This adjustment at

fortable

ward movement is

of the arm.

only comfortable

With

if

A

a sleeve

low-cut armhole is

not attached.

a sleeve set into a low-cut armhole, raising

one's arm involves raising the entire side of the

The

edge of the fabric should be cm) below the center underarm.

cutting

1" (2.5

is

necessary to maintain

the contour of the armhole.

The armhole should slightly in

velop

jacket.

about

the top of the side seams

also

the front notch area,

when

the fabric, a

the

arm

little

is

be "scooped" if

wrinkles de-

resting at the side. Trim

at a time,

until

the wrinkles

disappear.

37


THE

SKIRT

The beauty of the straight skirt is especially dependent on a graceful fit. The fabric should lie smoothly at the waistline, and fall gracefully over the hips. The side seams must hang perpendicular to the floor, despite demands made by a high hip,

38

or a protruding rear.


TOO TIGHT/TOO LOOSE ACROSS

HIPS

too tight

too loose

If

the

hips the

made

skirt

side

necessary addition or subtraction

A

seams, hip

hip curve ruler

seam

hip to the waist, of the

too tight or too loose across the

at the pattern side

and back.

new

is

line,

is

is

level, front

used to draw a

tapered gracefully from the

and from the

hip to the

bottom

skirt.

39


WAISTBAND— TOO LOOSE/TOO TIGHT

The

skirt

waistband (discounting overlap)

should be equal

in

measurement

to the

body

waist measurement. Lengthen or shorten the

waistband as indicated.

40


WAISTLINE— TOO LITTLE/TOO

horizontal ripples/too

PiTTF

vertical

If,

7^

little

EASE

ease

T?~

puckers/too

much ease

despite the fact that the waistband

comfortably, the top edge of the

probably too

MUCH

or too

skirt

fits

does not,

much

ease at the waistline. Horizontal ripples just below the there

is

waistband back and

little

indicate insufficient

front,

ease at the waistline. Vertical puckers indicate

too

much

ease.

The waist seamline of a straight skirt must be equal to the body waist measurement, plus approximately h" .3 cm) ease at the front and ]

( 1

A?" [1.3 cm) ease at the back. This

total of 1"

cm) excess fabric at the top edge of the skirt, is "eased" into the slightly smaller waistband to allow for the fact that directly below the waist (2.5

the

body (and

therefore,

the

skirt)

begins to

expand. Adjust your pattern by adding or subtracting the necessary

amount

at the waistline side

seams, back and front. The

new

point

is

then

tapered gracefully to the hip.

41


SWAYBACK

back view

side

If

view

horizontal ripples of fabric are present just

below the waistband, only, the

problem

at the

back of the

may be due

body contour which

is

skirt

to a posture, or

descriptively

called

"swayback." The rippling can be eliminated by lowering the waistline of the to the

side seams;

darts slightly.

42

skirt at

center back, tapering

and by lengthening the back

skirt

back


ONE

HIP HIGHER

THAN THE OTHER ru~~~ —

If

one

hip

is

higher than the other, there

be diagonal pulling of the

hem

of the

fabric

skirt will

over the high

will hip,

be higher on that side, will not fall

and the center back seamline straight.

To correct in

length

and

necessary both width. Estimate the amount of

this,

in

extra fabric

is

and add this amount to the skirt up and out from the waistline at the side seam. Only the side of the skirt affected by the high hip is corrected. Use a hip curve ruler the correction, pattern, both

to taper these adjustments to the existing pattern lines,

as indicated.

43


HIPS

Even

FORWARD

THRUST

if

the stomach

is

flat,

if

the hips are

thrust forward the skirt will rise in the front,

the side

seam

will

This requires

not

fall

and

straight.

an addition of

fabric

and an

adjustment at center front of the pattern, tapering to the side seam.

FLAT SEAT

If

the client has very

may hang

longer

in

flat

buttocks, the

the back than

and cause the bottom of the

side

in

skirt

the front,

seam

to pull

forward.

The estimated adjustment the

skirt

back

at the hip level side

44

is

removed from and

at the center of the waistline,

seam.


PROTRUDING STOMACH/BUTTOCKS

protruding stomach

If

protruding buttocks

the stomach or the buttocks protrude

significantly,

the bulge

will

draw the skirt up and prevent the

either in the front or in the back, side

seam from

An

falling straight.

in both length and in width is necessary to accommodate the bulge. To correct for the protruding stomach, extend your skirt pattern up at center front, and out at the waistline side seam. Correct for protruding buttocks by extending your skirt pattern up at center back, and out at the side seam, at the

level of

addition of fabric

the buttocks.

45


THE PANTS

46


WAISTBAND— TOO LOOSE/TOO TIGHT

The pants waistband (discounting overlap) should be equal in measurement to the body waist measurement. Lengthen or shorten the waistband as indicated.

47


MUCH

WAISTLINE— TOO LITTLE/TOO

TjT-Tir

horizontal ripples/too

If,

little

ease

vertical

despite the fact that the waistband

fits

comfortably, the top edge of the pants does not, there

is

probably too

little

or too

much

ease at

the waistline. Horizontal ripples just

back and waistline.

below the waistband

front, indicate insufficient

ease at the

puckers indicate too

Vertical

EASE

77T

puckers/too

much ease

72" (1.3 cm) ease at the back. This total of 1" (2.5 cm) excess fabric at the top edge of the pants,

is

"eased"

into the slightly smaller waist-

band, to allow for the fact that directly below the body (and therefore, the pants) begins

waist the

to expand.

much

Pattern adjustments,

if

minor, are

made

ease.

the center back waistline. Adjustments of

The waist seamline of unpleated pants must be equal to the body waist measurement, plus approximately h" .3 cm) ease at the front and

than

]

(

48

1

line

h"

at

more

cm) must be applied to the waistside seams, back and front. ]

(1 .3


TOO

TIGHT ACROSS HIPS

view

back view

pants front

pants back

front

If

3

A

the pants are too tight across the hips,

(1.9

cm)

is

the most

we

can add without

W

The added at three points on the pattern pants front and back. The adjustment is out at the top of the inseam, out at the crotch at hip level, and out at the side seam at hip level. disturbing the balance of the pants. (1

.9

cm)

is

49


TOO LOOSE ACROSS

HIPS

pants front

If

V2"

1

(

the pants are too loose across the hips, .3

cm)

is

the most

we can

subtract without

disturbing the balance of the pants. (1.3

cm)

point

is

on the

The

l

h*

subtracted from the pattern at one pattern front,

and

at three points

on

the pattern back.

The adjustment level, in at

is

in at the side

seams at hip and in at

the top of the back inseam,

the back of the crotch at hip

level.

pants back

50


"

PROTRUDING HIGH

pants front If

there

pants back

horizontal pulling of the fabric

below the waistline, extra seam high hip level,

directly

needed

is

HIPS

at the side

fabric

front

is

and

back.

CROTCH— TOO SHORT/TOO LONG

pants back/too long

pants back/too short

area, the hips are probably fine, but the crotch

Depending upon the amount of wrinkling, adjust the crotch between (1 .9 cm) and

length must be corrected. Tight, pulling creases

(2.5 cm).

If

wrinkles are concentrated

radiating

in

the crotch

from the crotch indicate a short crotch.

Sagging, loose creases indicate a crotch that

too long.

is

W

Add

or subtract this corrected

I

amount

on the pattern back

only, by extending out or in from both the top of the inseam, and the center back seam at hip level.

51


BOWLEGS/KNOCK-KNEES

knock-knees

bowlegs

The pants knee

if

the client has bowlegs or knock-knees.

simple correction of will

wrinkle noticeably at the

will

]

h"

(1

cm) to

usually allow the pants to

despite the knee problem.

52

.3

fall

1

"

(2.5

A

cm)

smoothly,


pants front

pants front

pants back

pants back

Bowlegs

Knock-Knees

Apply the same adjustment amount in and down at the bottom of the outseams, and out at the bottom of the inseams.

at the

Apply the adjustment amount in and down bottom of the inseams, and out at the bottom of the outseams.

53


FLAT SEAT

pants front Semi-circular wrinkles, or folds will

appear

back of the pants if the client has very flat if she stands with her hips thrust forward. In both cases the pants will also hit the calf of the leg at the back, rather than fall at the

buttocks, or

smoothly to the f\oor Determine the amount of the correction by the volume of the folds. A 3 A" (1 .9 cm) correction is about average. Apply the adjusted amount at three points

on the front of the pants pattern and at four points on the back. for example, you use .9 cm) as the corrected amount, on the pattern back, measure out 3 A" (1.9 cm) at the hip, down (1 .9 cm) at the center back waistline, and in .9 cm) at both the crotch hip level and the top of the inseam. The correction on the pants

W

If,

(

1

W W

(

1

at the waistline side

WA (1

.9

cm) at the center front waistline.

hip curve ruler will be essential in taper-

ing these

the

new

new lines,

points to

meet one another.

All of

except for the center front seam,

are curved lines.

54

W

measuring in (1 .9 cm) seam, and both out and up

front pattern involves

pants back


—

PROMINENT SEAT

Pulling occurs across the

the buttocks are

full,

or

if

the

back of the pants

if

overly erect

client's

posture causes the hip to be thrown backward

and upward. The pants hitting the bottom of the

are also distorted

by

leg in the front rather

smoothly to the floor. Determine the amount of the pattern correction by the amount of pulling at the back (1 .9 cm) is about average. Apply this corrected amount at three points on the pants back pattern: out from the top of the inseam, and from the crotch at hip level, and up at the center back waistline. The pants must also be extended out at the side seam at hip level. However, -W (1.9 cm) additional shaping would be too much at the hip. Add h" .3 cm)

than

falling

W

]

(

at the side

seam

hip level

and taper the

1

line.

55


T

PROTRUDING STOMACH

pants front

A

protruding stomach

will

seam forward, and draw the lower

in

the front than

in

pull

the side

waistline

down

the back. Extra fabric

is

both length and in width at the front of the pants, and in width at the pants back. The

needed

in

pants back

estimated addition of fabric

If

seams front added up at the center the

front, to give length in

rise.

ened or shortened amount.

56

too short

the pants are too long or too short from

crotch to waistline, the pattern

is

either length-

at the waistline

by the desired

distributed equally

and back, and side and back. The same adjustment is

RISE— TOO LONG/TOO SHORT

too long

is

at the waistline center front


4 Fabric

SELECTING THE FABRIC If

you want

tailoring,

the very finest fabric for classic

choose wool. There

is

an endless

vari-

most respond favorably to certain tailoring features. There is no reason to limit your wardrobe to one fabric. However, full tailoring procedures (canvas, tape, etc.) will produce their best results for wool. Silk and linen are close ety of beautiful fabrics available to us today,

of

which

will

seconds.

Wool

fabric

has a distinctive personality

which relates better with tailoring procedures than any other fabric. There is no disagreement among tailors on this. The tailoring techniques described in this book, direct you at times, to stretch the fabric, or to shrink to mold to fit the contours of the it

it,

human take as

if

body.

Wool

fabric

is

somehow

on this newly molded shape and it had always been its own. This

among fabrics. Wool comes characteristics,

able to

to hold is

it

unique

in a variety of weights and which can be worn comfortably

from the tropics to the Arctic, year-round. It is durable, has a long-life expectancy, and handles beautifully at the sewing machine. There are two major wool categories: • Worsteds •

Woolens

Worsted fabric is woven from long, finely combed wool fibers which have been twisted tightly, and then woven tightly. The effect is a with a

firm, flat surface, as in a serge,

or a

gabardine. The traditional tailored business

suits

fabric

are

made from worsteds

rather

than from

woolens.

Woolens

are

woven from

relatively short

wool

fibers, which have not been combed smooth. These fibers are twisted loosely and then woven much less tightly than the worsteds. The effect is a soft, easy fabric, such as a Harris tweed, or a flannel. Woolens are more suited to

comfortable, sporty garments than they are to

business

suits.

57


PROPERTIES

OF

WOVEN

FABRICS

^ straight grain

n -i O Id

*v

aj

3

;

The Grain There are certain properties of rics,

woven

which must not be overlooked as

we

fab-

set to

work.

Woven

fabric

is

made by

interlacing threads

one another, evenly or in The lengthwise thread (the warp) runs parallel to the selvage (the finished edge along the length of the fabric at either end). The at right angles to

patterns.

lengthwise of the fabric grain.

is

The crosswise thread

called

the straight

(the weft), the cross-

grain, runs at a right angle to the selvage.

There

no thread running diagonally across the

fabric.

is

However, the diagonal direction of the fabric is called the bias. The lengthwise thread must be strong to withstand the workings of the loom, and to support the fabric. The crosswise thread need not be quite as strong. Because of the strength of the lengthwise thread, will

58

and the

fact that the crosswise thread

"give" or drape gently

in

response to grav-

ity,

most garments

will

hang

best

if

they are cut

so that the lengthwise thread hangs

vertically.

Garments cut on the crossgrain (with the crossgrain hanging vertically) hang less comfortably and somewhat stiffly. Garments cut on the bias (with the bias hanging vertically) have neither the lengthwise nor the crosswise thread to support

them

difficult

directly.

Therefore, the fabric finds

to hold a shape. Bias-cut

and they stretch. Whether you are cutting

it

garments drape

beautifully,

a bias

skirt,

or a

crossgrain waistband, or a straight grain pair of

always the same. Every pattern piece should be placed on

trousers, the directions for cutting are

the fabric so that the arrow parallel to the

on the

lengthwise grain of the

pattern

is

fabric.

To say that something is cut on the crosson the bias, has less to do with the direction in which it is cut than it has to do with grain, or

the direction

in

which

it

is

worn.


?

La.—

d

nj

The waistband and the skirt, have both been cut in the same direction. However, because the waistband

will eventually be placed garment with on the the straight of the grain in a horizontal position, the waistband will be said to have been cut on the crossgrain. And since the straight of the grain on the skirt will be in a vertical position, the skirt is said to have been cut on the straight grain. The major pattern pieces of tailored garments are cut on the straight grain. And for various reasons, certain smaller pieces of each garment are cut on the crossgrain or on the bias.

59


ÂŤ s

-

Straightening the Grain Now, a word about off grain. Somewhere from the loom to you, the fabric grain may have been distorted. Considering the importance the hang

of your finished garment, check the grain alignment before cutting the fabric. What we are doing is checking to see if the crosswise threads and the lengthwise threads are running at right angles or perpendicular to one another. If they are not, everything we have discussed about placing the arrows on the pattern parallel with the selvage, will be useless. grain plays in the it

would be wise

to

Fold the fabric selvage to selvage, sides together. See

ably

in

if

the fabric will

a perfect rectangle.

\f

lie

will

it

crosswise and lengthwise threads are

running perpendicular. The

must be coaxed back

60

fabric

into place.

is

right

comfortnot,

the

no longer and

off grain

To check the grain alignment, pull a crosswise thread from selvage to selvage, across either end of your fabric. Do this at the very end of your fabric yardage, so that you do not waste fabric.

The puckering along the

pulled thread

indicates the exact line of the crossgrain.

Cut the either end.

fabric

along the puckered thread

at


To coax the fabric back into place, pin the folded fabric into the rectangular shape

have. Steam press from selvage to

wrong pear.

side, until

Washable

the ripples

fabrics

in

which

it

fold,

should

on the

the fabric disapare off grain can

be gently pulled back into shape while they are damp. This should be done on a flat surface, a small area at a time.

Shrinkage Woven

natural

fibers

woven

fabrics,

are

susceptible

to

which will become part of your garment such as the wool canvas interfacing, the twill tape, the pocketing, and the garment fabric itself, must be preshrunk. The French collar canvas is an exception. Even if the label on the garment fabric says that it has been preshrunk, you are safer before cutting, you have the fabric steampressed and preshrunk professionally by a dry shrinkage. All

if,

wool canvas

interfacing by soakone hour. Let it drip dry and then steam press well. The cotton twill tape can be soaked in cool water and ironed

Shrink the

ing

it

wet.

in

cool water for about

It

will

not lose

its

shape. Pocketing fabric

and grosgrain ribbon

are sufficiently shrunk

simply steam pressing

them

rics

we

have suggested

well.

will

The

by

lining fab-

not shrink during

drycleaning.

cleaner.

61


The Nap When shrunk,

hand first

is

on

one

and ready to fabric, on the

direction,

fabric feels the

discernible

grain

over the

lightly

in

same

nap.

If

in

your

go, run

straight grain,

then in the other. If the both directions, it has no

there

is

even the

slightest

and which

difference to the touch, the fabric has a nap,

the direction of the

nap

is

the direction

in

the fabric feels smoother.

The direction of the nap is the direction in which short fibers on the surface of the fabric have been brushed. It is not important that these fibers feel different in one direction than in the other.

What

is

important

differently. Therefore,

ent co\or shading direction

The is

often

than

in

is

it

is

slight,

62

pieces; to

nap before you draw arrows on

nap

(the

fabric feels smoother);

and

the fabric indicating the direction of the direction in

which the

nap on all pieces of same direction. Most fabrics are cut with the nap down. Cut this way, the fabric feels smoother if you run your hand downwards on the front of the jacket, than it does if you run your hand upwards. It's the same principle as petting a cat to cut the pattern so that the

the finished garment

falls in

the

in

you

are

If

body with the nap down and the sleeves with the nap up, from across the room may look as if you have cut the sleeves from completely differit

your pattern

nap

differ-

you working with the fabric flat on ignore the nap and (for example) cut the jacket

fabric.

lay out

to

due

discernible while

is

to determine the direction of the

the other.

and not

to avoid such problems

one

held up

difference in color shading

way

in

the fabric will have a

when

simplest

from front to back. Velvet is sometimes cut with the nap up, because the deep pile catches the light best that way, and gives the fabric a richer color.

that they reflect light

the table.

ent

The

the garment fabric has been pre-

If the nap is so slight that you have difficulty determining which direction is smoother, sim-

ply

choose a

effect

on the

direction, fabric.

It

and mark arrows is

less

important to have

the direction of the nap correct than

the pattern pieces direction

consistently,

you have chosen.

to that

it is

in

to cut

all

whatever


5 Layout/Cutting If,

after

measuring the

client,

preshrinking

making and correcting a muslin, you are very anxious to get on with actually making

the

fabric,

the

suit,

you may not

care to hear at this point

that professional tailors

They are

patterns. terns,

not the

do not use

tissue

paper

just too unwieldy (the pat-

tailors).

The only

positive

quality

about a

tissue

paper pattern seems to be that it fits neatly, or not so neatly, into a pattern envelope. On the negative

side,

it

wrinkles,

it

tears,

it

flies

away

if

you sneeze.

own patterns on sturdy The oaktag pattern can be on oaktag. laid in place on the fabric, weighed down rather than pinned, and traced with tailor's chalk. Small Tailors

make

their

paper or

holes are

made

in

the oaktag pattern through

which

dart tips and pocket points can be marked. Notches are cut into the edge of the pattern at waistline, hemline,

not

in

use,

roll line, etc.

the patterns are

hung

When

neatly

on

pattern hooks.

Except rics,

this

more

when

method

cutting the sheerest dress fab-

of pattern layout

accurate, because

pattern

to

it

is

faster

and

eliminates pinning the

Besides being time-

the fabric.

consuming, the process of pinning disrupts the lay of the fabric,

two

making

it

very

difficult to

cut the

layers of fabric identically.

63


you simply don't have the patience to transfer your pattern onto oaktag at the moment, you can still avoid pinning the pattern to \f

the fabric by weighing Tracing will stiff

pattern

down

the tissue pattern.

not be quite as speedy without the

edge

to guide the chalk, but

it

will

still

be more accurate, and easier than pinning. Keep the oaktag alternative in mind, especially for

patterns that

you use over and over

again. first few tailoring you purchase more

For your gest that

64

projects, fabric

we

sug-

than your

pattern requires, to allow for a

judgment and

skill,

pocket

few

small errors in

flaps, etc.

For the jacket, lay out your main pattern pieces: the front, back, side panel, facing

sure this

is

the revised facing

on page

(make

13),

and

The sleeve should be traced onto the fabric along with the other main pattern pieces, as a reminder of its presence, and its demands on the fabric. However, we will not cut the sleeve until much later, when the jacket is almost completed. Until you are familiar with the construction techniques, the pockets and the collar sleeve.


2 3A yards

should be cut only as you need them, following the instructions

Do

in

each section.

same with your skirt and pants patterns. Set to work with only the main pieces of your skirt and pants cut. The facings, pockets and waistband are cut as you work along with the

ness sense as well as a

your work as

tightly as

good challenge

it is

takes experience. For the

sume

that

ducing a

fold

to plan

illustrated here.

moment we

It

you have challenge enough in well-tailored suit. The challenge

tight layout

can come

later,

also

will as-

pro-

of a

with experience.

the book.

Of lows

once almost economical use of your fabric,

course, cutting everything at

for the

and many tailors develop this skill to a fine art. The illustration shows a professional, nap layout of a size 10, woman's suit. It makes good busi-

65


pressed,

may be discernible in the sunlight, and not in your workroom. Lay your pattern pieces with

especially with wool, since slight color shading

The grain arrows on each pattern piece should be exactly parallel with the selvage. Measure to check the accuracy of your eye.

With your fabric well prepared (preshrunk, on grain and marked for nap), lay out your main pattern pieces. Use a nap layout unless you have a good reason not to (too little fabric). It is always safer to use a nap layout,

With sharpened,

clay

tailor's

chalk,

the

process of tracing around each pattern piece

is

and accurately done. Sharpen the chalk, so that you can produce a thin, clean line without the necessity of pressing heavily on the chalk and the fabric. Applying pressure to the chalk easily

instead of sharpening

termined

line,

it,

produces a

and may even

thick,

unde-

disturb the lay of

the fabric.

We

suggest clay

chalk with a

wax

tailor's chalk,

rather than

content, because with chalk'

you can

freely mark on the right side of your without ever worrying that the marks will be permanent. The clay chalklines can be brushed away easily when they are no longer needed. Pressing on top of the clay chalklines is not suggested, since this will render the marks

fabric

more

66

difficult

(though not impossible) to remove.

great respect for the fabric grain.


Trace around the jacket front pattern piece indicating

all

notches, including the waistline,

the collar notch, the top roll line,

and the

Mark the

front

holes

letting in

lapel

armhole notch.

dart tips

pocket placement

and

and bottom of the

lines,

and the ends of the by scratching the chalk

the chalk dust

settle

through the

the pattern.

67


r

5^ The pocket placement piping pocket

is

the center

for a

line

double-

line.

~J

For a welt pocket,

it

is

the bottom

line.

And ment

Remove

the pattern

and cut the

The best

(3

for a is

patch pocket, the pocket place-

at the top.

fabric, indi-

cating border notches by a snip into the

allowance (no deeper than Vs"

line

seam

mm)).

scissors to use for cutting

double

layers of fabric are bent-handle shears. The bottom blade can rest on the table as the fabric is being cut. The blade is in a position to slide along

with minimal disruption of the fabric. Resist the urge to pull the fabric towards you as you cut. Any such movement might ruin

your

careful grainline efforts.

After each pattern piece has

been

cut, the

chalk guidelines are preserved by tailor tacking.

^.nAnMAf\Afirifiny Tailor

tacking

is

through two layers of of extra thread

68

simply a fabric,

on the top

running

stitch

which leaves loops

layer (as illustrated).

J

1.MJ When

U1J II

!.)//[/

the

two

layers of fabric are sepa-

rated, the excess thread

is

shifted to the inside.


Snipping the thread ates

down

markers— neat loops on the of the fabric, and hair-like protrusions

wrong on the

side

right side.

HAAA

\J\J\J

\J

To

the center cre-

the thread

HAH

lines,

tailor

two

WW U

tack points or ends rather than

stitches are

taken on top of each other,

leaving the loose thread loop fabric.

Dart

tips

point-tacked

on the top

layer of

and the ends of each pocket are

in this

way.

and

Chalkmark the hemline and roll line. Tailor full length of the hem, and only the beginning and end of the roll line.

grain of the fabric

fabric.

now

The procedure for cutting skirt and pants is essentially the same as for cutting the jacket. The

will

later.

tack the

is

vital,

tern information should

be

all

pertinent pat-

tailor-tacked into the

The short time spent on tailor tacking save hours of guessing and correcting

69


PLAIDS

OR

STRIPES

The layout for a plaid or striped fabric readded attention. The horizontal lines at the top of the sleeve front should match those on the body of the jacket. Place the notch on the top sleeve pattern and the front notch on the armhole at identical points on the plaid design. (See page 77.) quires

1

The outer edge of the lapel on the facing should be on the straight of the grain, between two prominent vertical stripes. The stripe should run the whole length of the lapel, without veering off along the way.

Place the revised facing pattern (page 13)

so that the notch at the top of the lapel

the most control

70

falls

between two prominent vertical stripes. The facing on a plaid or striped jacket should be applied by hand (page 121) rather than by machine, for in

matching the

lines.


The center back seam, at the neck edge, should not interrupt the pattern of the plaid. Place the stitchline of the center back neck

edge

at the

stripes

very center between

on the

two

vertical

plaid.

The collar, viewed from the back, should not create any interruption in the plaid design of the jacket back. Therefore, the topcollar,

the undercollar

is

set,

which

is

cut after

should be attached to the

undercollar with an eye to continuing both the horizontal

and

vertical

design lines present on

the back of the jacket. (See page 155.)

The seamline at the straight part of the jacket front, below the lapel, should not fall on a prominent

vertical stripe.

\J 71


Place the straight portions of thejacket front on the plaid so that the stitchline falls

pattern

between two prominent

12

vertical stripes.


All

horizontal bars in a plaid

must match

at

the seamlines. Place the notches of

be joined,

all

at identical points

seams, which

on the

will

plaid design.

73


The hem should not

fall

Place the

foldline

on

on the jacket and

skirt

a prominent horizontal stripe.

hem

foldline of the jacket front,

back and side panel midway between two prominent horizontal stripes.

74

_


The fold at the top of the pants fly should be between two prominent vertical stripes. Place the notch at the center front waistline between

two prominent

vertical stripes.

The information needed for constructing pockets on a plaid or stripe fabric is discussed with the individual pocket directions.

75


6 Jackets

DARTS If

your

there

is

tailoring

AND SEAMS

a dart

on

thejacket, at this point

procedure

it

is

indicated

tailor tacks.

On

the

wrong

chalkline from top to

side of the fabric,

bottom

draw

a

at the center of the

dart.

On one

side of the dart,

draw

a slightly

curved line from the top of the dart to waist, and from waist to bottom of the dart. Use the hip curve to taper line gradually into the dart ends. An abrupt curve at the dart ends will create puckering on the right side of the fabric which will be impossible to press out.

76

Remove

in

by four

half,

the

tailor

tacks

and

press the dart in

using the center chalkline as foldline.

Machine stitch the dart from top to bottom. Sewing the fabric in the direction of the nap is an added courtesy to the fabric. In velvet or pile fabrics, it is an absolute necessity. It is

better to

tie

the threads at the dart ends,

rather than backstitching to tack. Backstitching

adds unwanted bulk and

stiffness into

cately thin area of the dart

tips.

the

deli-


on the center chalkline, beginning and ending the slit h" .3 cm) away from top and bottom. Press the dart open using a tailor's ham. The fabric at the dart tip is somewhat difficult to control, since it may pull to one side rather the dart

Slit

l

1

(

than allowing

to be pressed flat at the happens, it becomes obvious

itself

center.

When

on the

front of the jacket

this

by a

slight

wavering of

the dart seamline, instead of a perfectly straight seamline, at the dart tip. Before pressing, control the fabric at the

by

dart tip

needle as

inserting the

far into

eye end of a threaded

the dart

tip

as

will

hold the seamline straight as

dart

seam allowance

flat in

it

will go. This

you

the center.

the needle (by the thread, the needle press the dart

tip flat

the jacket, the dart

press the

is

Remove hot),

and

On the front of now be perfectly

once more. should

line

straight.

A

very lightweight,

bias-cut, oval-shaped,

nonwoven

fusible

can be used to reinforce the

and maintain the fabric's body in this area. Use only a fusible which presents no competition in weight with the garment fabric. Try a sample on a fabric scrap. If there is any indication dart tip

of the fusible from the right side of the fabric,

too heavy.

in

If

doubt, leave

it

it is

and trousers are also pressed in half before stitching, and then stitched to a gracefully tapered point. Skirt and trouser darts are not slashed open. They are usually small enough to be pressed toward the Simple waistline darts

on

skirts

side seams.

out.

front,

and sew your side panel to the jacket matching notches, and press the seam

open.

If

Baste

the jacket has significant waistline shap-

ing, there will line in

be some constriction

area at the seam. Stretch the

in

the waist-

seam allowance

the waistline area by steam pressing

curve opposite to

allowance will

is

its

shape.

When

it

into a

the

seam

then pressed open, the constriction

have been

relieved.

seam allowance at the waist to tightness weakens the garment unin this area, and it's always wise to

Slashing the relieve this

necessarily

keep seam allowances

in tact for possible future

alterations.

Gently press the jacket front from the wrong side. You are now ready for the construction of the jacket pockets.

11


THE JACKET POCKETS The most popular types

of jacket pockets

are:

tute a double-piping pocket for a patch pocket,

or to

add a flap if you wish. The perfection of the pocket construction

says

much about the

Welt Pocket

• Double-Piping Pocket •

skill

of the

Because of

the prominent position of the pockets

Patch Pocket

front of the jacket,

any

The construction sented here limit

of these pockets

great detail. Therefore,

in

is

pre-

you need

yourself to the style of the pocket given

on your commercial

pattern. Feel free to substi-

the overall beauty of the jacket.

you

on the

distortion in the pocket

line will call attention to itself,

not

tailor.

Double-Piping Pocket with Flap

and

detract from

We suggest that

practice the pocket construction

scrap before constructing

them

in

on

a fabric

your jacket

fabric.

THE WELT POCKET

The breast welt pocket is 4 'A" (10.8 cm) long and about " (2.5 cm) wide, placed on the 1

left

side of the jacket at approximately the level of

the front sleeve notch. The placement usually

upper

78

on

left

a

l

h"

when

(1.3

cm)

the jacket

lower worn.

slant, is

line

is

right to

Chalkmark the placement line on the jacket If you have adjusted your pattern at the front armhole, check to see that the pocket placement line is at least 72" (3.8 cm) away from the armhole stitchline. front.

1


'•'

•'.•///•• .<•. '.'/:''.

'.

'•'•./

>

'.••.••.',

Cut a piece of woven fusible, on the crossgrain, VI2" (1 1.4 cm) by (3.5 cm). Draw a 3 /s" cm) margin along the bottom edge on the unglued side. This line will eventually be the

1W

(

1

stitchline for

attaching the welt to the jacket.

Use a Trim

upper

away

right

will create

'A"

(6

and lower

mm) left

diagonals from the

wrong

mm) seam

to

sew

the top

each

and

W

side of a

3

/s"

(

1

cm)

cm) at the top. It important that the side of the fusible be parallel side

(

1

.9

with the straight grain of the garment that the

(6

the slant for the welt.

piece of the garment fabric, leaving

is

U"

edge of the garment fabric to the top of the pocketing, and press the seam open.

of the rectangle. This

Press the fusible to the

fabric at

]

fabric,

Fold the garment fabric, using the top

edge

of the fusible as a guideline.

*

and

nap be down.

At either end of the

fusible,

baste the welt

to the pocketing, easing the welt slightly

towards

the center. This easing creates a slight bulge in the welt, which will ensure that the pocketing

edges

will

be hidden

when

the welt

is

turned to

the right side.

Cut two pieces of pocketing, 6" (15.2 cm) by 6" (15.2 cm) on the straight grain, and cut a h" (1 .3 cm) diagonal off the top of each piece. ]

beyond the edge of the Tack the top, but not the bottom of each

Machine-stitch just fusible.

stitchline.

79


Slash the pocket to the chlines. Trim the

and

bottom of the

seam allowances

to 'A" (6

Carefully

stit-

mm)

trim the top corners.

open the weit seam just enough which is drawn on the

to expose the stitchline fusible.

Cut a piece of pocketing 2" (5 cm) by 6" (15.2 cm) on the straight grain, and place it on the wrong side of the jacket. The lower edge of the pocketing should fall about h" (1.3 cm) below the welt placement line which is drawn ]

Press the

seams open and turn the welt

to

on the jacket

the right side.

front. Baste or pin

place. This piece of pocketing

forcement since

its

purpose

is

which

we

fabric in the area in

Place the welt face

the pocketing is

in

called a rein-

to strengthen the will

be working.

down on

the jacket

matching the stitchline which is drawn on the fusible with the placement line drawn on the jacket. Don't be concerned if you notice that the front,

To

assist in

and gently

turning the corners, take

one

both ends of the thread. This is a safer procedure than poking the corners from the inside with the point of the scissors. Press the welt on the right side. stitch

80

pull

welt

is

upside

Baste,

down

at this point;

and then machine

it

stitch

should be. the welt to

the jacket, tacking well at either end.


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

v_

<

From the wrong stitchlines will

be

side of the jacket the

clearly visible

on the

two

reinforce-

ment. Begin at the center and slash through the

Trim corners of the welt

seam allowance.

reinforcement and the jacket fabric, directly between the two stitchlines. While you are cutting, hold the welt seam allowance and the pocketing

W

way. Cut prongs about each end. Slash very close to the (1 last stitch on each line, but not close enough to cut the threads. Cutting the prongs correctly is a safely out of the

cm) long

at

simple, but essential step in the construction of a

perfect pocket.

â&#x20AC;˘

the prongs, especially at the bottom, are

If

not snipped directly to the

last stitch,

your pocket

corners will pucker.

> however, the cut overshoots the last will have a hole on the front of your jacket at the ends of the pocket. Avoid any puckers and holes by simply giving this step your If,

stitch,

full

you

attention.

second piece of pocketing under the welt seam allowance and stitch on the pockInsert the

eting,

very close to the welt seam allowance.

W

should be about cm) (1 shorter than the welt stitchline at either end. Tack well at either end.

This

stitchline

8


^ Reach through the opening and pocketing to the

seam

wrong

side.

Press

pull

The

the

open the

that attaches the welt to the jacket.

sides of the welt are attached to the

jacket by a diagonal handstitch from the side.

The

stitches

should not be

visible

wrong on the

outside. Machine-stitch the pocketing pieces to-

gether,

and

trim the

seam allowance. Do not

trim the reinforcement piece. for

On now

be

It

will

be used

later

attachment to the canvas.

the front of the jacket, the welt should sitting upright.

Baste the pocket closed.

You may wish to add a decorative bartack end of the top of the welt. If you wax the buttonhole twist and press it between two at either

pieces of paper, the

wax

will

melt into the thread

and give a better body. Take one stitch at either end of the welt, and anchor the stitch on the inside. The welt pocket is complete. it

82


WELT POCKET

(PLAIDS/STRIPES)

Because there are no darts or seams in the area of the breast welt pocket, the plaid or stripe should be able to run uninterrupted from the jacket, through the welt, both vertically and horizontally.

way

The best match of fabric

to guarantee

an accurate

is to draw the plaid design on the during the construction of the welt (page

fusible,

78).

Place the trimmed fusible, glue side up,

on

the jacket front, with the welt stitchline at the

pocket placement

line.

Draw

the plaid design

on the edges of the fusible. Place the marked fusible, glue side down, on the wrong side of a piece of garment fabric, matching the plaid. Be sure to match the plaid at the sides of the welt, as well as at top and

fabric,

bottom.

pocket as previously discussed.

lines

on the garment and continue construction of the welt

Press the fusible in place

THE DOUBLE-PIPING POCKET â&#x20AC;&#x201D;l The double-piping pocket on jacket

is

approximately 5 V2"

The and bottom.

(14.6 cm) long. at top

Draw

a

woman's

(14 cm) to S 2A"

visible piping

is

the pocket placement

jacket front using the hip curve.

A

'A" line

(6

mm)

on the

slight curve,

than '/s" (3 mm) deep at center, will be almost imperceptible in the finished pocket, but less

will

help prevent the pocket from gaping

when

not

either

end

in

use.

Remove

the

tailor

open

tacks at

of the pocket placement line

vL^^jW* ysuc VU VMS

tÂŁj/ VJ

and

chalkmark the ends.

83


Place the second piece of piping face

two pieces of garment piping; one 8" (20.3 cm) by

For each pocket cut fabric to 1

>/2"

(5

be used as

(3.8 cm), the other 8"

cm), straight grain,

(20.3 cm)

by 2"

on the jacket

front,

nap

up, the

down

edges of both

pieces of piping touching. Baste very close to the

edge.

nap down.

Chalkmark on the top piping, indicating end of the pocket placement line. Steam press the piping on a flat surface to

either

eliminate the rippling in the piping.

NHS ÂŁ

Cut a piece of pocketing to be used as reinforcement, 8" by 2 72" (20.3 by 6.4 cm), straight grain.

On

the

wrong

side of the fabric,

center the reinforcement along the pocket place-

ment

line.

Baste or pin in place.

Machine-stitch the piping to the jacket 'A" (6

mm) above and below

These

stitchlines

should not be exactly

The center of each closer to the

the placement

stitchline

placement

line

line.

parallel.

should be slightly than the ends are.

your guide for what This contour of the line

Refer to the illustration as

mm

we mean will

by

not be

"slightly."

visible in

not

Place the wider piece of piping face

on the jacket

front,

nap

up.

The top edge

and will open when

the finished pocket,

help prevent the pocket from gaping in use.

down of the

piping should be flush with the placement

line.

Baste very close to the edge, catching the piping,

placement

very important that the ends of the two stitchlines be directly aligned. If they are not, the

will

sides of the finished pocket will slant rather

the jacket, and the reinforcement. Because the line is on a slight curve, some rippling appear at the center of the piping. Chalkmark on the piping, indicating either end of

the pocket placement

84

line.

It is

stand straight, unprofessional.

and the whole

effect

than

will

be


>.

5 Working on the wrong

side of the jacket,

begin at the center and slash through the reinforcement and the garment fabric. Be careful to hold back the piping so that

it

is

not snipped

in

the process.

Cut

3

/s"

(

I

cm) prongs at either end of the

snipping as close as possible to the

slash,

stitch in either line.

It is

last

very important to slash

correctly here.

Using the seam allowance as a guide, and ignoring the prongs for the moment, backstitch by hand in the piping seam, using silk finishing thread. The piping must be kept even on top and bottom, and the stitches should not be seen. The pocket is now steam pressed on the right side using a

ham and

covering the fabric

with a presscloth.

>= the prong

If

stitch,

is

not snipped up to the

there will be puckering

on the

^

-^

last

right side of

the jacket at either end of the pocket.

Whip-stitch the piping closed so that

S

not

shift

while

we

it

will

attend to the prongs.

on the other hand, the slash overshoots the last stitch, you will have a hole on the front If,

of your jacket at the ends of the pocket. Avoid

the puckers step

your

and the hole by simply giving

full

this

attention.

Push the prong to the wrong side and hold end of the pocket is a straight line, not a slanted one. Backstitch the prong to the piping by hand for complete control. it

Pull

the piping to the

the seams open.

wrong

side

and

press

so that the

85


Cut a piece of pocketing, straight grain, 8" (20.3 cm) wide and 2" (5 cm) longer than twice the depth of the pocket. The pocket depth varies with the length of the jacket, but the pocketing should extend no lower than about " (2.5 cm) 1

above the top of the finished jacket hem. Cut a piece of garment fabric to be used as facing, straight grain, nap down, 2" (5 cm) by 8"(20.3 cm). Topstitch a folded edge of the facing to the top of the pocketing, leaving about ^h" (1 .3 cm) pocketing above the facing.

86

With the facing touching the wrong side sew the bottom edge of the pocketing to the edge of the bottom piping. Use a '/V

of the jacket,

(6

mm)

seam.


Pull

press the fold. eting

down and thumbnail Match the top edges of the pock-

the pocketing

and the top

piping.

m

Machine-stitch

on the reinforcement

close as possible to the

garment

fabric. Stitch

as

the

Trim the

seam allowance, but not the

length of the pocket opening, pivot to catch the

forcement. Layer the fabric above the top

prong area, and continue out and around the

chline,

pocketing.

seam allowances

and

snip

away

the excess fabric

in

reinstit-

the

to reduce the bulk.

87


If

you wish, bartack one

of the pocket, using

silk

end you between

stitch at either

buttonhole

twist.

wax

the buttonhole twist

two

pieces of paper, the

twist

and give it a better body. The pocket remains basted closed

and

wax

press will

it

If

a-

melt into the until

is ready to be worn. Steam press the finished pocket on the

the

jacket

side of the fabric, using a

ham and

right

a presscloth.

DOUBLE-PIPING POCKET (PLAIDS/STRIPES)

In

almost

all

the top of a hip-level, front dart

on the

and the

two seams cut into double-piping pocketâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

instances,

Depending one seam or no seam will

side panel seams.

pattern, either

continue below the pocket.

88

The best pattern to use for a plaid or striped fabric is one which eliminates the seam below the pocket by using a dart instead of a separate side panel. The plaid below the pocket is then undisturbed by seamlines. Above the pocket, you can't avoid seams if proper shaping is to be achieved.


In

on the and place it on the jacket so that the piping falls between the stripes, in the a striped fabric, cut the piping

crossgrain visible

solid area of

the fabric. Cutting the piping in this avoids the question of matching a stripe on the piping with a stripe on the jacket.

way

On a plaid fabric, the vertical matching cannot be avoided. You can, however, cut the piping to eliminate

any horizontal

lines

on the

finished pocket.

Cut the piping on the straight grain, and match the plaid lines at the center of the pocket. The plaid on the jacket at the end of the pocket will have been slightly distorted by the darts. Simply match the piping at the center, and ignore the slight mismatch at the ends of the pocket. Even the most expensive custom-tailored plaid jackets are not matched at the end of the pocket.

We the bias.

do not suggest cutting the piping on This would avoid the matching problem

by introducing a completely different line, but it would also leave us with bias, stretchable piping which would cause the pocket to gape open.

THE CASH POCKET 4"

Once you

are familiar with the construction

of the double-piping pocket,

it

is

simple to add,

during construction, a smaller inner pocket, used

most commonly

for

loose

changeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a cash

v/2"

pocket.

needed for the need a piece of pocketing, straight grain, 4" (10.2 cm) by 4 'A?" .4 cm) by 4' h" (1 .4 cm), rounded slightly at (1 the bottom edges. In

addition to the fabric

double-piping pocket,

1

you

will

1

41/7"

89


Press the seam open. Fold the bottom seam allowance under, and topstitch it in place.

on the wrong side of the pocketing, with the top edge of the cash pocket just above the top seam allowance. Stitch around the edge of the cash pocket using a Place the cash pocket fabric

Cut about 2 h" (6.4 cm) from the top of the main piece of pocketing, and then stitch the pieces together, using a 3 /s" (1 cm) seam. ]

90

3 1 a"

(1

cm) seam.


I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

*

/

/

\

The garment

fabric facing

is

now

placed

the right side of the pocketing. Place the folded edge of the facing along the pocketing seamline,

and

topstitch the facing.

on the double-piping pocket no facing. In this case, simply topstitch just above the seamline, holding the top seam allowance in place. If

you

there

is

The seam

on

a flap

at

the top edge of the cash

pocket is now snipped open to allow access, and the construction of the cash pocket is complete. The construction of the double-piping

pocket

now

continues.

are making, there will be

THE DOUBLE-PIPING POCKET WITH FLAP

V

The is

about

added to the double-piping pocket U" (5.7 cm) wide, finished. A flap

flap 2'

which extends out slightly at the lower back edge compensates for the contour of the body and is more graceful than a perfect rectangle. The top edge of the flap should be '/e" (3 mm) larger (a slight '/s") than the opening of the pocket into which it will be placed. The extra ease is taken by the body contour, and allows the flap to

fall

comfortably.

accurate concerning the flap

if

pocket.

you make the

It

is

amount

flap

first,

easier to

be

of ease in the

V-i/ vÂŁj/.v_u_\/_i<!_v/k .y k_i/

\J

J

\/ \j \j

U-U

v/c

and then the n_

91


To make a pattern

for the

draw

flap,

a

rectangle equal to the dimensions of the finished flap.

For a 5'/2

ff

(14 cm) pocket opening, this

cm) by 2' A"

5

At the lower right corner, extend the rectangle by U" (6 mm). Add 3 U" (1.9 cm) seam allowance at the top edge and (6 mm) around the three sides. Use this pattern to cut flaps from

would be

5 /s" (14.3

(5.7 cm).

Machine lining side to

lowance

around the three

stitch

mm) seam

a '/V (6

sides using

allowance. Stitch from the

avoid slippage. Trim the seam

to '/s" (3

mm) and

al-

turn the flap to the

right side.

y

X

your garment

W

fabric, straight grain,

nap down.

A visible

Baste the flap face

down on the

thin border of garment from the lining side.

fabric

should be

right side of

a piece of lining, straight grain. Trim the lining

even with the

flap.

For a crisp

finish, prick-stitch

of the flap using

ÂŁ

-J

Ls LS 's /_ /_\ â&#x20AC;&#x201D;TJ/f//f///I/> >itII Vd. '/_i /_\ ;_>

/_v

j_\

/_\ i_i j__\ y_> (_5i

v

Baste around the flap close to the edge

easing the garment fabric

about Vs"

(3

mm).

in

This will

from the

make

finished flap. Trim the excess lining.

92

the lining

than the flap, and will ensure that will not show at the edges of the

slightly smaller

the lining

lining

silk

along the edge

finishing thread.


~^ll

Press the flap from the right side,

and baste

across the top of the flap to hold the lining place.

in

W

Measure up 2' (5.7 cm) from the bottom of the flap and draw a chalkline. This is the guideline for inserting the flap into the pocket

opening.

The double-piping pocket structed according to the

above.

When

is

now

instructions

congiven

the prongs have been secured to

open the pocket and insert on the flap as a

the piping (page 85),

the flap, using the chalkline guide.

Place the flap

on the

on the jacket

front.

n

Match the

f)

<\

pocket placement line on the jacket. Indicate the exact length of the flap by chalkmarking the jacket at either end of the chalkline

flap to the

flap.

Baste through the top piping to hold the flap in place.

should be

The

]

/a"

(3

drawn towards

mm)

ease

in

the flap

the center.

W

W

The pocket opening should be made l&" smaller than the flap. Therefore, mm) (3 chalkmark '/is" (1.5 mm) in from either end of ]

the pocket placement

ments

mm)

carefully.

line.

the flap

Take these measuremore than /a" (3 ]

is

than the pocket opening, the finished be puckered and quite unprofessional.

larger

effect will

If

From the wrong

side of thejacket, baste the

pocket closed, catching one layer of the top piping through the

flap.

93


Own iTtf w i

Using a ham, steam press the flap from the side. The ripples at the top of the flap should disappear. If they do not, steam press

wrong

once more,

this

time from the right side of the

pocket.

The

iif

i

^

i

inside of the

rirriuiufi ÂŤ

m

pocket

-ppnTuBBq

is

completed ac-

cording to the instructions for the double-piping pocket, with the exception of the facing. Since the flap covers the pocket opening, the garment fabric facing

pocketing.

is

may be

It

replaced by a

When

not necessary at the top of the

less

eliminated completely, or

bulky facing of lining

the pocketing

is

fabric.

being machine

stitched to the top piping (page 86J, the flap is also caught, and thus attached to the garment.

DOUBLE-PIPING POCKET WITH FLAP (PLAIDS/STRIPES)

w

1

--

--4 i

\ Place the flap pattern

(page 91) on the

jacket front, matching the flap placement line

and pocket placement

On

The

best jacket pattern to use for a plaid or

striped fabric

is

one which

below the pocket by using

eliminates the

seam

a dart instead of a

10). If there is no seam below the pocket open-

separate side panel (page to distort the plaid lines ing,

it

is

possible to cut the flap for a double-

piping pocket so that at the sides

matching the piping

94

it

of the

at the top.

flap,

draw lines around the edges indicating the placement of the plaid design. This procedure must be done for each pocket, since the lines

may

Place the flap pattern

differ slightly.

on the

right side of

the plaid fabric so that the lines around the edges of the pattern coincide with those

on the

fabric.

fabric

Cut the fabric and proceed with the con-

as well as

struction of the pocket (following the instructions

matches the jacket

and bottom

line.

the pattern,

given previously).


THE PATCH POCKET

The patch pocket is used on tailored jackets when a more casual effect is desired. For a hip-level patch pocket, the width at 5' h" (14

cm) to 5 3 /4" (14.6cm). The depth is approximately 8" (20.3 cm), however, this will vary according to the length of the jacket. The patch has a more graceful line if the width at the bottom is about 1" (2.5 cm) larger than at the top. the top edge

A

is

pocket runs from 4' U" 1.4 cm) at the top edge, and

breast-level patch

(10.8 cm) to4'/2"

(1

approximately 5V2" (14 cm) deep. The width at the bottom edge should be about h" more is

]

than the top edge.

Chalkmark the pocket placement line, (the top edge of the patch) on the front of the jacket.

Cut a piece of garment fabric

across the top

and

dimencm) extra

Apply a lightweight woven

fabric in the

sions of the desired pocket, plus '/V

allowance on the other sides. Notch both ends of the

1

" (2.5

(6

mm) seam

(2.5

cm)

to the (6

wrong

mm) margin

fusible, bias cut,

side of the pocket, leaving

of fabric free

all

'/â&#x20AC;˘Âť"

around.

fabric

extension.

95


( 1

.3

l

Place the lining

should be V2"

(

and pocket

1

.3

cm) below the notches

at the

top of the pocket. Baste around the pocket,

about

i

1

hn

(3.8

cm)

in

Working from the

together, right

the folded edge of the lining

sides touching;

96

Trim the lining even with the patch.

Cut a piece of lining, straight grain, slightly than the garment fabric. Press down h" cm) towards the wrong side at the top edge.

larger

from the edge.

fusible side, baste

around

the patch once more, this time easing the patch

from the edge of the lining about Vs" (3 mm) all around. This step ensures that the finished patch will be slightly larger than the lining and that the lining will not show at the edges. in


Trim the lining even with the patch

Using a 'A" (6 mm) seam, machine stitch around the pocket, tacking well at the top corners. Sew from the lining side to avoid slippage. Trim the corners, remove the basting, and turn the pocket to the right side.

Baste around the edges of the patch once

Fold the 1" (2.5 cm) extension back onto

the lining

and baste the ends down.

more, and then steam press on the right

side.

Use a handstitch to secure the folded edge of the lining at the

to

top of the pocket. The patch

is

ready

be attached to the jacket.

97


â&#x20AC;˘:

\:

'"â&#x20AC;˘,

Cut a piece of pocketing to be used as reinforcement, straight grain, 3" (7.6 cm) wide and 2" (5 cm) longer than the top of the finished patch. Place the reinforcement side of the jacket, centered

ment

line.

Baste or pin

On the at the

the

wrong

|\

side,

x

www \^ VN

secure the patch to the

jacket by hand, using a diagonal stitch and finishing thread.

Double the

stitch

in

silk

the rein-

forcement area.

over the pocket place-

in place.

top of the patch Baste the patch to

line.

may choose

You

right side, place the

pocket placement

the jacket.

on the wrong

On

"/ ////I

to

add

a

row

topstitching to the front of the pocket.

of If

hand

so,

use

buttonhole twist which you have waxed, and

then pressed between two pieces of paper. The heat

will

melt the

wax

thread a better body.

and you wish, add

into the twist

give the

If

a single

bartack at each corner of the pocket as a finishing touch.

98


PATCH POCKET

(PLAIDS/STRIPES)

The plaid on the patch pocket should match the plaid on the jacket perfectly along both sides and at the bottom of the patch. There will, however, be slight distortion in the plaid on the jacket at either end of the pocket at the top edge, due to the darts.

In

order to cut the patch so that the plaid place the patch pocket pattern

match,

lines

(page 95) on the front of the jacket. Fold back " (2.5 cm) extension at the top of the patch

the

I

and place the notches, which

are at the top of the patch, at the pocket placement line on the

Draw lines on the pattern, around the edges, indicating the placement of the plaid de-

jacket.

sign. This procedure must be done separately for each pocket, since the lines may differ slightly.

Open

out the " (2.5 cm) extension which folded at the top of the patch, and place the pattern on the right side of the plaid fabric, so I

was

around the edges of the pattern on the fabric. Cut the fabric and proceed with the con-

that the lines

coincide with those

struction of the pocket, following the instructions

given above.

99


PREPARING THE CANVAS The canvas in a woman's jacket is a lightweight version of the understructure originally designed for men's tailored jackets. For men's wear, the chest and front of the shoulder are built up with padded layers of wool canvas interfacing, haircloth, French canvas, and wool flannel. This solid breastplate is unnecessary and unflattering to the feminine figure. The canvas in a woman's jacket, constructed entirely of

wool canvas

The wool canvas

interfacing

interfacing,

is

cut

designed to give the jacket a soft yet controlled body, and to reduce the fabric's susceptibility to

and

show

commonly used canvas underOn page 103 we show the full canvas

structure.

interlining.

Remember

Draw

on the

cm)

guide. Trace around the pattern, h" (1.3 cm) from the edge at the armhole, shoulder, neck, lapel, and jacket front. Leave a bit of extra fabric at the hem curve and across the bottom of the pattern. Extend the underarm line about 2" (5 cm) out at the side, to approximately the center of the underarm.

stitchlines.

roll

00

that

it

necessary to soak the

is

canvas in cool water and drip dry before use to ensure against shrinkage.

(2.5

pattern.

will

is

y

of the

stretching. In this section

the most

straight grain using the jacket front pattern as

on the canvas, the top and bottom line and the dart points. Remove the

Indicate

we

wrinkling

at top

Draw point

the

Lengthen the dart

line.

and bottom, and draw new

a curved line from the

on the

dart stitchline.

hem.

roll

waistline 2

]

h"

(6.4

1

dart

armhole to a cm) from the

Curve gently from the waist

to the


Cut out the canvas. There is no right or side of the canvas fabric, however, for purposes of construction, indicate with an "X" the wrong side of each piece. Cut out the darts, using the dart stitchline as

wrong

a cutting

Cut a

bias piece of

The reinforcement

should be the width of the shoulder, and extend to just

above underarm

level.

Baste the reinforcement to the of the canvas,

line.

canvas as reinforcement

for the front of the shoulder.

l

hn

(1

.3

cm)

in

wrong

from the

lapel

side roll

line.

The together,

darts are closed

and

ing to the

reinforced

by butting the edges

topstitching a bias strip of pocket-

wrong side of the canvas. The by a row of zigzag stitching on

the pocketing

dart

is

top of

strip.

10


The reinforcement

is

now

pad-stitched to

the canvas front.

The pad

stitch

staggered from one join

two

or

more

is

a diagonal stitch

row

layers of fabric,

which

It is

as one, while maintaining their individual characteristics.

If

Here, because the stitch will not be visible

is

used to' so that they act

to the next.

the stitches are pulled too tightly

in

can be done in basting amount of fabric picked up by the size of the stitch on the underside)

the finished jacket,

it

thread and the

needle (the

can be a generous

'/s" 3

(3

mm). The

Do

size of

the

while padding, the fabric will pucker and create bulky ridges between the rows. We will be using

time measuring your stitches. Just get a general

the pad

sense of the

stitch at several

struction of the jacket.

02

points during the con-

diagonal

is

a

good size,

/s"

(1

cm).

and proceed.

not spend


ASSEMBLING THE CANVAS

The canvas and jacket together so that they

front are

now basted

may be handled

as

unit during the construction of the jacket.

one It

is

important that the jacket front lay smoothly over the canvas.

Any

rippling visible

on the garment

it has been basted to the canvas, will be impossible to press out. Therefore, several rows of stitching are used to control the two

fabric after

and great care is taken to gently smooth the fabric ahead of the needle as you baste. The arrows in the sketches indicate the direction in which the fabric is smoothed. On a flat surface, place the jacket front and layers of fabric,

canvas together with the wrong side of the jacket to the right side of the canvas. The canvas

and jacket

AND

JACKET

canvas however, they will

darts should meet. Since the

darts are longer (page 100),

extend above and below the jacket darts. (1.3 cm) margin of canvas should be

A

'/.â&#x20AC;˘"

visible

around the outer edges of the jacket. Beginning above the front dart, about 3" (7.6 cm) below the shoulder, baste down the front of the jacket, catching the canvas and smoothing the garment fabric gently ahead in the direction of the arrows. The stitches are about '//' (3.8 cm) long and are left comfortably without tension. Baste through the pockets, using dart as guideline, and finish at the hem 1

foldlme.

103


Before proceeding with the outside basting, the pockets must be secured into the canvas.

With one hand on the hip pocket to prevent the garment fabric from shifting, tug gently upwards at the tip of the canvas lapel. Gently is the word. This should eliminate any rippling in the canvas on the diagonal from the hip pocket to the lapel

Fold the garment fabric back in place. Smooth and baste the fabric across the waistline from the dart to * (2.5 cm) from the edge of the I

jacket.

tip.

Carefully fold back the

garment

the ends of the pockets are

visible.

fabric until

Baste

one

edge of the pocket seam allowance, and the reinforcement ends into the canvas using diagonal stitches.

04

Below the waistline, at approximately midthe second stitchline, baste down from waist to hem smoothing the fabric as indicated by the arrows.

way on


Approximately

1" (2.5 cm) from the jacket from the waist to just above the hem, and continue across to the end of the

down

edge, baste canvas.

Using the

tailor

tacks as a guide, chalkmark

on the right side of the jacket. Stitchline #6 moves up from the waist into the roll line. The fabric is smoothed up and out between stitchlines #5 and #6 as the roll line is the

roll

line

basted.

f,

.

~

!_ji

4 1

i

;

1

i

:

1

!

n

'

\

r

1

\

\

v J

1

1

1

1

1

I

1

I.I |

V

Above and

1

|

""-""â&#x20AC;&#x201D;f

smoothed up

If

from the waist to

jacket,

the waist, the fabric

out, as stitchline

#5

rises

3" (7.6 cm) below the shoulder.

is

you

working on the carefully fold back the are

inside of the welt pocket

is

left

front of the

fabric

visible.

until

One

the

side of

the pocket has already been basted into the

canvas (page 104). Now, following the same procedure as above, baste the second side of the pocket into the canvas. This side of the hip pocket cannot be basted, since it overshoots the canvas. Fold the garment fabric back in place.

05


#7 runs across the top of the other stitchlines, and traces the armhole, remaining 3" (7.6 cm) away from the edge. The basting curves into the waist, then out and down to the hem. Smooth the fabric gently, following the Stitchline

direction of the arrows.

^VV,^V^O,* v y v

\

The

'"J:

v

vvvv.y

,

YvyVl*

-~

armhole is the canvas. Care should be taken not

bias curve

basted into

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

With the basting completed, hold the jacket front up and check that there is no rippling in the garment fabric between the lines of basting. Slight rippling is to be expected on the canvas side, and serves as ease for the garment fabric. Trim the canvas even with the jacket front.

Cross-stitch the

of the jacket

to stretch the fabric in this area.

ance

at the top of the pocket.

The assembly complete.

06

canvas into the seam allow-

of canvas

and jacket

front

is


PADSTITCHING THE LAPELS

In

body

order to give the jacket lapel the crisp will

it

canvas

lapel

need is

in

now

the finished jacket,

the

padstitched (page 102) into

the jacket lapel. Since these stitches will

the underside of the lapel

in

show through on the finished jacket,

in a color that matches the garThe stitches on the canvas side should be about 3 /s" (I cm) long. On the jacket

use

silk

ment side,

thread

fabric.

they should be tiny pinpricks.

As previously

discussed,

if

the stitches are

pulled too tightly while padding, the canvas will

pucker and create ridges which will be obvious through the facing on the finished garment. Draw a chalkline on the canvas lapel indicating the seam allowance. If you are working on a peak lapel, add a line across the bottom of the peak.

07


From the canvas side, begin padstitching mm) beyond the roll line, working across the lapel in rows parallel to the roll line. â&#x20AC;˘A"

(6

If

ond

you

are

working on a peak

lapel,

a sec-

suggested. To prevent the peak from drooping forward in the finished garment, it is padstitched while held rolled towards the jacket body.

About

] 1

h"

the lapel so that in

(3.8 it

cm) past the

turn

roll line,

takes the position

it

will

have

the finished jacket. Continue to padstitch with*

the lapel held rolling

This procedure of

in this position.

the lapel while padstitching ensures that

the garment fabric lapel

end up slightly and will, therefore,

will

smaller than the canvas lapel,

towards the jacket. It is exactly this tion or pulling towards the jacket that pull

trying to create for a natural

108

roll

inclina-

we

of the lapel.

are

rolling

is


your jacket is double-breasted, the left front must be shortened at this point to prevent it from hanging below the right front when the jacket is buttoned. Shorten the front edge of the canvas at the hem, by 3 /s" (1 cm), tapering to nothing 7" (17.8 cm) in from the edge. If

Beginning 'h" (1.3 cm) past the ro\\ line, the seam allowance on the canvasâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; across the top of the lapel, down the jacket front,

draw

and across the hemline

at the

bottom of the

canvas. Trim

away

the canvas

ance. Be very careful as to cut the

garment

you

in

the

seam

allow-

cut the canvas, not

fabric.

_^rThe

lapel

is

now

pressed from the canvas

side.

09


|

THE TAPING

Tape

is

of the lapel

now

applied along the outer edge

and jacket

front to give a

defined edge to the jacket. The tape

along the bias of the

roll

line,

is

crisp,

also run

as additional

support.

Use 3 /s" been soaked

(1

in

cm) cotton twill tape which has cool water and pressed. Begin-

ning V2" (1.3 cm) past the roll line, baste the tape along the top of the lapel with the top edge of the tape flush with the top

edge of the

canvas.

At the to the end,

the

tip

of the lapel, slash the tape almost

and bring

it

down

along the edge of

lapel.

Win

1

1

'/'V/i /

/"i/i/i

1/1/

'

U/|V

HI if

Snip tip,

away

At the bottom of the

the overlap of tape at the lapel

and baste down the

lapel

and the jacket

Extend the tape into the seam allowance, beyond the canvas, about '/i6 (1.5 mm).

front.

ff

(6

mm)

ease

free to fold

in

roll

line,

place '/V

the tape, so that the lapel will be

over without

restriction.


I

1 Tape across the top of the hem foldline with the bottom edge of the tape on the hemline.

Using line tape,

The

silk

thread, cross-stitch along the

stitching

through

all

roll-

layers of fabric.

should be along the very edge of the tape to prevent it from curling up. You will stitches

notice that the rippling in the jacket at the center

Tape the

is

also applied,

'A"

(6

mm) beyond

Baste the tape, through

roll line.

all

layers of

of the

roll

line

disappears as the tape

is

cross-

stitched to the jacket.

from the neck edge down for about 3" (7.6 cm). Take a couple of backstitches, and then begin pulling the tape as you baste for the next 3" (7.6 cm) or so. Rippling should appear on either side of the tape. Take a couple of backstitches at the end of the 3" (7.6 cm) span to keep the rippling in place and continue basting without pulling the tape. fabric,

is

Only the top two-thirds of the taped. The bottom third is left free

lapel to

roll line

area

to allow the

roll easily.

Pulling the roll-line tape creates the equivalent of a dart

through the

jacket, the effect

away from

is

a

roll line. In

roll line less

the finished

inclined to pull

the body.

1

I

1


Press the roll-line tape, allowing the lapel to fall

free.

The

rest of the tape is secured by slipalong both edges, using silk thread. Along the outer edge of the tape, stitch through

stitching

to the right side of the fabric.

The

stitches

should

be very small and sewn without pulling. On the inner edge of the tape, stitching through all layers can only be done in the lapel area. Below If you were to on the inner edge of the tape below the lapel, these stitches would be visible and unwelcomed down the front of the

the lapel catch only the canvas. stitch

through

all

layers

finished jacket.

Trim the

seam allowance along the jacket

W

front

and

(1.3

cm) seam allowance shows beyond the

tape.

12

at the top of the lapel, so that only

X


FIRST FITTING At

point

this

first fitting is

the jacket construction, the

in

taken.

Any minor discrepancies

(due to the differences

in

the

hang

in

fit

of the muslin

and the hang of the garment fabric) may be foreseen and corrected. The jacket is basted together at the back and shoulder seams, and tried on by the client. Place well-constructed

shoulder pads in the jacket for this fitting (page 137), so that the true contour of the shoulder, as it will appear in the finished jacket,

may be

observed.

With the

front of the jacket pinned closed at the buttonhole markings, check the entire front, back, and side of the jacket with a keen eye for

the

creases

we

observed during the muslin

fitting.

Chalkmark, or

pin,

any minor

ments. Check the shoulder width!

fitting adjustIf

the cutting

edge at the top of the shoulder extends out well beyond the shoulder edge, the fabric may need trimming. As a guide, place a ruler at the bicep and let it extend up towards the shoulder. If the

Give special attention to the armhole. With arm resting comfortably at her side,

the

client's

see

if

there

extends out beyond the ruler at the shoulder, the jacket shoulder is too wide and should

fabric

be trimmed before attaching the shoulder pad.

amount

fabric

With the arm

still

resting naturally at the

chalkmark on the hip-level pocket, a line indicating the natural placement of the arm. This chalkmark will be used in setting the sleeve to fall either forward or backward, in accordance client's side,

with the position of the

Remove

client's

arm.

the basting at the back and shoul-

der seams, and

make whatever adjustments

are

necessary.

The back seams the facing

is

will

not be

sewn

until after

attached.

The shoulder seams will be sewn after the of the jacket has been lined. If you have decided to make bound buttonholes on your jacket, they must be constructed now, before the facing is attached. Handworked buttonholes can wait until the jacket is com-

body

pleted.

The buttonhole section, which begins on page 177 includes instructions for two types of bound buttonholes and for the classic handworked buttonhole constructed with gimp.

is

any wrinkling or

notch area of the armhole.

must be trimmed at a time).

in

If

pulling in the front

there this

is,

area

the jacket (a

small


THE FACING The facing plays a prominent role in the It must be carefully cut and shaped, and laid gracefully o\/er the lapel, with enough ease to allow the lapel to roll freely. If the grain is off, or the ease is missing, there will be either ripples or strain on the front of the jacket. The facing can be attached to the jacket either by hand or by machine. (Read through both procedures and decide which one you would like to learn first.) The difference in the finished jacket.

hand

application of the facing

seems

to require a

"feel" for the fabricâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; more confidence in one's ability to control

Many tailors

the fabric.

use the hand application exclu-

because of the complete control it affords. Others, use it only for a plaid or striped fabric, where matching the design requires precision. There are also tailors who consider the hand sively,

application inferior to the

machine

application,

amount of time it takes to complete either method does not seem to be significant, al-

because a facing seam, stitched by machine, may be a more definite line, and more secure than one stitched by hand. You decide which

though one might expect

method

this to

be the case. The

to use.

by drawing the

The outer edge of the facing, which you have cut using the revised facing pattern (page 13), is a straight line, and, therefore, not shaped to match the front of thejacket. Before attaching

create a guideline for yourself

it will be necessary to steam press the lapel area of the facing into a curve which matches that of thejacket lapel.

facing along the guideline. Rippling will appear

the facing to the jacket,

If,

in

your eye

14

the beginning,

to

you

match the curve of

hesitate to trust lapel

and

facing,

curve on a piece of paper and pinning the paper to your ironing board. Place the raw edge of the lapel area of the lapel

edge of the facing, if we shrink these ripples away, the front edge of the facing will maintain the curve we have given at the center,

inner

it.


Here is where the flexibility of natural fibers can be appreciated. On the wrong side of the fabric,

and using steam

outer edge of the lapel

liberally, in,

iron

from the

using progressively

Depending on your fabric, this will require more or less effort; worsteds being a greater challenge than more loosely woven smaller arcs.

The

benefit of this

fabric,

since

it

is

obvious

in

a striped or plaid

allows the pattern to continue

uninterrupted from the top to bottom of the lapel.

Less obvious, but

no

less

important,

is

the

having the strongest grain at the outer edge of the lapel will be a safeguard against fact that

stretching

and

rippling in this area.

fibers.

The whole purpose of

this effort

is

to main-

tain the straight of the grain at the lapel edge.

ATTACHING FACING BY MACHINE

Place the right side of the facing to the right side of the jacket front, allowing

facing to extend

the lapel

]

beyond the jacket

and down the

h"

(1.3

cm)

at the top of

front of the jacket.

Beginning at the tip of the lapel, baste down through the center of the tape, attaching the facing to thejacket. Just roll

line,

facing to

place about

below the bottom

W

accommodate the

(6 roll

mm)

in

the

of the lapel. Tack

the ease into the tape so that

where you've placed

ease

of the

it

will

remain

it.

115


iHi/

If

the front of the jacket curves

at the

in

hem, the facing should be basted to the curve using a slightly different technique. Since this area may be inclined to curl outwards, away from the body, in the finished jacket, roll the bottom of the jacket towards the facing as you baste. This will shorten the facing slightly,

ensure that will incline

in

Machine stitch from the collar notch to the bottom of the jacket, using the tape as a guideline. Stitch about /\b" (1.5 mm) beyond the tape, in the seam allowance. ]

and

the finished jacket the curved edge

gently towards the body, rather than

curling outwards.

The tip of the lapel in the finished jacket should also incline comfortably towards the body, rather than curling upwards. For that reason, a small bubble of ease is now placed in the. facing at the tip of the lapel. This will prevent the possibility of

the facing pulling the lapel

ward. At the top of the slightly

When lapel

just

1

16

tip for-

lower the facing to create the ease, about '/V (6 mm). lapel,

the slight excess of fabric

tip,

is

visible at

baste across the lapel, from the

beyond the

collar notch.

the

tip to

good point at the tip of the lapel, take two stitches on the diagonal as you turn.

For a

one

or

A sharp pivot at the tip will

result in a

misshapen,

lumpy lapel tip, because there will not be enough room for the seam allowance to settle in.


.

^J i

i

,

I Remove the front of the jacket

If

hem,

stitch

is

with the curve to

rounded at the the end of the

facing. If

hem,

the front of the jacket

stitch

down

to the

is

the basting,

and

layer the

seam

allowances. From the bottom of thejacket to the tip

seam allowance to h" (1.3 cm).

of the lapel, trim thejacket

W

(1

cm) and the facing

to

]

straight at the

bottom edge.

From the

notch and around the lapel tip, trim a bit closer. Leave about '/-i" (6 mm) jacket seam allowance and (I cm) facing. collar

W

Press the facing

seam open.

17


If

the front of the jacket

hem, the seam

is

rounded

allowance at the curve

at the is

also

tacked into the tape. If

The

tip

of the lapel will be flatter

if

the

seam

allowance inside is controlled and evenly distributed. To accomplish this, both seam allowances are drawn onto the tape at the lapel tip, one at a time. A shirring thread is first run through the seam allowance and pulled. The seam allowance is then tacked into the tape, using silk thread. These stitches should not be visible on the right side of the fabric.

The

tip

of the lapel

is

then pressed

flat.

the front of the jacket

is

straight at the

hem, the facing seam allowance is tacked into itself at the hem. The hem, on both straight and rounded jackets fronts, is now basted up with large diagonal stitches, and then stitched into the canvas with a smaller diagonal stitch. (We'll leave the hem beyond the canvas for the moment.)


Working from the jacket side, baste from roll line, up and across to the

the bottom of the

notch or from the collar notch down (depending on which hand you sew with and

collar

which side of the jacket you are preparing). As you baste, bring the facing seam to the jacket side,

so that

it

will

not be seen

when

thejacket

is

worn.

From the bottom of the lapel to the hem, is done on the facing side, and the

the basting

seam will

is

drawn towards the

not be

On

visible

when

facing side so that

thejacket

is

a jacket with a straight front,

that the facing

is

turned up so that

shorter than thejacket,

and

will

it

worn.

make it

is

sure,

a bit

not be seen from

the outside.

119


On

the facing side, baste up from the bot-

once more and continue tom of the across, about " (2.5 cm) below the top of the tape. These stitches are about h" (1 .3 cm) long and are placed comfortably, without pulling or roll

line

1

With the lapel rolled, as it will be when worn, baste on the diagonal from the tip of the lapel, in towards the roll line.

x

tautness.

From thejacket roll line,

20

side,

baste the length of the

catching the facing underneath.


Chalkmark a past the

roll line.

under

directly

h"

cm) The top of the tape should be ]

(1.3

baste

this

]

h"

(1

.3

it

in place,

neath. Trim,

if

cm) point.

necessary before folding.

the collar notch to

now

h"

and

slip stitch

from

cm) past the roll line. pressed before continuing (see ]

The facing

is

illustration

on page

ATTACHING FACING BY

and

just covering the tape under-

Press the top of the lapel

this chalkline.

Slash the facing (not the jacket) from the

neck edge to

Fold the facing along the chalkline

straight line across the top of

the lapel from the collar notch to

(

1

.3

115).

HAND

To attach the facing by hand, the seam allowance at the outer edge of the lapel and down the front of the jacket should be trimmed to 3 /s" (1 cm). The seam allowance from the tip of the lapel to the collar notch should be 'A"

(6

mm).

Snip the collar notch "almost" to the tape,

and using the edge

of the tape as a foldline,

begin stitching the seam allowance onto the tape.

Use a diagonal

stitch,

with

silk

finishing

and the canvas. Be gentle with the fabric. The seam allowance should simply fold onto the tape, and not

thread, catching the tape

be pulled

tightly.

The hem is also folded up, using the tape as and diagonal-stitched into the canvas.

a guide,

12


I

Jackets front will

which are shaped

be inclined to

curl

at the

bottom

outwards,

away

from the body, unless the facing is manipulated to prevent this. If the bottom edge of thejacket is curled inwards,

Place the

wrong

side of the facing

has been steam pressed into shape, page the

wrong

generous

l

side of the jacket front,

h"

(1.3

1

1

5)

to

held

and basted

in this position,

cline gently

to the facing while

the finished jacket will in-

towards the body

at the front edge.

leaving a

around Baste the facing and

cm) of facing

the outer edge of the jacket.

(which

visible

the jacket together, following the stitches that

mark the length of the

roll line,

and then down

the front edge of the jacket. At the bottom of the roll line,

place 'A" (6

facilitate

the

If

roll

your jacket

tinue basting

curves

in at

mm)

ease

in

is

hem, conIf your jacket

straight at the

down the entire front. hem (as illustrated),

the

the facing to

of the lapel.

stop basting

about 8" (20.3 cm) or so from the bottom.

With the take

in

lapel rolled in the position

the finished jacket, baste a

nal stitches, parallel to the

22

roll line.

row

it

will

of diago-


Baste across the top of the lapel, to the bottom of the

about

}"

(2.5

cm)

roll line,

and down

keeping the stitches

away from

the edge of the

With the

facing from collar notch to shoulder

is

just

about

even with thejacket.

jacket lapel.

line of stitches

W

seam allowance to (1 cm) The of thejacket. collar notch to the bottom

Trim facing

from

lapel

still

from the

stitches, to just past

the

rolled, tip

On

baste a diagonal

of the lapel basting

roll line.

the facing, chalkmark a line

tends from the collar notch to the

(1

which .3

ex-

cm) past

The chalklme is exactly where the the tape is on thejacket. This line is called

roll

top of

'//'

line.

the gorge

line.

Snip the facing to a point

7/' (1.3 cm) past the

on the gorge

line

roll line.

23


and baste the facing seam allowance line and down the front of the lapel. Allow facing to extend about '/i6" (1.5 mm) beyond the jacket lapel, so that the facing seam will not be visible when the jacket is

Using

Fold

along the gorge

worn. The facing seam, from the bottom of the roll line to the bottom of thejacket, should not be

on the right side of thejacket. Therefore, you baste on the facing side in this area, allow

visible

as

about

'/i6"

beyond the

24

(1.5

mm)

facing.

of thejacket to extend

finishing thread, slipstitch

silk

along

the edge of the facing seam. The stitches should

be quite are

not

should

small,

and

visible

now

carefully placed, so that they from the outside. The facing

be pressed (page

115).


J

THE FACING POCKET N Cut a bias strip of woven fusible interfacing, 6" by 2" (1 5.2 by 5 cm). Press the fusible to the lining strip, (1 cm) from the left edge, and h" (1 .3 cm) from top and bottom.

W

]

Draw a 5" (12.7 cm) pocket opening down the center of the fusible, and press

A

small double-piping pocket

you wish,

may be

con-

line

the

right-hand margin of lining up onto the fusible.

be used for small flat objects such as theatre tickets, or paper money. (Also see lining pocket on page 134. structed in the facing

if

to

Using the pattern marked facing pocket on

page 305, cut two pieces of

lining

for

each

pocket.

Place

one

of the lining pieces under the

facing at the center of the lapel. Place the lining/ fusible unit

opening

on top

line

beyond the

of the facing with the pocket '//' (3.8 cm) extending at least 1

lapel

lining/fusible unit

For a facing pocket with a 5"

(12.7 cm) opening, cut a bias strip of lining 7" by 3" 7.8 (

by 7.6 cm).

1

roll

line,

and the

away from

the

fold

on the

roll line.

Baste the lining/fusible unit to the facing,

catching the pocket shape underneath. Baste the pocket opening line.

on

25


Inn

I i

i i i i

i

i i

I

I I

I I i

I

~7V Using a small machine the pocket opening

line,

]

sew around mmj from the

stitch,

l&"

(3

Bring the

leaving a thin piping

slash,

piping

line.

unit

lining/fusible

in place,

about 'A"

(6

through the

visible.

Baste the

mm) away from

the piping edge. Baste the piping closed.

St

ft

Slash the center of the stitching,

and

cut

prongs at either end.

Machine-stitch on the seamline at the top of the piping, and along the side of

and bottom

the piping furthest from the lapel

26

roll line.


On

the inside, topstitch the folded edge of

the lining/fusible unit to the pocket shape.

On

the inside,

sew around

the outer edge

of the pocket shapes.

The facing pocket

is

complete.

I

Place the second pocket shape under the first,

matching the edges. Machine-stitch

and bottom of the

on the seamline at the top and along the side of

piping,

the piping nearest to the lapel

roll line.

21


THE LINING 1

1

W

of lining overlaps facing

W-

The purpose

threads and seams and layers of canvas that

back and side panel pattern pieces, cut the lining larger than the pattern by

have gone

the amounts indicated

point.

It

of a lining

is

to hide

all

the

into the jacket's construction to this

also helps in sliding the jacket

on and

off

and feels much better through a blouse than wool canvas does. The lining should be cut slightly larger than the jacket, in both length and width, even though it is placed inside. The constant pulling and friction which the lining is subject to will without

difficulty,

cause tears

in

the lining fabric

sufficient living ease.

28

if

there

is

not

Using the

front,

in these illustrations. The on the jacket front pattern piece represents the point to which the facing extends. Draw this line on your jacket front pattern so that you will be able to mark the lining to overlap the facing by h" (3.8 cm). If there is no side panel, the lining at the side seam is cut 'A" (6 mm) larger than the jacket rather than '/s" (3 mm).

broken

line

l

1


"

To afford added ease in the back lining, the seam at the center back is sewn in a scalloped fashion. This creates a controlled pleat

open out only when required to body's movement. The seamline begins

will

lining

neck edge,

at

what was

which by the

ing

Above the vent, press the seam allowance to the left.

the right vent almost to the (2.5 cm) lengthwise from the

center back

lin-

Slash the top of

stitchline. left

Trim

1

vent.

at the

the seamline

on

the jacket pattern.

Sew down

approximately 2"

(5

cm) and

then begin a series of three or four scallops, about 3" (7.6 cm) each in length, extending back the depth of your jacket seam allowance.

The h" ]

(1

.3

cm),

which

we added

to the lining

seam allowance for the scallops. The pleats are

center back, serves simply as

the inner edges of

needed only above the The

stitchline

waist.

ends about

the top of the lining vent.

If

1

"

there

(2.5 is

cm) below

no

vent, the

stitchline below the waist continues along the

jacket

seam allowance.

29


I

Sew

and side lining same amount of seam

the front, back,

together, using the

pieces

allow-

ance as in the jacket. Leave the shoulder seam open. Press all seams to the side rather than pressing

them open.

we

Before stitching the jacket center back seam, we'll reinforce the vent area with crossgrain strips of pocketing, about 2" (5 cm) wide, from the top of the vent to the hem foldline.

the reinforcement on the vent extension, flush

Draw

with the chalkline. Leave

a chalkline from the bottom of the center

tions, since

On

the right side of thejacket back, place

the vent notch at the bottom of

garment

the jacket. Use the chalkline as a guide for the

On

placement of the pocketing reinforcement

reinforcement

pieces.

sion,

back

stitchline to

Because the

and the

left

side of the vent will fold

right side will

lie

flat

in

the finished

jacket, the pocketing pieces are placed in slightly different positions

on

either side, to

date that difference. (You

will

accommo-

note that

left

and

right sides of thejacket are reversed in the illustra-

30

are viewing thejacket from the

inside.)

x

h"

(1.3

cm) of the

fabric visible at the edge.

the

left is

side of the jacket back,

placed, not

on the vent

but directly to the right of

it,

flush

the

exten-

with the

vent chalkline. Baste the reinforcement pieces slip-stitch

stitches

the sides using

should not be

the garment fabric.

silk

in

place

finishing thread.

visible

on the

and The

right side of


"

J=n

H-

On

the right vent, fold over the V2" (1.3

cm) of garment diagonal

stitch

it

fabric at the in place.

show through on

The

the right

vent edge, and

stitches

should not

side.

vent extension completely, so that the seam allowance down the center back is even from top to bottom. Trim the

left

Machine-stitch the back of the jacket to the

and press the seams open. Baste up the jacket hem and press. Fold the top edge of the jacket hem forward

side panels,

and hem-stitch

Machine-stitch the center back (2.5

seam

1

cm) below the top of the vent. At the top of stitchline.

up about half the hem on the jacket back, and fold the vent Baste

of

in place.

ÂŁÂŁ to

The raw edge

the right vent, slash the garment fabric almost to the

it

left

either side in place.

of the facing,

and

that of the

vent, are double cross-stitched to the Slip-stitch

the

hem

hem

along the edge of the

right vent.

31


Working

flat

on

the jacket together,

a table, place the lining

wrong

wrong

side to

matching waistline notches. Pin the

and side,

lining to the

together from neckline to

1

"

(2.5

top of the vent, placing a small the lining.

cm) above the

amount of ease

in

jacket at the waistline. Baste the lining andjacket

Fold the lining over the

about 'A"

(6

mm)

of

garment

the edge. Baste the lining the top of the hem.

in

left

The

vent, leaving

fabric

showing at above

place to just

left

right

vent

now

which

is

placed

on top

of the

and back-stitched securely along the

vent,

through to the top of the left vent, underneath, but do not go through to

top. Stitch

the right side of the

32

is

fabric.


Fold

and baste the

right vent, so that

ment

fabric

The illustrated,

is

is

vent lining over the

only a narrow edge of gar-

visible at

lining

right

the vent edge.

now

basted to the jacket as

maintaining sufficient room around

and armhole for the sleeve to be set without interference. The lining is simply folded along the edge of the facing and basted. the shoulder

33


Baste up the lining hem so that it ends about (1 .9 cm) above the jacket he"m. Place your stitches about " (2.5 cm) above the lining hem fold, so that you will be able to lift the lining

W

1

and hem-stitch one layer of it into the jacket hem. This procedure creates a fold at the lining hem, which affords the lining lengthwise ease. The lining at the edge of the vent is finished with a

prick-stitch.

THE LINING POCKET

you have not chosen to place a pocket in the jacket facing (see page 125), you may wish to create a small pocket in the lining on one or If

both sides of the jacket

From

two

lining fabric,

front.

on the

straight grain, cut

pieces of pocketing, 8" (20.3 cm) long

and

4" (10.2 cm) wide. Taper the pocketing so that is

narrower

34

at the top, as illustrated.

it

Press a

]

h"

(1 .3

cm)

of each pocketing piece.

hem

along the length


(1 .3 cm) hem to the wrong side along the front edge of your jacket front lining;

lining

and place the folded edge

ing the 5" (12.7 cm)

Press a

]

Baste the folded edge of the jacket front

li"

of your pocketing

piece under the lining fold, at about mid-chest

facing

along the edge of thejacket facing, matchrows of stitching on both

and

lining.

level.

Prick-stitch along the edge of the lining fold, beginning about Vz" (3.8 cm) below the top of the pocketing piece, continuing for 5" (12.7 cm). Both the pocketing piece and the lining are 1

caught

in

these stitches.

edge of the second piece of pocketing on the edge of the jacket front facing. The placement level here must coincide with that chosen for the lining, since these two pieces will soon be placed together. Prick-stitch along the edge of the pocketing fold, beginning about h" (3.8 cm) below the top of the pocketing piece, and continuing for 5" (12.7 cm). Both the pocketing piece and the facing edge are caught in these stitches. Place the folded

Stitch

ing

pieces,

around the edges of the two pocketto

finish

the inside of the

lining

pocket.

]

1

35


THE SHOULDER SEAMS

Before stitching the shoulder seams, the

must be reinforced with

front shoulder

a strip of

Cut a semi-bias strip of the lining to be used as reinforcement, about (1 .9 cm) wide and the length of the front shoulder seam.

W

lining.

Baste the lining

strip

to the

wrong

side of

the garment fabric, at the front shoulder edge.

Catch the garment

allowing the can-

fabric only,

vas and the lining to

fall

freely.

and back

Baste the front

of the jacket to-

gether at the shoulder seams. Since the back

shoulder edge

about V2"

is

the front (page

12),

(

1

.3

cm) longer than

there will be rippling along

seam when the shoulder

the edge of the back

is

basted. Bring the ease to the center of the shoulder,

leaving

without

1"

(2.5

cm) or so

at either

end

The

rippling.

back of the shoulder is there to provide added room for the curve of the back in the shoulder blade area. We can eliminate the rippling at the seam, and still retain the ease in the shoulder blade area, by steam pressing carefully, before the shoulder seam is extra ease at the

machine-stitched.

Steam press on a flat surface, allowing the extend onto the fabric no more than V2" (3.8 cm) or so. Bring the iron flat down on

iron to 1

top of the ripples at the shoulder edge. The

combination of heat and moisture on the

flat

cause the ripples to shrink away. allowed to extend further onto the shoulder area, while still on a flat surface, the ease in the shoulder blade area will also shrink away, and the whole process will have been surface, should If

the iron

is

useless.

be done and not yet machine-stitched. Once the seam has been It

essential that this pressing

is

while the shoulder seam machine-stitched,

nate the

it

will

is

basted,

be impossible to

elimi-

ripples.

Machine-stitch the shoulder seam, remove

the basting, tailor's

ham

the shape

36

and

press the

seam open. Use

a

for pressing here, in order to protect

you have

created.


THE SHOULDER PADS

The shoulder pad at the right in this photois the best ready-made shoulder pad availAs you can see, it is flat and heavy, and

graph able.

does not coincide with the natural contour of the shoulder.

The shoulder pad

Separate the

at the

left

wadding

can be con-

wadding

into thin layers,

as

and

create on the muslin shoulder-pad pattern, a

smooth, sloping

filler,

and

bias muslin as the top

mound which

and back.

tapers to nothing

and bottom

covering. (Use the shoulder pad pattern on page 299 to cut the muslin coverings.)

Cotton wadding holstery supply stores;

structed quite simply, using cotton

at the sides

the

take the

is

available in bulk at up-

or,

wadding from

down

you

prefer,

a pair of

shoulder pads and reshape

Press

if

simply

ready-made

it.

gently at the front centermost

edge of the pad and measure the thickness. The amount of padding most flattering to your shoulder has been determined at the muslin fitting.

137


I

Cover the wadding with a second piece of muslin and baste across the top of the pad to anchor the layers together. By pulling the bottom layer of the muslin cover at either end, the

down

a

bit,

and tacking

pad begins to take shape.

pad from end to end, beginning at the center and working in rows, first towards the front, and then, from the center, towards the back. The stitches go right through all layers of the filling, and should be left Pad-stitch the shoulder

comfortably without pulling.

Trim slightly across the front of the pad

around the edges.

38

and


Press the shoulder pad, maintaining the curve

you have

created.

39


INSERTING

SHOULDER PADS

If

the cutting edge at the top of the shoulder

extends out beyond the shoulder edge, the fabric

may need

trimming.

As

a guide, place a ruler at

the bicep, extending up towards the shoulder (see

page

1

1

2).

If

the fabric extends out

beyond

the ruler at the shoulder, the jacket shoulder

is

too wide and should be trimmed before attaching the shoulder pad.

The shoulder pad

is

placed into the armhole

of the jacket, so that the center of the pad

is

at

the shoulder seam.

The pad should be between the

lining

and

the canvas, at the armhole cutting edge. Before the shoulder pad jacket,

is

sewn

into the

check the shoulder width once more,

with the pad

in place.

pad

Sometimes, when the top of the shoulder at the armhole cutting edge, the ends of

is

the pad are not.

Pull

the shoulder pad out

until

the ends of the pad are at the armhole cutting

edge. You can trim the excess

later.

With the shoulder pad exactly in place, reach into the armhole and pin the shoulder pad to the canvas. The shoulder pad is now padstitched to the canvas, the stitches covering the entire area of the Stitch

40

through

all

canvas touched by the pad. layers of padding.


Smooth the front lining up over the shoulder pad and baste the lining to the pad along the armhole and across the top of the lining.

With one hand

inside the shoulder area,

give the shoulder a concave shape

and baste

along the front neck edge of the jacket, catching the facing.

Smooth the jacket fabric out towards the armhole, and baste the entire length of the shoulder pad, about 3" (7.6 cm) in from the armhole edge. Catch the top layer of the shoulder pad as you baste.

The lining at the back of the jacket is still hanging loose at the shoulder. Smooth the back lining up over the shoulder pad and baste from the outside, right through the shoulder pad, to

catch the lining. Baste from the bottom end of the shoulder pad up, stopping about " (2.5 cm) 1

from the shoulder seam; and bring the needle through to the inside.

41


Fold the back iining across the shoulder,

and baste across the edge. Place a

you

baste.

fold,

towards the neck

of ease into the back lining as lining is left loose, 3" (7.6 cm) in

bit

The

from the armhole edge.

THE COLLAR The

collar

can be constructed by following

the design lines of your pattern, or

room

leaves

Essential to fit

for a bit of

your

in

own

a

way

that

designing.

both methods of construction

is

the

of the undercollar at the jacket neckline, from

collar

notch to

collar notch.

fitting, you adjusted any of the seams that extend into the neckline, you are already aware that your undercollar pattern needs adjusting. You may, however, have "unintentionally" adjusted some of the neckline seams. The first step is to check the fit of If

during the muslin

the undercollar pattern.

To do this, first trim away the seam allowance on the undercollar paper pattern. You will eventually need this seam allowance, but it is much easier to check the fit of the paper pattern if the seam allowance is not in the way.

42


Chalkmark the neck edge seam allowance on thejacket, and match the undercollar pattern, stitchline to stitchline, from collar notch to center back seam, first on one side of thejacket, and then on the other. If you need an extra '/s" (3 mm) or so, to help the pattern reach the entire distance comfortably, add to the collar pattern at the center back seam. is

much

If

you

with one which that

on the acies

slightly

a collar

too small.

on one side of thejacket, but not Whatever the cause (slight inaccur-

well

other.

in

is

remember that it which is than it is to work

doubt,

possible in checking the pattern, to find

fits

it

in

work with

than necessary,

slightly larger

It is

are

easier to

the shoulder seams,

stitching

or the

you must now make a collar on one side than on the other. This

center back seam), that

is

larger

not a problem. Simply prepare both sides of the collar using the larger dimensions, and we'll is

adjust

\f

it

later.

you have made

extensive alterations

in

your jacket pattern at the neckline and shoulder, it may be necessary to discard the collar pattern

and

to draft a completely

new

one. Instructions

for drafting a collar, using thejacket

guide, are

neck edge as

found on page 156.

Once you

are content with the

fit

of

your

undercollar pattern, consider the design. At this

you

point collar,

are

or to

free either to

still

go with the

collar

redesign the

design of the

commercial pattern.

Many until

tailors

leave the question of design

the undercollar has been attached to the

jacket.

They leave themselves room for designand the ends of the melton

ing by cutting the top

undercollar

much

larger

than necessary.

When

the undercollar has been attached to thejacket,

draw

which looks good with the existing lapel, and trim the excess away. This is a simple procedure, and quite exciting if you have the desire to branch out a bit on your own. On the other hand, the collars designed by they simply

Our

a collar

commercial patternmakers are usually in tasteful balance with thejacket lapel, and you may have chosen this pattern largely because of this style. Know your options, make your choice and forge ahead.

instructions for the construction of the

undercollar will

assume

that

you

are following

the lines of the commercial pattern. However,

methods measurement

the instructions are appropriate for both

The careful seam allowances at the top of the collar is not important if you are designing your own coll. however, the shape and seam allowances at the neck edge of the undercollar should be adhered

of collar construction. of

if,

to carefully.

143


CONSTRUCTING THE UNDERCOLLAR The undercollar is constructed of collar melton and French canvas, pad-stitched together. If you can find good quality prepadded collar melton, in the color that you need, by all means use it instead of pad-stitching the melton

Cut from

collar melton,

in

a color

coordinates with your garment fabric, undercollar pieces. Leave

]

h"

which

two

bias

cmj seam

(1.3

allowance at the outer edges and 'A" (6 mm) seam allowance at the center back. Machinestitch the center back seam and press it open.

Using the same dimensions as

in

melton, cut from French collar canvas, undercollar pieces.

seam and

topstitch

the collar

two

bias

Overlap the center back by machine.

on the wrong side and between the two, at either end, place a bias piece of pocketing to add body to the front of the collar. The pocketing covers about one half of either side of the unPlace the French canvas

of the collar melton,

dercollar. Baste the ing,

144

and the melton

French canvas, the pockettogether.

and French canvas together yourself. Because the quality of the prepadded collar melton varies greatly and the co\or choice is often limited, we give directions here for preparing and padstitching the undercollar yourself.


The French canvas

is

now

pad-stitched

We

(page 102) to the melton undercollar. want the two fabrics joined, but still flexible enough to

be shaped with the

iron.

To maintain

this

con-

trolled flexibility, we'll pad-stitch in a semi-circular

pattern,

which coincides with the

bias cut of the

canvas undercollar. Pad-stitch inside and then, beyond the semi-circle, maintaining the circular pattern of stitches. Use silk finishing thread close in

color to the collar melton, so that the stitches

will

not be noticeable on the right side of the

undercollar. Pad-stitch only within the limits of

seam allowance which

fabric.

the

Using a radius of about 2" (5 cm), draw a semi-circle at the neck edge stitchline of the

canvas.

The

tips

of the collar, about 2"

(5

is

drawn on

the

cm) from

either end, are pad-stitched while held in a rolled

position (as illustrated). This technique ensures that,

in

incline

the finished jacket, the collar

downwards towards

tips

will

the shoulder, rather

than curling up. Press the undercollar a

flat

on the canvas

side,

on

surface.

45


Since both the melton cut

on the

will

step,

bias, a certain

and the canvas are

amount

of stretching

occur during the pad-stitching. Our next therefore, is to redraw the undercollar

stitchline, this

time

on the

right side of the collar.

Sharpen the chalk so that you get a clean, accurate first

one

other.

chalk,

line.

draw and then the

Begin at the center back, and

side of the undercollar

Also mark the undercollar and then in basting thread.

roll

line,

in

From the melton side, trim away the seam allowance completelyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; top, bottom, sides.

Trim a Vs"

(3

mm) margin

of canvas from

the top and bottom edges of the undercollar.

We're doing this to prevent the raw edges of the canvas from peeking through to the outside. There is no need to trim the canvas at the ends of the undercollar, since the to'pcollar will eventually hide any stray canvas threads in this area.

46

If your measurement of the jacket neck edge showed one side slightly smaller than the other, the adjustment in the collar can be made at this point. Before drawing the smaller of the two sides of the collar, fold back the necessary amount on the paper pattern, at center back. Place the folded edge of the pattern at the center back of the melton undercollar, and trace the

outline.


square shoulders

sloped shoulders

normal shoulders

The undercollar

is

now

pressed into shape,

taking into consideration the slope of the client's shoulder.

square shoulders Fold the collar

on the

roll line

and baste

it

in

Using a moderate amount of steam, press the folded edge into an arc, the depth of

which

depends on your determination of the

client's

as sloped, normal, or square. For sloped shoulders, the depth of the arc is about

shoulders

1

V2"

and

lapel.

If,

for

shoulders

place.

(3.8 cm); for for

shaping

normal shoulders, 2"

square shoulders, is

a fine point

in

the

2W fit

(7

(5

cm).

of the collar

cm), This

shoulders, up,

example, a collar shaped to

normal

set on a jacket shaped to fit sloped the lapel would not lie flat. It would lift

away from on

fit

was

the jacket.

A

"sloped collar"

would cause the jacket to pull away from the body at the lapel roll line. These are slight inclinations in one direction or another, but they are there, and they make a significant difference in comfort and fit. placed

a normal neckline

and

47


While shaping the undercollar you will have pressed a crease in the roll line. Now, remove the basting which held the neck edge back, and for a few inches at either end of the roll line,

48

press the crease out.


Begin basting the undercollar to the jacket

back seam. The raw edge of one is placed along the chalk guideline which you've drawn at the neckline. The front end of the collar should fall at the collar at the center

side of the undercollar

notch.

If

lar in

you have

left

your undercolto design the collar shape in

extra fabric in

order to be free

reference to the lapel (page 144),

Measure any discrepancy

do

that

now.

both sides of the collar accurately, as in

length will be

in full

view on

the front of the jacket. It

is

customary to stop

construction of the

the sleeve.

Once

collar,

At the

sleeve

are

checked

The second beginning

at

half of the undercollar

the front,

is

basted

and working around

towards the center back. Before beginning to baste the second half of the undercollar make sure that the distance from the tip of the lapel to the beginning of the collar is identical on each

Working on the canvas

side,

cross-stitch

the undercollar to the jacket neckline. Use

fitting,

checked

move ahead

is

to set

called in for the final

both the for

been

fit,

collar

and the

and the collar

is

for style.

you are making the jacket for yourself, and you are pleased with the collar shape, by all means, finish now. If you are working for someone else, you can reduce the number of fittings by moving ahead to the sleeve at this If

it

point.

After the

lapel.

to

a muslin sleeve has

into the jacket, the client fitting.

at this point in the

and

fitting,

the collar

the garment fabric sleeve

is

is

finished before

set.

silk

along the gorge line seam allowance, across the top of the facing, and the back neckline. Do not catch the back

finishing thread,

and

stitch

lining in this stitch.

49


CONSTRUCTING THE TOPCOLLAR To create the

ment h" ,

1

fabric

on the

topcollar, cut a piece of garfold, straight grain,

up,

x

1

(3.8 cm) longer than the undercollar pat-

Using a steam

150

nap

and about h* (3.8 cm) pattern, on top and bottom.

tern

iron,

stretch the fabric top

and bottom.

larger

than the


Place the undercollar face

wrong

side of the topcollar,

down on

and baste the two

together, from gorge line to gorge

the undercollar

the

line,

across

roll line.

Baste across the top of the undercollar,

about

1" (2.5

cm) from the edge.

Trim the topcollar, leaving

allowance lar,

and

visible

1" (2.5

W

(1

cm) seam

above the top of the undercol-

cm) at the

sides.

51


Baste across the top of the topcollar, folding

seam allowance

Allow the topcollar fold to extend about Vs" (3 mm) above the undercollar, so that the seam will not be visible when the jacket is worn. Both the top edge and the neck edge of the undercollar are the

to the

inside.

finished with a slip-stitch, using

With the

topcollar

flat

across the undercollar just

silk

thread.

The

is trimmed, if necessary, and then folded along the gorge line. From the collar notch to just past the roll line, the topcollar fold meets flush with the fold of fabric on the facing

lapel.

topcollar

Beginning just past the

roll line

and

contin-

uing to just past the lining shoulder seam, the topcollar fold overlaps

onto the facing.

on the table, baste below the roll line,

catching the topcollar fabric underneath.

Just past the lining shoulder seam, the top-

be able to take the curve of the neckline without pulling. Baste along the back neckline, catching collar

52

is

slashed several times so that

it

will

the undercollar. Since these stitches will remain in

the jacket,

make

through to the

sure that they

right side.

do not show


The lining is now folded and basted in place along the neckline. Finish the lining neck edge with a prick-stitch, using silk thread.

The excess is

now

fabric at either

folded back

end

of the collar

and pressed in place. It is and bottom, and along the raw edge. Use

finished with a slip-stitch at top

a double-cross-stitch silk

finishing thread.

53


The gorge

line

is

now sewn

from the out-

side using a ladder stitch, to bring the topcollar

and the facing fold together without visible The stitch is taken at the side of the fold rather than on top, and runs back and forth from

fold

stitching.

After each

facing to topcollar. stitches,

one

stitch

tween the two

is

folds,

three or four

taken at the center, be-

anchoring the thread into

the canvas.

With the collar complete, a final touch is added to the jacket front. Using #A silk thread, prick-stitch along the very edge of the collar, the lapel, and the jacket front, on the topside of the fabric. These stitches should be tiny and unnoticed.

Their purpose

nently crisp edge.

54

is

to guarantee a

perma-


— ^

\

AND

PLAID

STRIPED COLLARS

======== =

— =—

===== ======== = = = = = ==== = = == = ^=::^=

^~T~-

1

'

S

P^ 1

—(N

i

N — IS N

\

^ '

i

The topcollar on a should match the design back. Note that

in

Chalkmark on the canvas of the completed

plaid or striped jacket at the

top of the jacket

a plaid fabric this matching

should be both horizontal as well as

plaid or striped fabric design.

vertical.

which

undercollar, short vertical lines

indicate

the position of the centermost vertical bars rather than

a

necessary to

draw on

tal line,

stripe

is

If

in

the

a plaid fabric,

being used,

it

is

also

the undercollar a horizon-

indicating the next horizontal bar of the

plaid design.

Transfer these guidelines to your paper undercollar pattern.

Use the undercollar pattern, from which all seam allowance has been trimmed, to cut the topcollar from garment fabric. With the fold of the fabric at center back, carefully match the design guidelines, which are on the paper pattern, with those on the fabric. Cut the topcollar ]

1

You

will

the gorge line

be able to match if

the stripes

in

l2

n

(3.8

cm) larger than the pattern

all

around.

striped fabric at

the fabric are

3

I&"

To match stripes, which are farther apart than cm) or so, would (1 (

I

cm) or

less apart.

W

require excessive shrinking of the top collar at the

neck edge. In a plaid,

line

is

matching the design

at the

gorge

virtually impossible.

55


The attachment of the

plaid topcollar con-

which begin on page 50. The one point to remember is to match the design guidelines which were drawn on the canvas undercollar, with the topcollar tinues according to the instructions 1

fabric design, before

The

striped

beginning to baste.

topcollar

must be pinned

in

place before being basted, so that the topcollar fabric

can be placed to match not only at the

center back of the jacket, but also at the gorge line.

If

the stripes

apart, this

in

match of

the pattern are not too far stripes at

the gorge

the topcollar fabric

line

can

by a slight movement downwards.

usually be accomplished

of

THE COLLAR DRAFT

If

you have made extensive

pattern altera-

tions involving the jacket neckline,

necessary to draft a jacket neck

it

new collar pattern,

edge as guide.

may be using the

With the jacket folded the neckline

in full

ting the neckline

notch to

view,

flat

draw

on the

table,

and

a chalklme indica-

seam allowance, from coUar

collar notch.

56

ta-'


Place a folded piece of paper inside the jacket,

large

enough

to reach just

below the

line indicating

the neck area.

be shifted

lapel.

On one side of thejacket place a the lapel

roll line,

ruler

and draw on the paper,

along

at

the extension of the It

all

is

roll line

into

important that thejacket not

once

this guideline

has been

noted.

a short

Trace around the lapel as far as the collar notch. Be careful not to mark the fabric.

57


Gently fold back the seam allowance at the

gorge

line.

Mark the

collar notch,

and the gorge

line.

Pinprick

through the

fabric

and the paper,

along the neckline seam allowance from the roll line to the shoulder seam. Continue a few inches across the shoulder seam.

58


Measure the back neck shoulder to center back. Use a

stitchline ruler

from

which you

can curve, or a tapemeasure standing on end, to get an accurate measurement.

Remove the paper and open out so that is enough room to draft a collar. The information on the paper should look something

Extend the

it

there

like

the markings

in

the

roll line

and the shoulderline so

that they intersect. Label the point of intersection

A.

illustration.

59


B

A • • •

• • • •

Measure up from A to a distance equal the back neck measurement. Label B.

Label

to

pinpricks

E,

the point at which the neckline

meet the

lapel.

Draw a curved line, Draw a straight line

E-F, following the pinpricks.

from

C

to E,

and

a curved line from

A

to D.

B

y • • • • • •

Square out from

collar notch,

'/V

(6

(1.3 cm). Label D.

60

Draw

mm).

Label C. Square out from the center back, 72*

A-D.

a curved

line,

F to G, parallel to line


On

F-G

from which you can square up through D and beyond. Label a point (I) on the line about h" (3.8 cm) above point D. This measurement D-l is the width of the collar at center back above the roll line. line

Draw

find a point (H)

out from point C, a

front of the collar

Draw

y

1

for the

the

(J).

a straight line

top of the

style line for

collar,

from

I

to

J,

as a guide

and then curve the

line

gracefully at the front.

The undercollar is

now

pattern,

C-J-l-H-F-E-C,

complete.

The

collar roll line

Cut out the

is

E-A-D. and check the

collar draft

fit

on

the jacket.

The neck edge of your F-H,

is

now

collar pattern,

C-E-

complete.

61


THE SLEEVE For a

the

tailor,

fall

thing of beauty. There

than simply

fitting

of a well-set sleeve is

is

a

more involved here

the top edge of the sleeve

neatly into the jacket armhole. •

The armhole

A

reinforced

is

to

prevent

stretching.

muslin sleeve

the jacket.

It is

is

prepared and set into fall either forward or

set to

backward at the same angle the arm is held at rest. •

client's

Using the information gathered from the prototype, the garment fabric

muslin sleeve •

is

cut,

prepared, lined,

The sleeve head

is

added

to

and

set.

produce a

graceful draping of fabric out over the

shoulder.

REINFORCING THE ARMHOLES

Place the pocketing

strip

on the wrong

side

of the jacket fabric, flush with the armhole cutting edge.

The curved end of the

strip

is

placed at

the front armhole notch, about 2 h" (6.4 cm) x

Before the sleeve is set, the armhole must be reinforced with a strip of pocketing to ensure against stretching. Cut a crossgrain strip of pocketing about (1.9 cm) wide and 20" (50.8 cm) long. Press it into a curve (as illustrated).

W

162

forward of the center of the underarm. Working from the right side of the jacket, diagonally baste-stitch around the armhole, catching the outer edge of the pocketing strip underneath. Catch only the garment fabric and the pocketing, avoiding the shoulder pad completely.


At a point about

1

V2" (3.8 cm) beyond the

shoulder seam, at the back of the jacket, back-

on the tape and then begin basting

stitch

ripples of

ease into the jacket

continues to about

panel seam,

} 1

h"

(3.8

so that the

fabric. This

tiny

cm) above the side rippled

area

is

at

shoulder-blade level on the jacket, and affords added ease for movement in this area. The total amount of ease should not be more than 3 /s" (1 cm). On gabardines, or other tightly

woven

fabrics,

the ease

amount should

be (6 mm). The ease is basted into the pocketing strip and tacked, top and bottom, so that it will stay where you have placed closer to

l

k"

it.

Continue basting the pocketing strip down to about mid-underarm. The area from about mid-underarm forward about 2 72" (6.4 cm) is not reinforced, so that there will be no restriction of the forward

movement

The

process

of the arm.

ripples

placed at the back of the arm-

hole have brought extra ease beyond, to the ples

and

still

retain

We

can eliminate the ripthe ease by steam pressing

shoulder-blade area.

carefully.

Steam press the rippled area, on the wrong side of the fabric, on a flat surface. Be careful to allow the iron to extend in from the armhole edge no more than about V2" (3.8 cm) or so. A moderate amount of steam, applied flat and on top of the ripples, should shrink them away. 1

you were to press further in on the fabric, while still on a flat surface, you would shrink away the ease which the ripples represent, and If

render the entire process useless.

Keep the iron out and at the edge of the armhole for now. If you have trouble getting the ripples to disappear, you have probably placed too much ease in the area, and are dealing with a tightly woven fabric. If necessary, remove the pocketing strip

and

adjust the

of the problem

sleeve

is

sewn

in,

amount

of ease.

Do take care

before continuing.

Once

the

the ripples will be a permanent

distraction.

Baste around the armhole from the outside

second time, this time catching the edge of the pocketing.

of the jacket a

inner

63


THE MUSLIN SLEEVE

You'll notice

We

been waiting in

we

haven't cut the sleeve yet.

haven't even cut a muslin sleeve. until

We've

the shoulder pads are placed

the jacket, and the armholes are reinforced,

in

order to get an accurate measurement of the

Once we have this measurecan cut a muslin sleeve with the right amount of ease all around.

jacket armholes.

ment,

we

On the right side of the jacket, measure around the armhole cutting edge. It is somewhat difficult to measure a curved area, therefore, do it carefully, and double check your measurement.

Compare

this measurement with that of the edge around the top of your sleeve pattern. Measure both the undersleeve and the topsleeve, being careful not to include your side seam allowances in this measurement. The cutting edge around the top of the A" sleeve pattern should measure 2" (5 cm) to 2'

cutting

64

(5.7

cm) larger than the cutting edge around the

jacket armhole. (For gabardines

woven

fabrics,

more than 2"

and other

tightly

the measurement should not be (5

cm).) This

amount

necessary to allow the sleeve to from the shoulder.

fall

of ease

is

gracefully


If

the top edge of your sleeve pattern is not 2" (5 cm) larger than your armhole

at least

measurement, adjust the sleeve pattern by adding to or subtracting from the top

edge of the seam

topsleeve, tapering to nothing at the side

allowances. The undersleeve

is

not adjusted.

The maximum adjustment possible

at the top of

the topsleeve, before distorting the cap shape, 3

/s"

(1

If

is

cm).

cap is also involve the width of

further adjustment of the sleeve

necessary,

it

must

now

both the topsleeve and undersleeve in order to maintain the overall balance. Again, an adjust-

ment

of

3

/s"

(1

cm)

is

the

maximum

cient,

tern,

this

the

one

adjustment should

answer

is

an

still

entirely

prove

new

insuffi-

sleeve pat-

size larger or smaller.

suggested.

Adjust the pattern according to the using a hip curve to taper your

tions,

If

illustra-

new

lines

gracefully.

Check the sleeve

length, measuring

down

the center of the topsleeve, from stitchline to

hem

fold.

on page sleeve

Using the sleeve measurement taken 16 as a guide, lengthen or shorten the

by cutting the sleeve pattern

mately elbow

level.

Separate

or

at approxi-

overlap the

topsleeve pattern to achieve the correct length;

and then blend the sides of the pattern using a hip curve. The undersleeve pattern is adjusted by the same amount as the topsleeve.

65


1

With the sleeve pattern adjusted, cut the sleeve, sew the undersleeve and topsleeve together, and press the seams open. muslin

On crease

in

the right side of the fabric,

the topsleeve

about elbow

press a

seam from the hem

to

level.

cm) seam allowance to set the sleeve, even if your pattern indicates 5 /s" (1.6 mm). Since we have already checked the armhole fit and the cap ease, this adjustment can be made without concern. It is much easier to work with a 72" (1.3 cm) seam than with a larger amount in a curved area. The bulk in the seam is reduced and the cap ease has more

Use a

room

]

h"

(1.3

to comfortably settle

It

is

best to use a

in.

model form

to set the

With a model form, the entire armhole is and the matching curves at the bottom front of the armhole and sleeve are clearly visible. This area is called the front notch, whether it is notched or not, and it is the first point at which the sleeve and armhole are tacked for a fitting. sleeve. in

view,

66

The point at which the back seam in the sleeve falls on the armholes, is called the back notch.

In

order to determine this point, hold the

and allow it to fall forward until touches the chalk guideline on the pocket. This chalkmark indicates how far forward your arm falls when held naturally. The sleeve must hang in that same position to be without creases when it is worn. Tack the back sleeve at the top,

the

hem

notch into the armhole at the point which allows the sleeve to fall forward to the chalk guideline.


The sleeve length is to some degree a matter of preference. Comfort when wearing the jacket should be your main criterion. The most common gauge is for the sleeve to end just below wrist bone. Adjust the muslin sleeve length, and pin in place. With all the pattern corrections made, the garment

fabric

sleeve can finally be cut with

confidence. Machine-stitch

seam. the

On

and

press

the right side of the

and back notches tentatively tacked, baste around the armhole, distributing the 2" -2' A" (5-5.7 cm) ease around the entire reinforced area of the armhole. Only the 2 h" (6.4 cm) area from center underarm forward is without ease in the sleeve. There may be some front

chalkmark

vent foldlines. The foldline on the of the sleeve seamline. continuation a

hem and

topvent is On the undervent, the foldline

With the

open the underfabric,

is

3

/s"

(

1

cm) from

the edge.

]

puckering at the cap of the muslin sleeve. ever, rectly,

if

How-

you have measured your armhole

these puckers will be easy to control

in

cor-

the

garment fabric. Check the sleeve side view. If there are diagonal creases from the front or back of the sleeve pointing upwards, the sleeve should be set so that it falls a bit more forward or back, until the creases disappear.

When

the sleeve

falls

comfortably without these creases, chalkmark the front

the front

and back notches on the jacket, and notch on the sleeve. These notches

should also be transferred to your pattern. (For plaid sleeves see

page

177.)

67


THE SLEEVE VENTS

Cut a bias piece of pocketing to be used as reinforcement, 5" (12.7 cm) wide and long enough to extend from vent edge to vent edge at the bottom of the sleeve. Stream press the pocketing into a slight curve so that

it

will

lie

Trim the sides of the pocketing very close to

the basting on the undersleeve vent, and about l

h"

(1.3

cm) from the basting on the topvent.

Diagonal-stitch the reinforcement into the sleeve

seam allowance, above the hem.

comfortably at the bottom of the sleeve, on the wrong side of the garment fabric.

Fold and press, first the vents, and then the hem, using the basting lines as guides. Fold the bottom of the topvent into a miter, and press well.

Unless the fabric

is

extremely bulky,

we

suggest that you do not trim the excess fabric

in

catching the pocketing reinforcement, and diagonally baste-stitch across the top

The fold will give a certain amount of appropriate body to the topvent. It will also afford you the option of lengthening the sleeve, should this be desirable sometime in the future. Diagonal-stitch the vents and hem into the pocketing, using silk finishing thread, and slip-

of the reinforcement.

stitch

the corner.

Baste along the chalklines at the bottom of

the sleeve,

68

the sides.


With the topvent about 1/16" longer than the undervent, baste

and then the sleeve seam seam should be about

closed.

W

(

1

first

(1.5

mm)

the vent,

The topsleeve

cm) longer than

the undersleeve. (For gabardine, or other tightly

woven

fabrics,

'/V'

(6

mm)

is

in the top third of the topsleeve seam, and steam press the puckers out, before machinestitching the seam. Press on a flat surface, making sure that the iron extends onto the fabric no n more than about l2 (3.8 cm).

ease

]

1

better.) Place this

Machine-stitch the topseam to '/V (6 mm) below the top of the vent, and press the seam open. Fold and press the seam allowance on a diagonal just above the top of the vent, instead of clipping the seam allowance here and weak-

Back-stitch the tops of the vent together

using

silk

finishing thread.

ready to be

The sleeve

is

now

lined.

ening the area.

69


SLEEVES

WITHOUT VENTS

\f your sleeve does not have a vent, the bottom of the sleeve is reinforced with a bias strip of pocketing which is caught in the sleeve

seam, as

illustrated.

LINING THE SLEEVE

The sleeve lining is cut using the sleeve around the sleeve pattern, cutting the lining larger than the sleeve by the amounts indicated. Note that the vent on the topsleeve is pattern. Trace

eliminated.

70


"

and unseams open.

Machine-stitch the lining topsleeve dersleeve together,

With both the place the

A

two

W

and

press the

lining

and

sleeve inside out,

together, undersleeve to under-

cm) margin of lining should be visible above the sleeve. Beginning about 4" (10.2 cm) from the top of the top seam, diagosleeve.

Reach the lining lining

(

1

.9

and turn the sleeve to you can work on the Fold and baste the lining

into the lining, side,

hem and

so that vent.

along the edge of the undervent (the undervent is

on top when viewed from

hem about

W

this side);

and

fold

(1.9 cm) above the hem of the sleeve. Baste the lining hem about (2.5 cm) above its fold, so that you will be able to

the lining

"

nally baste one layer of lining seam allowance to one layer of sleeve seam allowance. Baste tojust above the top of the vent. Trim the lining to (2.5 cm) below the sleeve hem fold. 1

Repeat the process at the undersleeve seam.

The top

layer of lining

is

now

slashed hor-

about 'A?" (1.3 cm) below the bottom of the lining seam. The slash extends across, just past the edge of the undervent. This frees the lining to be folded along the garment fabric at the edge of the topvent. izontally,

1

lift

it

up

for hand-stitching, shortly.

71


on the diagonal at the the vent and basted in place. The sides

The top of

lining

is

folded

and top of the vent lining are finished with hand back-stitch, using silk thread.

a

Turn the sleeve to the right

side,

and with

the lining settled in place, baste across the topsleeve about 8" (20.3 cm) or so from the top, catching the topsleeve lining. This will hold the lining in place

sleeve

on the

while you right side,

set the sleeve. Press the

on

a

flat

surface, using a

presscloth. Press a light crease in the

from elbow to hem.

Lift

one

12

and hem-stitch the garment fabric hem.

the lining at the hem,

layer of lining into

topseam


SETTING THE SLEEVE

) \ The garment

fabric sleeve

jacket just as the muslin sleeve

set into the

is

was

set.

This time,

however, you have the benefit of the front and back notches as guides. Baste the sleeve using a straight running-

about 'A" (6 mm) long, with spaces of about the same length in between. If your stitches are too small, the ease will have no room to settle in. Do not be discouraged if it takes two stitch

or three attempts to baste the sleeve

hangs without

rippling at the

cap

in

so that

it

when viewed

from the outside.

Once you

hang

are pleased with the

of the

around the armhole a second time, stitching between the first stitches. This lockstitch is done to hold the ease securely in place, and to prevent the possibility of the sleeve shiftsleeve, baste

ing during machine-stitching.

There

is

one more

step

machine-stitching the sleeve. of the fabric, steam press shrink

away

on

a

take

to

On

flat

before

wrong

side

surface,

and

the

the ripples at the top of the sleeve

seam allowance. Be careful to press in from the armhole edge no more than one inch or so. If you steam press further, you will be shrinking the ease

in

fully

created.

which you have so careYou need the ease. Shrink away

the sleeve cap

only the

ripples.

Tuck the shoulder pad out of the way and machine-stitch around the armhole, catching only the garment fabric of the sleeve and armhole, and the pocketing reinforcement strip.

173


TACKING THE ARMHOLES

The sleeve

is

set,

but the shoulder and

needs some attention. The jacket lining is loose at the back armhole, and the shoulder pad needs to be tacked into the armhole seam allowance. With this completed, you'll be able to attach the sleeve head, and armhole area

still

around the armhole towards the sleeve seam. Baste from the front notch up and over the shoulder, to the end of the shoulder pad. As you baste from the front notch to the beginning of the shoulder pad, catch the lining. As you continue up and over the shoulder, catch one layer of the shoulder pad.

close the sleeve lining.

With one hand inside the jacket, giving shape to the shoulder area, smooth the fabric

On the inside of thejacket back, still

the lining

is

loose at the armhole. Baste from the under-

arm up the back of the armhole, as far as the lining shoulder seam. Use a large back-stitch, and place a bit of ease in the back lining as you baste.

Shoulder pad, jacket

allowance.

74

lining,

pocketing,

and jacket, all meet in the armhole seam allowance. Baste around the armhole, tacking all these layers together, so that the shoulder seam becomes a firm unshifting line. Tack first, the area of seam allowance untouched by the shoulder pad. The stitch is a diagonal-stitch, 7s" (3 mm) beyond the machine stitchline, in the seam sleeve,


you are working with thejacket inside be aware that the shoulder pad is now

Since out,

curving

in a direction

when

opposite to that which

it

worn. Before you baste the shoulder pad into the armhole seam allowance, force the shoulder pad into the correct curve. Experiment, by turning the jacket right side out, in order to be sure of the proper

will

take

thejacket

is

direction of the curve. It is not necessary to baste through the entire shoulder pad. One layer of the padding caught in the seam allowance is sufficient.

If

pad and lining are with the garment fabric seam

necessary, the shoulder

now trimmed flush

allowance. Be careful not to trim

away

edge of seam allowance from the back seam. ity

If

you

do,

you

the small

side panel

eliminate the possibil-

of ever letting thejacket out in this area.

75


THE SLEEVE HEAD

The sleeve head

is

a strip of cotton

ding, covered with muslin bias

and with

canvas interfacing. Itsjob

of the sleeve a

bit,

and

is

to

fill

wad-

a strip of

out the cap

to create a graceful

fall

of

The head is inserted into the sleeve with the canvas facing up, and hand-stitched into the

lining

is

now

brought up to be

basted along the armhole edge, just covering the basting already there. Fold back about '/V (6 mm) at the top of the lining and check that the

seams

in

the lining are aligned with the seams

the sleeve.

A

of the sleeve,

wear. hole

176

twisted lining will distort the

and

Slip-stitch

will

in

hang

be very uncomfortable to

the sleeve lining into the arm-

seam allowance using

silk

allowance, from the front notch, over the shoulder and down to about 2" (5 cm) below the

back notch.

the fabric at the top of the sleeve.

The sleeve

seam allowance using silk thread. Place the edge head even with the edge of the seam

of the

finishing thread.


THE PLAID SLEEVE

you are working with a plaid fabric, the must be cut so that the horizontal design on the sleeve match those across the jacket If

sleeve lines

(Because of the ease

front.

in

the sleeve cap, the

match jacket back.) on the those With the muslin sleeve well set, draw two or three horizontal guidelines on the front of the horizontal lines

on the

sleeve will not

muslin to indicate the placement of the horizonbars of the plaid design. Transfer these guide-

tal

to the front of

lines

pattern,

and use them

BUTTONS

your sleeve front paper as a layout guide.

AND BUTTONHOLES

The choice of buttons jacket should be

in

for a

fine tailored

keeping with the high quality

of the rest of the garment.

horn or bone buttons, close in color to the jacket fabric, are most traditional. Shiny plasDull

buttons are glaringly inappropriate on fine

tic

fabric.

The jacket button ton

is

is

30-line, the sleeve but-

24-line.

The top buttonhole on ajacket which has a should be placed about 5 /s" (1.6 cm) below the bottom of the lapel roll line. If the button lapel,

is

placed lower or higher, the lapel

roll

just

will

begin to

above whatever point that happens

to

be.

177


The buttonhole begins

in

from the edge of

one half 'A" (6 mm).

the finished jacket a distance equal to the diameter of the button, plus

The

size of

the jacket buttonhole

equal to

is

the diameter of the button, plus a "small" 'A' (6

mm). If

you choose

to

add a

lapel buttonhole,

it

should be cut parallel to the top of the lapel. The buttonhole on a peak lapel will, therefore, slant

upward.

On

a square lapel

it

down-

will slant

ward. For a

buttonhole

flat is

button,

the

size

of the jacket

equal to the diameter of the butmm). If your button is

ton, plus a "small" 'A" (6

not

flat,

the length of the buttonhole should

equal one-half the circumference of the button.

On

the sleeve, real buttonholes are a

dis-

custom touch. The buttonholes begin 1'A" (3.2 cm) above the hem fold, and h" (1.3 cm) away from the fold at the edge of the topvent. If three buttons are used on the sleeve, tinctly

]

the buttonholes are placed

3

A"

(1

.9

cm) apart.

If

four buttons are preferred, the buttonholes are

placed

5

/s" (1.6 cm) apart, so that the buttons be almost touching. The size of the sleeve buttonhole is equal to one half the diameter of the button, plus l&" will

]

(3

mm).

Handworked buttonholes, bound buttonholes, are

gimp, or

A"

the end.

The buttonhole is placed about cm) below the top of the lapel and V2"

1

in

reinforced with a

in tailoring. Machine buttonholes but are not nearly as beautiful.

78

The length of the buttonhole is between (1.9 cm) and 1" (2.5 cm) depending on the width of the lapel, and since it will not actually be used for a button, there is no keyhole cut at 3

custom touch

work

as well,

'A?" (

1

.3

(3.8

cm)

from the edge.

On

the

wrong

side of the lapel,

about

(2.5 cm) below the buttonhole, a thread loop

1

is

sewn. This serves to hold the stem of a small flower boutonniere.


CONSTRUCTING THE BUTTONHOLES A

o

The Handworked Buttonhole buttonhole through the jacket front, the canvas, and the facing. At the end of the buttonhole closest to the jacket edge, cut a

jacket fabric

small keyhole.

buttonhole.

the

Snip

away

Trim

the canvas around the very

Insert a

about

'/i6

Peel

ff

threaded needle, eye first, under the and the canvas, and have it exit (1.5

mm)

away about

edge of the buttonhole, so that stray white canvas threads do not find their way into the

thinner than the

buttonhole

of the

layer at the

end

1

before the end of the '/2

ff

(3.8

cm) of the outer

end is the peeled end

of the gimp, so that the

threads. These stitches will not be seen in the

rest; and insert gimp into the thread loop. You needn't cut a small piece of gimp for the buttonhole. Use the end of the entire yard or so you have purchased, and cut the gimp only

finished buttonhole.

after the

stitches.

Using

silk

finishing

thread,

blanket-stitch

around the buttonhole to control the fraying

Pull

the sharp end of the needle,

thread ends, and

draw

buttonhole

is

complete.

and the

the gimp through the

Anchored in this position, the gimp will lie on top of the buttonhole, right at the edge, fabric.

while the buttonhole the gimp to will

fall

is

into the

stitched. slit

in

the

Do

not allow

fabric, as this

produce a wider opening than you want. Cut one yard of silk buttonhole twist, wax

it

and press the twist between two sheets of The heat will melt the wax into the thread and give added body. well,

paper.

it

79


II

The buttonhole

twist

is

used as a single

When you

have

stitched

around the

entire

buttonhole, cut the gimp and bring the end

thread, knotted at the bottom.

the base of the buttonhole. Hide the knot be-

under the canvas and out, as you did before, using the threaded needle. Bartack at the base of the buttonhole and

tween the

secure the stitch on the inside.

Hold the jacket so that the keyhole buttonhole

is

at the top,

in

first

in

the

stitch at

layers of fabric.

For each

thread

and take the

end of the movement, across the the buttonhole and up under the stitch,

bring the double

a clockwise

bottom of needle.

The ends

gimp are pulled until a between the buttonhole and the gimp. If you snip the gimp close to the fabric, the ends will disappear under the ripple

appears

of the

in

the fabric

canvas.

Whip-stitch

the

after the final pressing.

Place the knot,

duces, right

on top

which this movement progimp with a firm pull of

of the

the thread.

around the buttonhole, encircling the gimp with thread. The stitches should be about '/s" (3 mm) deep and quite close to one another, Stitch

but not necessarily touching.

At the keyhole, the stitches should fan out, the outer ends of the stitches being a bit farther apart than the inner ends.

80

buttonhole closed

until


The Bound Keyhole Buttonhole

^ Draw

the buttonhole placement

jacket canvas using the

and for placement handworked buttonhole. length

line

on the

same dimensions for as were used for the

<D)

Working from the canvas side, slash through the center of the buttonhole. Cut out the keyhole, but be careful of cutting too close to the stitches. Cut a prong at the straight end of the buttonhole.

3

^O:-

Draw a line /&" (3 mm) above and 7s" mm) below the placement line, and round off

Trim the canvas

]

(3

the

end

leave the canvas

in

in

but

the buttonhole,

the prong.

of the line closest to the jacket front

edge.

Whip-stitch a piece of gimp around the

buttonhole

inside of the

basting thread, will

Cut a

wide and placement

(5

garment

if

you

in

like,

You may use

since these stitches

the finished buttonhole.

fabric 2" (5

cm) cm) longer than the buttonhole

bias patch of

2"

not be seen

stitchline.

line.

6\

Bring the bias patch through the button-

hole to the

On

wrong

side of the jacket.

the right side of the jacket front, center

and baste the

bias patch over the buttonhole

markings.

On Working from the canvas side, and using a small machine stitch, sew around the buttonhole top, keyhole and bottom. Do not sew across the straight end of the buttonhole.

the right side, prick-stitch around the

buttonhole stitches are

jacket front,

using

silk

finishing

thread.

The

taken just beyond the gimp on the

and should be

small

enough

to

be

barely visible.

8


>

<

Working from the

right side, slash

through

the center of the buttonhole, snipping the facing fabric.

Trim the bias

hole

patch, and

on the wrong

press the button-

side.

On

wrong

side extend the slash,

cut prongs at either

end of the buttonhole.

the

and

o Place the jacket facing over the buttonhole,

and baste around the buttonhole.

Fold under, and baste the facing around the edge of the buttonhole. Prick-stitch along the

folded edge, using silk-finishing thread.

The

Bound Buttonhole

Bias

If

Cut a

wide and placement

Draw the

bias patch of

2"

(5

garment

fabric 2" (5

cm)

cm) longer than the buttonhole

line.

line on the same dimensions for placement as were used for the

buttonhole placement

jacket canvas, using the

and for handworked buttonhole.

length

Draw mm) below 82

a line '/s" (3

mm) above and

the placement

line.

]

l&"

(3

Press a bias strip of very thin fusible to the

center of the patch.


Press the

seam open along the top and

bottom of the buttonhole.

On

the right side of the jacket front, center

and baste the

bias patch over the buttonhole

marking.

I Bring the bias patch through the button-

hole to the

wrong

side of the jacket.

II

Working from the canvas side, and using a machine stitch, sew a rectangle completely around the buttonhole placement line. small

Working from the right side of the jacket, and using silk finishing thread, stitch on the buttonhole seamline top and bottom. The piping should be evenly distributed at top and bottom.

From the canvas center of the buttonhole

end.

side,

slash

through the

and cut prongs

at either

At either end of the buttonhole, tack the prong into the bias patch.

The facing

side of the

pleted following instructions

buttonhole

on page

is

com-

182.

183


SETTING THE BUTTONS

\,

To mark the button placement on a breasted jacket, place the

two

single-

fronts of thejacket

together, right sides touching.

Place a pin through the keyhole of the buttonhole to mark the button placement on the left

Marking the button placement is

somewhat more

since there are both buttons

for a double-

complicated,

and buttonholes on

The buttonholes are placed on the

right

side of a double-breasted jacket using the

same

measurements as were used

84

away from

thejacket edge.

for

the

single-

closed,

and the center

front

guidelines matching, place a pin through the top

button mark on the right side of thejacket. This pin will indicate the placement of the

tonhole which

both sides of thejacket.

breasted jacket.

line

With thejacket

side of thejacket.

breasted jacket

The placement of the buttons on the right is determined by measuring from the keyhole to the center front line, and applying this measurement from the center front side of the jacket

jacket.

It

is

needed on the

also indicates the

left

one

but-

side of the

placement of the one

button which must be placed on the inside of the right side of thejacket.


After the final pressing of the jacket, the

layers of the fabric,

and

therefore,

do not show

double their thread by placing two strands through the eye of the needle (as

through the facing. The needle is brought through each hole in the button twice, anchoring each side of the button with four strands of thread. A 'A" (6 mm) shank is created by holding the button away from the jacket as you

illustrated)â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a challenge, indeed. This allows the

stitch.

buttons are strand of

sewn

double buttonhole twist

to the jacket using a

waxed, pressed,

silk

thread.

Most

needle to

tailors

move

to different points along the

length of the thread as

you sew, thus reducing

the probability of the thread being weakened, by

being pulled by the needle, over and over again,

same spot. The stitches taken on the front of the jacket attach the button, do not go through all the

at the

to

The

completed, the thread is wound around the shank several times. Four knots are then stitched at the base of the shank, catching the thread which comes from each of the four holes in the button. A button secured to the jacket in this way is not likely to be lost without warning. stitches

85


FINAL PRESSING Following the pressing techniques outlined is now carefully and comThe pressing is done before the buttons have been sewn on, to permit the iron greater access. The pressing proceeds step by

on page

8,

the jacket

pletely pressed.

step, as follows:

The underside of one lapel, the underside of the collar, and the underside of the sec-

1.

ond

On

lapel.

the Inside of the Jacket The

2.

facing,

from the bottom of the

hem on one

the

lapel to

below the waist, first thejacket, and then on the other. Be careful to use a tailor's ham to press shaped areas lining

of thejacket.

The

3.

4. Across the

and the on one side of

lining in the chest area

on both

sides of

hem on

the lining side, from

one

side of thejacket to the other.

side of the jacket;

On

the Outside of the Jacket

Each front of the jacket from shoulder hem, and the side seam. 6. Thejacket back from shoulder to hem. 5.

to

thejacket.

Sleeves

On

7.

the right side of the

fabric,

the front

seam, and the undersleeve.

8.

With the sleeve board

inside thejacket, the

11. The right side of each

lapel.

hem, creasing the elbow to hem. underarm area.

topsleeve, from biceps to

sleeve lightly from

9.

The

lining

10. Holding a press mitt inside the shoulder of thejacket, press each shoulder

cap on the

86

and sleeve

right side of the fabric.

12. With the lapel and collar lying flat over the pressing board, press the gorge line, and a light crease at the neck edge of the gorge line.


THE UNLINED JACKET The

lining

in

a

tailored jacket

serves to

the jacket; layers of canvas, pocketing,

loose-fitting jacket

with

little

the absence of a

In

struction details

must be

by means other than a

dart shaping.

lining,

full lining. In

concealed

the unlined

jacket presented here:

extended to conceal the

The shoulder pads are covered by a ing yoke at the back, and by the

tended facing in the front. Even when the rest of the jacket

is

lin-

ex-

unlined,

the sleeves are lined for the wearer's comfort, and to control excessive wrinkling in the sleeve.

the inner con-

tidied up, or

is

canvas.

conceal the construction details on the inside of

and cotton wadding. There are, however, some unlined versions of the tailored jacket that have been designed especially for tropical climates. The version demonstrated here is most suitable for a

The facing

In

presenting the construction of thisjacket,

we will assume that the reader is familiar with the tailoring techniques demonstrated previously in

the construction of the classic jacket.

and seam allowances are finished so that there are no raw edges of fabric visible on the inside of the jacket.

• All darts

The inner construction

details

of the

jacket pockets are covered with garment fabric patches.

DARTS

IN

THE UNLINED JACKET

an unlined jacket, the darts are not They are pressed toward the side seam, and are secured in place by a row of tiny In

slashed open.

on the right side of the fabric. seam allowances are also finished with Hong Kong piping (see page 187).

prick stitches All

87


POCKETS

In

IN

THE UNLINED JACKET

an unlined jacket the most convenient The patch is the patch pocket.

pocket to use

is simply tacked on to the front of the and does not involve construction that would be visible, and therefore necessary to hide, on the inside of the jacket. Other pockets, however, can be adjusted slightly to suit the unlined jacket. We'll demon-

pocket

jacket

strate

these modifications

in

the double-piping

pocket.

With the

darts

the pocket opening tailor's

chalk

and

a hip

pocket opening on a

tween 572"

front seams sewn, draw on the jacket front, using curve ruler. The hip-level

and line

woman's

jacket runs be-

to 5 3 /4" (14 to 14.6

cm)

in

length.

T Cut one piece of garment fabric as a patch back of each pocket, straight grain, h" cm) wider than your pocket opening and (3.8 about 7'/2* (19.1 cm) long. This patch will be used on the inside of the

for the

jacket as a backing for the pocket.

x

1

rr

Check the length of the patch by placing 3 fa" (1.9 cm) above your pocket opening line. The bottom edge of the patch should extend no lower than the top of the hem,

the top edge

when

the

hem

is

turned up.

Trim the length of the patch,

and round off the two corners seam of the jacket.

88

if

necessary,

closest to the side


-4

/

\

*

\

r\

J

on

Place the wider piece of piping face down the right side of the jacket front, nap up. The

top edge of the piping should be flush with the pocket opening line. Baste very close to the edge, catching the piping, the jacket, and the pocketing patch.

Cut one piece of pocketing for each pocket, h" (1.3 cm) larger than the gar-

straight grain,

ment

fabric

]

patch

all

around.

Turn to page 84, and continue the conof the pocket following instructions

struction

Cut two pieces of garment fabric, straight grain, nap down, to be used as piping. Each piece of piping is cut 2" (5 cm) longer than the h" (3.8 cm) pocket opening. One piece is 2" wide, the other is (5 cm) wide.

through to the bottom of page 85. Press back a 'A" (6 mm) hem on the bottom edge of the bottom piping, and machmetopstitch the folded edge to the pocketing patch.

]

1

On garment

the

wrong

fabric

side of the jacket, center the

patch on top of the pocket. The

top edge of the garment fabric patch should be at the

top edge of the piping. Baste the patch

place around the edges, catching

all

in

layers of the

pocket.

Place the pocketing patch side of the jacket,

its

top edge

above the pocket opening

line.

on the wrong

W

(1.9

cm)

Catch only the pocket and not the jacket in these stitches. Trim the pocketing even with the garment fabric patch.

89


N.

Machine-stitch

on the pocketing

patch, as

close as possible to the jacket at the top of the

pocket opening.

Stitch

opening and pivot prong area.

the length of the pocket

at either

end

to catch the

Cut a bias strip of lining about " (2.5 cm) wide, and long enough to extend around three sides of the pocket. This lining strip will be used as a piping finish around the edge of the gar1

ment

fabric

patch on the

wrong

side of the

jacket.

Because the edge of the patch closest to the front will eventually be covered by the jacket facing, the piping is placed only along three edgesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; unnecessary bulk being undesirable. Using a '/V' (6 mm) seam, machine-stitch the lining strip along the edge of the patch.

On

the pocket edge

which

is

closest to the

center front of the jacket, continue stitching out

from the prong and down the edge of the patch, about V2" (1.3 cm) from the edge.

Bring the piping to the pocketing side of the patch,

and

fold the

raw edge

under.

Slip-stitch

along the folded edge of the piping, on the pocketing side of the patch. Press the piping.

The pocket

90

is

complete.


THE FACING

In

added facing

IN

THE UNLINED JACKET

an unlined jacket, the facing takes on the concealing the entire canvas. The

role of is

cut using the

same dimensions

as for the

canvas, however, the darts are eliminated

in

the

facing.

The facing essentially as

it

in

was

an unlined jacket in

is

handled

the lined jacket. The inner

edges of both canvas and facing are basted together, and finished with a Hong Kong piping.

COVERING SHOULDER PADS UNLINED JACKET

Since the jacket

pads

will

is

unlined,

the shoulder

be covered by a double-layered

lining

IN

THE

To create the yoke, fold a piece of maintaining the grainline as

lining,

illustrated.

yoke, on either side of the jacket back. The front of the shoulder pads will be covered by the

extended facing.

19


Using the jacket back pattern as guide, cut back, using the

sions indicated.

on the jacket same placement dimensions as

Baste the second lining yoke

the lining larger than the pattern by the dimenthe

first.

Above

the diagonal fold on each lining

yoke, place a second

row

stitches should remain at least 2"

the jacket shoulder edge, (10.2 cm)

away from

These cm) below

of basting. (5

and

at

least

the armhole, to leave

4"

room

for the shoulder pad.

Cut two of these folded each

pieces,

one

for

side of the jacket back.

Fold back the top layer of lining,

and baste

the underlayer to the jacket along the shoulder and armhole, about 1" (2.5 cm) from the edge. Trim the underlayer of lining flush with the jacket at the shoulder

on the jacket should be " (2.5 cm) above the back. The jacket at the shoulder, and h" (1 .3 cm) beyond Place

one

lining

of the lining yokes 1

]

the jacket at the side seam. Baste the lining to the jacket along the

diagonal

192

fold.

and armhole.


The shoulder pad

is

attached to the jacket

on page 140. In an unlinedjacket, the back of the shoulder pad is placed between the two layers of the lining

following instructions beginning

Machine-stitch the underlayer of lining to the jacket along

the

shoulder and armhole,

about 'A" (6 mm) from the edge. Your on the armhole should stop at least 2"

yoke.

stitches (5

cm)

above the side seam stitchline. Cut a h" (3.8 cm) deep slash into the underlayer of lining, just below your stitches in ]

1

the armhole. This slash will eventually free the

which is below it from being caught armhole seam when the sleeve is set. lining

in

the

The sleeve unlinedjacket as

is it

lined

was

in

and attached

to the

the lined jacket (page

170).

yoke above the slash is caught in The facing and canvas, of course, are not caught in the seam.

The

lining

the armhole seam.

When lining

is

ance.

In

the back side seams are sewn, the

folded

and basted

to the

seam

the finished jacket, the lining

here with a prick

is

allow-

secured

stitch.

After tacking the armhole (page

attaching the sleeve head (page

1

1

74),

and

76), the sleeve

lining is brought up and attached along the armhole. The folded edge of the lining yoke is

tacked along the side seam allowance.

93


THE PEPLUM JACKET A peplum is a flounce, or short flared attachment at the waist of a garment. We have chosen to demonstrate a pattern in which the peplum begins at the front princess line,

rather than at the center front. This style

provides for a continuous grainline

down

the

front of the jacket; places the straight of the grain at the center

back of the peplum to prevent

and places the bias of the seam for best draping over the hip. The shaping in the peplum is created by darts at the side seam and at the back princess line. This peplum jacket will also include; stretching from sitting;

peplum

at the side

canvas interlining Peplum reinforcement Mandarin collar

• Full • •

If

one

in

you would like to create this pattern from which the peplum extends to center front,

simply; •

Extend your jacket front pattern piece from waist to hem at center front. Measure the width of the extension, excluding

94

seam allowances.

Cut from the peplum pattern piece, center front, an amount equal to this width. Place the center back seamline on the fold, straight grain, and cut the peplum.


THE FULL CANVAS INTERLINING

A

full

canvas

interlining

provide uniform body

form vas

fitting.

is

used,

canvas

in

is

often used to

jackets that are very

For this purpose a lightweight can-

made

interlining

of wool, cotton, is

and hair. Full and heavy

also used in coats

warmth. If warmth is your aim, use average-weight canvas interfac-

jackets to provide extra

ing.

Using the major pattern pieces for front and back of the jacket, cut the canvas 3 /s" cm) (

larger

than the pattern

all

around. Canvas

1

facing

fer

all

not used

is

grainline

is

in

the

sleeve.

The same

followed for jacket and canvas. Trans-

pattern markings onto the canvas.

and canvas piece toand smoothing the fabric gently downwards. The basting should be about '/V (6 mm) inside the seam allowance, and above the hem. Trim the excess canvas at the edge of the Baste each

fabric

gether, beginning at the top,

fabric.

inter-

95


THE PEPLUM

7

Baste in

down

the center of each peplum dart,

order to control the

two

layers of fabric while

the darts are being sewn.

On

the

wrong

side of the fabric, press a

crease along the basted center line of each dart.

Machine-stitch the dart, tapering gracefully at the bottom.

open along the center basted canvas very close to the stitch-

Slash the dart line,

and

trim the

line.

Press the darts open.

96

Trim about half of the canvas peplum hem.


THE PEPLUM REINFORCEMENT

Using the peplum pattern as guide, cut a

cm) above the pattern (2.5 cm) shorter than the patand even with the pattern at

piece of canvas V2"

hem

foldline,

1"

tern at the sides,

(1

.3

the top. This will serve as a canvas reinforcement for the

peplum.

Cut the darts

Draw

on the peplum canvas reinforcement; one at the center back, and one at the center of each side. The side darts on the peplum reinforcement should fall between the darts on the peplum pattern. Draw the darts 3 (1.9 cm) wide and 3" (7.6 cm) long. three darts

W

Cut the darts

out.

out.

Using the peplum reinforcement as a guide cut a second reinforcement,

2V2"

(6.4

and the

on the

cm) smaller than the

sides,

and even

W

first

bias this time, at the

bottom

at the top.

Draw two (1.9 cm) darts on this second canvas reinforcement, evenly placed between the existing darts. The darts are 3" (7.6 cm) long.

The darts on both the canvas reinforcements are closed by butting the edges together and zigzag stitching across.

97


Baste the

two reinforcement

Pad-stitch the

pieces to-

gether along the edge of reinforcement #2.

second reinforcement to the

first.

ASSEMBLING THE PEPLUM JACKET

baste peplum to jacket matching seams

main pieces of thejacket front and back have been basted together and machinestitched, the peplum is stitched to the jacket along the waistline. The darts on the peplum are aligned with thejacket side seam, and the back After the

princess

98

line,

respectively.


The

waistline

The peplum

seam