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Economic Focus is an Arab-British Chamber of Commerce publication. Editorial Team Abdeslam El-Idrissi Cliff Lawrence David Morgan Dr Yasmin Husein Arab-British Chamber of Commerce 43 Upper Grosvenor Street London W1K 2NJ Tel: +44 (0) 20 7235 4363 Fax: +44 (0) 20 7245 6688

Production & Design Distinctive Publishing Unit 6b, Floor B, Milburn House Dean Street, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 1LE Tel: 0845 884 2385 Arabic pages designed by Andrew Smith


CONTENTS Focus Reports

Using the Cloud and Mobility to Increase Business


Palestine Exchange – a Model of Resilience


Focus Interview: British Arab Commercial Bank

The Innovation Revolution: Debates in Davos



UK Budget: Update on Tax on Property for Non-UK Residents


Distinctive Publishing Tel: 0845 884 2343

Hidden Treasures of Oman


Education Feature – A Special Report



Dubai International Financial Centre Tenancy Contracts

Chamber News


Chamber Activities


Focus Interview: Garth Coates Solicitors


New Members


International Arbitration and Arab Business


Arabic Section


Distinctive Publishing or Arab-British Chamber of Commerce cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies that may occur, individual products or services advertised or late entries. No part of this publication may be reproduced or scanned without prior written permission of the publishers and ArabBritish Chamber of Commerce.

Quarterly British Economic Survey 50

ISSN No: ISSN 1751-4339

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PALESTINE EXCHANGE – A MODEL OF RESILIENCE Economic Focus interviews Mr Ahmad Aweidah, CEO of Palestine Exchange, about the successes of the exchange since it was founded in 1995 and the prospects for the Palestinian economy.

Please briefly explain the background to the establishment of the Palestine Exchange and its development over the years. The Palestine Exchange (PEX) was established in 1995 as a private shareholding company and was transformed into a public shareholding company in February 2010 in accordance with the principles of transparency and good governance. The PEX was fully automated upon establishment making it the first fully-automated stock exchange in the Arab world and the only Arab exchange that is publicly traded and fully owned by the private sector. The PEX operates under the supervision of the Palestinian Capital Market Authority. As of 28 January 2014, there are 49 listed companies on the PEX with market capitalisation of about $3.5 billion across five main economic sectors: banking and financial services, insurance, investments, industry and services.

PEX Milestones 2013

December: S&P created a stand alone index for Palestine

You report that “Palestine has been one of the fastest growing economies in the MENA region over the past five years, achieving GDP growth averaging 8.4%.” How has it managed to achieve this and what role does the PEX play in this success? The Palestinian economy continues to demonstrate exceptional endurance and adaptation capabilities and resilience despite political challenges; Palestine has a strong and vibrant private sector which is a major driver of economic growth; it also has a well regulated and sophisticated financial system and a modern capital market. A young and well educated population and a substantially wealthy Diaspora augur well for the future of the independent Palestinian State. Economic growth was mainly driven by the PA’s spending which was financed through substantial donor assistance and a relative easing of Israeli restrictions on trade and people as well as private sector investments that were mainly confined to the real estate sector.

September: The highest trading value in one session of $48.5m June: MSCI created a stand alone index for Palestine 2012

Listed company


Listed a record seven new companies in one year


Public Shareholding corporate identity


Ranked 33rd among International Stock Exchanges and second in the region in terms of investor protection


Launch of E-Trade Service


Launch of the Investor Education Programme


The Al-Quds Index increased by 306% compared to 2004, recording the highest among the world stock exchanges


First trading session (18 February)


Established as a private shareholding company

GDP (USD million) Growth
















Data includes West Bank and Gaza and excludes those parts of Jerusalem which were annexed after the 1967 occupation.

The financial services sector constitutes a huge potential for the Palestinian economy and has grown significantly in the past few years. The sector includes banking services, securities and capital markets, insurance, mortgage financing, leasing, and microfinance among other services. However, the two key players in this sector are banking and securities services. The PEX drives economic growth given the fact that many of the leading listed companies on the PEX are profitable and demonstrate consistent progress in their business and financial



performance as well as their stock prices; this is a main driving force of economic growth.

How does the exchange function given the exceptional conditions facing the Palestinians and their economy? How is it set up and regulated? The PEX is the national stock exchange in Palestine. It strives to provide an enabling environment for trading that is characterised by equity, transparency and competence, serving and maintaining the interest of investors. The PEX is very appealing in terms of market capitalisation; it is financially sound, and well capitalised to maintain a steady business in a volatile world, as it passed with the minimum level of impact of the global financial crisis compared to other MENA exchanges. The PEX is supervised by the Palestine Capital Market Authority (PCMA), which was established in 2005, through modern laws and regulations. The PCMA aims to create an enabling investment environment by achieving capital stability and growth as well as organising, developing and monitoring the capital market in Palestine while protecting the rights of investors.

What are the main companies listed on the Exchange? The top 10 listed companies by market capitalisation as of 30 January 2014 are listed below: Company


Market Capitalisation (US$)

1 Palestine Telecommunications



2 Bank of Palestine



3 Palestine Development & Investment



4 Wataniya Palestine Mobile Telecommunications



5 Palestine Electric



6 Palestine Islamic Bank



7 The National Bank



8 Palestine Real Estate Investment



9 Birzeit Pharmaceuticals



10 Arab Islamic Bank



Palestine has been described as ‘the investment opportunity for 2014’. Could you please describe the main areas of this opportunity? We were mainly referring to the capital market sector which is now achieving a series of important economic breakthroughs that could lead its growth and accelerate it strongly. The announcement by S&P Dow Jones in December 2013 that it has added coverage of Palestine to its suite of frontier market indices is a critical step forward for potential inclusion in the S&P frontier market index. MSCI also announced in June

2013 that it created a Stand Alone Country Index for Palestine for potential inclusion in its MSCI Frontier Index. The FTSE Indices have also informed the PEX that in 2014, the FTSE will be reviewing the eligibility of including Palestine as a frontier market within the FTSE Country Classification Scheme. These developments resulted from the progress that the PEX has achieved in the past few years in its regulatory environment as well as its robustness in overcoming various challenges. This was also led by the high transparency that the PEX enjoys coupled with its openness and equal opportunities and treatment for local and international investors. Palestine has a friendly and encouraging legal and regulatory environment visà-vis foreign investment in the stock exchange with no capital limitation and no FX risk. Another important development is that it is anticipated that the Palestine Capital Market Authority (PCMA) will be given full membership of IOSCO soon, reinforcing confidence in the efficiency and safety of transactions in Palestine. The robustness and transparency of regulation has been a defining characteristic for the PEX over the past 17 years. IOSCO recognition of the PCMA will further strengthen thrust, which is so important to the continuing growth of our exchange. Moreover, the PEX offers a rewarding cash dividend yield; 6.53% over the past five years, one of the highest in the world and relatively low P/E Ratio compared to other MENA exchanges. We believe these developments definitely qualify Palestine to be seen as a booming horizon.

What are the key sectors to watch from an investor’s point of view? The services sector is an important part of the Palestinian economy and its contribution to GDP in 2013 was 20%. The financial services sector in particular is fast-growing, with enormous potential for further growth as it overcomes the physical barriers of movement and political challenges. Compared with other sectors it offers remarkable growth prospects for institutional investors and the Palestinian Diaspora worldwide. The financial services sector is expected to drive economic growth supported by a liberal trade regime, a sound financial regulatory and monitoring system, unique expertise in crisis and risk management and good value for money. continued page 6


from page 5

What are the current levels of bilateral trade and investments between the UK and Palestine?

What was the purpose of the Palestine Capital Markets Day Roadshow’s visit to London in January?

It is more a case of foreign investment flows steered by institutional investments from the UK to Palestine and mainly in listed stocks.

The roadshow at large aims to increase exports of the Palestinian services sector by promoting potential investment opportunities in the Palestinian economy and in listed stocks to attract new institutional investors located in the UK to the stock market.

% from total investments at the PEX

% from foreign investments at the PEX







# of Stocks




Value of Stocks


UK investments at 31/12/2013 # of Investors

During the recent road show, our delegation held over 30 meetings with London-based international investment funds and many influential analysts. There is a clear recognition that Palestine is on the threshold of strong growth. This is the third London roadshow that we have held. Each time we meet London institutional investors and analysts there is a greater understanding of the opportunities presented by Palestine.

65.89% 59.23%


50.0% 40.77% 40.0%



Do you think there will be any tangible outcomes from the visit? We are positive that it will pay off at some point. This kind of effort is cumulative and it is important to maintain a constant effort with international investors.




Following your visit, how would you assess the level of interest from British companies in investing in the Palestinian economy?

Volume Palestinian

Value Foreign

In December S&P Dow Jones decided to add coverage of Palestine to its suite of frontier market indices. Why was this described as a “critical step forward”? What will this do for boosting investor confidence in the market?

In December S&P Dow Jones decided to add coverage of Palestine to its suite of frontier market indices. Why was this described as a “critical step forward”? What will this do for boosting investor confidence in the market? The announcement by S&P Dow is a critical step forward for potential inclusion in the S&P frontier market index. The establishment of the new index is evidence that there is significant interest in investment in Palestine. The Stand Alone Palestine BMI index achieved a 41% cumulative returns since inception a year ago which compares favourably with the Pan-Arab composition Index at about 24.5% and the S&P500 Composition Index at about 30.2%. This will definitely boost investor confidence in the market and encourage liquidity flow into the exchange.

What are the future prospects for the exchange and the wider Palestinian economy? The PEX corporate strategy is to: l

Strengthen market governance in keeping with best practice.


Increase market depth and expand the investor base.


Including the PEX in the MENA frontier market indices such as those provided by MSCI, S&P and FTSE.


Diversify sources of income with a focus on post trade services.


Obtain full membership of the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE).


Promote the development of effective, best practices for corporate governance and investor relations in Palestinian companies.

Palestine’s economy will continue to achieve strong reliable growth and if there were to be a political settlement along the lines of Kerry’s plan, the economy will show a sustainable jump in its growth potential. For further information about the Palestine Exchange see:


BACB – TRADE AND PROJECT FINANCE FOR ARAB MARKETS Economic Focus speaks to Mr Nabil Frik, Head of MEA Markets, British Arab Commercial Bank.

What are the origins of British Arab Commercial Bank (BACB)? BACB was established in London as UBAF Bank Ltd, a consortium between Midland Bank plc, the Libyan Government and other Arab state banks. In 1995, HSBC acquired Midland Bank and UBAF London became British Arab Commercial Bank. In 2010 Libyan Foreign Bank bought out HSBC and became the main shareholder with the balance held by Banque Extérieure d’Algérie (Algeria) and Banque Centrale Populaire (Morocco).

The bank is a leading provider of trade finance for the Arab markets. In which markets is BACB involved? The bank’s Letter of Credit volume for 2013 was over $3billion covering mainly North Africa but the SubSaharan continent as well.

Who are its main shareholders? BACB is backed by three state-owned banks, Libyan Foreign Bank with 83.48% of the shares and Banque Extérieure d’Algérie and Banque Centrale Populaire each owning 8.26%.

How does the BACB help foster closer banking relations between the UK and the Arab markets? BACB acts as a European gateway to the MENA and Sub-Sahara African markets. With a dual approach to marketing, we can connect our large ever-growing network of correspondents to beneficiaries worldwide, including specifically Asia, facilitating the trade needs of the markets that we cover.

What are the main services that the bank provides to its clients? First of all, BACB is an acknowledged leader in handling trade finance in relation to its markets. 2013 saw BACB handle letters of credit valued at over $3billion. BACB’s name and its reputation for excellence in the industry mean that the instruments it confirms or issues are readily accepted worldwide. We also have representative offices in Algiers and Tripoli who can assist locally. BACB has also been an active member of the London and

MENA financial markets for over 40 years. We offer a comprehensive range of Treasury products and services to our clients, which today include not only the traditional FX and money market products, but also a wide range of swaps, repos, derivative structures, custody services and Islamic finance treasury products. The bank also offers a number of short, medium and long-term lending products to corporate borrowers to assist with their financing needs, for example accelerated payments for L/Cs and bill discounting, medium-term corporate financing and long-term, large-scale export and project related finance.

In June 2009 the bank changed its corporate status from a private to a public company. Why was this change adopted and what was the impact on the bank’s activities? Changing corporate status in 2009 allowed BACB to expand its range of banking capabilities that it could offer to customers. The functioning of the bank did not change too much; however the range of activities we could offer our customers on a more direct basis increased. For instance, as a private bank, BACB would not be able to issue loans or FRNs to its customers without going through another entity. Becoming a public limited company enabled BACB to be able to offer these services on a direct basis without any third party.



Turning to your own career, what was your banking background before joining BACB and your main areas of expertise? I have over 18 years of experience in Africa, including the Maghreb region, and the Middle East in the fields of export/ trade (commodities) and project finance (infrastructure projects). I previously worked for Qatar National Bank, where I was the regional transaction banking head for Europe in London. I also held positions at Arab Bank, ING Barings and Siemens Financial Services in Germany. Now, as Head of the Middle East and Africa Markets, I am providing strategic direction and management of business development activities in MENA and Africa.

What does BACB see as the main challenges and opportunities for banking in the current business climate? One of the main challenges the banking industry is facing in the current climate is the issue of credit and compliance risks. With more and more of the spotlight being put on banks from the regulators, it is imperative that all Know Your Customer guidelines are followed to the letter. With the markets we deal with it is even more important that our procedures are adhered to ensuring a smooth service for customers is accomplished. We see the Sub-Saharan markets as a great opportunity as the economies there are booming, banking regulations are improving every year and countries that were once thought of as less developed are developing into real potential target markets for the global banking industry.

How has technology transformed BACB’s banking in recent years? Technology has advanced and transformed not only BACB’s systems but the entire global banking system. Our

payment systems are fully compatible with all major settlement systems worldwide, leading to timely and costefficient delivery in any freely convertible currency. For commercial settlements and other repetitive payment solutions to Arab markets, Europe, the Americas, Africa, India, China and the Far East, our London-based multilingual service teams are well placed to meet all payment needs.

Are there any new services or initiatives that BACB is planning to introduce that might be highlighted? The introduction of Islamic Finance products to our product range to adapt to the market demand is one of BACB’s important initiatives. Training dedicated to our customers is also one of the traditional services BACB is offering. We have always offered training services to our customers on a one-on-one basis and this has worked well. In 2014, however, we have changed our strategy and plan to hold two weekly training courses on International Trade Finance Management and International Treasury Management that will enable candidates to learn important topics and have workshops learning on site with our experienced staff.

BACB, a member of the ABCC since 1979, is one of our oldest members. Would you like to comment on BACB’s relationship with the ABCC and the services that the Chamber provides to you? Being a member of the ABCC has enabled BACB to be introduced to numerous companies that trade between the UK and the Arab world. Membership has given us access to informative discussions on our main markets and highlighted our services to UK companies looking for a bank to assist them in their dealings with the Arab markets.

CONTACT For further information Nabil Frik Head of MEA Markets British Arab Commercial Bank Plc Tel: + 44 20 7972 6920 Mobile: + 44 7876 864205 Email:

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By Rula Al-Abdulrazak, Senior Lecturer in Branding & Global Marketing, University of East London

On the coast of the Arabian Sea next to Yemen are the restful green mountains and golden beaches of Oman, where the people enjoy a peaceful life and a buzzing economy. Trading is second nature to the people of Oman. For centuries, they travelled the world and linked the East to the West. The wide scope of their trade and the vastness of the country’s empire meant that people of both African and Persian origins settled in the region and they are today part of the fabric of the modern Omani nation. Thus, the nation has a rich culture made up of many subcultures. It is an Arab country with Persian, Indian and East African influences. Arabic is the main language while English is widely spoken in professional contexts. Hidden in a castle of marble called Al Bustan Palace, which is part of the Ritz Carlton Hotel Group, the dynamic Oman

Competitiveness Forum (OCF) was held in December 2013. During this forum I had the privilege of speaking about Brand Oman and National Identity with a group of international experts who shared their thoughts and experiences. In each session passionate and constructive debates took place with great energy and enthusiasm. A mix of nationalities and professions joined together to debate areas of development in which Oman is eager to take a lead. Four days of extensive discussions took place on topical issues such as enterprise, smart cities, learning and innovation, sustainability and above all, the question of national identity. Oman is not a young country nor is it a small one. It was an ancient empire whose influence once extended from the borders of Iran to East African cities and cities on the Indian Ocean. Today, the Sultanate of Oman covers an area of 309,500 sq km. The Sultanate has achieved tremendous growth during the last 40 years and its speed and development have dramatically increased in the last few years. Oman today trades with China, the United Arab Emirates, Japan, and the USA as its major importers. Oman’s trade balance registered a surplus of $24 billion in 2012 compared to $23.5bn in 2011. Oman enjoyed a GDP of $72.680bn in 2011, $83.243bn based on the purchasing-power-parity. Its GNI per capita (PPP) in 2012 was $24,244 with a strong purchasing power. Although

Oman’s GDP growth in 2012 was more than 5%, over 50% of its GDP has yet to break away from its dependence on oil, which accounts for about 60% of Oman’s exports. As oil reserves are depleting, Oman has embarked on a process of economic diversification that is focused on the tourism and petrochemical industries. The country is actively pursuing a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialisation, and privatisation, with the objective of reducing the oil sector’s contribution to GDP to 9% by 2020. The Oman Competitiveness Forum, hosted by the Public Authority for Investment Promotion and Export Development (PAIPED), is one of many steps that Oman is taking to diversify its economy and increase its opportunities in the global market. The Omani authorities believe that competitiveness is the key to a more diversified and healthy economy. This of course means wider exposure to the rest of the world. Omani officials, scholars, enlightened professionals and business people are well aware of the impact this may have on their culture. Thus, while thinking about improving their competitiveness, they are addressing Oman’s national identity to combine and balance their heritage with their modern lifestyle. With around three million Omani inhabitants, the country is heavily dependent on foreign human resources. A multicultural


workforce develops the national culture and enriches Oman’s modern lifestyle.

reinforced by the friendliness you see on people’s faces.

Having said that, Omanis enjoy a rapidly growing national labour force, many of whom are highly educated; therefore the creation of more jobs is a priority. However, Oman’s ambition goes one step further, hoping to turn this human capital into a comparative advantage that attracts foreign investments and distinguishes Oman from its neighbouring countries.

The world economy is becoming more and more dependent on service industries. Based on World Bank data for 2011-2012, advanced economies such as the United States and the United Kingdom are service-based with over 70% of their GDP now service-generated; for Hong Kong it is 93% of GDP. Even in emerging economies such China with its industrial-based economy, 45% of its GDP is service-based, and Saudi Arabia with a GDP dependent on oil, 35% of it is service-based.

Oman has achieved great steps towards becoming a knowledge- and servicebased economy not only through creating sustainable infrastructure but also through an advanced education system that cultivates, attracts, and retains talented people from around the world to support the growth of the country and increase its competitiveness. The private sector has also been encouraged to enter the education sector. One advantage that the Omani workforce enjoys is a good reputation among foreign workforces and the same goes for Omani employers. Fair, capable and flexible are key words typically used to describe Omanis, an impression

Oman’s ambition is to join the world service-based economy and dramatically increase its services sector contribution to GDP which stood at 33% in 2012. This is a huge challenge but Oman has been taking great steps in this direction. Establishing the Ministry of Tourism in 2004 was a major step in developing a service-based economy through a socio-economic sector that is critical to preserving heritage and protecting the environment while creating extensive employment opportunities.


The development of tourism is associated with important new infrastructure projects such as the port in Duqm. Its $1.5bn dock, the second largest in the Middle East, was constructed as part of a special economic zone. It facilitates exports and contributes towards diversifying the economy and is generating substantial employment opportunities. The project has encouraged foreign investments that include a petrochemical factory, a refinery, an airport, hotels, and housing, together with roads and railways that link the country with its neighbours, Saudi Arabia and the UAE. The World Competitiveness Index (WCI) ranked Oman 32nd out of 144 economies. According to this index Oman excels in the macroeconomic environment, ranked fifth and in institutions where it is ranked 17th; this is in terms of the WCI five basic requirements. Other areas in which Oman seems to be ahead of many other economies are goods market efficiency and financial market efficiency ranking 25th and 26th respectively. The index identified four areas in Oman that require extensive development continued page 14


from page 13

efforts, mainly in health and primary education; higher education and training; technology readiness; and labour market efficiency which are ranked 52nd, 61st, 54th, and 36th respectively. Last December’s Oman Competitiveness Forum was an attempt to further address these issues and debate the future of Oman in a consultative environment. It focused on developing human capital through active learning programmes that will provide younger generations with the right skills and attitude to face future challenges and turn them into opportunities. This is in addition to impressive support programmes recently established for small businesses together with incubators for entrepreneurs that provide mentoring, training and financial support to start-ups including IT startups. Oman’s business environment and legislature have been through several reforms during the last few years. This has made investment and setting up a business in Oman more accessible. According to PAIPED, starting up a business involves fewer procedures and is less time-consuming (down from seven to three days in 2012), registration

can now be done online, and access to credit and tax payments have also been simplified, making use of an efficient credit information system. The forum also addressed the average Omani’s life experiences and the priorities of modern Oman, taking into account architecture, sustainability and the role of smart cities. Opportunities are emerging from Oman’s continuous focus on expanding its tourism industry and enhancing port development, fisheries, and the downstream oil industry. Recently, Oman announced a number of privatisation opportunities, including shares in Oman’s telecommunication company, Omantel. Oman’s large infrastructure and developmental projects offer significant foreign direct investment and knowledge–sharing opportunities for British businesses and talents. Britain has enjoyed a fruitful long-term relationship with Oman for over 350 years and it is Oman’s ninth largest source of imports. British goods, services and skills are well received in Oman. This success is due to a long-term approach and a high level of business loyalty. Oman is committed to social development and building infrastructure

to high standards. Oman’s efficiency in running large and impressive projects in these areas is high which makes collaborating highly productive for its partners. One might assume that the Sultanate’s future vision of reducing dependence on the oil contribution to GDP to 9% by 2020 is a rather ambitious aim and that some of the developments mentioned are unachievable. If so, then think again. Participating in the forum gave me an exceptional opportunity to meet highly educated Omani scholars and professionals and many active business men and women. I was particularly impressed with the active role that women play in Oman. I met empowered men and women who inspire great hope for Oman’s future. The level of achievement was outstanding for many as this event appeared to attract numbers of scholars and government officials who possessed a high level of education. This was reflected in the sophistication of the debates and the transparent approach to identifying areas for improvement. The way potential solutions and accountabilities were examined and discussed was beyond what many of the guest

speakers would have expected. But this is hardly surprising after the UNDP’s 2010 Human Development Report which identified Oman as the most improved country in Human Development Index (HDI) terms over the past 40 years out of the 135 states that were assessed. This does not mean that Oman has achieved it all but it does indicate very clearly the great progress that has been made. The ambition of His Highness Sayyid Faisal bin Turki Al-Said, DirectorGeneral of Marketing and Media, PAIPED and the organisers of the forum is to create a collective vision and a unique and well-defined cultural identity. As such, the efforts of Omanis must be coordinated towards achieving their vision and turning it into reality. I believe that Oman is working towards becoming an empowered and well accomplished nation that occupies a higher position in the World Competitiveness Index, that it has a diverse economy and is an exceptional place to visit, live and work. The forum offered a great opportunity for cultural exchange, a successful example of cultural diplomacy, and an active and consultative approach to highlighting and prioritising future developments and the action plans that are needed. This planning can help crystallise the


strategic directions of the Sultanate to offer Oman a sustainable future and become an empowered nation. Foreign investors have a great opportunity to be part of this future in areas such as education, research and development in mineral production, tourism, green energy, the development of efficient and environmentally friendly cities, and niche management and marketing. One special competitive advantage that the World Competitiveness Index does not consider but that Omanis seem to possess in good measure is happiness. ‘Happiness’ has become one of the most important competitive criteria needed for a sustainable economy and a stable country with an empowered nation of high achievers. Economists are puzzled today by the importance of happiness in the development of nations. Politicians are also concerned about how to achieve it. If having a wide friendly smile on your face is a measure of happiness, then in those few days that I spent in Oman, I saw a clear indication of how happiness in Muscat is widespread among so many friendly and smiling faces. At the Royal Docks Business School (RDBS), University of East London and before I travelled to Oman, I investigated the extent of knowledge about Brand Oman held by my European


and International students on the MSc International Marketing and Luxury Brand Management Courses. The results suggest that Oman remains a hidden treasure. Oman’s treasure is not its oil and gas, far from it. The treasure is not just the unique beauty of the landscape, the exceptional experience of the ancient and the extraordinary shapes of caves, but also and in particular, the people of this exciting nation who with dedication and hard work are making history in the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula. Brand ‘Sultanate Oman’ represents the story of a new green and happy land in the heart of the Middle East.

CONTACT Rula Al-Abdulrazak Branding & Global Marketing Specialist Senior Lecturer & Programme Leader Royal Docks Business School, University of East London




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3rd Edition EF Education First English Proficiency Report In 2013, EF Education First published its third edition English Proficiency Report (EPI). Data was collected from nearly five million adults from 2007 to 2012, from 60 countries, in order to compile the report. Out of the 60 countries surveyed, 10 were member states of the Arab League and ranked in the low and very low proficiency category. UAE (36), Egypt (43), Morocco (45), Kuwait (47), Jordan (50), Qatar (51), Libya (54), Algeria (58), Saudi Arabia (59) and Iraq (60) To see the full report of the EPI, please visit:

The Middle East and English With the Middle East and North Africa being labeled as the weakest regions in English, what implications does this have for their economy? According to an International Monetary Fund (IMF) survey done in 2013, the IMF reported that economic growth would be moderate across the Middle East as “oil exports maintain healthy non-oil growth. [However] transition countries need resolute actions to maintain economic stability and promote inclusive growth [and] help from international community remains crucial.” One of the ways that the Middle East can overcome these challenges is by increasing the proficiency and number of English

speakers in their country. Research has shown a direct correlation between the English skills of a population and the economic performance of the country. The trend seems to be that with stronger English, career prospects are better, which allows for a higher income, and therefore, an overall improved quality of life. Recruiters and HR managers worldwide report that job seekers with exceptional English, compared to their country’s level, earned 30-50% higher salaries. So what does this mean? On an individual level, citizens can earn a higher salary and thus enjoy a higher standard of living. On a national level, gross national income per capita grows and more money is made available for investment opportunities in the country.

English – the global language English has been labeled the lingua franca of the business world, especially with an increasing number of companies, such as Nokia, SAP, Samsung and Renault, mandating English as the corporate language. In 2012, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) completed a survey where nearly 70% of executives said their workforce will need to master English to realise corporate expansion plan and a quarter stated that more than 50% of their total workforce would need to speak it. So, even though China’s growing economy is a powerhouse to be reckoned with, according to Dorie Clark of Forbes, Mandarin won’t become a preferred language of business anytime soon. “Instead, English will maintain and grow its dominance, moving from ‘a marker of the elite’ in years past to ‘a basic skill needed for the entire workforce, in the same way that literacy has been transformed in the last two centuries from an elite privilege into a basic requirement for informed citizenship.” And, currently, more people are studying English in China than in any other country. Therefore, it is here to stay, at least for now.

guarantees results. Backed by nearly 50 years of research and experience, EF’s teaching philosophy is based on a simple principle: the more personalised your course, the faster you learn. Even if you are a complete beginner in your study language, EFs guaranteed learning system allows you to advance one level every six weeks. From London to Manchester, we offer nine UK destinations for you to choose from, alongside a multitude of programmes. Build a study programme around your unique goals and needs, then individualise what you learn through interactive class time, technology-assisted practice and real-life immersion. Relish in the possibility of enjoying high tea and playing cricket on your road to self-improvement, while also learning English. From seven years of age and onwards, we have programmes tailored for everyone’s personal aspirations. Whether you’re a student or professional, EF has something for you. Get a higher Cambridge Certificate or increase your IELTS score. Our language courses start every Monday for every level. Learning English will not only improve your competitive edge in the demanding global job market, but it will also help contribute to the greater good of your nation’s economy.

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This will not only help improve you individually, but it will also contribute to your country’s’ national development. Here at EF Education First, we try to break down cultural, language and geographical barriers with a learning method that

Or visit our office in London EF Education First 22 Chelsea Manor Street London SW3 5RL





AN ENGAGED WORKFORCE IS A PRODUCTIVE WORKFORCE Investing in work-based training and development is an effective way to grow your business.

A recent Gallup report highlighted the low level of employee engagement of the global workforce.

and around 60% of organisations face leadership talent shortages that hinder the performance of the business.

They found that the majority of employees are not engaged, or even disengaged, whilst at work. This means they are disconnected from their jobs and will therefore be less productive.

Here at Anglia Ruskin, all of our workbased courses can help improve employee engagement and satisfaction, with the added bonus of being able to study for a qualification from anywhere in the world. That’s the beauty of distance learning!

The study surveyed 142 countries and found that only 13% of employees are engaged in their jobs, 63% are not engaged and 24% are actively disengaged. One of the most effective methods a company can utilise to improve employee engagement is to invest in their personal development. By providing university training programmes that build on their strengths, an employer can help their staff…

Degrees at Work from Anglia Ruskin University is one of the world’s leading work-based learning initiatives, with extensive experience of developing effective training for companies across a diverse range of sectors. As your employees grow in their careers our tailored degree programmes will help them achieve the knowledge and expertise that will benefit both their personal development and your business. We offer a comprehensive suite of work-based courses covering a range of disciplines including:


take a more active interest in the company.


take pride in their work.


consider their future and how that fits with the company.





improve productivity and innovation.






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Online work-based learning is an excellent way to achieve this. For instance, learning leadership skills via one of our online courses has a direct impact on effective employee engagement, helping them to lead by example, hit targets and motivate colleagues. Additionally, highly qualified leaders are more innovative in the workplace, with better-qualified leaders typically associated with a more comprehensively qualified workforce. Shockingly, ineffective leadership costs companies billions of pounds each year,

…and many more. We can also accredit your in-house training programmes with universitylevel qualifications. Your staff will be able to gain academic credits towards higher education courses, and we will support you in delivering programmes at your premises, on campus or online. Our award-winning approach to employee engagement has already

transformed many of the world’s leading brands including Harrods, Russian Railways, Willmott Dixon, UPS, Barclays, Volvo and many more. All of our courses can be studied online via our Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), or they can be taught with face-toface workshops at a time and place that suits you. Upon completion, your staff will graduate with a full UK university qualification and they have the opportunity to attend a graduation ceremony at our beautiful campuses in Cambridge or Chelmsford.

CONTACT To find out how we can help you engage your workforce please call +44(0)845 196 6707 or visit


Best in the North East for Satisfaction with Teaching Guardian University Guide 2014

The Number 1 Choice for Tomorrow’s Business Leaders Faculty of Business and Law

Your Journey Starts Here Study for an Undergraduate or Postgraduate Degree with the University of Sunderland BA (Hons) Accounting and Financial Management Top Up BA (Hons) Banking and Finance Top Up BA (Hons) Business and Marketing Top Up BA (Hons) Business Management Top Up BSc (Hons) International Tourism and Hospitality Management Top Up Master of Business Administration (MBA)

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In response to growing demand and time pressures the ABCC is undertaking two courier runs per day to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office in Milton Keynes.


This enables us to deliver an overnight service as opposed to the previous 48 hour service.

Should you require further details or wish to make use of this service please contact: Mr Cliff Lawrence Email: Tel:

020 7659 4881

Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Sudan Syria Tunisia Turkey UAE Yemen

CONNECTING YOU TO MENA MARKETS Europe Arab Bank’s Corporate & Institutional banking team is uniquely positioned to help steer your business towards success in MENA. Our strong advisor and arranger credentials are backed by deep industry experience. And as part of the Arab Bank Group, with the largest banking network in the Arab region, you gain seamless access to 19 MENA countries and a network of 600 branches around the world. Learn more: +44 (0)20 7315 8500

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DUBAI INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTRE TENANCY CONTRACTS: ARE YOU PROTECTED? By Shiraz Sethi of Stephenson Harwood Middle East LLP and Javid Rafiq of Nasser Malalla Advocates & Legal Consultants

In this article, we look at the issues facing residents in the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC), provide a comparison to the Dubai tenancy laws and look at ways that tenants can protect their position with the increasing legislation coming into force. Since bottoming out in 2009, the recovery of Dubai’s housing prices has been fuelled by increased investor confidence, more stringent regulations, a rise in population and significant economic growth across the Emirate. With rents in Dubai again on the rise and with the announcement of Dubai’s successful Expo 2020 bid , landlords and tenants must ensure that they know their rights and limitations with respect to tenancies and how to overcome the hurdles and pitfalls, which they may encounter.

Background Although Dubai remains heavily regulated in terms of tenancy matters and has a separate arbitrary body, the Rent Disputes Settlement Centre (Dubai Rent Committee) that deals with such claims, the DIFC does not have such regulation despite the high number of tenants occupying its properties. In the absence of an equivalent rent committee in the DIFC, the DIFC Courts, an independent judicial body within the DIFC, has the jurisdiction to hear matters in relation to tenancy disputes and has readily adjudicated on tenancy related claims. The latest Prime Global Rental Index report has revealed that rents in

the Emirate rose by 18.3% in the year to March and therefore it is of paramount importance to ensure that parties are aware of their contractual rights within the DIFC underpinned by the general principles of common law, which prevail in that jurisdiction.

The issues A growing number of expatriates have moved into the DIFC, some may say as a result of wanting to be in close proximity to their workplace, yet not all have considered the potential difficulties which may arise in doing so. What is important to note is that the DIFC is a separate and independent jurisdiction, in which the laws differ from the rest of Dubai with the main exception of the UAE Penal Code. This frequently creates confusion among residents who believe that they have the right to bring matters before the attention of the Dubai Rent Committee. However, the Dubai Rent Committee does not have jurisdiction over DIFC tenancy disputes, which begs the question to which authority tenants should resort for a specialist dispute resolution process, other than the general forum afforded by the DIFC Courts. Tenants must be aware that in the absence of a regulatory framework for tenancies in the DIFC, the parties to a tenancy contract enjoy a freedom to contract on the terms they deem appropriate in a way that is not always available in Dubai where the wording of leases is predetermined. It is therefore,

encouraged that parties negotiate the terms of their lease, paying special attention to issues such as the lease term, rental reviews, rights of renewal, obligations of maintenance, payment of outgoings and the like in order to flush out any potential problems in the future. An article in Emirates 24/7 on 20 August 2013 stated that “The DIFC Courts will consider themselves not competent to hear disputes on tenancy issues if they are related to personal use of the premises and not used by any company licensed to operate in the DIFC,”. It was further stated therein that, “Such disputes brought forward to the DIFC Courts will be referred to the Dubai Rental Committee.” This statement was in stark contrast to what most were led to believe. More recently, Decree No. 26 of 2013 concerning the implementation of a Rent Disputes Settlement Centre in the Emirate of Dubai came into force, which was aimed at finding a judicial system specialized in hearing rental disputes and developing the procedures for adjudicating such disputes. There has been much deliberation over the Decree as to whether it would apply to Dubai as a whole including the free zones but in accordance with Article 6 (B), it is clear that the “…center shall not hear rental disputes arising inside the free zones that have special judicial committees or courts competent to settle rental disputes arising within their boundaries”. The DIFC Authority (DIFCA) which drafts and administers the laws of the DIFC (including its real estate laws), was quick to clarify the position in the 2 September

2013 edition of Emirates 24/7 and following the release of the new Decree. The DIFCA has confirmed that if parties to a lease within the DIFC jurisdiction do not agree to private arbitration to resolve any disputes that may arise under the lease, then the DIFC Courts will have exclusive jurisdiction. Roberta Calarese, Chief Legal Officer of DIFCA commented that “If the parties prefer not to arbitrate to resolve their dispute, we regard the DIFC Courts (through its Small Claims Tribunal and the main court) as being adequately adapted to achieve just, timely and effective resolutions of rental disputes in the DIFC, using the framework of existing DIFC laws.” Ms Calarese further added that “although the DIFC does not have the same extent of landlord-tenant regulation as on-shore Dubai, there are provisions in the DIFC’s Real Property Law, which relate specifically to leasing”.


She went on to say that, “The DIFC laws of general application such as Contract Law, Law of Obligations, the Implied Terms in Contracts and Unfair Terms Law, and the general spirit of common law that pervades the DIFC jurisdiction, all provide a sound framework to promote justice in the resolution of leasing disputes within the DIFC.” With this is mind, the only recourse for any tenant or landlord wishing to raise a dispute in relation to a DIFC tenancy is through the DIFC Courts system. The size and complexity of the claim will determine whether the matter can be brought before the Small Claims Tribunal (SCT) or the Court of First Instance (CFI). Natasha Bakirci, Assistant Registrar of the DIFC Courts, explained that “The DIFC Courts have examined a number of cases relating to DIFC-related tenancy disputes and strive to reach the most equitable solutions for all parties in matters which come


before it. The DIFC Courts have a sound enforcement capacity for judgments and orders relating to landlord and tenant disputes, and have effected enforcement in numerous applications.” Moreover, the decision of Deputy Chief Justice Sir Anthony Colman dated 4 August 2013 in the Daman Real Estate Capital case (CF1025/2012) has further enunciated the desire of the DIFC Courts to exert its muscle in real estate disputes within the DIFC and its willingness to continue doing so moving forward.

Dubai vs. DIFC Law No. 26 of 2007 amended by Law No. 33 of 2008 governs the relationship between landlords and tenants in Dubai. Although there is no similar law in the DIFC, the table below summarises the key differences between the two jurisdictions as well as it being a useful guide in determining tenancy rights in the Emirate. continued page 26


from page 25



Tenancy Contract

The tenancy relationship between a landlord and tenant must be governed by a tenancy contract describing the property in detail, the purpose of tenancy, period, rent and name of owner if the owner is not the landlord.

No DIFC legislation exists regarding tenancy contract requirements. However, it would be advisable for a tenancy to be confirmed in writing.

Period of Tenancy

The period of tenancy must be specific, otherwise the tenancy contract shall be deemed as valid for the period specified for payment of the rent value.

In the absence of any regulations within the DIFC, this will be agreed between the landlord and tenant and subsequently specified within the tenancy contract.

If the tenant continues to occupy property after expiry of contract period without any objection from the landlord, then the contract shall be renewed for a similar period or for one year, whichever is less with the same terms and conditions. If tenancy contract is due and valid, it cannot be unilaterally terminated by landlord or tenant unless both parties agree on such termination.

Rent Value

The new Rental Decree, No. 43 of 2013 (“Rental Decree”) governs the rental increases as follows:

The new Rental Decree governs the rental increases as follows:

Subject to the notice requirement set out below, landlords can raise rents on renewals by:

Landlords can raise rents on renewals by:

5% if the earlier rental is 11 to 20% lower than the average rent for a similar property;

10% if the rental is 21 to 30% lower than the current going rates for properties of a similar scale;

15% if the rent is as low as 31 to 40% than comparable ones; and

20% if a property’s rental is more than 40% less than the average.



l l

5% if the earlier rental is 11 to 20% lower than the average rent for a similar property;

10% if the rental is 21 to 30% lower than the current going rates for properties of a similar scale;

15% if the rent is as low as 31 to 40% than comparable ones; and

20% if a property’s rental is more than 40% less than the average.






Should either party to the tenancy contract wish to amend any of its conditions or review the rent, then notice must be given to the other party not less than 90 days prior to the expiry date, unless both parties agreed otherwise.

Notice shall be given in accordance with the tenancy contract provision. Once again, in an unregulated jurisdiction, this will be based on the parties’ effective negotiation strategies.


The landlord can only remove the tenant if the tenant has failed to abide by the contract or has acted illegally and must provide notice. For example, if the tenant fails to pay rent within thirty days of landlord’s notification, if tenant subleases premises without landlord’s written approval, if premises is used for illegal or immoral purposes, if tenant causes changes that endanger safety of the premises, if the tenant uses the leased premises for purposes other than those stipulated within the contract, if the premises is endangered to collapse or if the tenant fails to observe legal obligations / conditions pursuant to notices from the landlord.

The tenancy contract should govern circumstances under which eviction should be exercised and clauses to this effect should be negotiated and inserted accordingly.

The landlord may also evict the tenant when the tenancy expires if:

the owner wishes to demolish the property for reconstruction

the property requires renovation or comprehensive maintenance

the owner of the property wishes to recover the property for use by him personally or by his next of kin (if so, the landlord cannot rent the premises to others before two years for residential properties from the date of recovery of the property or face a claim for compensation by the evicted tenant)

Owner of the property wishes to sell the leased property.

l l l


Notice for the above additional eviction scenarios must be provided at least twelve months prior to the determined date of eviction subject that such notice be sent through the Notary Public or by registered mail and must be accompanied by the reasons for eviction.


Landlord during the validity of the contract, shall be liable for handling maintenance of property and shall rectify any defects or faults that affect tenant’s targeted benefit from the premises (unless the two parties agree otherwise).

Any maintenance issues should be dealt with in the tenancy contract and should be clearly identified. It will be key to identify which party is responsible for which issue.

Course of action As is apparent from the foregoing, it is crucial for parties to a lease in DIFC to carefully negotiate relevant terms of their lease, particularly in respect of key matters such as the lease term, rental review, renewals, maintenance and outgoings. The following threestage process is our suggested course of action when dealing with any kind of tenancy dispute within the DIFC:

1. Compromise / Negotiate Review your contract thoroughly to ensure the issues you wish to raise are covered under your tenancy agreement. Parties should subsequently try and meet with a view to negotiating the issues at hand in order to determine whether or not a compromise can be reached which is fair to all parties. It may also be worthwhile to have the lease reviewed by a lawyer fully conversant with DIFC laws to ensure that all provisions and adequate measures are in place prior to entering into a contract.

2. Legal Notice If during the tenancy, problems are encountered and the negotiations embarked upon are unsuccessful or fail to reach a compromise, the serving of a legal notice by one party to the other may be the next step to take. The notice must be conveyed in a manner which is sufficiently clear for a “reasonable recipient” in the position of either party as stated in the Daman Real Estate Capital case. A legal notice can also be an effective tool to bring the opposing party to the negotiating table in order to


avoid the hassle of issuing proceedings in the matter.

3. Issuing Proceedings If the legal notice does not have the desired effect, then the available options are to either drop the matter in its entirety or to file a claim within the DIFC Courts. It is important to note that in some instances if the cost of filing a claim and instructing counsel is actually greater than the value of the lease or the amount claimed, such cost, including legal fees, may be recoverable by a successful litigant only in a Court of First Instance claim.

Summary Tenants in the DIFC must be mindful of the fact that when entering into tenancy contracts specifically for properties within the DIFC, they should read the contract carefully and seek legal advice if necessary with respect to their rights.

The most recent amendment however to the law was adopted towards the end of 2013 when the Rental Decree was passed, which applied to all freezones including the DIFC. This decree states that there should not be any rental increase if the rent of the renewed property unit is less than 10% of the average similar rent value in the locality. The decree aims to bring the future setting of lease terms and renewals more in line with the Dubai Rent Index brought out by RERA and it is hoped that it will restrict ‘overheating’ in the real estate market. It is therefore imperative that tenants should negotiate with the landlord extensively and ensure that there are terms in the contract that control such scenarios to avoid surprises at the time of renewal. Failure to do so could result in lengthy litigation, which could become a costly affair and may outweigh the benefit of having agreed to vacate the property in the first place.

CONTACT Shiraz Sethi

Javid Rafiq



Stephenson Harwood Middle East LLP

Nasser Malalla Advocates & Legal Consultants

Dubai International Financial Centre


Tel: +971 4 386 2105

Fax: +971 (0)4 299 9771

Fax: +971 4 327 6714


Tel: +971 (0)4 299 9770 Email:

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NAVIGATING THE LABYRINTH - UK IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY LAW Economic Focus interviews Garth Coates, Principal, Garth Coates Solicitors, a specialist immigration law firm dealing with corporate and individual clients.

Please tell us a little about your company and its main activities. I have been an immigration lawyer for some 20 years and formerly worked for the Home Office as an immigration officer. We are a specialist immigration law firm and deal with a wide range of corporate and personal immigration matters. We act for many British and international companies in respect of their recruitment or secondment of foreign nationals. We also have a large private client practice, ranging from Tier 1 Investors to Entrepreneurs, Spouses and Students. We also handle our clients’ residency and nationality applications as well as their applications for initial entry visas. The UK continues to be a preferred destination for people wanting to relocate from abroad and who want to secure residency and a British passport. Over the past 20 years I have built up a strong client base worldwide and we continue to expand, based on our reputation and client service.

What is your firm’s experience in the Arab markets? I have acted for clients from the Middle East for many years. Since I founded the firm in 2008 we have continued to have a lot of exposure to Arab markets and our client practice from this region has grown considerably. I think for historical, cultural and linguistic reasons people find the UK a natural choice when looking to relocate with their families to a European country. In addition, the

Garth Coates, Principal, Garth Coates Solicitors

relative proximity of the UK to the Middle East ensures that for most business people who move to this country, they can continue to manage their businesses in the Middle East. I have lodged applications for my clients to British Consulates in the Middle East over a number of years. I would also say that with the growing political uncertainty in the region many people are looking at the UK as a safe country for their families to live in.

What is your experience of working with the Chamber? Garth Coates Solicitors works very closely with the Chamber which has been invaluable with its assistance to us and our clients. We act for many investors and entrepreneurs who come to the UK and who want to commence business operations. The Chamber has



been very supportive in assisting our clients build up a support network of professionals around them while they get their ventures off the ground. We believe it is vital to anyone setting up business in a new market to have as much information about that market – and about ways of doing business and culture and so on – as soon as possible, meaning at the early planning stages. The Chamber has been an excellent source of research and information in helping our clients establish their businesses.

A wealthy businessman from an Arab/Gulf state wants to come to the UK to set up a business. What does s/he need to do as first steps? An entrepreneur who wants to come and set up business in the UK should understand that engaging the services of a specialist immigration lawyer is highly recommended. The UK government’s entrepreneur category has a number of basic requirements: l

Access to not less than £200,000;


That the money is held in one or more regulated financial institutions;


That the money is disposable in the UK;


Knowledge of the English language, which can be demonstrated by being a national of a majority Englishspeaking country, holding a BA degree taught in English, or passing an approved English language test;


The capacity to maintain oneself without recourse to public funds, to be demonstrated by the provision of original bank statements showing an account balance greater than £3,100 (plus £1,800 for each dependant) maintained for a consecutive 90day period leading up to the date of application.

However, potential applicants should be aware that consulates have a high refusal rate on entrepreneur applications. They will only approve applications from entrepreneurs who have the relevant funding and the knowledge and experience to set up and

run a successful business in the UK. Garth Coates Solicitors can assist with preparing a thorough application and presenting a detailed business plan to the consulate in order to maximise the application’s chance of success. We are very experienced in making these applications – we can help from the planning stage through to the approval of the application. In addition, we act for many entrepreneurs who do not want to set up a business but may want to invest in a new start-up or established UK business. We work alongside several bodies which can assist our clients in providing various options to invest in a number of business sectors. If the application is successful, the initial grant of leave will be for three years and four months. When considering any requests for extension or settlement the Home Office will want to see evidence that the money has been invested, the business is still a going concern in which the entrepreneur is involved day-to-day, and that it has created two or more jobs. The entrepreneur becomes eligible to apply for settlement in the UK after five years’ continuous residence. In this context continuous means absent for no more than 180 days in any 12 months, so it leaves scope for looking after interests elsewhere in the world. If the business has created ten or more new jobs in the UK or can show an

“income from business activity” of at least £5 million during a period of three years while the applicant has been in the UK under an entrepreneur visa, then the applicant may apply for indefinite leave to remain after three years.

Can a wealthy foreign national relocate to the UK? Yes, we act for many rich overseas nationals who gain entry to the UK under the investor category. A person will be eligible for this if he or she can meet the following basic requirements: l

Has money under their control held in a regulated financial institution and disposable in the UK amounting to not less than £1 million; or


Owns personal assets which, taking into account any liabilities to which they are subject, have a value of at least £2 million, and has money under his control held in a regulated financial institution and disposable in the UK amounting to not less than £1 million which has been loaned by a UK regulated financial institution;


Money is disposable in the UK;


Or is freely transferable to the UK and convertible to sterling;


“Money of his own”, “personal assets” and ‘his capital’ include money or assets belonging to the applicant’s spouse or civil partner;



There are no English language or maintenance requirements.

As with the entrepreneur category, the initial grant of leave is for three years and four months, and an application for settlement can be made after five years continuous residence for an investment of £1 million, three years for an investment of £5 million or two years for an investment of £10 million. I should point out that the UK government’s Migration Advisory Committee has suggested changes to these rules that may well be implemented soon.

Are there any restrictions on the timing and the kinds of investment such a person can make in the UK?

Government bonds, share capital or loan capital. There are more specific rules as follows: l


The funds must not be invested in open-ended investment companies, investment trust companies or pooled investment vehicles. This is because such investments cannot be guaranteed to be in the UK;


The funds must not be invested in companies mainly engaged in property investment, property management or property development. This requirement prevents investment in companies whose main function is to own or manage land or buildings. It does not prevent investment in, for example, construction firms, manufacturers or retailers who own their own premises;


The funds must not be invested by using deposits with a bank, building society or any other enterprise whose normal course of business includes the acceptance of deposits.

Yes, an investor’s leave to enter or remain may be curtailed if within three months of their arrival they have not invested, or had invested on their behalf, at least £750,000 of their capital in the UK. You will need to provide a portfolio report produced by a UK regulated financial institution that shows that: l

You invested at least £750,000 in UK business within three months of your investor start date;


This level of investment has been maintained for the length of your visa.

Investors are required to make their investment in the UK in the form of UK

The funds must not be invested through an offshore company or trust, or be held in offshore custody. This is to ensure, among other things, maximum tax benefit to the UK – investment from offshore companies is not deemed to be investment in the UK;

I should point out that the remaining £250,000 is allowed to be used to purchase assets, meaning for example property in the UK, or it can be maintained on deposit in a UK regulated financial institution.

Can s/he bring his/her partner here? Absolutely, it will be possible to bring a spouse and all children under the age of 18 to accompany the main applicant to the UK.

A UK based company may seek to appoint a person who is a citizen of a Gulf State. What steps does it need to take to ensure that the person can come and work in the UK? Over recent years the Immigration Rules have become more restrictive and it has become more difficult for employers to recruit foreign nationals. The procedure is not straightforward. As a preliminary step, any British employer wanting to hire foreign nationals must first secure a Sponsor Licence from the UKVI. You will have to demonstrate that the skills that person brings aren’t available in the UK labour market. This may be because their skill set is in short supply, according to the Home Office, or that you have advertised the job in the UK for a month and no one suitable has responded. This is called passing the resident labour market test. In addition, the job description and salary must meet a minimum standard as set out in the UKVI’s Codes of Conduct. Only once these criteria have been complied with can an application be submitted to the UKVI User Panel. This meets on a monthly basis and approves applications on a quota basis.

Once s/he is granted a visa how long will this normally be valid for and are there any particular variations/ exceptions? The visa is valid initially for up to three years. After that it can be extended for up to two years. At the end of five years they can apply for settlement provided they meet the requirements under this category. However, if they were posted as an Intra-Company Transfer (ICT) then unless they are an exceptionally high earner, at the end of five years they would have to return home.


The individual appointed starts work in the UK and after several months have elapsed they ask if they can bring their spouse/ partner to live in the UK also. How can this be achieved?


The company intends to establish and operate a registered branch or whollyowned subsidiary of its business in the UK;


It has no other branch, subsidiary or representative in the UK;


The subsidiary will operate in the same type of business as the parent business;

Your spouse or partner can apply to come as your dependant. They must stick to certain rules, such as they can’t collect social security benefits, but as long as they follow these it’s usually straightforward.


The employee chosen to be the representative must not be a majority shareholder;


He or she must work full-time for the company and not to take any other employment;

Can a foreign company establish a business in the UK?


The employee must be sufficiently senior to have full authority to take operational decisions on behalf of the parent company.

There is a category known as Representative of an Overseas Business, or Sole Representative. This allows a company to set up a branch in the UK and send a senior member of staff to represent its interests here. The rules governing this category can be broken down like this:

There’s also the requirement to maintain and accommodate yourself adequately without recourse to public funds, and to meet the required standard in English language. And spouses and children can be included on the application.


Do you have any final comments? Only that this is a complex area of law that is changing all the time, because politicians and courts make decisions that radically and instantly alter the landscape in which we work. Up-to-date, reliable advice will save you from making costly and time-consuming mistakes. Disclaimer: The contents of this article are intended as being illustrative only and are not intended to constitute legal advice. Seek your own independent legal advice before making any decisions regarding your immigration status or that of your dependants or employees.

CONTACT Garth Coates Solicitors Tel: 020 7799 1600


SAUDI AIRLINES TO RELAUNCH FLIGHTS FROM MANCHESTER Saudi is to restart services from Manchester to Jeddah. The airline, which last operated services from Manchester in 2007, will operate flights to Jeddah on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sundays.

Mr Rashid Alajmi, Saudia’s General Manager Passenger Sales and Services for the European Region said “ we are very happy that our plans to return to Manchester have now come to fruition, and that we are now be able to offer our customers a choice of U.K. airports, London Heathrow and Manchester both with nonstop service to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. “Commercial ties between the North of England and Saudi Arabia have traditionally been very strong and this

new service will give business customers in the region the opportunity to travel to the Kingdom without having to transfer en-route. The North of England’s large Muslim population will also benefit from this new Manchester to Jeddah service when travelling to perform their religious pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. The flight is so timed that they can reach the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medinah at the most convenient time.

The many Saudi students who chose the North of England to further their studies in one of the region’s many fine educational establishments, will find that using the our service from Manchester Airport will be the easiest and most comfortable way home.” Initially effective 1st April 2014, there will be three weekly services between Manchester and Jeddah, with a plan to operate daily in the future, with an additional service to Riyadh.

TEK takes companies to the next level TEK Auditing & CPA was founded by certified accountants in 2008, and partner Eser Sevinç, left, an auditing and fraud examination specialist, has managed the firm of seven since 2008. It is one of the fastest growing professional service firms in Turkey and anticipates turnover of $500,000 in 2013 and a rise of 25% in 2014. The company is licensed by the Finance Ministry and carries out independent audits, tax consultancy and management consultancy for domestic and foreign clients.

TEK Auditing & CPA Ltd

Tel: +90 212 231 13 00 (PBX) Fax: +90 212 231 13 34 Email:


ARBITRATION AND DOING BUSINESS WITH THE ARAB COUNTRIES By Sami Houerbi, Director, International Court of Arbitration, ADR, International Chamber of Commerce

It is widely known that investment promotion includes all activities and measures aimed at increasing investments in a given country. Factors influencing investment flows include the institutional framework governing investment in a country, its economic situation and business facilitation. Each of these factors can either attract or deter investors and it is their combination in a particular case that determines whether or not a company decides to invest in a country. States gradually started developing methods to comply with the requirements of the modern economic system. In recent years, one of these methods achieved an unexpected success; it is a method aimed at investment protection by the adoption of arbitration as an alternative, at times exclusive, way of dispute resolution between states and investors. The close link between investments, international trade and arbitration can be illustrated through the history of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), since its establishment. In fact, the International Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1919 to promote world peace by the harmonisation of international trade practices and legislation. Soon after its creation, the International Chamber of Commerce created the International Court of Arbitration, namely in 1923. Indeed, the International Chamber of Commerce saw the necessity of establishing the International Court of Arbitration in order to meet the specific expectations of international trade. One can determine if a country is arbitration friendly by assessing,

for instance, the status of its legal framework related to arbitration, and whether or not the local judges are supportive of arbitration. In this present study, we intend to assess the openness of the Middle Eastern and North African region towards trade and investments by analysing the legal status of arbitration within the region, on the one hand, and by determining its involvement in international arbitration, on the other hand. One may start by noting the recent changes that the Arab region has been witnessing over the past few years, especially with regards to their adherence to international conventions on arbitration. Most of the Arab countries, such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, have taken a step forward by ratifying the United Nation Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958 (The New York Convention), and the 1965 International Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States (The Washington Convention). The adoption of the said conventions shall allow a more straightforward enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in the mentioned states. Moreover, Arab legislators have not remained idle with regards to the developments that international arbitration has experienced worldwide, and most of them are constantly working on reforming their national arbitration legislation to meet the expectations of the international conventions and rules,

and thereby to put in place a certain legal security for investors contemplating an establishment in the said region. Most of the North African and Middle Eastern countries have adopted specific rules on arbitration within their national legislation. One can cite the recent example of Saudi Arabia, which adopted the Royal Decree N째 34/M in April 2012 on arbitration, inspired by the UNCITRAL Model Law, aimed at modernising the Saudi Arabian arbitration regime in several ways. Other amendments relating to arbitration legislation have been made in the region. The Egyptian, Tunisian and Moroccan laws on arbitration are for instance inspired by the UNCITRAL model law of 1985. As for the Egyptian Law, it is worth mentioning that nowadays, even public contracts can be subject to arbitration, which was not the case before. In Algeria, arbitration is governed by the Algerian Administrative and Civil Procedure Code since 2008, which modified an earlier law providing for arbitration and alternative methods of dispute resolution. A working group has been also formed in Tunisia with the main objective of studying possible amendments to the Tunisian Arbitration Code brought into effect by Law N째 93-42 dated April 26th, 1993. Arbitration legislation is also expected to be promulgated in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar. The amendments and modification of the national legislation on arbitration are a necessity. Indeed, it is arbitration that must meet the expectations of


figuring within this 2012 ranking was Qatar, in 27th position.

international trade and investments. As the latter is a constantly evolving sector, legislation should adapt to it if a country is willing to create a legally secure and attractive environment for investors. Another fundamental factor worth mentioning is the attitude of the local judges towards arbitration. One can notice that in the Middle East North Africa region, judges are becoming more and more arbitration friendly, by supporting arbitration proceedings and by complying for instance with the rules regarding the enforcement of arbitration awards. That being said, the Arab perception of arbitration as a fully fledged legal system was inter alia supported by the establishment of several regional arbitration institutions in the region. Indeed, in the same scope of attracting investors, most of the countries of the Middle East and North Africa region have understood the necessity of offering reliable and alternative legal protection as well as effective mechanisms of conflict resolution. In this regard, several arbitration institutions arose in recent years in the region. Some of the most reliable institutions may be mentioned, such as the Cairo Regional Center for International Commercial Arbitration (CRCICA) which was established in 1979. Other regional centres are worth mentioning in that sense, apart from the CRCICA, which are the Dubai International Arbitration Center, first created in 1994 as the “Centre for Commercial Conciliation and Arbitration”, the Bahrain Chamber of Dispute Resolution, established on June 29th, 2009. It is worth noting that many Arab countries have established their own local arbitration centres and are working towards an improvement of their efficiency, such as Morocco and Lebanon. This trend only proves the determination of Arab countries to intensify their trade and investment policies, as well as their openness to international markets. Apart from these institutions, a new species started arising in the region, namely the Free Arbitration Zones. These zones are aimed at improving the investment climate by removing a maximum of restrictions on foreign investments. For instance, the Dubai International Financial Center,


In 2013, the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Qatar figured within the Origin of Parties ranking, respectively in 8th, 17th and 28th positions. With regards to North African countries, Algeria figured within the said ranking for 2013, in 15th position. In 2013, the number of parties originating from North Africa grew to 78 parties out of 138, meaning a 90.2% growth compared to 2012. established by Federal Law N°8 of 2004, is a free financial zone in Dubai which has its own courts and judicial system, independent of the courts of Dubai or the federal courts of the UAE. In addition to having its own judicial system, the DIFC has its own Arbitration Law, modelled on the UNCITRAL Model Law, as amended in 2006 and entered into force in 2008. The creation of these free financial zones in the Arab region is now a common trend. In Morocco, for example, the Casablanca Finance City was created by Law n°4410, in 2010. This economic and financial hub is currently working to establish an independent arbitration institution such as the one in the DIFC. In Qatar, this same trend has been followed by establishing the Qatar Financial Center. Last but not least, one can discover if there is a general acceptance of arbitration in a given country by determining the number of contracts emanating from the said country that stipulate an arbitration agreement. As it is almost impossible to assess the overall number of contracts stipulating an arbitration agreement, the statistics that are relevant in this matter are those of the number of contracts binding parties from a given country, that are currently involved in an arbitration proceeding. In this regard, one can take into consideration the ICC International Court of Arbitration statistics. As a leading world business organisation, the statistics that are available from the ICC give a particularly reliable illustration of trends in the global markets. In fact, since 2005 Arab countries represent an average of 10% of ICC arbitration proceedings. This number shows the extent of this region’s implication in arbitration worldwide. In 2012, the UAE was ranked eighth in the 2012 Origin of Parties ranking. Another Arab country

It is also worth mentioning that the ICC arbitration proceedings are related to several economic sectors. In the Middle East North Africa region, they are historically related to the oil and gas sector. However, statistics have shown that these are not the only fields that are subject of contracts within this region. Indeed, the types of contracts stipulating an ICC arbitration clause can be related to either enterprises, goods, intellectual property or services and they deal with various economic activities such as agribusiness, business services, metals and raw materials, energy, defense and security, among others. Thus, arbitration is no longer used in one specific sector. In conclusion, the countries of the Middle East North Africa are currently working on promoting investments and trade, and using arbitration as a means to do so. The need of improvement and change has long been recognised in the region and efforts are constantly being made by Arab countries, towards strengthening their position within the international economy.

CONTACT Sami Houerbi, Director International Court of Arbitration, ADR International Chamber of Commerce PO Box 363 1082 Mahrajen, Tunis, Tunisia Tel: +216 71 840 297 Fax: + 216 71 288 844 Email: Partner, Boussayene Knani Houerbi Law Firm, Tunis, Tunisia

About Carrs Silver


Carrs Silver is a Sheffield manufacturer rich in the traditional silversmith skills the city is famous for and committed to strengthening its reputation in the global market for classic and contemporary silverware. All Carrs Silver products are made in Sheffield, and grace the homes of many who appreciate the finer things in life around the world.

Carrs Silver has one of the top five concessions in the Homewares, Gifts and Stationery Department at London’s prestigious Harrods. The company has recently invested in a modern make-over of its concession, which has moved with the worldrenowned Silver Room to its new location on the second floor, Luxury Home 4. The Silver Room houses a unique assembly of handcrafted silver and stainless steel from some of the world’s best brands including Christofle, Aston Martin, Arthur Price, Greggio and Patchi.

Established by Ron Carr in 1977, initially making silverware gifts and accessories, the family-run business has grown to become one of the UK’s premier manufacturers of fine quality silverware and the largest supplier of cutlery blanks to many other silverware companies. The Carrs philosophy has always been to encompass new technologies and techniques whilst employing the finest of traditional hand skills. Many of the workforce are second-generation Carrs employees, and the company regularly appoints apprentices so the experienced team members can pass on their silversmith skills to a new generation.

Manufacturing Carrs is the only UK silverware company to manage the silver fabrication process on-site. Its experience and expertise in the processes of melting, casting, rolling and forming silver alloys is well established and gives the company an unrivalled advantage in terms of quality and delivery management. Its production processes including metal-spinning, silversmithing and buffing are still traditional and highly skilled techniques, whilst other operations have benefitted from investment in new technology. The silver price has trebled in the last five years, and further increases are expected. Carrs continues to research and develop innovative engineering and manufacturing processes which mean it can maintain its high product quality, while keeping costs competitive. Visitors from all over the world come to the Sheffield manufacturing site to learn more about the Carrs Silver story and to witness the journey of Carrs Silver products through their many stages, from melting to final polishing.

Carrs Silver products are also available in Selfridges, Liberty and Fortnum & Mason, and John Lewis in the UK, and Bergdorf Goodman, Neiman Marcus and Williams Sonoma Pottery Barn in the US, as well as an extensive network of independent jewellery retailers around the world.

Future plans Demand for cutlery and the company’s bespoke service are increasing, and the company is taking steps to accommodate an increase in production capacity later this year. Most recently, the company launched a social marketing campaign to stimulate customer engagement, increase brand awareness and highlight the ‘Made in Sheffield’ community it is so proud to be a part of. Two new brochures have been introduced, one presenting the latest Cutlery, Cabinet & Table Collection, and another showing the Carrs Collection, and featuring for the first time an exclusive range of enamelled products.

Richard Carr, Managing Director

Carrs Silver Directors Brothers Richard, Andrew and Martin Carr are now in the driving seat, researching and developing innovations to expand Carrs Silver’s quality product range and its global reach.

From his early teens, Richard did all he could to learn about the silverware business. All of his spare time was spent in the factory, on the shop floor or in the offices, and he remains fascinated by the process of turning a raw element into an intricate design. After working in various sales roles at Carrs, Richard left to set up his own business and in 2002 began importing jewellery and small gifts from the Far East until the business was amalgamated into Carrs Silver in 2006. He continues to look for innovative ways to expand the business, its product range and its global reach. His ultimate goal is to ensure Carrs’ longevity as the world’s premier silver manufacturer.

Andrew Carr, Sales Director Andrew cut his teeth in the sales and marketing department at Carrs, and then joined his brother Richard in 2002 in the importing business. As Sales Director he is on the lookout for new product and market opportunities, and is focusing on invigorating the younger sector which is key to a viable future.

Martin Carr, IT Director Martin joined the business in 1992 with a degree in physics and a passion for computers. He upgraded the company’s IT system, installing a network that was accessible to everyone and provided vital stock information. He also manages health and safety standards, keeping Carrs at the forefront of .legislative and operational change

Tel +44 (0) 114 251 0610 Fax +44 (0) 114 251 0875



Cloud and Mobility have been at the forefront of the IT industry and the world of business as a whole over the last few years with an increasing belief that they will both drive and raise productivity and create new business. Consulting firm IDATE reported that by the end of 2013, more than half of all internet activity would involve smartphones, tablets, laptops and other mobile devices. The more widely that cloud services are adopted by businesses across all industries, the more familiar and comfortable business leaders are with the platforms and the use of mobile devices within these environments. The simplicity of cloud based platforms and their ability to adapt appeals to businesses, especially the speed with which an account can be set-up, software implemented and accessed. In addition, cloud platforms simplify policy enforcement and in some cases create a more secure business environment. It

is increasingly possible to view the total IT space from a single dashboard and automate numerous processes. “I don’t need a hard disk in my computer if I can get to the server faster… carrying around these non-connected computers is Byzantine by comparison,” said the late Steve Jobs, Chairman of Apple. Mobile cloud platforms support a variety of business needs, with some variation in the rate of take up in different regions. Global research of senior business executives carried out by Oxford Economics in 2013 across businesses found that enterprises are using cloud platforms to support a variety of customer needs. Faster response times were found to be the most important

factor within the EMEA, followed by customer retention as a sizeable cloud objective for companies within the region, with real-time customer service also a substantial consideration. Roger MacFarlaine, Vice President, Technology & Systems at Mövenpick Hotels and Resorts, Middle East and Asia explains the decline of URL-driven access: “Dotcom has been replaced with iPads and iPhones. This creates entirely different expectations, and places fundamentally different demands and requirements on organisations.” According to the Oxford Economics Survey, half of the EMEA respondents were using mobile tools to replace on-premise systems, 47% of EMEA were relying on mobility to manage pricing more dynamically and 28% were connecting to partners through cloud services. Three quarters of survey respondents indicate that they used cloud platforms to rapidly deploy new services and capabilities. Even though the resource is becoming increasingly widespread, companies have been struggling to transfer software data into the cloud using a plethora of remote devices with varying levels of access. Both IT and other businesses are relying on their staff to be capable of spotting threats before they can corrupt files and systems. Employees need a greater understanding not just of software compatibility across



I don’t need a hard disk in my computer if I can get to the server faster… carrying around these nonconnected computers is Byzantine by comparison the late Steve Jobs, Chairman of Apple

different networks, but also the complete range of hardware in use. Each type of device has its own implications for security and a company’s IT department should know the best way to improve the security of data on each mobile device throughout the network. Even traditional IT professionals now need to become cloud-competent. Networking and technical sales professionals need to learn new skills in order to support the overall objectives of their business. “Cloud computing is often far more secure than traditional computing, because companies like Google and Amazon can attract and retain cybersecurity personnel of a higher quality than many governmental agencies,” said Vivek Kundra, former federal CIO of the United States. The cloud reaches all aspects of business, including accounts. Sage Accounting and Software produced a study in 2013 indicating that of those businesses already having adopted the

cloud, 92% were completely satisfied with their cloud computing services, citing cost reductions and financial savings as the main advantages of cloud accounting. “We are beginning to see a shift in how our clients would like to use their accounting and CRM software; with an expanding requirement to gain access to real-time data and to amend reports on the move. Adopting the cloud provides them with a practical and cost effective solution,” commented Zaff Ajaib, Managing Director - Technology Partners Ltd. A third of those companies surveyed by Sage regard having to purchase fewer infrastructures as the major benefit, followed by initial cost savings, reduced infrastructure configuration and lower cost of ownership. The challenges facing cloud accounting are that almost half of businesses felt that a lack of knowledge stopped them from adopting these services, followed by security and privacy worries and issues with respect to connectivity and reliability.

“Security and reliability will always be a concern, but some of the barriers can be mitigated if the industry as a whole can better educate the SME market on the benefits of cloud adoption. It is expected that SMEs would put some of that trust in IBM and Microsoft given how entrenched they are in this sector,” said John Gilbert, Consulting Director, YouGov Technology and Telecoms. While security of data when using cloud is still the overriding consideration for companies, it is something that the IT profession is heavily investing in and developing as an ongoing concern to win over the trust of business leaders worldwide in order to drive investment and streamline business processes. Technology Partners Ltd. (TPL), a member of the ABCC, is an independent Sage Strategic Partner and Microsoft Developer based in the UK. TPL provides cloud and on-premise Accounting/ ERP, CRM and BI software solutions for Europe and the Middle East.




AN INNOVATIVE AND UNIQUE APPROACH SUPPORTS EXPANSION AT GATEHOUSE BANK The evolution of Gatehouse Bank over the last six years stands out as a success story even in the context of significant growth in the Islamic finance market. Shariah-compliant investment continues to gain traction across the world and Gatehouse Bank is well positioned to capitalise on this growth. It was initially incorporated in 2008 to act as an arranger and underwriter for Shariah-compliant syndicated financing and sukuk issuances and despite being in the early stages of its development, successfully navigated the global financial crisis. In August 2008, Gatehouse Bank acted as mandated lead arranger for a $70 million commodity murabaha facility for a GCC Corporation and in April 2009 acted as both mandated lead arranger and investment agent for a $80 million murabaha transaction for a Turkish Bank. In June 2009 it acted as mandated lead arranger on a $125 million, three year secured syndicated Ijara facility for a Kuwaiti Oil and Drilling company. A vital stage of Gatehouse Bank’s diversification began in December 2009 when - acting as the investment advisor - it completed its first real estate acquisition, the headquarter for a prominent corporation on behalf of high net worth clients and family offices in the GCC. In 2010, its real estate strategy gained momentum with several further acquisitions and it also made its first US property acquisition. “Our strategy was to buy long term income streams secured on well-let property,” explains Gatehouse Bank Chairman, Mr Fahed Faisal Boodai. “The properties were in good locations and let to financially strong tenants. By following this strategy we have been able to deliver excellent monthly dividends and strong equity returns for the benefit of the clients. This, coupled with a first class customer service offering, is what makes Gatehouse Bank stand out from its peers.” The success of its real estate strategy was underlined in December 2011 when the

Bank sealed the $54.5 million realised investment in the sale of the medical facility in California, generating a return on investment of 21% and an IRR of 14%. Gatehouse Bank’s evolution continued during 2011 with the implementation of an ambitious growth strategy by the board, which gained the support of consortium of new Kuwaiti institutions (including the Kuwait Investment Authority). The Bank received an additional capital injection of £100 million. During 2012 and 2013, Gatehouse Bank consolidated its track record of delivering profitable returns to its investors through the realisation of real estate investments as well as the diversification of its wealth products to include real estate funds, treasury notice accounts and structured finance fixed income products. In 2012, it expanded its geographical outreach and acquired a strategic stake in a Kuwaiti investment company, strengthening its GCC distribution capabilities and providing access to new origination capabilities. Geographical expansion continued in 2013 with the launch of a representative office in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In September 2012, Gatehouse Bank advised the Malaysian Pilgrims Fund Board on its first UK real estate investment and the investor mandated the Bank in the same capacity for a second acquisition in Greater London which was successfully completed in January. Gatehouse Bank demonstrated further innovation and investment acumen

through the origination, structuring and placement of a residential-backed, income producing investment portfolio in 2013. This investment was completed in collaboration with a US partner with a proven track record in this sector. The Bank decided to replicate this successful approach in the UK and in December 2013 announced a partnership with Sigma, a UK residential and urban regeneration specialist. In September 2013, Gatehouse Bank structured, issued and placed the first real estate-backed sterling sukuk in the UK and shortly after completed the issuance of its first euro sukuk, backed by a French real estate asset. “We continue to see demand for good quality sukuk issuances that far outweighs supply,” says Mr Boodai. “In this context - and as the sukuk market continues its rapid development - we anticipate a move across geographies. One area that shows great promise is the EU. With market interest rates expected to remain low for some time, combined with improving growth amongst most member countries, we feel there is a natural synergy between issuers and investors.” Mr Boodai describes the recent opening of a client investment office in London’s Mayfair as another milestone for Gatehouse Bank. “We are confident that the office’s location and close proximity to areas occupied throughout the year by investors from the GCC and south east Asia will prove convenient for visiting investors from the GCC and south east Asia and will help us attract a new client base as we continue to expand.”



The World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos this year took as its theme, The Reshaping of the World: Consequences for Society, Politics and Business. One of the key discussion topics was the role and impact of innovation on business and people’s lives. Edited extracts from the discussions follow.

In just six months, the number of smartphones in use today, estimated at 500 million, will increase by an incredible factor of eight to at least 4 billion, the conference heard. By 2020, there will be 50 billion networked devices globally – that is six smartphones, tablet computers, laptops, Internetready appliances and vehicles and other gadgets for every man, woman and child on the planet. “We really are living in a hyperconnected reality,” said Marissa Mayer, CEO, Yahoo, USA, in a session on The Global Agenda 2014. She acknowledged that there would be disruption and potential risks, but believed that hyperconnectivity “can also be incredibly productive”. “Disruption usually results in

productivity gains and redistribution of wealth,” Mayer said. “We need to use that redistribution of wealth to fuel investment in education, communication and inclusion to get a nice virtual cycle and make sure that the productivity gets used to solve some of the global problems.” It was a sentiment shared by the 2,500 public figures, business leaders and representatives from civil society, academia, the media and arts who took part in the discussions at Davos, Switzerland during 22-25 January 2014. In several sessions, participants discussed the various strands of ‘’disruptive innovation’’ that are changing the way we live, learn, communicate and collaborate.

The consensus opinion was that the transformations must be managed in ways that optimise the gains and mitigate the risks. As Kris Gopalakrishnan, President, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Vice-Chairman, Infosys, India, observed: “Technology is going to create significant opportunities, but how we as humans adapt to the changes will be very important.

Innovation Revolution Virtually every sphere of human activity will be affected, no more so than the dynamics between citizens and institutions. The model of top-down leadership, where rulers and chief executive officers hand down diktats for everyone else to follow, is being upended. Hyperconnectivity and websites that offer crowdsourcing, analytics and predictive algorithms can potentially tell people at the top exactly what those in the middle and bottom of the pyramid are thinking and feeling. At the same time, the governed now have the means to keep tabs on their rulers and hold them accountable – and galvanize action against those that they see as not upholding their part of the social contract.

The Swiss resort of Davos where the World Economic Forum meets.

The events that became known as the Arab Spring, for example, were enabled in large part by hyperconnectivity. Citizens learned what was going on via texts, tweets and blogs, and activists

mobilised support and coordinated protests using mobile phones, social media and the Internet. Commerce is also greatly affected. Retailing giants such as Wal-Mart are turning into IT companies that combine the digital and physical worlds in their operations and harness the power of analytics and algorithms to know how customers behave individually and collectively. “You need to navigate from yesterday to tomorrow using the tools of today,” said Doug McMillon, Incoming President and Chief Executive Officer, Wal-Mart Stores, USA. In an IdeasLab session on Advanced Manufacturing with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, participants explored how automation, digitization, cloud computing, advanced robotics and 3D printing are some of the innovations that are transforming manufacturing, retailing, knowledge work and business processes.


Switzerland, was convinced that emerging capabilities in bioinformatics, which combine computer science, statistics and engineering to process biological data, will transform the healthcare industry. “This will make advances in medicine that we have not seen in the past 10 years,” he said.

Cyber criminals are able to steal credit card information and other commercially valuable data that companies store and are supposed to safeguard. But in a world of almost constant disruptive innovation, it is not too difficult to acquire ever sophisticated software tools to aid the criminal enterprise.

But innovation also brings risks. Excessive technology usage, for example, can contribute to mental illness. There are fears that robotics and other technologies are destroying jobs in manufacturing, information management and even teaching, because Internet courses can be offered to thousands of students at a time.

For companies that are intent on protecting customer and other data, this is “a race without a finishing line,” as Peter T Grauer, Chairman, Bloomberg, USA, aptly put it during a CEO Series session on Cracking the Code on Cyber Resilience.

“Software is eating the world,” warned Erik Brynjolfsson, Professor, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, in a Forum debate on Rethinking Technology and Employment.

The rise of the sharing economy, which is enabled by hyperconnectivity, adds another dimension to change. When consumers rent instead of purchase, companies must focus on building community trust and good customer experience, or shift to products that do not lend themselves to sharing, such as luxury items.

“Big Brother” concerns pertaining to privacy rights are also coming to the fore. “This question of the right to privacy must be one of the defining issues of our time,” said Salil Shetty, SecretaryGeneral, Amnesty International, UK; Global Agenda Council on the Role of Civil Society, in a session provocatively titled, the Big Brother Problem.

Benefits and Risks

Ubiquitous networked devices gather data, sometimes without the knowledge or consent of users, which organisations may access under the guise of national security or for competitive business advantage.

There is no doubt that innovation is helping to bring about a better world. Joseph Jimenez, CEO, Novartis,


Call to Action The answer was not to restrict or put a stop to innovation, even if that were possible. The right course was for governments and businesses to create a nurturing environment for innovation to flourish. The role of the public sector, said one panellist in a session on Regulating Innovation, was to help “plant the seed”, which can be achieved by establishing business incubators and economic zones, easing the entry of foreign talent, and offering tax breaks and incentives for research and development. A full report of the 2014 meeting of the WEF can be found at: WEF, February 2014

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UK BUDGET 2014 – PUSHING THE ENVELOPE FURTHER Ray Smith (Partner) and Chris Waddington (Associate) of Clyde & Co LLP provide an update on the UK Budget 2014 and the taxation of UK residential property held by corporate envelopes and non- resident individuals.

In November 2013, Clyde & Co provided an update, UK Residential Property Tax Update- Pushing the Envelope, featured in the winter 2013 issue of this magazine, in relation to the Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings (‘ATED’) that was introduced from April 2013. The Budget 2014, which was announced on 19 March, has revised the rules in relation to the ATED and other taxes and it is these changes that are outlined below.

The Annual Tax on Enveloped Dwellings The original regime was designed to catch only ‘high value’ residential properties owned by companies, whether UK or non-UK resident. The Budget 2014 has introduced two new bands for the ATED, so that it will now apply to residential properties that are owned by companies (whether UK or nonUK resident) which are valued at greater than £500,000 but not more than £1 million and greater than £1 million but not more than £2 million, as well as those valued at more than £2 million. This, therefore, significantly lowers the threshold that must be met for the ATED to apply resulting in many more properties, particularly in London, attracting this additional property tax. This change will be gradually introduced with the £1 million to £2 million band applying from 1 April 2015 (the tax being £7,000 per annum) and £500,000 to £1 million band applying from 1 April 2016 (the tax being £3,500 per annum). There will also be a transitional rule in relation to the £1 million to £2 million band which will require returns to be filed on 1 October 2015 and payment made by 31 October 2015. The ATED- related capital gains tax will also apply to the properties that fall into these bands.

Stamp Duty Land Tax From 20 March 2014, the 15% band for SDLT, which applies to dwellings acquired by corporate envelopes (and certain other ‘non-natural’ persons), was also extended to apply to residential properties with a value of more than £500,000 (previously £2 million). This will, therefore, apply to transactions where the effective date (usually completion) is on or after 20 March 2014.

Collection of Tax Debts The British Government also announced a new power whereby HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC) will be able to recover unpaid taxes and tax credit debts directly from taxpayers’ bank accounts, building society accounts and Individual Savings Accounts (‘ISAs’). This method of debt collection will be focused on those taxpayers that owe HMRC ‘at least £1,000’ and have failed to pay the debt after being contacted on ‘multiple’ occasions. There will be a ‘minimum aggregate balance of £5,000’ left in all accounts (including ISAs).

Further Changes to Come - Capital Gains Tax for Non-Resident Individuals The Budget 2014 also confirmed that the rules in relation to the capital gains tax (‘CGT’) regime are set to be extended to apply to future gains by non- residents disposing of UK residential property. At this stage, it is not clear whether this proposed change will apply to individuals and companies or whether any reliefs will be available such as those available in relation to ‘ATED-related’ gains e.g. commercial letting property, trading/development etc. These changes will take effect from April 2015 and a consultation in relation to this is expected to be published shortly.

What Next? One of the above changes has already come into force (the extension of the 15% SDLT band) whilst the other changes will come into effect soon. It is, therefore, important to be aware of these changes and we would strongly recommend that companies and non- resident individuals take professional advice about the effects that these changes will have on their current and future UK tax position. For advice as to whether the above changes apply to you or your company please contact Ray Smith (Partner) or Chris Waddington (Associate) at Clyde & Co LLP. Ray Smith Chris Waddington

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BRITISH ECONOMIC SURVEY The British Chambers of Commerce Quarterly Economic Survey for the 1st Quarter 2014 received almost 7,500 business responses. The respondents cover the entire UK, and were surveyed by postal and online questionnaires over the period 24 February to 19 March.

In the manufacturing sector 2,046 firms, employing approximately 300,000 people, responded. 1,426 (69%) of manufacturing respondents were exporters. In the service sector 5,433 businesses with approximately 650,000 employees responded. Of the service sector participants, 2,713 (50%) were exporters. While the majority of respondents employ fewer than 500 people, the sample included many large businesses.






Total responses are weighted according to the actual distribution of companies by size within each region and nation, and each region and nation is similarly weighted within the national aggregates to ensure that the sample provides a truly representative picture of UK commerce and industry. The survey is the largest and most representative of its kind in the UK.

SUMMARY The Q1 2014 results are overall upbeat. All the critical Q1 balances for both manufacturing and services are stronger than their long-term averages and some are at all-time highs for our survey. In manufacturing, most key balances rose between Q4 2013 and Q1 2014. There were very small falls in employment and profitability confidence, but these balances are still positive and at historically high levels, indicating continued growth. Six manufacturing balances are at alltime highs: domestic sales; domestic orders; employment expectations; investment in plant & machinery; investment in training; and turnover confidence. In services, there were

some small mixed movements between Q4 and Q1, but almost all the key balances remain above their average 2007 levels. There was a surprisingly large fall in the Q1 service employment balance, but this follows a large increase in the previous quarter. The services employment expectations balance rose, and is now higher than its historical average. Both manufacturing and service export balances rose to new all-time highs in Q1. Intentions to raise prices fell in manufacturing and rose slightly in services.

Domestic Market Most Q1 2014 national domestic balances were higher than Q4 2013. One service sector balance recorded a small fall, but all the domestic balances remain at historically high levels in both sectors. The manufacturing sector’s net balance for domestic sales increased from +36% to +38%, equalling its alltime high for our survey. The balance for manufacturers’ home orders rose from +35% to +42%, a new all-time high. The service sector’s balance for domestic sales fell from +38% to +35%, still close to historically high level. The net balance for service domestic orders rose from +32% to +33%, the best level since Q1 1997.

Export Market The national export balances rose in Q1 2014. For both manufacturing and services, all the balances are at historically high levels. The manufacturing balance for export sales increased from +35% to 40%, the best level since Q4 1994. The manufacturing balance for export orders rose from +30% to +35%, the highest since Q4 2010. The service balance for export sales increased by two points, to +38%, an all-time high for our survey. The service export orders balance increased by six points, to +39%, also a new all-time high.

Employment The employment balances recorded divergent movements in Q1. For both sectors, the backward-looking employment balances fell (but still indicate growth), while the forwardlooking employment expectations



balances rose. In manufacturing, the employment balance fell two points, to +31%, while the employment expectations balance rose nine points, to +40%, an all-time high. The service employment balance fell 13 points, to +16%, while the employment expectations balance rose two points, to +29%, the highest level since Q4 2007.

high level, only just below the all-time high. Confidence that service sector turnover will improve in the next 12 months was +60%, the same as in Q4, and remains the highest level seen since Q4 1997. Confidence that service sector profitability will improve in the next 12 months rose from +45% to +47%, the best level since Q3 2007.


Capacity Utilisation and Cashflow

Most national investment balances rose in Q1. One service balance fell very slightly, but all balances remain at historically high levels. The balance of manufacturing firms that have revised upwards their plans to invest in plant & machinery increased by five points, to +37%, an all-time high. Manufacturing intentions to invest in training increased four points, to +33%, equalling the all-time high. The balance of service firms that have revised upwards their plans to invest in plant & machinery fell one point to +23%, but remains near historically high level. Service sector intentions to invest in training rose four points to +30%, the best level since Q3 2007. All the investment balances are now above their long-term historical averages.

Business Confidence All the national confidence balances remained at historically high levels in Q1. Confidence that manufacturing turnover will improve in the next 12 months was +67% in Q1, and continues to be at an all-time high. Confidence that manufacturing profitability will improve in the next 12 months fell from +51% to +50%, but remains at a very

The share of manufacturing firms operating at full capacity fell two percentage points to 44%, but remains very high. The share of service firms operating at full capacity increased by three points to +46%, only just below the all-time high recorded in Q4 1996. The Q1 cashflow balances recorded small divergent movements. The manufacturing cashflow balance rose one point to +13%, well above the longterm historical average. However, services cashflow fell one point to +15%, but remains well above the long-term historical average.

Prices Intentions to raise prices diverged between manufacturing and services. The balance of manufacturing firms reporting pressure to raise prices fell seven points to +24%, mainly due to reduced pressures from raw material costs. The balance of service firms expecting to raise prices increased two points to +29%, the highest level since Q1 2011.

continued page 52


from page 51

DOMESTIC Sales and Orders Q

Excluding seasonal variation, domestic orders over the past 3 months are: Up/Same/Down


Excluding seasonal variation, domestic sales over the past 3 months are: Up/Same/Down

The National Perspective Most national domestic balances increased in Q1 2014, compared with Q4 2013, and the manufacturing balances were at their all-time highs. Although one service sector balance recorded a fall, all the domestic balances are at or near historically high levels in both sectors, and all are higher than their average 2007 pre-recession levels. The manufacturing sector’s net balance for domestic sales rose from +36% in Q4 2013 to +38% in Q1 2014, a joint alltime high for our survey. The balance for manufacturers’ domestic orders increased from +35% in Q4 2013 to +42% in Q1 2014, a new all-time high for our survey. The service sector’s balance for domestic sales fell from +38% in Q4 2013 to +35%

in Q1 2014, still a historically high level. The net balance for service domestic orders rose from +32% in Q4 2013 to +33% in Q1 2014, the best level since Q1 1997.

The Regions and Nations Perspective The Q1 2014 manufacturing balances for domestic sales were in positive territory in all regions and nations. In the case of manufacturing domestic orders, we find the same pattern, with all in positive territory in Q1. Comparing the manufacturing sector’s domestic performance across the various regions and nations, the strongest Q1 domestic manufacturing balances were in Wales for domestic sales at +50%, and the North East for domestic orders, at +56%. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 net

EXPORT Sales and Orders Q

Excluding seasonal variation, export sales over the past 3 months are: Up/Same/Down


Excluding seasonal variation, export orders over the past 3 months are: Up/Same/Down

balances were in London and the South East for domestic sales, both at +21%, and in the South West for domestic orders at 16%. The Q1 2014 service sector’s net balances for domestic sales were in positive territory in all regions and nations. In the case of service domestic orders, we find the same pattern, with all in positive territory in Q1 2014. Comparing the service sector’s domestic performance across the various regions and nations, the strongest Q1 domestic balances were in the East of England at +56% for domestic sales, and at +52% for domestic orders. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 net service balances were in Scotland at +3% for domestic sales and at +13% for home orders.


The National Perspective The national export balances rose for both sectors in Q1 2014, and the service balances recorded new all-time highs. All the export balances are at historically high levels for both manufacturing and services, and all remain higher than their average pre-recession levels. The manufacturing balance for export sales increased from +35% in Q4 2013 to +40% in Q1 2014, the best level since Q4 1994. The manufacturing balance for export orders rose from +30% in Q4 to +35% in Q1, the best level since Q4 2010. The service balance for export sales increased by two points in Q1 2014 to +38%, a new all-time high for our survey. The service export orders balance

increased by six points in Q1 to +39%, also a new all-time high for our survey.

The Regions and Nations Perspective The Q1 2014 manufacturing balances for export sales were in positive territory in all regions and nations. In the case of manufacturing export orders, we ďŹ nd the same pattern, with all in positive territory in Q1 2014. Comparing manufacturing export performances across the various regions and nations, the strongest Q1 export balances were in the Eastern region, at +58% for export sales and at +68% for export orders. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 manufacturing net balances were in the East Midlands,


at +7% for export sales and at +8% for export orders. The Q1 2014 service sector balances for export sales were in positive territory in all regions and nations. In the case of service export orders, we ďŹ nd the same pattern, with all regions and nations in positive territory in Q1 2014. Comparing service sector export performances across the various regions and nations, the strongest Q1 balances were in the East of England region, at +73% for export sales and the South East at +71% for export orders. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 service balances were in the North East, at +8% for export sales and at +7% for export orders.


Over the past 3 months, what changes have you made to your investment plans: a) For Plant and Machinery: Revised upwards/ Revised downwards/No change b) For Training: Revised upwards/ Revised downwards/No change

The National Perspective In the manufacturing sector the investment in plant & machinery balance increased from +32% in Q4 2013 to +37% in Q1 2014. The investment in training balance increased to +33%, from +29% in Q4 2013. This is an all-time high for the survey. The service sector continues to show improvement in investment in training, the investment in training balance increased from +26% to +30%. The investment in plant and machinery balance decreased to +23% from +24% in the previous quarter.

The Regions and Nations Perspective For the manufacturing sector the investment in plant and machinery balance remained positive across all regions. The strongest results were recorded in Wales (+62%) followed by Northern Ireland (+43%), West Midlands (+43%) and the South East (+40%). Similarly the investment in training balance was also positive across all regions. The highest results were recorded in Wales (+57%) followed by Northern Ireland (+41%).

For the service sector all regions recorded a positive balance for investment in plant and machinery. The strongest positive balances were recorded in Wales at +41%. Similarly the investment in training balance recorded positive balances for all regions. The strongest result at +45% was recorded for Wales followed by the North East and the East of England (both at +36%).

continued page 54


from page 53

BUSINESS CONFIDENCE Q Do you believe that over the next 12 months: a) Turnover will: Improve/Remain the same/ Worsen b) Profitability will: Improve/Remain the same/Worsen

The National Perspective All the national confidence balances remained at historically high levels in Q1 2014 for both turnover and profitability. In both manufacturing and services, all the confidence balances are higher than their average pre-recession levels. In both sectors, the profitability confidence balances remain weaker than the turnover balances in Q1 2014. Confidence that manufacturing turnover will improve in the next 12 months was +67% in Q1 2014, the same as in Q4 2013, and an equal all-time high. Confidence that manufacturing profitability will improve in the next 12 months fell marginally from +51% in Q4 2013 to +50% in Q1 2014, still a very high level and only just below the all-time high recorded last quarter. Confidence that service sector turnover will improve over the next 12 months

was +60% in Q1 2014, the same as in Q4 2013, and the joint highest level since Q3 1997. Confidence that service sector profitability will improve in the next 12 months rose from +45% in Q4 to +47% in Q1, the joint highest level since Q3 2007.

The Regions and Nations Perspective The Q1 2014 manufacturing balances for turnover confidence were in positive territory in all regions and nations. In the case of profitability confidence, we find the same pattern, with all regions and nations in positive territory in Q1. Comparing confidence levels across the various UK regions and nations, the strongest Q1 2014 manufacturing balances were in the West Midlands for turnover confidence at +78%, and in the East of England for profitability confidence, at +69%. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 manufacturing

CAPACITY UTILISATION AND CASHFLOW Q Are you currently operating: At full capacity/Below full capacity

Q During the last 3 months how has your cashflow changed: Improved/Same/Worsened

balances were in the South West for turnover confidence, at +42%, and in Scotland for profitability confidence, at +22%. In the service sector, the Q1 2014 balances for turnover confidence were in positive territory in all the regions and nations. In the case of profitability confidence, eleven regions and nations were in positive territory in Q1 2014, while one service balance was negative. Comparing service sector confidence across the various UK regions and nations, the strongest Q1 service sector balances were in the South East, at +77% for turnover confidence, and at +62% for profitability confidence. At the other extreme, the weakest Q1 service sector balances were in Scotland, at +12% for turnover confidence, and at -15% for profitability confidence.


CAPACITY UTILISATION The National Perspective In the manufacturing sector the capacity utilisation result fell two percentage points to 44% in Q1 2014, two points below the peak seen in Q4 2007. In the services sector the percentage of firms stating that they were operating at full capacity edged upwards from 43% in Q4 to 46% in Q1.

The Regions and Nations Perspective In the manufacturing sector the highest proportion of firms reporting that they were operating at full capacity was recorded in Scotland (76%) exceeding the national average of 44%, followed by

London (61%) and the South West (51%). The region with the lowest capacity utilisation figure was the East of England (25%). In the services sector the two regions reporting the highest capacity utilisation figure were London (61%), followed by Wales (46%). The lowest figure was recorded in the North East, East Midlands and the South West (all at 37%).

CASHFLOW The National Perspective In the manufacturing sector the cashflow balance increased by one point to reach +13%. The cashflow balance is now 9 points below its peak last seen in Q3 2013. In the service sector the cashflow


balance decreased by one point to +15%. The balance remains six points below its peak last seen in Q4 1997.

The Regions and Nations Perspective In the manufacturing sector the highest balances were recorded in London (29%), South West (28%) followed North West (25%). Negative balances were recorded in North East (-18%), Scotland (-10%) and East Midlands (-8%). In the services sector, the highest balances were recorded in the South West (31%), East of England (26%), and South East (21%). Northern Ireland was the only region that recorded a negative balance (-6%).


Q Please indicate which of the following factors are more of a concern to your business than 3 months ago: Interest Rates / Exchange Rates / Business Rates / Inflation / Competition / Tax

Manufacturing Manufacturing firms, at the national level, recorded divergent movements in their anxiety levels in Q1 2014, but there were more declines than increases. Inflation worries fell from 40% to 33%, but remained manufacturers’ biggest area of anxiety; medium-sized firms, at 39%, expressed the biggest concern. Competition worries eased from 34% to 29%, and were the second equal largest area of anxiety; micro firms (33%) expressed the biggest concern. Exchange rate worries edged up from 28% to 29%, and were also the second equal largest area of anxiety. Medium-sized firms (34%) expressed the highest concern. Interest rate concerns rose from 13% to 16%; small firms (20%) signalled

the highest level. Corporate taxation concerns fell from 24% to 19%; micros and medium-sized firms, both at 27%, signalled the highest level. Business rate worries eased from 21% to 20%; small firms, at 26%, signalled the highest level.

Services Service sector firms, at the national level, also recorded divergent movements in their anxiety levels in Q1 2014, and there were more declines than increases. Inflation worries fell from 34% to 32%, but became the biggest area of anxiety for service firms; small firms (38%) signalled the highest concern. Competition worries fell from 35% to 29%, and were the second biggest area of anxiety for service firms; micro

service firms (at 32%) signalled the highest level. Corporate taxation worries stayed unchanged at 19%; mediumsized firms (33%) signalled the highest concern. Business rate worries fell from 23% to 19%; small firms (25%) signalled the highest level. Exchange rate worries eased from 14% to 11%; small firms (16%) signalled the highest concern. Interest rate concerns rose from 16% to 18%; medium firms (23%) signalled the highest level. Service sector firms are much less concerned than manufacturers over exchange rates; but they are slightly more worried over interest rates. Published with the permission of the British Chambers of Commerce, from where the full report may be obtained.




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lack the technology that makes online records searches globally obtainable – proper vetting of individuals, companies and governing bodies can only be achieved through in-person interviews, access to local records and discussions with direct, informed sources.

What may seem like gold in the international business arena could quickly turn to rust if the vetting of all the parties involved isn’t properly conducted. Here is a case in point: A Western investor was interested in purchasing a major jewelry operation headquartered in Dubai. The business had painted a rosy picture of itself on paper as one of the region’s most profitable companies. But an intensive due diligence investigation conducted by a Dubai-based professional background screening company told another story. The company was, in fact, in the midst of liquidation proceedings, a major factor not previously disclosed to the potential buyer. The company’s principals were involved in several bankruptcy cases and the company had been issued warnings by local regulatory agencies concerning a host of collusive business activities. These discoveries would have been nearly impossible to uncover using conventional Internet-based search methods. If not for the efforts of the offshore screening firm, the buyer stood to lose his entire investment. It has become increasingly easy for organizations to open business channels worldwide. The Middle East, particularly the Gulf region, is an area of increasing influence, with countries like Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates becoming inviting markets, enticing Western-based businesses with strong currencies, reduced barriers to entry and lucrative opportunities.

Leveling the Playing Field Such opportunities, however, can also open the doors to scammers who prey on organizations – as well as those who take part in corruption, organized crime, terrorist financing or money laundering. Further, a misunderstanding of local laws can lead to unenforceable contracts that can blindside a foreign-based operation.

Managing Risk is Smart Business For companies involved in global dealings, it is imperative to have a comprehensive risk management program that incorporates international background investigations, preferably conducted by a screening company highly familiar with the specific laws, jurisdictions, business cultures and terrain of the countries in which the potential business is being conducted. Such extensive screening requires a “boots on the ground” team to ensure that no stone is left unturned. Unfortunately, most Western-based investigations firms lack the wherewithal to properly conduct overseas searches. And when it comes to the Middle East – where a vast majority of jurisdictions

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Expert, off-shore screening companies can access hard-copy records that aren’t found on the Web, have the ability to locate local sources that can aid in the investigation, and are armed with a familiarity of the area and an understanding of the culture to facilitate their investigations. And while foreign investigative companies know their terrain, they’re also highly educated in the local laws that govern business transactions, which they combine with their knowledge of the UK Bribery Act, FCPA regulations, anti-money laundering laws and other anti-corruption regulations. Used as part of a comprehensive risk management program, a thorough and professional offshore screening operation that provides due diligence services will reduce business, legal and reputation risks when seeking partnerships in unfamiliar international markets.

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The countries of the Maghreb represent an important market for British business and deserve to be given much more attention by investors.

That was the clear message delivered at the seminar, Opportunities in the Maghreb, held at the Chamber on 20 February 2014. The event, whose audience filled the auditorium, was formally opened by Dr Afnan Al Shuaiby, ABCC Secretary General & CEO, who welcomed all the delegates and mentioned the Chamber’s role in serving companies doing business across the entire Arab region. Mr Abdeslam El Idrissi, ABCC Director of Trade Services, who chaired the seminar, began with a brief overview

of the markets and pinpointed some of the factors that made the Maghreb attractive, namely its long history of relations with Europe, its educated and talented population, and the numerous free trade agreements that had been entered into which made getting goods to market much more easy.

unnecessary delays, which was a key area where the ABCC could assist.

He stressed that the Maghreb countries were looking for a partnership to build their economies for the long term.

She said there were many reasons why UK firms were not capitalising on the potential and organisations such as UKTI and the ABCC existed to help them.

He also underlined the vital importance of accurate documentation when exporting goods in order to avoid Ms Carolyne Akers, Head of the Africa Team, UKTI

Ms Carolyne Akers, Head of the Africa Team, UKTI, reiterated the point that there was insufficient awareness within the UK of the opportunities in the markets.

Ms Akers stated that UKTI was active in all the countries of the Maghreb and referred to its current work helping to establish new chambers of commerce. Diplomatic and government level relations between the UK and the Maghreb were improving with regular visits by the Prime Minister’s trade envoys. With regards to Morocco, she said that one important initiative was the launch of the Moroccan British Business Leaders Forum in November 2013 which was focused on the key sectors of finance, renewables and education and in developing trade links. Ms Akers wished to stress to potential UK investors that events had moved on since the ‘’Arab Spring’’ and that now the time was right for UK firms to look more closely at the markets. The UK had recently achieved some trade successes in Algeria and new opportunities were emerging in the market as Algeria sought more partners. It was keen to develop English language learning.


Lady Olga Maitland, Chairman, Algeria British Business Council


Libya was currently passing through a transition and awaiting a new constitution. Nevertheless, considerable opportunities for doing business were emerging, he said. The rising expectations of the people for better services such as healthcare had not yet been met which indicated that new opportunities would be coming available soon as investment was directed to making improvements. He advised anyone contemplating travel to Libya that the situation in Tripoli was not as insecure as Benghazi. He also said that it normally took about 3-4 weeks to obtain a visa. UKTI saw Libya as a “high value market” which meant that several sector briefing reports had been produced and could be made available to investors.

The market was also attractive because of its large reserves, its plans for infrastructure spending, the planned development of tourism, agriculture and renewable energy, she said. Lady Olga Maitland, Chairman, Algeria British Business Council, said there had never been a better time to be in Algeria as relations with the UK were improving and new opportunities for business were emerging as it moved towards a market economy. A passionate advocate for doing business with Algeria, Lady Olga stated that Algeria was crying out for British engagement and it was a market that large investors and SMEs should find accessible.

Mr Williams, an expert in trade development issues, provided details of the opportunities and success stories already achieved. The country had considerable assets at its disposal including a Sovereign Wealth Fund of $60bn, the largest recoverable oil in Africa and the third largest gas. Mr Williams gave some key facts about the country whose population was six million and mainly residing along the coastal belt.

Despite the market challenges numerous UK companies were operating successfully in Libya such as PWC, BP, KPMG, EY and KBR, Mr Williams said. He highlighted the potential business that was available in key sectors such as housing, oil and gas, telecoms, sport and leisure, language training and education and consultancy. The key to success in the market was to be persistent, he said. Mr Adil Chikhi, Director and Head of Business development, Moroccan

Mr Simon Williams, First Secretary Commercial, British Embassy, Tripoli

She advised companies interested in the market that a good agent on the ground was a key to success in order to follow up leads and to stay ahead of the game in learning about new contracts. Summing up, Lady Olga pointed out that the potential business in the country was enormous with the public works programme alone having a budget of $53 billion. Mr Simon Williams, First Secretary Commercial, British Embassy, Tripoli, insisted that there were “risks and rewards” in Libya. Assessing why the market is important, continued page 60


from page 59 Mr Abdeslam El Idrissi, ABCC Director of Trade Services

Investment Development Agency (MIDA), stated that the most important message was how the greater integration of the Maghreb region would strengthen the economy. The countries can benefit from their complementarities within one whole market, he said.

Mr Adil Chikhi, Director and Head of Business development, Moroccan Investment Development Agency (MIDA)

Mr Chikhi described how the Moroccan economy had successfully modernised since the 1990s when it moved from reliance on traditional activities such as tourism and agriculture through to today where new industries were becoming very well established.

He outlined Morocco’s many positive factors such as competitiveness in its salary scale, export costs and taxes. In terms of location, Morocco was only a few hours flight from all the world’s major economies and was linked to Africa, Europe and the Arab countries.

The process had taken time and investment of resources. A series of reforms had led to greater openness and transparency.

It had a young skilled workforce, some 64% of whom were under 34 years of age.

Morocco had a population of 33 million and GDP of $100bn, achieving 5% growth.

Major projects cited by Mr Chikki were the Renault Plant and Bombardier aerospace, which were creating an emerging cluster around them.

The country was noted for its political stability and its open economy, which were factors that attracted business. In Morocco, there were no restrictions on the export of capital and free repatriation of profits.

Morocco had identified some key projects where there is real demand and key sectors currently in need of investors included industry, offshoring and tourism.

Many bilateral tax agreements that the Kingdom had signed with partner countries were part of a reformed legal environment that protected investors.

The development of an aerospace industry that employed over 10 thousand people in a short period was a real achievement, he said.

Mr Chikhi informed potential investors that opportunities were emerging in sectors such as infrastructure and it was creating a ‘’cluster environment’’ which was proving effective at attracting new industries.

In the tourism sector, Morocco was planning to build new resorts and, in addition, new ports were being developed. In conclusion, Mr Chikhi stressed that


investors should see the Maghreb as one big market.


Mr Riadh Dridi, Deputy Head of Mission, Embassy of Tunisia

Mr Riadh Dridi, Deputy Head of Mission, Embassy of Tunisia, began by remarking on the long history of good relations enjoyed by the UK and Tunisia. This relationship had been enhanced after the revolution. However, economic relations remained below their potential, exports were limited and UK investment in Tunisia remained relatively small, he said. There was, therefore, considerable scope for growth. He stated that UK firms were well positioned to play a more active role in the country and urged them to act now to seize the opportunities offered by the new Tunisia. The country needed partnership to face the challenge of transition to create a sustainable economy. It had successfully adopted a new constitution which had laid the basis for future improvements in trade and the recovery of key sectors such as tourism, Mr Dridi concluded. The final speaker, Mr Beligh Ben Soltane, Director, Foreign Investment Promotion Agency (FIPA), London, reiterated the attractions of visiting and investing in Tunisia. The country had many advantages as a

business base including those offered by its location close to Europe and its partnership with the EU.

Over 3,000 foreign firms operated successfully in the market of which 75% were European companies.

It had a workforce that was talented, motivated and well educated including highly trained engineers, but the labour costs were highly competitive.

UK firms were already established and active in such sectors as oil, energy, insurance and textiles.

Tunisia boasted a secure and business friendly environment offering tax breaks, ease of export and freedom to invest, he said.

Mr Beligh Ben Soltane, Director, Foreign Investment Promotion Agency (FIPA)

A striking example of the success of Tunisia in attracting foreign companies was the fact that one company had moved production from China to Tunisia. Significant investment opportunities existed in electronics, aerospace, automotive components, food processing, renewables and ICT. Mr Beligh Ben Soltane said that new industries were booming and should attract more investors from the UK. He also looked forward to seeing more of Tunisia’s quality produce available on the shelves of stores in the UK. Considerable interest in the potential opportunities available in these markets was expressed by delegates during the discussion following the series of presentations. Companies were urged to take full advantage of the advice and support offered by professional bodies such as the ABCC as well as UKTI which had a presence on the ground in the markets.



As part of its endeavours to support its members, the Chamber held a networking event and seminar on the afternoon of 6 March 2014.

Networking events are now a regular feature of the Chamber’s programme of activities and are specially designed to enable member companies to promote their products and services to other members and beyond. Participants have the opportunity to deliver a brief presentation on their company or they can simply come along to engage in the networking experience which often can prove invaluable for future business development. The event successfully brought together new and established members from a range of sectors to exchange ideas and

to explore the potential for cooperation and the building of new business relationships.

were specifically designed to help members achieve success in their business.

Opening the event, Mr Mark Njoroge, ABCC Finance Controller, welcomed everyone to the Chamber on behalf of Dr Afnan Al-Shuaiby, ABCC Secretary General & CEO, and Baroness Symons, ABCC Chairman.

The Arab Certification of Origin particularly provided an added protection for goods, helping to ensure payment and offering an extra safeguard against the threats posed by fraud.

Mr Abdeslam El-Idrissi, Director of Trade Services, ABCC, chaired the event and began with a brief overview of the Chamber and its unique origins. He said that the Chamber’s services

Mr Abdeslam El-Idrissi, Director of Trade Services, ABCC

The following ABCC member companies gave short presentations, which was the second such event and follows on from the success of the first members’ event in this format that was held on 26 September 2013.

Mr Zaff Ajaib, Managing Director, Technology Partners Ltd



exceptional quality, of maximising benefits and return on investment of successful implementations.

Mr Clive Doble, Director of Sales, Savoy Hotel

Mr Jeremy Williams, Director, Handshaikh Ltd, explained that the company provides customised crosscultural seminars and consultancy services. Seminars are delivered at a client’s own premises worldwide for Westerners who are embarking on business activities in the Arab World and others with interests involving Arab partners, clients and customers particularly in, or from, the Gulf States of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and Oman.

Established in 1984, Jordan International Bank offers a full range of retail and investment banking services to its broad international customer base both corporate and individual, Mr Mort Mirghavameddin, the bank’s CEO, said in the first presentation. He explained that the bank’s services include Private Banking, Structured Property Finance, Trade Finance and Treasury Services. As specialists in Middle Eastern and specifically equestrian titles, Medina Publishing was established in 2009 and enjoys strong links and clients in Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Qatar and Jordan, Mr Guy Cross, General Manager, stated. He gave some examples of the many high-quality books of both general and specialist interest that the company publishes. MCC Group London is a Medical Consultancy and Construction Group specialising in the planning, design and execution of medical and related turn-key projects throughout the world – with a particular focus on stationary hospitals, prefabricated hospitals and mobile hospitals, said Mr Terry Newman, Managing Director. The group works with the leading manufacturers in Europe and globally to bring clients the most technologically advanced products and solutions.

designed to help clients care for their health such as introducing personalised and preventative health profiling. It provides a range of innovative corporate health packages which can bring benefits to business. Mr Zaff Ajaib, Managing Director, Technology Partners Ltd (TPL), described the company as a leading independent Sage Strategic Partner, providing expert implementation, development, upgrades, training and support solutions for Sage Accounting, Payroll/HR, CRM and Business Intelligence software since 1998. TPL has a proven track record delivering

A beacon of British style and sophistication, Jumeirah Carlton Tower is a renowned five star hotel in the heart of central London, said Ms Adele Taylor, who is the hotel’s Diplomatic Advisor. Located on Sloane Street, in the hub of Knightsbridge, the luxury hotel boasts 216 guest rooms including 58 suites. Combined with award-winning restaurants and elegant bars, Jumeirah Carlton Tower is a top business hotel and leading venue for corporate events. Mr Clive Doble, Director of Sales, Savoy Hotel, introduced the luxury services available at this renowned London hotel. Highlights include a 24-hour butler service for both male and female guests, Arabic conversant staff and full halal menus designed to meet customer requirements. A leading promoter of stage engineering in the world of performance, Stage

Ms Adele Taylor, Diplomatic Advisor, Jumeirah Carlton Tower

Ms Natasha Sayee, PR Director, Randox Health, described the exclusive services offered by the company which are continued page 64


from page 63

Technologies Ltd is a global organisation with projects in over 30 countries, encompassing a worldwide network of offices in London, Las Vegas, Macau, Hong Kong, and Australia. A theatre automation supplier, Ms Nikki Scott, Managing Director, said the company had helped realise many industry firsts and defining moments in the live entertainment history since its founding in 1994. Established as a financial advisory company in 1996, Triangle Property Limited was an international investment, development and asset management group with an internationally based multi-cultural team, Ms Milena Stan, the company’s Acquisitions Coordinator, stated. With its headquarters in London, the Group had built up strong strategic partnerships globally. Its services include bespoke residential and commercial property, resorts, hotels and restaurants and select capital projects. The work of the European Union Youth Orchestra was introduced in a joint presentation by Mr Marshall Marcus, EUYO Chief Executive, and Mrs Charlotte Saldanha, EUYO Development and Communications Manager. They described the formation of the EUYO in 1976 and how it had since become one of the world’s most prestigious and

dynamic orchestras. Uniting some of Europe’s most talented young musicians from all 28 EU countries, under some of the world’s most famous conductors, the EUYO transcends cultural boundaries and performs all over the world.

corporate and commercial legal services specialising in issues concerning Intellectual Property, tax, visas, shipping services and property among other areas, stated Ms Oksana Mikhaleva, Business Development Manager.

Cinema AV Design was the UK’s premier supplier of bespoke home cinemas and automation systems, stated Mr Moses Opone, Proprietor. He said that the company had over 15 years’ experience in designing and installing cinemas utilising LCD TV, LED TV, plasma display and digital front projector technology. The company specialises in state-of-theart technology and home automation systems that make a residence more comfortable, easier to run and a more relaxing environment in which to live.

Risk Reward Ltd is a global banking and financial services firm providing expert consultancy services and tailored training to the banking and corporate sectors in developed and emerging markets, said Mr Dennis Cox, CEO. Its areas of expertise consist of risk management, internal audits, Islamic finance, treasury and capital markets, insurance and compliance issues.

Portland is a leading public relations firm whose consultancy services cover business strategy and messaging to organisational design, training and mentoring, said Mr Zaid Belbagi. Portland is part of Diversified Agency Services (DAS), a division of Omnicom Group Inc., a global communications services firm, and works with some of the world’s top brands. Many of its key staff worked as high level government advisers. Notable Services LLP are London based notaries and solicitors offering

The event concluded with a networking reception during which time delegates had an opportunity to enter into discussions and share more information about their products, services and business aims with the likeminded in a more informal setting. The networking event illustrated the diversity of the sector companies today represented among the Chamber’s membership which is an indication of the increasing diversity of the trade and commercial relations between the UK and the Arab world.



SAUDI ARABIA – A WEALTH OF OPPORTUNITIES The Chamber participated in an International Trade Forum hosted by the Thames Valley Chamber of Commerce on 6 March.

Mr Abdeslam El-Idrissi, Director Trade Services, ABCC

The business seminar, organised for members of the Thames Valley Chamber, took as its theme, Saudi Arabia – A Wealth of Opportunities and was held at the Grovefield House Hotel in Burnham, Buckinghamshire. It was organised to provide advice, guidance and information on various aspects of international trade to British businesses considering the Saudi market. The event was attended by Thames Valley Chamber of Commerce members representing a range of sectors. Mr Abdeslam El-Idrissi, Director Trade Services, ABCC, delivered a presentation on the importance of Saudi Arabia as a trade partner for the UK and pinpointed some of the new and emerging opportunities. He stated that British companies were

well placed to take advantage of the huge investment taking place in in the Kingdom. Mr El-Idrissi was joined as a keynote speaker by Mr David Taylor, International Trade Advisor, UK Trade & Investment. Delegates were informed that the Kingdom had a population of over 28 million and was the largest economy in the Arab world, accounting for 25% of the Arab world’s GDP.

regularly export their products to Saudi Arabia, making the Kingdom the UK’s largest commercial partner in the whole Middle East. Furthermore, there are approximately 200 joint projects between the two countries.

Saudi Arabia’s booming economy was creating enormous opportunities for both UK exporters and investors.

Britain also benefits from investment in its economy that comes from Saudi Arabia. This investment has traditionally been mainly focusing on commercial and residential real estate, but the UK is seeking to attract investment in infrastructure projects, rebuilding cities and in modern technologies.

The opportunities are boosted by moves to diversify the economy away from dependence on oil and gas.

Britain and Saudi Arabia are also looking into new investment projects in education and healthcare.

It is estimated by UKTI that there are now around 6,000 British companies which

Saudi-UK relations are important to the economies of both countries.




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Opposite Sheraton International Hotel ERBIL IRAQ Tel: +964 66 455124 Email: Contact: Mr Sardar Ahmed Director Business Activity: Construction and general trade

Laurus House First Avenue Centrum 100 BURTON ON TRENT DE14 2WH Tel: +44(0)20-3700 8425 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Gary Campbell Managing Director / RP Business Activity: Pharmaceutical wholesaler

AL AJLAN GLOBAL 23rd Floor, Borj Al Nakheel King Fahad Street RIYADH SAUDI ARABIA Email: Website: Contact: Mr Ahmed Fathy Consultant Business Evaluation Business Activity: Investment in health and construction

AL HEEZBAR GROUP P.O.BOX 4747 AMMAN JORDAN Tel: +962 6 566 2766 Fax: +962 6 566 2766 Email: Contact: Mr Ghzwan Al Ameri President Business Activity: Trading and contracting agent

BURLINGTON SLATE LIMITED Cavendish House KIRKBY-IN-FURNESS LA17 7UN Tel: +44(0)122-988 9661 Fax: +44(0)122-988 9466 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Nick Williams Commercial Director Business Activity: Quarrying and processing of natural stone

CROMWELL WILKES LIMITED One Lyric Square LONDON W6 0NB Tel: +44(0)845- 672 7820 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Richard Roberts Managing Director Business Activity: Legal advice on UK and international immigration law

DANIELE DE WINTER UK LIMITED West Dean Manor North Seaford SEAFORD BN25 4AL Tel: +44(0)1323-870 500 Fax: +337 999 999 38 Email: Website: Contact: Ms Daniele de Winter President Business Activity: Own brand botanical cosmetics, beauty drinks, supplements and spa concepts

DR ANNA ROGOWSKA Dar Al Hekma College Legal Studies Saeed Al Adawi 6700 JEDDAH SAUDI ARABIA Tel: +966 2 630 3333 Ext 189 Fax: +966 2 631 6270 Email:; Contact: Dr Anna Rogowska Assistant Professor, Legal Studies Programme

Everest House 59B Imperial Way CROYDON CR0 4RR Tel: +44(0)845 257 6212 Fax: +44(0)20-8681 5457 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Gokarna Chunbang CEO Business Activity: Security guarding, cleaning; provider of training for security, DIY, first aid, health & safety

UNIT 655 River Gardens North Feltham Trading Estate FELTHAM TW14 0RB Tel: +44(0)20-8831 9770 Fax: +44(0)20-8831 9377 Email:; Website: Contact: Mr Majeed Douglah Business Development Executive Business Activity: Freight forwarder

MAGNA CARTA COLLEGE, OXFORD LIMITED Milford House 1A Mayfield Road SUMMERTOWN OX2 7EL Tel: +44(0)186-559 3131 Email: Website: Contact: Ms Joanna Mucha Jarmolinska Business Development Manager Business Activity: Business college

MR SEAN PILLOT DE CHENECEY 51 Clifton Street BRIGHTON Email: Contact: Mr Sean Pillot de Chenecey Researcher

NABARRO LLP Lacon House 84 Theobald’s Road LONDON WC1X 8RW Tel: +44(0)20-7524 6000 Fax: +44(0)20-7524 6524 Email:; t.fleet@ ; ; Website: Contact: Ms Divya Nazran International Business Development Manager Business Activity: Legal services

NOT JUST TRAVEL AGENCY LIMITED Unit 46, Basepoint Aviation Park Enteprise Close CHRISTCHURCH BH23 6NX Tel: +44(0)1202-611 025 Email:; amina@ Website: Contact: Mr Stephen Witt MD / Founder Business Activity: Business and leisure travel services with concierge level of care and attention

PANACHE FIRE PROTECTION LIMITED 58-60 Kensington Church Street LONDON W8 4DB Tel: +44(0)20-7368 1615 Email: Website: Contact: Ms Kamisha Lala Director Business Activity: Providing complete fire engineering solutions packages in the petrochemical oil and gas sector

PINSENT MASONS LLP 30 Crown Place Earl Street LONDON EC2A 4ES Tel: +44(0)20-7418 7000 Dir: +44(0)20-7490 6984 Email:; Website: Contact: Mr George Booth Partner Business Activity: International full service law firm

SHEIKHA AL-THANI FOR UNDERPRIVILEGED CHILDREN 1 Lumley Street LONDON W1K 6TT Fax: +44(0)20-7402 5989 Email:; meshkan. Website: Contact: Ms Meshkan Tawfiq CEO Business Activity: Support for underprivileged children


SHELL INTERNATIONAL LIMITED Shell Centre York Road LONDON SE1 7NA Tel: +44(0)20-7934 8347 Fax: +44(0)20-7934 7927 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Thomas Reilly Head of Government Relations, UK Business Activity: Oil & Gas sector

STAGE TECHNOLOGIES LIMITED 9 Falcon Park Neasden Lane LONDON NW10 1RZ Tel: +44(0)20-8208 6000 Fax: +44(0)20-8208 6006 Email:; matthew.; alistair.bell@stagetech. com; Website: Contact: Ms Nikki Scott Managing Director Business Activity: Mechanical, electrical, automation in theatre entertainment

STREATHERS SOLICITORS LLP 128 Wigmore Street LONDON W1U 3SA Tel: +44(0)20-7034 4207 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Michael Lindley Partner Business Activity: Solicitors and Notaries

TECHNOLOGY PARTNERS LIMITED 10 Progress Business Centre Whittle Parkway SLOUGH SL1 6DQ Tel: +44(0)162-855 9339 Fax: +44(0)162-8666 853 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Zaff Ajaib Managing Director Business Activity: Leading accounting, ERP, CRM, BI and bespoke development solution providers based on SAGE&MICROSOFT platforms


THE EUROPEAN UNION YOUTH ORCHESTRA 6A Pont Street LONDON SW1X 9EL Tel: +44(0)20-3370 5462 Fax: +44(0)20-7235 7370 Email:; charlotte@ Website: Contact: Mrs Charlotte Saldanha Development and Communications Manager Business Activity: An orchestra for young people in the European Union that unites Europe’s most talented musicians, transcending cultural, social, economic, religious and political boundaries.

TIGRISNET LIMITED Sutton Business Centre Restmor Way WALLINGTON SM6 7AH Tel: +44(0)20-3582 1828 Fax: +44(0)20-8773 1223 Email: Website: Contact: Ms Huda Al-Hassan Sales Coordinator Business Activity: IT solutions provider for internet services and internet security products for band width management, CCTV and data cards

TRADEKEY COMPANY SAUDI ARABIA King Fahd Road Almas Centre, 3rd Floor RIYADH SAUDI ARABIA Tel: +966 11 201 0000 Fax: +966 11 201 3003 Email: Website: Contact: Mr Waleed S Abalkhail Chairman & Managing Director Business Activity: E-Commerce, B2B electronics market place

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‫التحــي “بالعــزم وبعــد النظــر” للتصــدي للتهميش‬ ‫االجتاعــي”‪ .‬وقــال يف رســالة تاهــا الكاردينــال بيرت‬ ‫توركســون خــال افتتــاح املنتــدى‪ ،‬أن البابــا يرحــب‬ ‫مبســاهمة الــرشكات يف تحســن حيــاة الســكان يف‬ ‫مجــاالت الصحــة والرتبيــة واإلعــام‪ .‬وتــدارك “لكــن‬ ‫النجاحــات التــي تــم بلوغهــا‪ ،‬رغــم أنهــا قلصــت‬ ‫الفقــر لــدى عــدد كبــر مــن النــاس‪ ،‬أفضــت غالبـاً‬ ‫إىل تهميــش اجتاعــي واســع االنتشــار”‪ .‬وطالــب‬ ‫الحــرب األعظــم بـ”توزيــع أفضــل للــروة وتأمــن‬ ‫مصــادر للوظيفــة”‪ .‬وأضــاف أنــه “مــن غــر املقبول‬ ‫أن يســتمر آالف النــاس يف املــوت جوع ـاً كل يــوم‬ ‫يف حــن تتوافــر كميــات كبــرة مــن الغــذاء‪ ،‬وغالبـاً‬ ‫وببســاطة يتــم تبديدهــا”‪ ،‬الفتـاً النظــر إىل املصــر‬ ‫املأســوي لاجئــن “الذيــن يقضــون غالبــا خــال‬ ‫نزوحهــم مــن بلدانهــم بســبب الحــرب والفقــر‪.‬‬ ‫السيد ديفيد كامريون مع املطرب الشهري بونو‬

‫تحتــاج املنطقــة العربيــة إىل تعزيــز دور الدولــة‬ ‫التنمويــة القــادرة عى الترشيع والتنظيــم واإلرشاف‬ ‫عــى اآلليــات االقتصاديــة والتجاريــة واملاليــة وعى‬ ‫رســم وتطبيــق السياســات االجتاعيــة والتنمويــة‬ ‫وعــى حايــة حقــوق مواطنيهــا‪ .‬كــا تتطلــب‬ ‫التحديــات الراهنــة معالجــات جذريــة ترتكــز إىل‬ ‫مقاربــات تنمويــة وسياســات اقتصاديــة واجتاعية‬ ‫جديــدة تعالــج االختــاالت التــي شــهدتها خــال‬ ‫العقــود املاضيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وإىل جانــب هواجــس الــدول الناميــة والتــي تشــهد‬ ‫تحــوالت جذريــة يف بناهــا السياســية واالقتصاديــة‪،‬‬ ‫هيمنــت عــى منتــدى دافــوس هــذه الســنة‬ ‫(‪ )2014‬أيضــا هواجــس تعزيــز النمــو االقتصــادي‬ ‫وخلــق فــرص عمــل يف الــدول الصناعيــة‪ ،‬وذلــك‬ ‫ســعياً للخــروج مــن األزمــة العامليــة وتعزيــز‬ ‫اإلنتــاج‪ ،‬وتوفــر أســواق جديــدة للــرشكات متعددة‬ ‫الجنســيات‪ .‬وبحــث كيفيــة الوصــول إىل هــذا حيث‬ ‫يتطلــب فرصــاً جديــدة لاســتثارات‪ ،‬وسياســات‬ ‫وتدابــر تحفيزيــة تطــال االقتصــاد الــكي والهيكلية‬ ‫املاليــة‪ .‬وهنــا طرحــت أســئلة هامــة وجوهريــة‬ ‫منهــا‪:‬‬ ‫هــل ســيتمكن صنــاع الق ـرار مــن إيجــاد الحلــول‬ ‫والسياســات التــي ال تتعــارض مــع احتياجــات‬ ‫الــدول الناميــة التــي أرشنــا لهــا أعــاه‪ ،‬الســيا‬ ‫الــدول العربيــة التــي تواجــه تحديــات خطــرة؟‬

‫وهــل ســتتمكن الــدول العربيــة مــن تلبيــة‬ ‫احتياجــات الــرشكات الكــربى مبــا يســاعد الــدول‬ ‫الصناعيــة عــى الخــروج مــن أزمتهــا الراهنــة؟‬ ‫هــذه األســئلة املهمــة طرحــت عــى املشــاركن‬ ‫يف املنتــدى االقتصــادي العاملــي ال تــزال تنتظــر‬ ‫اإلجابــة‪.‬‬ ‫وشــهد املنتــدى مناقشــات كثــرة حــول تأثــر‬ ‫التقــدم التكنولوجــي عــى فــرص العمــل بعدمــا‬ ‫أصبحــت أشــياء عديــدة تتــم بصــورة آليــة‪ ،‬وأدى‬ ‫ذلــك إىل مقارنــات ال تعــد وال تحــى بالثــورة‬ ‫الصناعيــة‪ ،‬حيــث رأى العديــد مــن املشــاركن ‪-‬‬ ‫مبــا يف ذلــك رئيــس رشكــة غوغــل إريــك شــميدت‬ ‫– أن التكنولوجيــة‪ ،‬عــى الرغــم مــن كونهــا يشء‬ ‫جيــد‪ ،‬تــؤدي بالفعــل إىل فقــدان عــدد كبــر مــن‬ ‫الوظائــف‪ .‬وقــال شــميدت يف نــدوة صغــرة عــى‬ ‫هامــش املنتــدى االقتصــادي‪“ :‬البطالــة ســتكون‬ ‫هــي املشــكلة األبــرز خــال العــرشة إىل العرشيــن‬ ‫عامــا املقبلــة”‪.‬‬ ‫كــا وتنــاول املنتــدى موضــوع عــى قــدر كبــر مــن‬ ‫االهميــة الســيا موضــوع “التهميــش االجتاعــي”‪،‬‬ ‫حيــث شــارك يف منتــدى دافوس لعام ‪ 2014‬خمســة‬ ‫عــرش مســؤوالً روحيــاً مــن مختلــف الديانــات‪.‬‬ ‫وقبــل بــدء املنتــدى دعــا البابــا فرنســيس النخــب‬ ‫السياســية واالقتصاديــة التــي تجتمــع يف دافوس إىل‬

‫ما الذي متخض عن اجتامعات‬ ‫املنتدى هذا العام؟‬

‫أن التحــول املطلــوب يفــرتض أن يطــال أيضــاً‬ ‫الجوانــب االقتصاديــة واالجتاعيــة والنــاذج‬ ‫التنمويــة التــي اتبعــت يف املراحــل الســابقة‪.‬‬

‫اع ـرتاف العديــد مــن املؤسســات املاليــة الدوليــة‬ ‫بــأن األخطــاء التــي ارتكبــت قــد أدت إىل غيــاب‬ ‫املســاواة وتفاقــم أزمــات الفقــر والبطالــة‬ ‫والتهميــش‪ ،‬ويعــود ذلــك إىل غيــاب الشــفافية‬ ‫واملســاءلة‪.‬‬ ‫فيــا يخــص الــدول العربيــة‪ ،‬املطلــوب هــو اعتــاد‬ ‫مقاربــة تشــمل تطويــر االقتصــادات الكليــة يف‬ ‫الــدول العربيــة باتجــاه “االنتقــال مــن االقتصــادات‬ ‫الريعيــة إىل االقتصــادات املنتجــة”‬ ‫أكــد املنتــدى عــى “اقتصــاد املشــاركة” باعتبــاره‬ ‫الطريــق إىل األمــام‪.‬‬ ‫أخذ بترصف من املصادر اآلتية‪-:‬‬ ‫زياد عبد الصمد‪“ ،‬منتدى دافوس االقتصادي وسؤال عن‬ ‫تحديات املنطقة العربية”‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪davosopinion‬‬ ‫_‪‬‬ ‫‪davos_2014.shtml?print=1‬‬


‫االرتفــاع الحــاد يف أســعار الطاقــة والســلع الغذائيــة‬ ‫ونتيجــة تغـ ّـر املنــاخ ذي االنعكاســات الهامــة عــى‬ ‫التنــوع البيولوجــي‪ ،‬واالنحبــاس الح ـراري‪ ،‬وارتفــاع‬ ‫حــرارة الكــرة األرضيــة‪.‬‬ ‫ويف ظــل هــذه الظــروف‪ ،‬انطلــق مــا يســمى بـــ‬ ‫“الربيــع العــريب” مــؤرشا ً ببدايــة حقبــة جديــدة‬ ‫ستشــهدها املنطقــة والتــي ســتؤدي إىل تحــوالت‬ ‫كــربى‪ ،‬إال أن وبعــد مــرور ثــاث ســنوات مــن بــدأ‬ ‫التغيــر‪ ،‬مل تســتقر املنطقــة عــى اتجاه محــدد بعد‪.‬‬ ‫ومــا بــدء واضحـاً أن انــدالع األزمــة املاليــة العامليــة‬ ‫والثــورات العربيــة التــي تلتهــا قــد أرشت إىل الخلل‬ ‫البنيــوي يف طبيعــة املنظومــة العامليــة‪ ،‬التــي تقــوم‬ ‫عــى االقتصــاد “النيــو الليـربايل” الــذي يعــزز حريــة‬ ‫انتقــال األمــوال والســلع واألفــكار والبــرش‪ .‬ففــي‬ ‫نظــرة تقييميــة رسيعــة إىل الــوراء نــرى بــأن هــذا‬ ‫النظــام مل تكتمــل عنــارصه نتيجــة اقتصــاره عــى‬ ‫تحفيــز انســياب التــداول يف األمــوال واألفــكار‪ ،‬يف‬ ‫الوقــت الــذي ظلــت فيــه حركــة الســلع والبــرش‬ ‫مقيــدة نتيجــة اعتبــارات كثــرة لعــل أهمها متســك‬ ‫الــدول الصناعيــة بسياســاتها الزراعيــة التي خففت‬ ‫مــن القــدرات اإلنتاجيــة والتنافســية للــدول النامية‬ ‫وســاهمت باملزيــد مــن إفقــار األريــاف فيهــا‪ ،‬كــا‬ ‫اســتمر الحظــر عــى حركــة النــاس الســيا عــى‬ ‫العالــة بأشــكالها املختلفــة‪.‬‬ ‫وتواجــه بعــض الــدول العربيــة تحديــات االنتقــال‬ ‫الســيايس بعدمــا ثــارت شــعوبها بحثـاً عــن العدالــة‬ ‫والكرامــة والحريــة‪ .‬ولــي تتحقــق مطالــب‬ ‫وتطلعــات الشــعوب العربيــة يفــرتض أن ال يقتــرص‬ ‫التحــول عــى الجوانــب السياســية‪ ،‬أي عــى تطويــر‬ ‫آليــات الحكــم والتــداول الســلمي للســلطة وتعزيز‬ ‫آليات املكاشــفة واملســاءلة واملحاســبة‪ ،‬عــى أن يتم‬ ‫االتفــاق عــى عقــد اجتاعــي جديــد بــن الســلطة‬ ‫واملواطــن‪ ،‬يقــوم عــى مبــادئ حقــوق اإلنســان‪.‬‬ ‫ال بــل يفــرتض بالتحــول أن يطــال أيضــا الجوانــب‬ ‫االقتصاديــة واالجتاعيــة والنــاذج التنمويــة التــي‬ ‫اتبعــت يف املراحــل الســابقة‪ .‬وإذا كانــت األبعــاد‬ ‫السياســية للتحــول تشــكل شــبه إجــاع لــدى‬ ‫غالبيــة األطــراف املعنيــة بالعمليــة السياســية يف‬ ‫البلــدان العربيــة‪ ،‬مــن محليــن ودوليــن‪ ،‬فــإن‬ ‫التغيــر االقتصــادي واالجتاعــي الزال يشــكل‬ ‫نقطــة خــاف جوهريــة بــن هــذه األطــراف‪.‬‬ ‫ويتفــق الجميــع عــى أن طبيعــة الخيــارات‬ ‫االقتصاديــة والسياســات االجتاعيــة التــي اتبعــت‬ ‫خــال العقــود املاضيــة‪ ،‬أدت اىل القصــور يف تحقيق‬

‫أهــداف التنميــة‪ ،‬إال أنهــم يختلفــون عــى األســباب‬ ‫وبالتــايل عــى طــرق معالجتهــا‪.‬‬ ‫وتعتقــد املؤسســات املاليــة الدوليــة بــأن األخطــاء‬ ‫التــي ارتكبــت والتــي أدت اىل غيــاب املســاواة‬ ‫وتفاقــم أزمــات الفقــر والبطالــة والتهميــش‪ ،‬تعــود‬ ‫اىل غيــاب الشــفافية واملســاءلة وبالتــايل إىل تفــي‬ ‫ظاهــرة الفســاد الســيايس واإلداري‪ .‬كــا تعيــد ذلك‬ ‫اىل الخلــل يف آليــات التوزيــع أي يف النظــام الجبــايئ‬ ‫أو “الرضيبــي”‪ ،‬وشــبكة الخدمــات االجتاعيــة‬ ‫التــي تســتهدف الفئــات األكــر حاجــة‪ .‬ويف هــذا‬ ‫الخصــوص‪ ،‬اقرتحــت “رشاكــة دوفيــل” وضــع آليات‬ ‫جديــدة للتمويــل عــرب املؤسســات املاليــة الدوليــة‬ ‫ومــن خــال االندمــاج يف االقتصــاد العاملــي‪ ،‬وتعزيز‬ ‫آليــات الولــوج إىل األســواق وتحفيــز االســتثارات‪.‬‬ ‫يف املختــرص‪ ،‬تتلخــص هــذه األهــداف بالحاجــة إىل‬ ‫زيــادة معــدالت النمــو‪.‬‬ ‫ولــو تأملنــا بهــذه األهــداف لوجدنــا أن الحديــث‬ ‫عــن األخطــاء واالختــاالت يف السياســات الســابقة‬ ‫مل ينعكــس يف التوجهــات فقــط‪ .‬فاملطلــوب هــو‬ ‫اعتــاد مقاربــة تشــمل تطويــر االقتصــادات الكلية‬ ‫يف الــدول العربيــة باتجــاه االنتقال مــن االقتصادات‬ ‫الريعيــة إىل االقتصــادات “املنتجــة” والتــي ترتكــز‬ ‫إىل القطاعــات ذات القيمــة املضافــة‪ ،‬أي تلــك‬ ‫التــي تولــد فــرص عمــل وتكــون قــادرة عــى‬ ‫املنافســة يف األســواق املحليــة والعامليــة‪ .‬ويجــب‬ ‫أن يرتافــق ذلــك مــع سياســات إلعــادة التوزيــع‬ ‫الــروات واعتبــار تقديــم الخدمــات األساســية‬ ‫هــي حقــوق للمواطنــن وذلــك إلتزامــا بالعهــود‬ ‫الدوليــة لحقــوق اإلنســان التــي وقعــت وصادقــت‬ ‫عليهــا معظــم دول املنطقــة وخاصــة تلــك التــي‬ ‫تشــهد تحــوالت‪ .‬إن املقاربــة الحقوقيــة للتنميــة‬ ‫تجعــل مــن الخدمــات األساســية إحــدى آليــات‬ ‫إعــادة توزيــع الــروة يف املجتمــع‪ ،‬وكونهــا يف نفــس‬ ‫الوقــت حقــوق أساســية لــكل املواطنن‪ .‬كــا ترتكز‬ ‫العدالــة الرضيبيــة إىل سياســات رضيبيــة قــادرة‬ ‫عــى تجنيــد املــوارد الرضوريــة لتمويــل الربامــج‬ ‫والخطــط التنمويــة والخدمــات األساســية وعــى‬ ‫تخفيــف االعتــاد عــى االســتثارات واملســاعدات‬ ‫الخارجيــة‪ .‬وتعتــرب الرضيبــة مــن أشــكال املســاهمة‬ ‫الفاعلــة للمواطنــن مــا يعطيهــم الحق يف املشــاركة‬ ‫يف صنــع السياســات العامــة وهــي بالتــايل تعطيهــم‬ ‫الحــق يف مســاءلة املســؤولن عــن وضــع وتنفيــذ‬ ‫هــذه السياســات‪.‬‬

‫كــا أن األجــور باتــت ينظــر اليهــا بوصفهــا مــن‬ ‫املــوارد التــي تســاهم يف تحفيــز االقتصــاد كجــزء من‬ ‫آليــات إعــادة توزيــع الــروات مــن جهــة‪ ،‬وتســاهم‬ ‫كذلــك يف تعزيــز القــدرات االســتهاكية التــي تحفــز‬ ‫الــدورة االقتصاديــة القامئــة عــى اإلنتاج واالســتهاك‬ ‫مــن جهــة ثانيــة‪ .‬ومــن املفيــد اإلشــارة إىل أن نســبة‬ ‫العاملــن يف القطــاع الهامــي تزيــد عــن ‪ %50‬يف‬ ‫بعــض الــدول‪ ،‬مــا يعنــي أن نصــف القــوة العاملــة‬ ‫فيهــا ال تتلقــى أجــرا ً عــادالً‪ ،‬وال تتمتّــع بأنظمــة‬ ‫الحايــة االجتاعيــة مــا يزيــد مــن هشاشــتها‪.‬‬ ‫إن التوجهــات التــي تطــال كل هــذه الخيــارات‬ ‫األساســية تتطلــب مقاربــة جديــدة تطــال هيكليــة‬ ‫االقتصــاد‪ ،‬وكذلــك تحتــاج إىل تقييــم العاقــات‬ ‫التجاريــة الســيا يف مجــال االســتثارات األجنبيــة‬ ‫واملشــرتيات العموميــة والخدمــات ونقــل‬ ‫التكنولوجيــا مبــا يســاعد يف تطويــر اإلنتاجيــة‪.‬‬ ‫فاملفاوضــات التجاريــة الثنائيــة واملتعــددة األطراف‬ ‫تهــدف إىل تحفيــز االســتثار األجنبــي مــن خــال‬ ‫“خلــق البيئــة املامئــة”‪ .‬والبيئــة املامئــة تعنــي‬ ‫إزالــة العوائــق القانونيــة والترشيعيــة واعتــاد‬ ‫أطــر ترشيعيــة تحمــي حقوقهــا وخفــض الرســوم‬ ‫الرضيبيــة لتحفيزهــا‪ .‬وغالبــاً مــا ترتكــز البيئــة‬ ‫املامئــة لاســتثارات عــى املرونــة يف ســوق‬ ‫العمــل‪ ،‬أي عــى حســاب حقــوق ومصالــح‬ ‫املوظفــن واألجــراء والعــال‪ .‬وذلــك يســاهم يف‬ ‫تقليــص الضانــات االجتاعيــة وبالتــايل إىل املزيــد‬ ‫مــن التهميــش واإلفقــار‪.‬‬

‫األمني العام السابق لألمم املتحدة السيد كويف عنان‬



‫املســائل املتعلقــة بالتغــر املناخــي‪ ،‬وهــو ثالــث‬ ‫املواضيــع الكــربى التــي بحثــت يف منتــدى دافــوس‬ ‫هــذا العــام‪.‬‬ ‫وهيمنــت عــى منتــدى دافــوس هــذه الســنة‬ ‫هواجــس تعزيــز النمــو االقتصــادي وخلــق فــرص‬ ‫عمــل يف الــدول الصناعيــة‪ ،‬وذلــك ســعياً للخــروج من‬ ‫األزمــة العامليــة وتعزيــز اإلنتــاج‪ .‬كا وشــكل موضوع‬ ‫الصحــة والتكنولوجيــة أحــد العناويــن الرئيســية التي‬ ‫طغــت عــى املنتــدى بنســخته هــذا العــام‪.‬‬ ‫وهكــذا تصــدرت التســاؤالت حــول قــوة التعــايف‬ ‫االقتصــادي العاملــي جــدول أعــال قــادة السياســة‬ ‫ودوائــر األعــال يف املنتــدى االقتصــادي العاملــي‬ ‫الســنوي يف دافــوس‪ .‬كــا انصــب اهتــام املنتــدى‬ ‫يف دورتــه الرابعــة واألربعــن عــى بحــث ليــس‬ ‫فقــط ســبل الخــروج مــن ســنوات األزمــة املاليــة‬ ‫االقتصاديــة العامليــة‪ ،‬بــل أيضــاً كيفيــة التعامــل‬ ‫مــع املشــكات املســتمرة مثــل تنامــي عــدم‬ ‫املســاواة والبطالــة بــن الشــباب وظاهرة شــيخوخة‬ ‫املجتمعــات‪.‬‬ ‫وانعقــد منتــدى دافــوس لهــذا العــام يف الوقــت‬ ‫الــذي يســتعد فيــه االقتصــاد العاملــي لتلقــي قــوة‬

‫دفــع جديــدة‪ ،‬مــع توقــع تحقيــق معــدل منــو‬ ‫ســيبلغ ‪ ،%3.7‬حســب توقعــات صنــدوق النقــد‬ ‫الــدويل وذلــك قبــل يــوم مــن انطــاق املنتــدى‬ ‫بينــا حــذر الصنــدوق مــن تــدين التضخــم يف‬ ‫الــدول الغنيــة ووجــود فقاعــات األصــول يف‬ ‫األســواق الصاعــدة‪ .‬كــا بــدت ثقــة كبــار رجــال‬ ‫األعــال املشــاركن يف منتــدى دافــوس الســنوي‬ ‫تجــاه مســتقبل رشكاتهــم بشــكل حســن‪ ،‬عــى‬ ‫الرغــم مــن وجــود قامئــة طويلــة مــن األمــور التــي‬ ‫تبعــث عــى القلــق‪ .‬وبعــد مــرور خمســة أعــوام‬ ‫عــى األزمــة املاليــة التــي دفعــت االقتصــاد العاملــي‬ ‫لحافــة الهاويــة تنحــرس املخاطــر التــي تهــدد أرباح‬ ‫الــرشكات يف حــن يتشــجع املســؤولون التنفيذيــون‬ ‫بتوقعــات أكــر تفــاؤال يف الواليــات املتحــدة‬ ‫وأوروبــا‪ .‬لكــن ال تـزال مخاطــر مســتقبلية تلــوح يف‬ ‫األفــق مــن تباطــؤ يبعــث عــى القلــق يف األســواق‬ ‫الناشــئة ومــن املمكــن أن يتحــول إىل ضبابيــة‬ ‫بشــأن تقليــص برنامــج التحفيــز النقــدي ملجلــس‬ ‫االحتياطــي االتحــادي (البنــك املركــزي األمريــي)‬ ‫ومخــاوف مــن التوســع يف فــرض القيــود التنظيمية‪.‬‬ ‫وكان مــن أهــم األســئلة التــي طرحــت يف املنتــدى‬ ‫االقتصــادي العاملــي لهــذه الســنة‪ :‬متــى ســتتحول‬ ‫األزمــات العامليــة املتعــددة الجوانــب إىل حوافــز‬

‫ ‬

‫للحــوار الصــادق والعميــق‪ ،‬ســعياً لتحقيــق نتائــج‬ ‫تكــون يف مصلحــة كل األط ـراف دون متييــز؟‬ ‫وجواب ـاً عــى هــذا الســؤال الكبــر‪ ،‬بــدأ املنتــدى‬ ‫االقتصــادي العاملــي أعالــه ببحــث املتغــرات‬ ‫الدوليــة التــي نتجــت عــن األزمــات املتتاليــة‬ ‫وتأثرهــا عــى املجتمعــات والسياســة واألعــال‪.‬‬ ‫وكــا معــروف أن االزمــات املاليــة واالقتصاديــة‬ ‫والبيئيــة (املناخيــة) وارتفــاع أســعار الغــذاء‬ ‫والطاقــة‪ ،‬قــد أثــرت إىل حـ ِـد بعيــد عــى الجهــود‬ ‫التنمويــة التــي انطلقــت مطلــع هــذا القــرن‪.‬‬ ‫وتشــر أكــر التقاريــر تفــاؤالً إىل أن هــذه الجهــود‬ ‫لــن تــؤدي إىل تحقيــق أهــداف األلفيــة مــع حلــول‬ ‫العــام ‪ 2015‬كــا كان مقــررا ً يف إعــان االلفيــة‬ ‫ســنة ‪ .2000‬ولتــدارك انعكاســات ذلــك عــى غالبية‬ ‫ســكان األرض مــن الفقـراء والعاطلــن عــن العمــل‬ ‫واملهمشــن‪ ،‬انطلقــت حــوارات مفتوحــة عــى‬ ‫املســتوى الــدويل يف أكــر مــن إطــار إلق ـرار خطــة‬ ‫عمــل ملــا بعــد العــام ‪ .2015‬وبالفعــل فقــد انطلــق‬ ‫هــذا النقــاش منــذ انــدالع األزمــات العامليــة أواخــر‬ ‫العــام ‪ 2007‬متنــاوالً أســبابها وســبل معالجتهــا‪.‬‬ ‫فانعكاســات األزمــة التــي اندلعــت يف الواليــات‬ ‫املتحــدة وانتقلــت إىل أوروبــا‪ ،‬وتأثــرت بهــا كل‬ ‫البلــدان الســيا يف دول الجنــوب ملــا نتــج منهــا مــن‬


‫منتدى دافوس االقتصادي‬ ‫وتحديات املنطقة العربية‬ ‫د‪ .‬ياسمني حسني‬ ‫غرفة التجارة العربية ‪ -‬الربيطانية‬

‫& ‪DAVOS WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM‬‬ ‫‪THE CHALLENGES FACING THE ARAB REGION‬‬ ‫انطلقــت يف املنتجــع الســويرسي دافــوس يف الفــرتة‬ ‫بــن ‪ 22-25‬مــن شــهر كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪2014‬‬ ‫أعــال املنتــدى االقتصــادي العاملي‪ ،‬بنســخته الرابعة‬ ‫واالربعــن‪ .‬وشــارك يف منتــدى دافــوس االقتصــادي‬ ‫نحــو ‪ 2500‬شــخصية مــن السياســين واالقتصاديــن‬ ‫واملؤسســات الدوليــة ونحــو ‪ 1500‬مــن كبــار قــادة‬ ‫األعــال يف العــامل‪ .‬كــا وشــارك يف املنتــدى كربيــات‬ ‫الــرشكات متعــددة الجنســيات وعــدد كبــر مــن‬ ‫قــادة الــدول الصناعيــة والبلــدان الناميــة وذلــك‬ ‫ملناقشــة العاقــات االقتصاديــة واملاليــة والتجاريــة‬ ‫العامليــة وتحديــات التنميــة والبطالــة والفقــر‪.‬‬

‫ومــن بــن املشــاركن البارزيــن يف املنتــدى هــذا‬ ‫العــام رئيــس الــوزراء الربيطــاين ديفيــد كامــرون‬ ‫ونظــره اليابــاين شــينزو ايب والرئيســة الربازيليــة‬ ‫ديلــا روســيف‪ .‬ومــن الغائبــن البارزيــن هــذا‬ ‫العــام املستشــارة االملانيــة انغيــا مــركل التــي‬ ‫كانــت مــن املشــاركن الدامئــن يف هــذا املنتــدى‪،‬‬ ‫وذلــك بســبب االصابــة التــي تعرضــت لهــا مؤخـرا‬ ‫لــدى مارســتها التزلــج‪ .‬ومــن بــن الشــخصيات‬ ‫االقتصاديــة البــارزة املشــاركة يف منتــدى دافــوس‬ ‫حاكــم بنــك إنجلــرتا مــارك كارين ورئيــس البنــك‬ ‫املركــزي األورويب ماريــو دراغــي ورئيســة صنــدوق‬

‫النقــد الــدويل كريســتن الغــارد‪ .‬وكذلــك اســتضاف‬ ‫املنتــدى عــددا ً مــن رؤســاء الــرشكات املتعــددة‬ ‫الجنســيات بينهــم ماريســا مايــر مديــرة رشكــة‬ ‫ياهــو األمريكيــة‪ ،‬وجــوزف خيمينيــث املديــر‬ ‫العــام ملجموعــة نوفارتيــس الســويرسية للصناعات‬ ‫الدوائيــة‪ .‬ومثلــت الــرشكات الفرنســية خصوصــاً‬ ‫عــرب كريســتوف دومارغــري رئيــس ومديــر عــام‬ ‫رشكــة توتــال النفطيــة العماقــة‪ ،‬وكريســتوفر‬ ‫فيباخــر املديــر العــام لرشكــة ســانويف‪ .‬كذلــك‬ ‫وشــارك يف املنتــدى األمــن العــام لألمــم املتحــدة‬ ‫بــان يك مــون‪ ،‬وكان مهتـاً بشــكل خــاص يف بحــث‬



‫عنــده أي قيمــة‪ ،‬ويكــون قــد اســتخلص بضاعتــه‬ ‫مقابــل خطــاب ضــان إىل بيــع ســند الشــحن فيــا‬ ‫بعــد إىل مشــرتي حســن النيــة‪ ،‬وحــن يــربز األخــر‬ ‫ســند الشــحن مطالب ـاً بتســليم البضاعــة يختفــي‬ ‫املرســل إليــه املزعــوم ويصبــح الناقــل ملزمــاً‬ ‫بتعويــض الشــخص الــذي يــربز ســند الشــحن عــن‬ ‫البضاعــة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬ومــن الصــور األخــرى التــي يلجــأ إليهــا املشــرتي‬ ‫التهــرب مــن الدفــع مقابــل الســندات التــي يرســل‬ ‫البائــع منهــا مبــارشة نســخاً غــر قابلــة للتــداول‬ ‫بغيــة مســاعدة املشــرتي واإلجــراءات الجمركيــة‪،‬‬ ‫فيقــوم املشــرتي بتزويــر أصــول ســندات الشــحن‬ ‫والفواتــر التجاريــة ثــم يقدمهــا للناقل ويســتخلص‬ ‫الشــحنة يف حــن أن املســتندات األصليــة ال زالــت‬ ‫لــدى املــرصف يف بلــد البائــع‪ .‬وتكــون النتيجــة‬ ‫دعــاوى قضائيــة مــن البائــع ضــد الناقــل بســبب‬ ‫تســليمه الخاطــئ للبضاعــة‪ .‬وتشــر الدراســات‬ ‫إىل ان العنــارص املشــرتكة التاليــة يف أغلــب أحيــان‬ ‫حــاالت االحتيــال املســتندي – هــو تعــرض البضائــع‬ ‫التــي تشــهد اقبــاالً عــى رشائهــا بأســعار أقــل مــن‬ ‫أســعارها الحقيقيــة بواســطة بائــع يف بلــد ال يعتــرب‬ ‫أص ـاً مصــدرا ً لهــذا النــوع مــن البضائــع‪.‬‬

‫أجراءات التحكيم‪:‬‬

‫تبــدأ بتقديــم طلــب كتــايب مــن أحــد األط ـراف أو‬ ‫جميــع األط ـراف إىل ســكرتارية محكمــة التحكيــم‬ ‫أو عــن طريــق اللجنــة األهليــة املوجــوده ىف البلــد‬ ‫املعنــي متضمنـاً البيانــات التاليــة‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ -‬األساء والعناوين الكاملة ألطراف الخاف؛‬

‫ ظــروف ومابســات املوضــوع ىف صــورة بيــان‬‫دقيــق شــامل؛‬ ‫ تحديد املوضوع من جهة نظر الطرف الشايك؛‬‫ جميــع البيانــات املتعلقــة بعــدد املحكّمــن‬‫واختيارهــم‪ ،‬وإذا مل يتســنى تقديــر قيمــة املبلــغ‬ ‫املطالــب بــه عــى ســبيل القطــع يحتفــظ الطالــب‬ ‫بحــق تقديــره فيــا بعــد أو يــرتك تقديــره‬ ‫للمحكّمــن‬

‫ويجب أن يكون الطلب‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬محررا ً بأحدى اللغتن اإلنجليزية أو الفرنسية؛‬

‫‪ -2‬أن يكــون الطلــب مصحوبــاً بأصــول ونســخ‬ ‫بعــدد أعضــاء هيئــة التحكيــم ونســخة إضافيــة‬ ‫لجميــع املســتندات والوثائــق املثبتــة لاتفاقيــات‬ ‫املعقــودة بــن األط ـراف ومــن بينهــا رشط إتفــاق‬ ‫التحكيــم؛‬ ‫‪ -3‬أن يكــون طلــب التحكيــم مصحوبــاً برســم‬ ‫تســجيل‪.‬‬

‫الجهــة املختصــة بأجراءات‬ ‫التحكيم‪:‬‬ ‫وتتكــون مــن محكمــة التحكيــم واملحكّمــن‬ ‫والســكرتارية‪ .‬وتشــكل محكمــة التحكيــم مــن‬ ‫رئيــس أو رئيســن مســاعدين نــواب رئيــس‬ ‫ومستشــارين فنيــن وســكرتر عــام يختارهــم‬ ‫مجلــس غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة وذلــك باإلضافــة‬ ‫إىل األعضــاء الذيــن تعينهــم اللجــان األهليــة وتتوىل‬ ‫كل لجنــة تعيــن منــدوب دائــم ونائــب لــه‪ .‬وتتــوىل‬ ‫املحكمــة مراقبــة وضــان تطبيــق قواعــد ونظــم‬ ‫التحكيــم فليــس مــن اختصاصهــا إصــدار حكــم‬ ‫يف موضــوع الخــاف وأمنــا تقــوم بتنظيــم ومراقبــة‬ ‫عمليــة تســويته والحكــم فيــه بواســطة اإلجـراءات‬ ‫اإلداريــة‪ .‬وتبــارش املحكمــة أعالهــا خال جلســات‬ ‫تعقدهــا مــرة كل شــهر‪ .‬ولألطــراف الحــق ىف‬ ‫االختيــار الكامــل فيــا يتعلــق بجنســية مــن‬ ‫يختــارون مــن املحكّمــن‪ .‬أمــا بالنســبة للمحكــم‬ ‫الوحيــد فــان اختيــاره يتــم عــادة بواســطة املحكمة‬ ‫مــن جنســية دولــة أخــرى غــر دول أطـراف النــزاع‬ ‫وكذلــك الحــال بالنســبة للمحكــم الثالــث‪.‬‬

‫وميكــن ر ّد أو اســتبدال املحكّمــن إذا مــا رغــب‬ ‫أحــد األطـراف ىف رد مح ّكــم‪ ،‬وعليــه أن يقــدم طلبـاً‬ ‫إىل املحكمــة لتنفيــذ قـرارا ً بشــأنه ويكــون قراراهــا‬ ‫نهائي ـاً‪ .‬وحينــا يتــم ر ّد مح ّكــم ألســباب قانونيــة‬ ‫يتــوىل الطــرف الــذى كان قــد عينــه أو املحكمــة إذا‬ ‫كانــت هــي التــي ســبق أن عينتــه‪ ،‬تعــن بديــل لــه‪.‬‬

‫أحالة املوضوع اىل املحكّم‪:‬‬

‫وبعــد تقديــم طلــب التحكيــم إىل ســكرتارية‬ ‫املحكمــة تقــوم بأخطــار الطــرف املشــكو يف‬ ‫حقــه بصــورة الطلــب وذلــك بــأن ترســل اليــه‬ ‫نســخة مصحوبــة بنســخ مــن جميــع املســتندات‬ ‫املرفقــة بــه وينبغــي أن يبعــث الطــرف املشــكو‬

‫ ‬

‫ىف حقــه بــرده عــى ذلــك األخطــار إىل ســكرتارية‬ ‫املحكمــة يف أرسع وقــت‪ .‬وتحــدد قواعــد التحكيــم‬ ‫مهلــة أقصاهــا ثاثــون يومــاً تســتأنف املحكمــة‬ ‫واملحكّمــون بعدهــا إجــراءات التحكيــم دون‬ ‫انتظــار لوصــول ر ّد الطــرف املدعــو للتحكيــم‪ .‬وعند‬ ‫وصــول ر ّد املدعــو للتحكيــم تقــوم الســكرتارية‬ ‫بأباغــه إىل الطــرف الشــايك‪ ،‬وهنــا ينبغــي عليــه أن‬ ‫يقــدم للمحكمــة بيانـاً آخــر يف صــورة ر ّد عــى تلــك‬ ‫اإلدعــاءات املضــاده وذلــك يف خــال فــرتة ال تتعدى‬ ‫ثاثــون يومــاً مــن تاريــخ اخطــاره بــر ّد الطــرف‬ ‫املشــكو يف حقــه‪ .‬وبعــد ذلــك‪ ،‬تحــال القضيــه إىل‬ ‫املح ّكــم‪ .‬كــا أن إتفــاق التحكيــم ال مينــع األطـراف‬ ‫مــن التقــدم لــدى الســلطات املختصــة بطلــب‬ ‫أتخــاذ إجـراءات وقائيــة أو تحفّظيــة ســواء قبــل أو‬ ‫بعــد إحالــة القضيــة إىل املحكــم‪ .‬ويحــق للطالــب‬ ‫أن يختــار مــكان التحكيــم بإتفــاق األط ـراف‪ ،‬وإال‬ ‫فســيحدد املــكان بواســطة محكمــة التحكيــم‪.‬‬

‫القواعد التى تحكم‬ ‫اإلجراءات‪:‬‬

‫ويلتــزم املحكــم دامئــاً مبــا تنــص عليــه قواعــد‬ ‫تحكيــم الغرفــه الدوليــة‪ ،‬فــأذا مل يجــد فيهــا نــص‬ ‫بهــذا الشــأن يرجــع إىل قانــون الدولــة التــى جــرى‬ ‫فيهــا التحكيــم مــا مل يتفــق األطـراف عــى تطبيــق‬ ‫قانــون آخــر‪.‬‬

‫ويعتــرب حكــم املح ّكــم نهــايئ وواجــب النفــاذ جـربا ً‬ ‫عنــد االقتضــاء‪ .‬وقــد يحــدث أثنــاء ســر التحكيــم‬ ‫أن تصــل األط ـراف إىل تســوية وديــه للخــاف‪ ،‬وىف‬ ‫هــذه الحالــة يكفــي أن يتقــدم املدعــي بطلــب‬ ‫ســحب القضيــة مشــفوعاً مبوافقــة الطــرف األخــر‪.‬‬ ‫ويكــون للطرفــن دعــوة املحكــم إىل أثبــات رشوط‬ ‫إتفــاق الصلــح وتســجيلها مبــا يســمى حكــم صــادر‬ ‫برضــاء الطرفــن‪ ،‬ومــن مزايــا هــذه الطريقــة أنهــا‬ ‫تضــع ىف حــوزة الطرفــن وثيقــة ومســتندا ً رســمياً‬ ‫ملزمــاً ميكــن املطالبــة بتنفيــذ نصوصــة يف حالــة‬ ‫امتنــاع أو تخلــف الطــرف اآلخــر عــن ذلــك‪.‬‬ ‫أخذ بترصف من املصادر التالية‪-:‬‬ ‫• التحكيم ىف املنازعات التجارية الدولية‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫• ويكيبيديا‪ ،‬املوسوعة الحر‬ ‫• (‪International Chamber of Commerce )ICC‬‬ ‫‪‬‬


‫التجاريــة التبادليــة وقيــود التصديــر التطوعيــة‬ ‫التــي تــ ّم ابتداعهــا تحــت املســمى املجمــل‬ ‫“التجــارة املــدارة”‪.‬‬ ‫تجمــع الغرفــة يف عضويتهــا اآلالف مــن الــرشكات‬ ‫مختلفــة األحجــام موزعــة عــى أكــر مــن ‪ 130‬بلــدا ً‬ ‫يف مختلــف أنحــاء العــامل‪ .‬ومتثــل هــذه الــرشكات‬ ‫نطاق ـاً واســعاً مــن نشــاطات قطــاع األعــال مبــا‬ ‫يف ذلــك التصنيــع والتجــارة الخدمــات واملهــن‪.‬‬ ‫ومــن خــال عضويــة الغرفــة تســاهم الــرشكات‬ ‫يف صياغــة القواعــد والسياســات التــي تشــجع‬ ‫التجــارة واالســتثار عــى صعيــد دويل‪ .‬وتعتمــد‬ ‫هــذه الــرشكات عــى املركــز املرمــوق للغرفــة ومــا‬ ‫تتمتــع بــه مــن خــربة إليصــال وجهــات نظرهــا‬ ‫إىل الحكومــات والهيئــات الحكوميــة الدوليــة‪،‬‬ ‫التــي تؤثــر قراراتهــا يف األوضــاع املاليــة للــرشكات‬ ‫وعملياتهــا يف كافــة أنحــاء العــامل‬

‫حــاالت االحتيــال والغــش‬ ‫التجــاري‪:‬‬

‫تحــدث حــاالت االحتيــال والغــش التجــاري ســواء‬ ‫يف التجــارة التقليديــة أو اإللكرتونيــة عــى الرغــم‬ ‫مــن التقــدم الهائــل يف اســتعال وســائل االتصــال‬ ‫واالســتخدام الواســع لألجهزة املتطــورة يف العمليات‬ ‫التجاريــة املرافقــة لصناعــة النقــل البحــري والتجارة‬ ‫الدوليــة إال أن إمكانيــة تزويــد الوثائق واملســتندات‬ ‫مــا زالــت قامئــه بــل انهــا يف ازديــاد‪ .‬ونظــرا ً مــا‬ ‫للنقــل البحــري والتجــارة الدوليــة (بــن الــدول)‬ ‫مــن طبيعــة خاصــة وملا بــن الشــاحن واملشــرتي أو‬ ‫ممثليهــا مــن مســافات ومراحــل وحدود سياســية‬ ‫فــان إمكانيــه القضــاء عى ظاهــرة تزويــر وتحريف‬ ‫املســتندات الداخلــة يف التجــارة تبــدو صعبة للغاية‬ ‫خاصــة وان مارســات هــذه التجارة تتطلــب نظاماً‬ ‫خاصــاً تدفــع مبوجبــه أمثــان البضائــع واألجــور‬ ‫املســتحقة باســتخدام هــذه املســتندات‪ .‬ومــن‬

‫أنــواع االحتيــال يف التجــارة الدوليــة هــو االحتيــال‬ ‫املســتندي ومــن أشــكاله‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬شــحن البائــع لبضائــع أقــل كميــة أو أدىن نوعيــة‬ ‫مــن تلــك املوصوفــة يف عقــد البيــع‪ .‬وإذا كان مــن‬ ‫شــأن هــذا الفــرق يف النوعيــة أو الكميــة أن تثبــت‬ ‫للرشكــة الناقلــة ماحظــة عنــه يف ســند شــحن‬ ‫فأنــه يجــري تحويــل الســند مــن بعــد إلخفــاء‬ ‫تلــك الحقيقــه‪ ،‬وقــد يتــم تقديــم ســند شــحن إىل‬ ‫املشــرتي مشــفوعة مبســتندات صحيحــة أو مــزورة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬واملشــرتي هــو االخــر قــد يكــون بط ـاً إلحــدى‬ ‫صــور الغــش املســتندي حيــث يعمــد إىل تزويــر أو‬ ‫إســاءه اســتعال وثائــق الشــحن فاإلجـراء الطبيعي‬ ‫يف هــذه الحالــه هــو تخزيــن الشــحنة حتى يتســنى‬ ‫للمرســل لــه إبـراز ســندات الشــحن‪ .‬لكن وألســباب‬ ‫تجاريــة يقــوم الناقــل يف أحيــان كثــرة االفـراج عــن‬ ‫البضائــع مقابــل خطابــات ضــان وتقــع حــاالت‬ ‫الغــش حــن يعمــد بائــع‪ ،‬ليــس للمبــادئ الخلقيــة‬



‫وفتــح األســواق للســلع والخدمــات والتدفــق‬ ‫الح ـ ّر لــرأس املــال‪.‬‬ ‫ومنــذ إنشــاء محكمة التحكيــم الدوليــة ازداد اإلقبال‬ ‫عــى التحكيــم مبوجــب قوانــن محكمــة التحكيــم‬ ‫الدوليــة التابعــة لغرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة وبشــكل‬ ‫متصاعــد‪ .‬فمنــذ ‪ 1999‬تلقــت املحكمــة قضايــا‬ ‫جديــدة مبعــدل يزيــد عــن ‪ 500‬قضيــة بالســنة‪.‬‬ ‫وأصبحــت تقاليد ومارســات االعتادات املســتندية‬ ‫املوحــدة (‪ )UCP‬املعتمــدة يف الغرفــة هــي القواعــد‬ ‫التــي تطبقهــا البنــوك يف متويــل مــا قيمتــه مليــارات‬ ‫الــدوالرات مــن التجــارة العامليــة كل عــام‪.‬‬

‫ويشــرتط التحكيــم مــن خــالل الغرفــة ما‬ ‫ييل‪-:‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬أن تتفــق األط ـراف عــى اإللتجــاء اىل محكمــة‬ ‫التحكيــم الدوليــة؛‬

‫‪ -2‬أن يكــون الخــاف الــذي يطــرح للتحكيــم ذا‬ ‫طابــع دويل؛‬ ‫‪ -3‬أن تكون القضية ذات طابع تجاري؛‬

‫وتــويص غرفــة التجارة الدولية بأســتخدام‬ ‫الصيغــة التاليــة كرشط لقبــول التحكيم‪:‬‬

‫“جميــع الخافــات الناشــئة فيــا يتعلــق بهــذا‬ ‫العقــد تجــرى تســويتها بصفة نهائيــة وفقـاً لقواعد‬ ‫التصالــح والتحكيــم للغرفــة الدوليــة للتجــارة‬ ‫بواســطة محكّــم أو أكــر يجــرى تعيينهــم وفقــاً‬ ‫لتلــك القواعــد”‪ .‬وميكــن أن يضــاف إىل هــذا النــص‬ ‫بعــض االش ـرتاطات الخاصــة باملــكان الــذى تجــري‬ ‫فيــه عمليــة التحكيــم وعــدد املحكّمــن والقانــون‬ ‫الوطنــي الــذي يــرسي عــى العقــد بالنســبة لبعــض‬ ‫الــدول أو القانــون الواجــب التطبيــق‪ ،‬مــع تحويــل‬ ‫املحكمــن ســلطة التســوية الوديــة دون التقيــد‬ ‫لنصــوص القواعــد الرســمية‪.‬‬

‫التســهيالت التــي تقدمهــا‬ ‫غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة‪:‬‬ ‫أن مصطلحــات التعاقــد الدوليــة بالغرفــة هــي‬ ‫التعريفــات التجاريــة الدوليــة املوحــدة التــي‬ ‫تســتعمل كل يــوم يف عــدد ال حــرص لــه مــن آالف‬ ‫العقــود‪ .‬وتســهل العقــود النموذجيــة التــي تضعهــا‬ ‫وتصوغهــا الغرفــة عمــل الــرشكات الصغــرة التــي‬ ‫ال تســتطيع تحمــل النفقــات العاليــة للدائــرة‬ ‫القانونيــة‪ .‬وتعتــرب غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة رائــدة‬ ‫يف مبــادرات التنظيــم الــذايت ألعــال التجــارة‬ ‫اإللكرتونيــة‪ .‬ويظهــر أثــر معايــر الغرفــة لإلعــان‬ ‫والتســويق يف كثــر مــن الحــاالت عــى الترشيعــات‬ ‫الوطنيــة للــدول وعــى قواعــد عمــل النقابــات‬ ‫املهنيــة‪.‬‬

‫كــا ودعمــت الغرفــة جهــود الحكومــات إلنجــاح‬ ‫جولــة مفاوضــات الدوحــة التجاريــة حيــث تقــدم‬ ‫توصيــات قطــاع األعــال العاملــي ملنظمــة التجــارة‬ ‫العامليــة‪ .‬وتتحــدث الغرفــة نيابــة عــن قطــاع‬ ‫األعــال العامليــة عندمــا تتنــاول الحكومــات‬ ‫مواضيــع مثــل حقــوق امللكيــة الفكريــة وسياســات‬ ‫النقــل وقوانــن التجــارة أو البيئــة‪.‬‬ ‫كــا وتنــرش مقــاالت بأقــام كبــار مســؤويل الغرفــة‬ ‫يف الصحــف الرئيســية وتــذاع مقابــات إذاعيــة‬ ‫وتلفزيونيــة تؤكــد جميعهــا عــى موقــف الغرفة إىل‬ ‫التجــارة واالســتثار واملواضيــع التجاريــة األخــرى‪.‬‬ ‫وتجتمــع رئاســة الغرفــة يف كل ســنة مــع مســؤويل‬ ‫الدولــة املضيفــة لقمــة الثانيــة الكبــار لتقديــم‬ ‫مواقــف ومداخــات قطــاع األعــال للقمــة‪ ،‬كــا‬ ‫وتعتــرب الغرفــة الرشيــك االقتصــادي الرئيــي لألمم‬ ‫املتحــدة ووكاالتهــا املختلفــة‪.‬‬ ‫وتتحــدث الغرفــة نيابــة عــن قطــاع األعــال الدويل‬ ‫كلــا اتخــذت الحكومــات قــرارات ذات تأثــر‬

‫ ‬

‫جوهــري عــى إسـرتاتيجيات الــرشكات وأساســياتها‪.‬‬ ‫وتثمــن درجــة كفــاءة غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة يف‬ ‫خدمــة مصالــح آالف الــرشكات وتجمعــات األعــال‬ ‫األعضــاء يف أي جــزء مــن العــامل إىل مســتويات‬ ‫عاليــة‪ .‬وعــى نفــس القــدر مــن األهميــة يــأيت دور‬ ‫الغرفــة يف صياغــة القواعــد واملعايــر التــي يُتفــق‬ ‫عليهــا عامليــاً والتــي تتبناهــا الــرشكات طواعيــة‬ ‫وميكــن إدخالهــا يف العقــود امللزمــة‪ .‬وتقــدم الغرفــة‬ ‫مداخــات قطــاع األعــال لألمــم املتحــدة ومنظمــة‬ ‫التجــارة العامليــة وغرهــا مــن الهيئــات الحكوميــة‬ ‫عــى الصعيديــن الــدويل واإلقليمــي‪.‬‬ ‫وبفضــل اتســاع نطــاق تأثرهــا ‪ -‬والطبيعــة املعقدة‬ ‫لعملهــا ‪ -‬متكنــت الغرفــة مــن مجــاراة عمليــة‬ ‫العوملــة التي طالــت قطاعي األعــال والتكنولوجيا‪.‬‬ ‫ويف عرشينــات القــرن املــايض ركــزت الغرفــة‬ ‫جهودهــا عــى تعويضــات وديــون الحــرب‪ .‬وبعــد‬ ‫عقــد مــن ذلــك‪ ،‬خاضــت كفاحــاً مريــرا ً طــوال‬ ‫ســنوات الكســاد االقتصــادي لكبــح جــاح موجــة‬ ‫اإلجـراءات الحائيــة والقُطريــة االقتصاديــة‪ .‬وبعــد‬ ‫مجــيء الحــرب يف عــام ‪ 1939‬ضمنــت الغرفــة‬ ‫بقاءهــا واســتمراريتها عــن طريــق نقــل عملياتهــا‬ ‫إىل الدولــة املحايــدة ‪ -‬الســويد‪.‬‬ ‫وخــال ســنوات مــا بعــد الحــرب ظلــت الغرفــة‬ ‫مدافعــاً مخلصــاً عــن النظــام الحــ ّر للتبــادل‬ ‫التجــاري متعــدد األطــراف‪ .‬ومــع تنامــي أعــداد‬ ‫أعضائهــا لتشــمل املزيــد واملزيــد مــن بلــدان العــامل‬ ‫النامــي‪ ،‬صعــدت الغرفــة مــن مطالبهــا بفتــح‬ ‫األســواق العامليــة ملنتجــات الــدول الناميــة‪ .‬ومــا‬ ‫رصة عــى شــعارها القائــل بــأن‬ ‫زالــت الغرفــة مــ ّ‬ ‫التجــارة أفضــل مــن املســاعدات‪.‬‬ ‫ويف الثانينــات وأوائــل التســعينات مــن القــرن‬ ‫املــايض قاومــت الغرفــة عــودة اإلجـراءات الحائية‬ ‫إىل الــربوز بأشــكال مختلفــة مثــل الرتتيبــات‬


‫كانــت عليــه يف املــايض‪ .‬وتســتجيب غرفــة التجــارة‬ ‫الدوليــة كونهــا املنظمــة الوحيــدة املعنيــة حقــا‬ ‫بقطــاع األعــال العاملــي لهــذا التحــدي بإرصارهــا‬ ‫عــى طــرح وجهــات نظــر قطــاع األعــال والتعبــر‬ ‫عنهــا‪ .‬وتغطــي نشــاطات الغرفــة نطاقــاً واســعاً‬ ‫يشــمل مــن بــن قضايــا أخــرى التحكيــم وتســوية‬ ‫النزاعــات والدفــاع عــن التجــارة الحــرة واقتصــاد‬ ‫الســوق‪ ،‬والتنظيــم الــذايت ملؤسســات األعــال‪،‬‬ ‫ومحاربــة الفســاد أو مكافحــة الجرميــة التجاريــة‪.‬‬ ‫تحتفــظ الغرفــة بوســائل اتصــال مبــارشة مــع‬ ‫الحكومــات املختلفــة حــول العــامل عــرب لجانهــا‬

‫الوطنيــة‪ .‬وتقــوم األمانــة العامــة للمنظمــة مــن‬ ‫مقرهــا يف باريــس بتزويــد الهيئــات الحكوميــة‬ ‫الدوليــة بوجهــات نظــر قطــاع األعــال بشــأن‬ ‫القضايــا التــي تؤثــر بشــكل مبــارش يف عمليــات‬ ‫التجــارة واألعــال‪.‬‬ ‫وتتمتــع غرفــة التجــارة الدولية بالصفة االستشــارية‬ ‫مــن الدرجــة األوىل لــدى املجلــس االقتصــادي‬ ‫واالجتاعــي التابــع لامــم املتحــده وتتبــع الغرفــة‬ ‫هيئتــان هــا التــايل‪-:‬‬ ‫األوىل‪ :‬املكتــب الــدويل الســتعامات الغــرف‬ ‫التجاريــة‪،‬‬

‫الثانيــة‪ :‬هيئــة التحكيــم أو املحكمــة الدوليــة‬ ‫للتحكيــم التجــاري‪.‬‬

‫من هي محكمة التحكيم‬ ‫الدولية?‬

‫انشــئت محكمــة التحكيــم الدوليــة يف عــام ‪،1923‬‬ ‫وهــي تابعــة لغرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة‪ .‬وكان هدف‬ ‫تأســيس املحكمــة ملســاندة عمــل غرفــة التجــارة‬ ‫الدوليــة والــذي يتمثــل يف خدمــة قطــاع األعــال‬ ‫الــدويل عــن طريــق تعزيــز التجــارة واالســتثار‬


‫ ‬


‫التحكيم ىف املنازعات التجارية‬ ‫الدولية‬ ‫د‪ .‬ياسمني حسني‬ ‫غرفة التجارة العربية ‪ -‬الربيطانية‬


‫مــن هــي هيئــة التحكيم ىف‬ ‫املنازعــات التجارية الدولية؟‬

‫تنشــأ الحاجــه اىل التحكيــم عندمــا يكــون هنــاك‬ ‫تنازعـاً بــن أطراف مــن دول مختلفــة فعندما حيث‬ ‫يكــون هنــاك حالــه تنــازع ىف تطبيــق القوانــن فهنا‬ ‫ينشــأ التســاؤل حــول أي القوانــن يجــب إتباعهــا‬ ‫وتنفيذهــا؟ وأي جهــة قضائيــة لهــا الحــق ىف نظــر‬ ‫يف النـ ـزاع وحلّه؟‬ ‫ومــن أمثلــه هــذه املنازعــات تلــك التــى تنشــأ‬ ‫بســبب اختــاف أو عــدم االلتـزام بنصــوص العقــود‬ ‫التجاريــة‪ ،‬وأيض ـاً مــن هــذه املنازعــات تلــك التــى‬ ‫تنشــأ عــن االعتــادات املســتندية التــى تربــط‬ ‫أطرافــاً مــن دول مختلفــة‪ ،‬وجميــع الخافــات‬ ‫يجــرى تســويتها بصــوره نهائيــة وفقــاً لقواعــد‬ ‫التصالــح والتحكيــم التــى حددتهــا الغرفــة الدوليــة‬ ‫للتجــارة‪ .‬ويشــارك ىف التحكيــم محكّــم أو أكــر‬ ‫يتــم تعينتهــم وفقــاً للقواعــد املنصوصــة بهــذا‬ ‫الشــأن‪ .‬ويتـ ّم النظــر ىف الخافــات واملنازعــات التى‬ ‫تنشــأ بــن املتعاقديــن باملحكمــة الدوليــة للغــرف‬ ‫التجاريــة‪ ،‬كــا ويشــرتط لعــرض املنازعــات عليهــا‬ ‫أن ينــص ىف العقــد عــى جهــة ومــكان التحكيــم‬ ‫رشيطــة أال تتعــارض أحكامهــا مــع قواعــد التحكيــم‬ ‫املنصــوص عليهــا ىف القانــون الــدويل التجــاري‪.‬‬ ‫وتتســم املحكمــة الدوليــة للغــرف التجاريــة برسعة‬

‫اإلج ـراءات وانخفــاض تكاليــف التحكيــم والرسيــة‬ ‫التامــة ملوضــوع املنازعــات‪.‬‬ ‫وتحتــل غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة مكان ـاً متمي ـزا ً يف‬ ‫مجــال التحكّيــم‪ ،‬فمــن هــي هــذه املؤسســة؟ ومــا‬ ‫اش ـرتاطات التحكيــم مــن خالهــا؟‬

‫مــن هــي غرفــة التجــارة‬ ‫الدوليــة؟‬

‫أن غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة هــى الهيئــة التــى‬ ‫متثــل رجــال األعــال عــى املســتوى الــدويل‪ ،‬وت ـ ّم‬ ‫تأسيســها بعــد مؤمتــر التجــارة الدوليــة الــذى‬ ‫ُعقــد عــام ‪ 1919‬مبدينــة أتانتيــك ســيتى يف‬ ‫الواليــات املتحــدة األمريكيــة‪ .‬ويعــود الفضــل يف‬ ‫قــوة الدفــع األوىل لجهــود الغرفــة لرئيســها األول‪،‬‬ ‫إتيــان كليمنتــل‪ ،‬وهــو وزيــر تجــارة فرنــي ســابق‪،‬‬ ‫وبفضــل مــا كان يتمتــع بــه مــن نفــوذ تـ ّم تأســيس‬ ‫األمانــة العامــة للغرفــة يف باريــس‪ .‬وذاع صيــت‬ ‫الغرفــة بحيــث تخطــى مرحلــة االعـرتاف بهــا منــذ‬ ‫تلــك األيــام التــي أعقبــت الحــرب عندمــا اجتمــع‬ ‫قــادة قطــاع األعــال مــن دول الحلفــاء ألول مــرة‬ ‫يف مدينــة أتانتــك‪ .‬وضمــت النــواة األوىل للغرفــة‬ ‫ممثلــن مــن القطــاع الخــاص يف بلجيــكا وبريطانيــا‬ ‫وفرنســا وإيطاليــا والواليــات املتحــدة ثــم توســعت‬ ‫لتصبــح منظمــة أعــال دوليــة تضــم يف عضويتهــا‬

‫آالف الــرشكات والهيئــات يف حــوايل ‪ 130‬بلــدا‪.‬‬ ‫ويوجــد مــن بــن األعضــاء عــدد كبــر من الــرشكات‬ ‫األكــر نفــوذا ً يف العــامل ومتثــل كل القطاعــات‬ ‫الصناعيــة والخدماتيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وللغرفــة لجــان أهليــة يف غالبيــة دول العــامل كــا‬ ‫تضــم الغرفــة أعضــاء آخريــن يف الــدول التــى ال‬ ‫يوجــد بهــا لجــان أهليــة‪ ،‬ومتثــل كل لجنــة أحــدى‬ ‫الهيئــات التجاريــة الرئيســية يف مختلــف القطاعات‬ ‫االقتصاديــة‪ ،‬وتوفــد كل لجنــة مندوبــن دامئــن‬ ‫عنهــا يف مجلــس إداره الغرفــة الدوليــة‪ .‬وتقــوم‬ ‫غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة بــدور املتحــدث بلســان‬ ‫رجــال األعــال ىف التعامــل أمــام الحكومــات أو‬ ‫املنظمــة الدوليــة‪ ،‬وكذلــك حـ ّـل الصعوبــات التــي‬ ‫قــد تعرتضهــم ىف التعامــل مــع بعــض الــدول بوضع‬ ‫األســس النموذجيــة املوحــدة التــى يجــري التعامــل‬ ‫مبقتضاهــا‪ ،‬كــا متــ ّد الغرفــة رجــال األعــال‬ ‫باملعلومــات العلميــة والعمليــة التــي تصــدر يف‬ ‫نرشاتهــا ووثائقهــا الدوريــة‪.‬‬ ‫ومتثــل غرفــة التجــارة الدوليــة الصــوت الــذي يرتفع‬ ‫مدافعــاً عــن قطــاع األعــال العاملــي باعتبــاره‬ ‫عامــل قــوة للنمــو االقتصــادي مبــا يف ذلــك إيجــاد‬ ‫الوظائــف وتحقيــق الرفــاه االقتصــادي‪ .‬ونظــرا ً‬ ‫لتداخــل االقتصاديــات الوطنيــة بشــكل وثيــق يف‬ ‫األونــة األخــرة‪ ،‬فــإن القـرارات الحكوميــة أصبحــت‬ ‫ذات أبعــاد وعواقــب دوليــة أقــوى بكثــر مــا‬



‫مهمة املنظمة اإلدارية‪:‬‬

‫مبقتــى اتفاقيــة باريــس لعــام ‪ 1883‬واتفاقيــة برن‬ ‫الخاصــة بحايــة املصنفــات األدبيــة والفنيــة لعــام‬ ‫‪ ،1886‬تقــوم منظمــة ‪ WIPO‬باملهــام اإلداريــة‪.‬‬ ‫كــا يجــوز للمنظمــة ان تتــوىل املهــام اإلداريــة‬ ‫الناشــئة عــن أي اتفــاق دويل يهــدف إىل دعــم‬ ‫حايــة امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ .‬أن منظمــة ‪WIPO‬‬ ‫مســؤولة عــن اتخــاذ التدابــر املناســبة طبقــاً‬ ‫لوثيقتهــا األساســية وللمعاهــدات التــي تــرشف‬ ‫عــى إدارتهــا مــن أجــل تشــجيع النشــاط الفكــري‬ ‫الخــاق مــع مراعــاة اختصاصــات األمــم املتحــدة‬ ‫وهيئاتهــا وســائر الــوكاالت املتخصصــة التابعــة‬ ‫ملنظمــة األمــم املتحدة‪ .‬وتسرتشــد منظمــة ‪WIPO‬‬ ‫عنــد تخطيــط ومارســة أنشــطتها ملصلحــة البلدان‬ ‫الناميــة أن تلتــزم بأهــداف التنميــة والحــرص‬ ‫بخاصــة عــى االنتفــاع بامللكيــة الفكريــة إىل أقــى‬ ‫ح ـ ّد مــن أجــل تشــجيع النشــاط الفكــري الخــاق‬ ‫عــى الصعيــد املحــي‪ ،‬وتســهيل نقــل التكنولوجية‪،‬‬ ‫واالنتفــاع بالصفقــات األدبيــة والفنيــة األجنبيــة‪،‬‬ ‫وتســهيل إجــراءات الحصــول عــى املعلومــات‬ ‫العلميــة والتكنولوجيــة الــواردة يف املايــن مــن‬ ‫وثائــق الــرباءات‪ ،‬مــا يســهم يف دفــع عجلــة‬ ‫التنميــة الثقافيــة واالقتصاديــة واالجتاعيــة يف‬ ‫البلــدان الناميــة‪.‬‬

‫* الهيئات اإلقليمية‪:‬‬

‫لقــد أدى االهتــام بامللكيــة الفكريــة إىل إنشــاء‬ ‫املجتمــع لعــريب لحايــة امللكيــة الصناعيــة والــذي‬ ‫أعلــن تأسيســه عــام ‪ .1987‬وكان مــن أهــداف هــذا‬ ‫املجتمــع إرســاء األســس بتطويــر مواضيــع حايــة‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة يف العــامل العــريب‪ ،‬وتحديــث‬ ‫القوانــن واقرتاحهــا إىل الــدول العربيــة التــي ال‬ ‫يوجــد بهــا ترشيعــات للحايــة‪ ،‬وتدريــب املوظفن‬ ‫املحليــن عــى تطبيــق القوانــن الخاصــة بامللكيــة‬ ‫الفكريــة ونــرش الوعــي يف مجــال حقــوق هــذه‬ ‫امللكيــة‪ ،‬ومتثيــل الــدول العربيــة يف املحافــل‬ ‫الدوليــة املعينــة بصياغــة املعايــر واألنظمــة‬ ‫املتعلقــة‪ .‬وكذلــك تعزيــز الوعــي بــرضورة الحايــة‬ ‫لــدى املعنيــن يف الوطــن العــريب إضافــة إىل توحيــد‬ ‫الترشيعــات العربيــة يف هــذا املجــال‪ ،‬وتطويــر‬ ‫املواثيــق مبــا يتــاءم مــع نصــوص اتفاقيــة باريــس‬ ‫ومــا تاهــا مــن مواثيــق يف مجــال حايــة امللكيــة‬ ‫الصناعيــة‪.‬‬ ‫كــا أن مــن أهــداف هــذا املجتمــع‪ ،‬تنظيــم املهنــة‬

‫الصناعيــة وتنشــيطها ورفــع مكانتهــا ملــا يخــدم‬ ‫املنتســبن إليهــا‪ ،‬والعمــل عــى توفــر وســائل‬ ‫التدريــب الازمــة إلطــارات هــذه املهنــة‪ ،‬مــا‬ ‫يحقــق بالتــايل رواجـاً وتنميــة اقتصاديــة املنشــودة‪،‬‬ ‫ويعمــل عــى تشــجيع البحــث العلمــي يف حقــل‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة بصفــة عامــة‪ .‬وقــد ت ـ ّم تســجيل‬ ‫عــدة نشــاطات قــام بهــا املجتمــع لعــريب لحايــة‬ ‫امللكيــة الصناعيــة‪ ،‬مثــاً‪:‬‬ ‫تقديــم املســاعدات واملشــورة الازمــة يف مجــال‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة ملختلــف الــدول العربيــة؛‬ ‫إبرامــه يف عــام ‪ 1994‬اتفاقــا مــع األكادمييــة‬ ‫العربيــة املتقدمــة للعلــوم والتكنولوجيــة‪ ،‬وهــي‬ ‫مؤسســة تابعــة لجامعــة الــدول العربيــة هدفهــا‬ ‫تحقيــق برنامــج تأهيــل خــرباء مبجــال حايــة‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة يتــم مــن خالــه تأهيــل وتدريــب‬ ‫وتخريــج خ ـرباء عــرب يف مجــال امللكيــة الفكريــة‪،‬‬ ‫يك يتســنى لهــم املســاهمة يف املســاهمة يف مجــال‬ ‫حايــة امللكيــة الفكريــة وســ ّن القوانــن ونــرش‬ ‫املفاهيــم املتعلقــة بهــذا املجــال‪.‬‬


‫امللكيــة الفكريــة مبعناهــا الواســع تعنــي الحقــوق‬ ‫القانونيــة التــي تنتــج مــن األنشــطة الفكريــة يف‬ ‫املجــاالت الصناعيــة والعلميــة واألدبيــة والفنيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وقــد أصــدرت دول العــامل املختلفــة قوانــن لحايــة‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ ،‬كان مــن أهــم أهدافهــا‪:‬‬

‫• حايــة الحقــوق املعنويــة واالقتصاديــة للمبدعن‬ ‫وتنظيــم وتســهيل ســبل اســتفادة املجتمــع مــن‬ ‫هــذه اإلبداعــات‪.‬‬ ‫• ضــان مارســات ومعامــات تجاريــة عادلــة‬ ‫تســهم يف التنميــة االقتصاديــة واالجتاعيــة‬ ‫للشــعوب‪.‬‬ ‫وعموم ـاً فــإن قوانــن امللكيــة الفكريــة تهــدف إىل‬ ‫حايــة املبدعــن واملنتجــن للمنتجــات والخدمــات‬ ‫الفكريــة عــن طريــق إعطائهــم حقوقــا مقننــة‬ ‫ومحــددة مبــدد زمنيــة للتحكــم يف اســتخدام هــذه‬ ‫املنتجــات‪ .‬وميكــن تقســيم امللكيــة الفكريــة إىل‬ ‫فرعــن رئيســين‪ :‬امللكيــة الصناعيــة وحــق املؤلــف‪.‬‬ ‫وقــد ذكــرت املنظمــة العامليــة للملكيــة الفكريــة‬ ‫(‪ )WIPO‬أن امللكيــة الفكريــة تشــمل حقوقــا‬

‫ ‬

‫متعلقــة باألعــال األدبيــة والفنيــة والعلميــة‪ :‬األداء‬ ‫الفنــي والتســجيات الصوتيــة واملرئيــة والربامــج‬ ‫اإلذاعيــة والتلفزيونيــة‪ ،‬االخرتاعــات يف جميــع‬ ‫مياديــن النشــاط اإلنســاين‪ ،‬االكتشــافات العلميــة‪،‬‬ ‫الرســوم والنــاذج الصناعيــة‪ ،‬العامــات التجاريــة‬ ‫وعامــات الخدمــة واألســاء التجاريــة والتســميات‪،‬‬ ‫الحايــة مــن املنافســة غــر املرشوعــة‪ ،‬وجميــع‬ ‫الحقــوق األخــرى الناتجــة عــن النشــاط الفكــري يف‬ ‫املجــاالت الصناعيــة والعلميــة واألدبيــة أو الفنيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وتصنــف الحقوق املتعلقة باألعــال األدبية والفنية‬ ‫والعلميــة يف فــرع حــق املؤلــف‪ ،‬بينــا الحقــوق‬ ‫املتعلقــة بــاألداء الفني والتســجيات والبــث تعرف‬ ‫مبــا يســمى «الحقــوق املرتبطة» أي حقــوق مرتبطة‬ ‫بحــق املؤلــف‪ .‬يف املقابــل يتــم تصنيــف االخرتاعات‬ ‫والرســوم والنــاذج الصناعيــة والعامــات التجاريــة‬ ‫وعامــات الخدمــة واألســاء التجاريــة والتســميات‪،‬‬ ‫يتــم تصنيفهــا يف فــرع امللكيــة الصناعيــة‪ .‬وباملثــل‬ ‫فــإن الحايــة مــن املنافســة غــر املرشوعــة ميكــن‬ ‫أن تنتمــي لهــذا الفــرع‪.‬‬ ‫وألهميــة امللكيــة الفكريــة فقــد أصــدرت العديــد‬ ‫مــن الــدول عــددا ً مــن األنظمــة التــي تعنــى‬ ‫مبجــاالت امللكيــة الفكريــة والتــي يــأيت عــى رأســها‬ ‫نظــام ب ـراءات االخ ـرتاع والتصميــات التخطيطيــة‬ ‫للدراســات املتكاملــة واألصنــاف النباتيــة والنــاذج‬ ‫الصناعيــة مرفــق بائحــة تنفيذيــة‪ ،‬ونظــام‬ ‫حايــة حقــوق املؤلــف‪ .‬وتشــكيل لجــان للنظــر‬ ‫يف دعــاوى الــرباءات وكذلــك لجــان دامئــة تعنــي‬ ‫بحقــوق امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ .‬كــا أن عضويــة الــدول‬ ‫يف منظمــة التجــارة العامليــة واملنظمــة العامليــة‬ ‫للملكيــة الفكريــة لهــا داللتهــا أيضــا‪ ،‬حيــث‬ ‫يجــب أن تتائــم وتتوائــم الترشيعــات واألنظمــة‬ ‫املحليــة املتعلقــة بامللكيــة الفكريــة باململكــة مــع‬ ‫املارســات املطبقــة عامليــاً‪.‬‬

‫أخذ بترصف من املصادر التالية‪-:‬‬ ‫• ويكيبيديا‪ -‬املوسوعة الحرة‬ ‫• حكوكة ديب ‪ -‬‬ ‫‪Pages/WhatIsIPR.aspx‬‬ ‫• املنظمة العاملية لحامية حقوق امللكية الفكرية ‪WIPO‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫• خالد سعد الصالح “مفهوم امللكية الفكرية”‬


‫متاثــاً مــن شــأنه أن يضلــل الجمهــور بخصــوص‬ ‫مصــدر البضاعــة التــي متيزهــا العامــة‪.‬‬

‫• ضــان التعــاون اإلداري فيــا بــن اتحــادات‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة‪.‬‬

‫وتتمثــل عنــارص امللكيــة الفكريــة طبقــا لنــص‬ ‫املــادة ‪ 2/8‬مــن اإلتفاقيــة فيــا يــي‪:‬‬

‫ملاذا تهتم الدول بامللكية‬ ‫الفكرية‪،‬وتعمل عىل‬ ‫االرتقاء بها وحاميتها ؟‬

‫وعنــد مســتهل عــام ‪ ،1995‬أصبحــت منظمــة‬ ‫‪ WIPO‬تــرشف عــى االتحــادات التاليــة‪-:‬‬

‫‪ 1‬املصنفات األدبية والفنية والعلمية‪.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬االبتــكارات الجديــدة ىف كافــة مجــاالت امللكيــة‬ ‫الفكريــة تــؤدى إىل تقــدم البرشيــة ونهضتهــا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬الحايــة القانونيــة لابتــكارات الجديــدة تدفــع‬ ‫إىل االنفــاق عــى ابتــكارات أخــرى بســهولة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬االهتــام بامللكيــة الفكريــة وحايتهــا يســهم‬ ‫ىف تحقيــق التنميــة االقتصاديــة واالجتاعيــة‬ ‫والثقافيــة‪.‬‬

‫املراكــز والهيئــات الدوليــة‬ ‫واإلقليميــة املتخصصــة‪:‬‬ ‫* املنظمة العاملية للملكية الفكرية‪:‬‬

‫نظـرا ً ألهميــة اإلنتــاج الفكــري وحيويتــه تســارع كل‬ ‫دولــة يف إىل س ـ ّن قوانــن لحايــة مــا ت ـ ّم التوصــل‬ ‫إليــه مــن إبــداع‪ .‬إن االهتــام العاملــي بامللكيــة‬ ‫الفكريــة عامــة وحايــة عمليــات اإلبــداع واالبتــكار‬ ‫أدى إىل تأســيس املنظمــة العامليــة للملكيــة الفكرية‬ ‫التــي يشــار إليهــا باإلنجليزيــة ‪ WIPO‬وبالفرنســية‬ ‫‪ O.M.P.I‬وذلــك مبوجــب اتفاقيــة ت ـ ّم توقيعهــا يف‬ ‫مدينــة ســتكهومل الســويدية يف ‪ 17‬مــن شــهر متــوز‬ ‫(يوليــو) عــام ‪ ،1967‬تحــت عنــوان “اتفاقيــة إنشــاء‬ ‫املنظمــة العاميــة للملكيــة الفكريــة”‪ .‬وفــور اإلعان‬ ‫عــن إنشــاء هــذه املنظمــة‪ ،‬ســارعت الــدول إىل‬ ‫االنضــام لهــا ووصــل عددهــا إىل ‪ 175‬دولــة عــام‬ ‫‪ ،2000‬أي مــا يعــادل نســبة ‪ %90‬مــن دول العــامل‪.‬‬ ‫ويقــع مقــر ‪ WIPO‬يف مدينــة جنيف الســويرسية‪،‬‬ ‫وتعتــرب إحــدى الــوكاالت الســتة عــرش التابعــة‬ ‫ملنظمــة األمــم املتحــدة‪ ،‬ومــن ضمــن أهدافهــا‪-:‬‬ ‫• دعــم امللكيــة الفكريــة يف كل أنحــاء العــامل بفضل‬ ‫تعــاون الــدول بعضهــا مــع بعض؛‬

‫ اتحــاد بــرن بشــان حايــة املصنفــات األدبيــة‬‫والفنيــة؛‬ ‫ اتفاقيــة رومــا بشــان حايــة فنــاين األداء ومنتجي‬‫التســجيات الصوتيــة وهيئــات اإلذاعــة‪ ،‬التــي تتــم‬ ‫إدارتهــا بالتعــاون مــع اليونســكو ومنظمــة العمــل‬ ‫الدوليــة واتفاقيــة جنيــف بشــان حايــة منتجــي‬ ‫الفونوغرامــات مــن استنســاخ فونوغراماتهــم دون‬ ‫تصحيــح؛‬ ‫ اتفاقيــة بروكســل بشــان توزيع اإلشــارات الحاملة‬‫للربامج املرســلة عــرب التوابــع الصناعية‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2‬منجـزات الفنانــن القامئن بــاألداء‪ ،‬الفونوغرامات‪،‬‬ ‫وبرامج االذاعــة والتلفزيون‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬اإلخرتاعــات يف جميــع مجــاالت االجتهــاد‬ ‫اإلنســاين‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 4‬االكتشافات العلمية‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 5‬الرسوم والناذج الصناعية‪.‬‬ ‫‪ 6‬جميــع الحقــوق األخــرى الناتجــة عــن النشــاط‬ ‫الفكــري يف املجــاالت الصناعيــة والعلميــة واالدبيــة‬ ‫والفنيــة‪.‬‬


‫ ‬


‫عنــارص ثنائيــة األبعــاد‪ ،‬مثــل الرســوم أو الخطــوط‬ ‫أو األلــوان‪.‬‬

‫براءة االخرتاع‪:‬‬

‫الحقوق املجاورة‪:‬‬

‫هــي حــق مينحــه القانــون للمخــرتع‬ ‫مينــع مبوجبــه اآلخريــن مــن اســتغال‬ ‫اخرتاعــه تجاريــاً وذلــك لفــرتة زمنيــة‬ ‫محــددة مقابــل القيــام بالكشــف عــن‬ ‫االخ ـرتاع بعــد انقضــاء م ـ ّدة الحايــة‪.‬‬ ‫بــراءة االخــرتاع هــي حــق اســتئثاري‬ ‫ُمينــح الخ ـرتاع مــا‪ .‬وبشــكل عــام‪ ،‬متنــح‬ ‫الــرباءة لصاحبهــا حــق البــت يف إمكانيــة‬ ‫ أو كيفيــة – اســتخدام اآلخريــن لاخــرتاع‪.‬‬‫ومقابــل هــذا الحــق‪ ،‬يتيــح صاحــب الــرباءة‬ ‫للجمهــور املعلومــات التقنيــة عــن االخــرتاع يف‬ ‫وثيقــة الــرباءة املنشــورة‪.‬‬

‫هــي الحقــوق املرتبطــة بحــق املؤلــف مينحهــا االسم التجاري‪:‬‬

‫القانــون لفئــات معينــة مثــل املنتجــن وفنــاين األداء‬ ‫وهيئــات اإلذاعــة تســاعد املبتكريــن عــى ايصــال‬ ‫رســالتهم للجمهــور ونــرش أعالهــم‪.‬‬

‫العالمة التجارية‪:‬‬

‫هــي إشــارة يســتخدمها تاجــر مــا لتمييــز منتجاتــه‬ ‫عــن منتجــات غــره‪ .‬وحتــى يحمــي القانــون‬ ‫العامــة التجاريّــة يجــب أن تكــون مم ّيــزة و غــر‬ ‫مضللــة وغــر مخالفــة للنظــام العــام واآلداب‪.‬‬

‫املؤرشات الجغرافية‪:‬‬

‫معــن تشــر إىل‬ ‫هــي إشــارة توضــع عــى منتــج ّ‬ ‫أنّــه ينشــأ مــن منطقــة جغرافيّــة محــددة‪ .‬ومتثــل‬ ‫البيانــات الجغرافيــة وتســميات املنشــأ إىل املنشــأ‬ ‫الجغ ـرايف املحــدد وصفــات أو شــهرة أو خصائــص‬ ‫ميكــن عزوهــا أساســاً إىل ذلــك املنشــأ‪ .‬ومــن‬ ‫املألــوف أن يضــم البيــان الجغــرايف اســم مــكان‬ ‫منشــأ الســلع‪.‬‬

‫الرسم أو النموذج الصناعي‪:‬‬

‫هــو الجانــب الزخــريف أو الجــايل لســلعة ذات‬ ‫منفعــة‪ ،‬ومــن املمكــن أن يتكــون من عنــارص ثاثيّة‬ ‫األبعــاد مثــل شــكل الســلعة أو ثنائيــة األبعــاد مثــل‬ ‫الرســوم أو الخطــوط أو األلــوان‪ .‬التصميــم الصناعي‬ ‫هــو املظهــر الزخــريف أو الجــايل لقطعــة مــا‪ .‬ومــن‬ ‫املمكــن أن يتألــف التصميــم مــن عنــارص ثاثيــة‬ ‫األبعــاد‪ ،‬مثــل شــكل القطعــة أو ســطحها‪ ،‬أو مــن‬

‫هــو اســم يســتخدم يف مجــال األعــال أو التجــارة‬ ‫لتمييــز مؤسســة أو رشكة عن غرها من املؤسســات‬ ‫أو الــرشكات‪ .‬والعامــة التجاريــة هــي إشــارة متيــز‬ ‫ســلع أو خدمــات رشكــة عــن ســلع أو خدمــات‬ ‫ســائر الــرشكات‪ .‬ويعــود أصــل العامــة التجاريــة‬ ‫إىل العصــور القدميــة حيــث كان الحرفيــون يضعون‬ ‫توقيعاتهــم أو “عاماتهــم” عــى منتجاتهــم‪.‬‬

‫الس التجاري‪:‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫هــو عبــارة عــن أي معلومــة ذات قيمــة تجاريّــة‬ ‫تتعلــق بطريقــة اإلنتــاج أو املبيعــات و غــر‬ ‫معروفــة للجمهــور اتخــذ صاحبهــا تدابــر معقولــة‬ ‫للمحافظــة عــى رسيتــه‪.‬‬

‫الدائرة املتكاملة‪:‬‬

‫هــي كل منتــج يف شــكله النهــايئ أو املرحــي يتكون‬ ‫مــن أحــد العنــارص النشــطة املثبتــة عــى قطعــة‬ ‫مــن مــادة معزولــة وتشــكل مــع بعــض الوصــات‬ ‫أو كلهــا كيانـاً متكامـاً يســتهدف تحقيــق وظيفــة‬ ‫إلكرتونيــة‪.‬‬

‫املنافســة غــري املرشوعــة‬ ‫وأســاليب التقليــد والغــش‬

‫هــي األعــال املخالفــة للمارســات الرشيفــة‬ ‫والتجــاري ومنهــا التقليــد‬ ‫يف املجــال الصناعــي‬ ‫ّ‬

‫والغــش‪ .‬وتتنــوع أســاليب التقليــد والغش بحســب‬ ‫طبيعــة ونــوع الســلعة ووســائل الجــاين وأدواتــه‬ ‫واإلمكانيــات املتاحــة وتتنــوع الطــرق بهــدف‬ ‫محــاكاة املنتــج األصــي ظاهري ـاً‪ .‬وكان الســتخدام‬ ‫التكنولوجيــة يف تصنيــع الســلع املقلــده الــدور‬ ‫األكــرب يف الوصــول بهــا اىل درجــة عاليــة مــن‬ ‫التشــابه مــع الســلع األصليــة ويصعــب التمييــز‬ ‫بينهــا‪ .‬ومــن أســاليب التقليــد والغــش ميــا يــي‪:‬‬ ‫• اســتخدام الهيــكل الخارجــي للجهــاز األصــي‬ ‫واســتبدال بعــض املحتويــات الداخليــة بقطــع‬ ‫مقلــده ( أجهــزة الكمبيوتــر – األجهــزة الكهربائية)‪.‬‬ ‫• وضــع رشيــط الصــق عــى الجهــاز مــن الخــارج‬ ‫ملنــع فتحــه واكتشــاف محتوياتــه املقلــده‪.‬‬ ‫• وضــع رشيــط الصــق خــاص باملنتجــات األصليــة‬ ‫عــى املنتجــات املقلــدة إليهــام املســتهلك وخداعة‪.‬‬ ‫• تقليــد الحاويــات الكرتونيــة أو األغلفــة للســلع‬ ‫األصليــة ووضــع املقلــده بداخلهــا‪.‬‬ ‫• تقليــد العامــة التجاريــة واإلســم التجــاري‬ ‫للرشكــة األصليــة وتثبيتهــا عــى املنتــج املقلــد و‬ ‫تزويــر البيانــات التجاريــة‪.‬‬ ‫• تجميــع العبــوات الفارغــة األصليــة وتجديدهــا‬ ‫وتعبئــة املنتــج املقلــد بداخلهــا وإعــادة تغليفهــا‬ ‫باســتخدام ماكينــات حديثــة‪.‬‬ ‫• اعــادة اســتخدام قطــع الغيــار املســتعملة‬ ‫بتجويدهــا وتغليفهــا وبيعهــا عــى انهــا قطــع‬ ‫أصليــة جديــدة‪.‬‬ ‫• إزالــة تاريــخ الصاحيــة املنتهــى وإعــادة تدويــن‬ ‫تاريــخ جديــد يفيــد امتــداد الصاحيــة‪.‬‬

‫مــا الفــرق بــني التزويــر‬ ‫والتقليــد؟‬

‫إن تزويــر العامــة التجاريــة نقــاً كامــاً مطابقــاً‬ ‫لألصــل أو نقــل األجـزاء الرئيســية منهــا مــا يجعــل‬ ‫العامــة املــزورة مطابقــة للعامــة األصليــة إىل حــد‬ ‫كبــر‪ .‬أمــا تقليــد العامــة التجاريــة وهــي تعنــي‬ ‫تصنيــع عامــة متاثــل يف مجموعهــا العامــة األصلية‬


‫‪ -1‬متنــح امللكيــة الفكريــة لصاحبهــا حق ـاً جامح ـاً‬ ‫مانعــاً يف االســتئثار‪ ،‬ومقتــى ذلــك أنــه يفــرض‬ ‫عــى الجميــع واجبـاً عامـاً بعــدم التعــرض لصاحب‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ .‬وبهــذه الصفــة يقــرتب حــق‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة مــن الحــق العينــي الــذي يرتتــب‬ ‫عليــه نفــس الواجــب‪ .‬ومــع ذلــك فاختــاف يتمثل‬ ‫يف أنهــا ال تعطــي لصاحبهــا حق االســتام بــل متنحه‬ ‫فقــط حقــي االســتغال والتــرصف‪ ،‬وذلــك العتبــار‬ ‫أن مــا توصــل إىل صاحــب امللكيــة الفكريــة مــن‬ ‫ابتــكار وإبــداع ليــس قــارصا ً عليــه‪ ،‬بــل يســتطيع‬ ‫أي شــخص إذا مــا عجــز املبتكــر عــن اســتعال‬ ‫ابتــكاره بالشـــكل الــذي يــؤدي إىل تعميــم الفائــدة‬ ‫مــن اكتشــافه‪ ،‬أن يقــوم باســتعال هــذا االبتــكار‬ ‫الجديــد تحقيــق املنشــود مــن وراء االبتــكار‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬تضــع امللكيــة الفكريــة عــى الــكل إلتزامــا‬ ‫يقــي بعــدم التعــرض للمبتكــر الــذي يكــون يف‬ ‫موقــع “الدائــن” فهــي بهــذا تشــبه الحق الشــخيص‬ ‫الــذي فــرض عــى املدينــن تجــاه الدائــن إلتزامــا‬ ‫بعــدم التعــرض‪.‬‬ ‫فالدائــن يف الحــق الشــخيص لــه أن يطلــب املديــن‬ ‫بالقيــام بعمــل أو االمتنــاع عــن عمــل‪ .‬فصاحــب‬ ‫االبتــكار يف امللكيــة الفكريــة يضــع عــى الجميــع‬ ‫إلتزامــا بعــدم القيــام بــأي عمــل من شــأنه املســاس‬ ‫باالبتــكار أو التعــرض لصاحبه أو منافســته منافســة‬ ‫غــر مرشوعــة‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -3‬تختلــف امللكيــة الفكريــة عــن الحــق العينــي‬ ‫الــذي يتمتــع بصفــة التأبيــد‪ ،‬فهــي مرتبطــة مبــدة‬ ‫معينــة‪ .‬فهــي بذلــك تقــرتب مــن الحــق الشــخيص‬ ‫الــذي يتفــق معهــا يف الصفــة املؤقتــة‪ .‬وإن صاحــب‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة إذا مل يســتطيع خال املــدة املعينة‬ ‫اســتعالها أو اســتغالها ضمــن هــذه إطــار “املــدة”‬ ‫فهــي تصبــح بعــد ذلــك مــاالً عاماً يســتطيع شــخص‬ ‫آخــر قــادر عــى تســخرها لانتفــاع العــام أن يقــوم‬ ‫بذلــك دون الحصــول عــى إذن خــاص مــن قبــل‬ ‫صاحبهــا‪ .‬وتقــرتب امللكيــة الفكريــة مــن الحــق‬ ‫العينــي مــن حيــث إمكانيــة التنــازل إذا أمكــن‬ ‫التنــازل عــن الــيء الــواردة عليــه هــذه امللكيــة‪،‬‬ ‫ويتــم ذلــك مبحــض اإلرادة املنفــردة لصاحبهــا‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬أمــا بالنســبة للحــق الشــخيص فــا يجــوز‬ ‫التنــازل عنــه أو التخــي عــن الــيء الــوارد عليــه‬ ‫هــذا الحــق إال باالتفــاق مــع املديــن أو عــى األقــل‬ ‫إعامــه بذلــك‪.‬‬

‫إن لــكل نــوع مــن هــذا اإلنتــاج الفكــري نظــام‬ ‫يحكمــه ويبــن ماهيتــه وبهــذا فامللكيــة الفكريــة‬ ‫يف عمومهــا تــأيت عــى كل يشء غــر مــادي‪ ،‬تخــول‬ ‫صاحبهــا احتــكار اســتغال ذلــك اإلنتــاج‪ .‬أن هــذه‬ ‫القيمــة هــي ســلطة مبــارشة متكنــه مــن االســتئثار‬ ‫واالنتفــاع املــايل لثمــرة عمــل أو جهــد صاحــب‬ ‫الحــق الذهنــي أو لنشــاطه دون إعــراض وذلــك‬ ‫خــال املــدة املحــددة قانونــا‪.‬‬

‫مــا هــي حاميــة حقــوق‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة؟‬

‫إذن فامللكيــة الفكريــة هــى نتــاج فكــر اإلنســان‬ ‫مــن ابداعات مثــل اإلخرتاعــات‪ ،‬النــاذج الصناعية‪،‬‬ ‫العامــات التجاريــة‪ ،‬األغــاىن والكتــب والرمــوز‬ ‫واألســاء‪ ،‬وال تختلــف حقــوق امللكيــة الفكريــة‬ ‫عــن حقــوق امللكيــة األخــرى‪ .‬فهــى متكــن مالــك‬ ‫الحــق مــن االســتفادة بشــتى الطــرق مــن عملــه‬ ‫الــذى كان مجــرد فكــرة ثــم تبلــور إىل أن أصبــح ىف‬ ‫صــورة منتــج‪ .‬ويحــق للالــك منــع االَخريــن مــن‬ ‫التعامــل ىف ملكــه دون الحصــول عــى إذن مســبق‬ ‫منــه‪ .‬كــا يحــق لــه مقاضاتهــم ىف حالــة التعــدى‬ ‫عــى حقوقــه واملطالبــة بوقــف التعــدى أو وقــف‬ ‫إســتمراره والتعويــض عــا أصابــه مــن رضر‪.‬‬

‫تســمح للمبــدع ومالــك العامــة التجاريــة وب ـراءة‬ ‫اإلخــرتاع وحــق املؤلــف باالســتفادة مــن عملــه‬ ‫وتعبــه واســتثاره‪ ،‬وهــذا ال يعنــي أنــه احتكــر‬ ‫الفكــر عــى األخريــن بــل العكــس‪ ،‬حيــث تــرد‬ ‫هــذه الحقــوق يف املــواد القانونيــة مــن اإلعــان‬ ‫العاملــي لحقــوق اإلنســان الــذي ينــص عــى حــق‬ ‫اإلســتفاده مــن حايــة املصالــح املعنويــة واملاديــة‬ ‫الناجمــة عــن نســبة النتــاج العمــي أو األديب أو‬ ‫الفنــي اىل مؤلفــه‪.‬‬

‫حق املؤلف‪:‬‬

‫هــو حــق مــن حقــوق امللكيــه الفكريــة يحمــي‬ ‫ـري مــن األعــال األدبيــة والفنية‬ ‫نتــاج العمــل الفكـ ّ‬ ‫ويشــمل ذلــك املص ّنفــات املبتكــرة يف األدب و‬ ‫واملوســيقي و الفنــون الجميلــة كالرســم و النحــت‪،‬‬ ‫باإلضافــة إىل أعــال التكنولوجيــا كالربمجيّــات‬ ‫وقواعــد البيانــات‪.‬‬ ‫حــق املؤلــف مصطلــح قانــوين يصــف حقــوق‬ ‫املبدعــن يف مصنفاتهــم األدبيــة والفنيــة‪ .‬وتشــمل‬ ‫املصنفــات املحميــة بحــق املؤلــف أنواعــا كثــرة‬ ‫انطاقــا مــن الكتــب واملوســيقى واللوحــات‬ ‫الزيتيــة واملنحوتــات واألفــام‪ ،‬ووصــوال إىل الربامــج‬ ‫الحاســوبية وقواعــد البيانــات واإلعانــات والخرائط‬ ‫والرســوم التقنيــة‪.‬‬



‫العينــي أو الشــخيص يقــع كل منهــا عــى يشء‬ ‫مــادي‪ ،‬أمــا الحــق فهــو دامئــا معنــوي‪ ،‬وال ميكــن أن‬ ‫يكــون ماديــا‪ .‬ويقصــد بهــذا أن الحــق غــر مــادي‪،‬‬ ‫أي أنــه ال يــدرك إال بالفكــر‪ ،‬فهــو ليــس لــه جســم‬ ‫محســوس‪ ،‬وأن أكــر األشــياء غــر املاديــة هــي‬ ‫إنتــاج الذهــن وتســمى الحقــوق التــي تــرد عليهــا‬ ‫بالحقــوق الذهنيــة‪ .‬فالحقــوق الذهنيــة هــي حــق‬ ‫املؤلــف أو مــا يطلــق عليــه اســم امللكيــة األدبيــة‬ ‫والفنيــة‪ ،‬والحقــوق املتعلقــة بالرســالة والتــي يطلــق‬ ‫عليهــا ملكيــة الرســائل‪ ،‬وحــق املخــرتع أو ما يســمى‬ ‫بامللكيــة الصناعيــة‪ ،‬وهنــاك حقــوق أخــرى تــرد‬ ‫عــى أشــياء غــر ماديــة‪ ،‬كـرباءات االخـرتاع والرســوم‬ ‫والنــاذج الصناعيــة والعامــات التجاريــة‪ ،‬والحقوق‬ ‫التــي يتكــون منهــا املحل التجــاري وقــد اصطلح عى‬ ‫تســميتها بامللكيــة التجاريــة والصناعيــة‪ .‬إن األفــكار‬ ‫ومنتجــات الذهــن كثــرة ومتعــددة تبعــا لتعــدد‬ ‫واختــاف أوجــه االبتــكار اإلنســاين‪ ،‬منهــا مــا يتعلــق‬ ‫بالجوانــب الصناعيــة كاالخرتاعــات‪ ،‬واالكتشــافات‬

‫والنــاذج والرســومات الصناعيــة‪ .‬ومنهــا مالــه طابــع‬ ‫تجــاري كالعامــات التجاريــة‪ ،‬واالســم التجــاري‬ ‫والســمعة التجاريــة واملحــل التجــاري‪.‬‬ ‫اختلفــت اآلراء يف تحديــد طبيعة الحقــوق الذهنية‬ ‫أو املعنويــة التــي تــرد عــى أشــياء غــر ماديــة‪،‬‬ ‫فكيفهــا بعضهــم ووضعهــا تحــت اســم “امللكيــة‬ ‫األدبيــة والفنيــة والصناعيــة”‪ ،‬وذلــك عــى اعتبــار‬ ‫أن حــق الشــخص عــى نتاجــه هــو حــق ملكيــة‪،‬‬ ‫كــا هــو الشــأن يف ملكيــة األشــياء املاديــة‪ ،‬إذا فهي‬ ‫ملكيــة حقيقيــة غــر أنهــا عــى أشــياء غــر ماديــة‪.‬‬ ‫تعتــرب طبيعــة امللكيــة الفكريــة طبيعــة مزدوجــة‪،‬‬ ‫أي أنهــا مــن جهــة تعطــي لصاحبهــا ســلطة مبارشة‬ ‫عــى الــيء الــواردة عليــه هــذه امللكيــة مــن‬ ‫اســتعال لهــذا الــيء‪ ،‬واســتغاله‪ ،‬والتــرصف فيــه‪.‬‬ ‫وهــو مــا يطلــق عليــه بالشــق املــادي‪ ،‬ومــن جهــة‬ ‫أخــرى فــإن املالــك يرتبــط شــخصياً مبــا أبدعــه‪،‬‬

‫ ‬

‫فيكــون عليــه حــق الحايــة مــن اعتــداء الغــر عى‬ ‫مــا أنتجــه كــا يتمتــع بــأن ينســب إليــه إنتاجــه‬ ‫الذهنــي باعتبــار مــا أنتــج امتــداد لشــخصية‪ ،‬وهذا‬ ‫الشــق يطلــق عليــه الجانــب املعنــوي‪ ،‬وبعبــارة‬ ‫أخــرى يتمتــع املالــك بنوعــن مــن املصالــح‪.‬‬ ‫مصلحــة معنويــة تكمــن يف حايــة إنتاجــه الفكري‬ ‫الــذي يعتــرب امتــداد لشــخصيته‪ ،‬ومصلحــة ماديــة‬ ‫تتمثــل يف احتــكار ملــا ينتــج عــن اســتغال نتــاج‬ ‫عقلــه وإبداعــه مالي ـاً‪.‬‬

‫الحــق العينــي والحــق‬ ‫ا لشــخيص ‪:‬‬ ‫إذا كان الحــق الــوارد عــى امللكيــة الفكريــة حقــا‬ ‫مــن نــوع خــاص ذو طبيعــة مزدوجــة فــإن وجــه‬ ‫التقــارب واالختــاف عــن الحــق العينــي والحــق‬ ‫الشــخيص ميكــن اختصــاره فيــا يــي‪:‬‬


‫مفهوم امللكية الفكرية ‪-‬‬ ‫الحقوق والحامية‬ ‫د‪ .‬ياسمني حسني‬ ‫غرفة التجارة العربية ‪ -‬الربيطانية‬


‫مــن هــي هيئــة التحكيم ىف‬ ‫املنازعــات التجارية الدولية؟‬

‫امللكيــة الفكريــة هــي حقــوق امتــاك جهــة مــا‬ ‫ألعــال الفكــر اإلبداعيــة أي االخرتاعــات واملصنفات‬ ‫األدبيــة والفنيــة والرمــوز واألســاء والصــور والناذج‬ ‫والرســوم الصناعيــة‪ ،‬التــي تقــوم بتأليفهــا أو إنتاجهــا‬ ‫أو تنتقــل إىل ملكيتهــا الحقاً‪ .‬وتشــر امللكية الفكرية‬ ‫إىل إبداعــات العقــل مــن االخرتاعــات واملصنفــات‬ ‫األدبيــة والفنيــة والتصاميــم والشــعارات واألســاء‬ ‫والصــور املســتخدمة يف التجــارة‪ .‬كــا وتنقســم‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة إىل فئتــن هــا امللكيــة الصناعيــة‬ ‫التــي تشــمل االخرتاعــات (الــرباءات) والعامــات‬ ‫التجاريــة والرســوم والنــاذج الصناعيــة وبيانــات‬ ‫املصــدر الجغرافيــة مــن جهــة وحــق املؤلــف‬ ‫الــذي يضــم املصنفــات األدبيــة والفنيــة كالروايــات‬ ‫والقصائــد واملرسحيــات واألفــام واأللحان املوســيقية‬ ‫والرســوم واللوحــات والصــور الشمســية والتاثيــل‬ ‫والتصميــات الهندســية مــن جهــة أخــرى‪ .‬وتتضمن‬ ‫الحقــوق املجــاورة لحــق املؤلف حقــوق فنــاين األداء‬ ‫املتعلقــة بأدائهــم وحقــوق منتجــي التســجيات‬ ‫الصوتيــة املرتبطــة بتســجياتهم وحقــوق هيئــات‬ ‫اإلذاعــة املتصلــة بربامــج الراديــو والتلفزيــون‪.‬‬

‫إن مفهــوم امللكيــة الفكريــة ليــس مفهومــاً‬ ‫جديــدا ً‪ ،‬ويعتقــد أن رشارة نظــام امللكيــة الفكريــة‬ ‫قــد أوقــدت ىف شــال إيطاليــا يف عــرص النهضــة‪.‬‬

‫ففــي عــام ‪ 1474‬صــدر قانــون يف البندقيــة ينظــم‬ ‫حايــة االخرتاعــات ونــص عــى منح حق إســتئثاري‬ ‫للمخــرتع‪ ،‬أمــا نظــام حق املؤلــف فرجــع إىل إخرتاع‬ ‫الحــروف املطبعيــة واملنفصلــة واالَلــة الطابعــة عى‬ ‫يــد يوهانــس غوتنــربغ حــواىل ‪ .1440‬وىف نهايــة‬ ‫القــرن التاســع عــرش رأت عــدة بلــدان رضورة وضع‬ ‫قوانــن تنظــم امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ .‬أمــا دوليـاً فقــد تم‬ ‫التوقيــع عــى معاهدتــن تعتـربان األســاس الــدويل‬ ‫لنظــام امللكيــة الفكريــة هــا‪ :‬إتفاقيــة باريــس‬ ‫لحايــة امللكيــة الصناعيــة عــام ‪ ،1883‬وإتفاقيــة‬ ‫بــرن عــام ‪ 1886‬لحايــة املصنفات األدبيــة والفنية‪.‬‬ ‫وامللكيــة الفكريــة محميــة قانونــا بحقــوق منها مثا‬ ‫ال ـرباءات وحــق املؤلــف والعامــات التجاريــة التــي‬ ‫متكّــن األشــخاص مــن كســب االعــرتاف أو فائــدة‬ ‫ماليــة عــى ابتكارهــم أو اخرتاعهــم‪ .‬ويرمــي نظــام‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة‪ ،‬مــن خــال إرســاء تــوازن ســليم‬ ‫بــن مصالــح املبتكريــن ومصالــح الجمهور العــام‪ ،‬إىل‬ ‫إتاحــة بيئــة تســاعد عــى ازدهــار اإلبــداع واالبتــكار‪.‬‬

‫ماهــي حقــوق امللكيــة‬ ‫الفكريــة؟‬ ‫بشــكل عــام‪ ،‬أن حقــوق امللكيــة الفكريــة هــي‬ ‫مجموعــة القواعــد القانونيــة التــي تهــدف إىل‬ ‫تنظيــم طائفتــن رئيســيتن مــن الحقــوق هــا‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬حقــوق املؤلفــن واملنتجــن والفنانــن أو مــا‬ ‫يطلــق عليــه مصطلــح “امللكيــة األدبيــة والفنيــة”؛‬ ‫‪ -2‬حقــوق امللكيــة الصناعيــة‪ ،‬وهــي مجموعــة‬ ‫مــن الحقــوق املعنويــة تــرد عــى أشــياء غــر‬ ‫ماديــة تخــول ألصحابهــا الحــق فيهــا‪ ،‬حق ـاً مانع ـاً‬ ‫يف اســتغالها أو اســتعالها‪ ،‬ويدخــل يف نطاقهــا‬ ‫كل مــا يــرد مــن ابتــكارات صناعيــة جديــدة‬ ‫كــرباءات االخــرتاع والرســوم والنــاذج الصناعيــة‬ ‫التــي تســتعمل لتمييــز منتجــات معينــة مــن تلــك‬ ‫املشــابهة أو املنافســة لهــا‪.‬‬ ‫إن األعــال الفكريــة ســواء أكانــت أدبيــة أم فنية أو‬ ‫موســيقية أو صناعيــة يف حاجــة إىل حايــة وطنيــة‬ ‫ودوليــة لفائــدة مؤلفهــا ال ســيا ان وســائل النســخ‬ ‫العرصيــة تعــرض املؤلفــن اىل ضيــاع مجهوداتهــم‬ ‫وفقــدان حقوقهــم وتثبيــط معنوياتهــم‪ .‬وتعتــرب‬ ‫امللكيــة الفكريــة ظاهــرة حديثــة مقارنــة باملواضيع‬ ‫االخــرى التــي عالجهــا القانــون منــذ ظهوره وبســط‬ ‫نفــوذه‪ .‬ان ظاهــرة األدب والفــن واإلكتشــافات‬ ‫واإلخرتاعــات ســواء مــن حيــث طبيعتهــا الذاتيــة أو‬ ‫مــن حيــث الوظائــف واألهــداف‪ ،‬فإنهــا كلهــا تعــد‬ ‫واحــدة مــن التجليــات األساســية للعقــل البــرشي‬ ‫منــذ فجــر التاريــخ‪.‬‬ ‫وتعــرب امللكيــة املعنويــة أو الفكريــة عــى أشــياء غر‬ ‫ماديــة‪ ،‬ذلــك أن الحقــوق كلهــا غــر ماديــة‪ ،‬فالحــق‬



‫ ‬

‫اإلجــايل ‪ 100‬مليــار دوالر وحقــق املغــرب معــدل‬ ‫منــو بلــغ نحــو ‪ %5‬عــام ‪.2013‬‬ ‫وتحــدث الســيد ريــاض الدريــدي‪ ،‬نائــب رئيــس‬ ‫البعثــة يف ســفارة تونــس يف اململكــة املتحــدة عــن‬ ‫العاقــات الطيبــة والتاريخيــة التــي تربــط اململكــة‬ ‫املتحــدة وتونــس‪ ،‬والتــي تعــززت العاقــة بعــد‬ ‫قيــام الثــورة‪ .‬وقــال الســيد الدريــدي بــان أهــم‬ ‫رســالة ميكــن أن تبعثهــا النــدوة‪ ،‬هــو أن تونــس‬ ‫مفتوحــة لفــرص التجــارة واالســتثار وهــي ترحــب‬ ‫باملســتثمرين والــرشكات األجنبيــة‪ ،‬وأن “عــى مــن‬ ‫يرغــب بهــذه الســوق الجذابــة أن يبــدأ مبرشوعــه‬ ‫اآلن وليــس االنتظــار حتــى اإلنتهــاء مــن الفــرتة‬ ‫االنتقاليــة يف تونــس”‪ .‬وذكــر بــأن الحكومــة يف‬ ‫تونــس تعمــل عــى وضــع أســس وترشيعــات‬ ‫حديثــة تنظــم عمــل الرشاكــة عــى أســاس متــن‪،‬‬ ‫وتقديــم املســاعدة املطلويــة ملارســة األعــال‬ ‫التجاريــة‪ .‬وأن تونــس مبوقعهــا الجغــرايف املتميــز‬ ‫لقربهــا مــن أوروبــا تعتــرب منصــة مثاليــة للتجــارة‬ ‫اإلقليميــة وكل أرجــاء املنطقة األورومتوســطية دون‬ ‫اســتثناء‪ .‬وذكــر بــأن هنــاك العديــد مــن الــرشكات‬ ‫الربيطانيــة كانــت والزالــت تعمــل يف تونــس وتنفذ‬ ‫مشــاريع ســابقة مســتمرة وأخــرى جديــدة‪ ،‬كــا أن‬ ‫أعــداد الــرشكات التــي تدخــل الســوق التونســية‬ ‫ألول مــرة بازديــاد‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــر الســيد الدريــدي بــأن تونــس قــد مــرت بفــرتة‬ ‫اســتثنائية يف اآلونــة األخــرة لكنهــا اآلن تتحــرك‬

‫السيد عبد السالم اإلدرييس‬

‫جانب من الحضور يف الندوة‬

‫نحــو األمــام ونحــو مزيــدا ً مــن االســتقرار والتطــور‪.‬‬ ‫وأكــد أنــه وعــى الرغــم مــن التحــول الســيايس‬ ‫واالضطرابــات التــي رافقته إال أن النشــاط االقتصادي‬ ‫للــرشكات واألعــال مل تتوقــف طــوال هــذا الوقــت‬ ‫أبــدا ً‪ .‬وقــال بــأن تونــس تحتضــن أكــر مــن ‪3000‬‬ ‫مــن الــرشكات األجنبيــة العاملــة بشــكل فاعــل يف‬ ‫الســوق التونســية‪ ،‬وأن الــرشكات األوروبيــة تكــون‬ ‫نســبة ‪ %75‬منهــا‪ ،‬وإن هــذه الــرشكات تعمــل‬ ‫وتنشــط يف مجــاالت عــدة مــن االقتصــاد‪ ،‬وإن الثقــة‬ ‫يف األعــال التجاريــة ال ت ـزال قويــة‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــر الســيد الدريــدي بــأن تونــس متتلــك العديــد‬ ‫مــن املقومــات والحوافــز التــي تجعلهــا مــن املواقع‬ ‫الجذابــة للمســتثمرين العــرب واألجانــب‪ ،‬مبــا يف‬ ‫ذلــك املزايــا الرضيبيــة‪ .‬وخــص بالذكر موقــع تونس‬ ‫الجغ ـرايف املتميــز حيــث تكــون حلقــة وصــل إىل‬ ‫أســواق منطقــة الــرشق األوســط والقــارة األفريقيــة‬ ‫عــى حــد ســواء‪ .‬وقــد ســنت تونــس مؤخـرا ً قانــون‬ ‫االســتثار الجديــد الــذي اعتمــد أن ينظــر إىل‬ ‫تونــس كمركــز تجــاري صاعــد يف املغــرب العــريب‪.‬‬ ‫وأن تونــس بحاجــة إىل رشاكــة مســتدامة ملواجهــة‬ ‫التحديــات وخلــق اقتصــاد تنمــوي مســتدام‪.‬‬ ‫وقــال ان العاقــات االقتصاديــة بــن تونــس واململكة‬ ‫املتحــدة يف تطــور إال أنهــا ال تـزال محــدودة نســبيا‪،‬‬ ‫وأنــه يوجــد مجــاالً كبـرا ً لتطويرها وتوســيعها‪ .‬وذكر‬ ‫أن الــرشكات الربيطانيــة كانــت وال تــزال يف وضــع‬ ‫جيــد للعــب دورا ً أكــر فعــاالً يف البــاد‪ ،‬وحثهــم عى‬ ‫التحــرك اآلن الغتنــام الفــرص التــي تتيحهــا تونــس‬ ‫الجديــدة‪ .‬وقــال الســيد الدريــدي أنــه يفتخــر لكــون‬ ‫تونــس متثــل بيئــة صديقــة وآمنــة لألعــال وتقــدم‬

‫إعفــاءات رضيبيــة‪ ،‬وتتمتع بســهولة التصدير وحرية‬ ‫االســتثار‪ .‬وأن الــرشكات الربيطانيــة العاملــة يف‬ ‫تونــس تنشــط يف قطاعــات النفــط والطاقــة والتأمن‬ ‫وصناعــة املنســوجات‪ .‬وذكــر الســيد الدريــدي بــأن‬ ‫تونــس تعــرض فرصــا اســتثارية جديــدة ومغريــة‬ ‫خاصــة يف مجــال االلكرتونيــات وتجميــع مكونــات‬ ‫الســيارات وصناعــة األغذيــة ويف مجــال الطاقــة‬ ‫املتجــددة وتكنولوجيــا املعلومــات واإلتصــاالت‪.‬‬ ‫وكان الســيد بليــح بــن ســلطان‪ ،‬املديــر يف وكالــة‬ ‫ترويــج االســتثار األجنبــي (‪ )FIPA‬املتحــدث األخر‬ ‫يف هــذه النــدوة‪ ،‬والــذي تحــدث بــأن الصناعــات‬ ‫الجديــدة الســيا التــي تاقــي رواج ـاً كب ـرا ً ينبغــي‬ ‫أن تجتــذب املزيــد مــن املســتثمرين األجانــب‬ ‫خاصــة مــن اململكــة املتحــدة إلقامتهــا وتأسيســها‬ ‫يف تونــس‪ .‬وقــال انــه يتطلــع أيضــا إىل رؤيــة املزيــد‬ ‫مــن املنتجــات التونســية عاليــة الجــودة عــى رفوف‬ ‫املتاجــر يف اململكــة املتحــدة‪ .‬وأعــرب عــن وجــود‬ ‫اهتامــا كبــرا يف الفــرص االســتثارية املحتملــة‬ ‫املتاحــة يف األســواق الناشــئة الســيا يف الســوق‬ ‫التونســية‪ .‬وحــثّ الــرشكات عــى االســتفادة الكاملــة‬ ‫مــن املشــورة والدعــم التــي تقدمهــا الهيئــات املهنية‬ ‫مثــل غرفــة التجــارة العربيــة الربيطانيــة وهيئــة‬ ‫التجــارة واالســتثار يف اململكــة املتحــدة‪ ،‬والتــي لهــا‬ ‫وجــود عــى أرض الواقــع يف األســواق املغاربيــة‪.‬‬ ‫اختتمــت النــدوة بفتــح بــاب النقــاش وتوجيــه‬ ‫األســئلة‪ ،‬تبعهــا حفــل عشــاء وفرصــة تواصــل بــن‬ ‫الحارضيــن‪.‬‬


‫السيد رياض الدريدي‪ ،‬نائب رئيس البعثة يف سفارة تونس يف اململكة املتحدة‬

‫ويف العــرض الــذي قدمــه الســيد عــادل شــيخي‬ ‫أكــد أن املوقــع الجغـرايف الــذي يحتلــه املغــرب كان‬ ‫عام ـاً مه ـاً يف توطيــد العاقــات االقتصاديــة مــع‬ ‫االتحــاد األورويب‪ .‬وذكــر بــأن هنــاك مثــة عامـاً آخرا ً‬ ‫يف صالــح املغــرب الســيا وهــو االســتقرار الســيايس‬ ‫الــذي ينعــم بــه املغــرب‪ ،‬األمــر الــذي جعــل منــه‬ ‫موقعــا اســتثنائيا يف منطقــة الرشق األوســط‪ .‬وأشــار‬ ‫بــأن املغــرب قــد متكــن مــن جــذب االســتثارات‬ ‫األجنبيــة الكبــرة‪ ،‬والتــي ازدادت وترتهــا بعــد أن‬ ‫هيــأت لهــا كل الظــروف واملنــاخ املناســب خــال‬ ‫الســنوات العــرش املاضيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــر الســيد شــيخي بــأن العوامــل التــي تســهم‬ ‫يف نجــاح االســتثار يف البنيــة التحتيــة يف املغــرب‬ ‫تشــمل أيضــاً ترقيــة وتحســن بنيــة ‪ 14‬مــن‬ ‫املطــارات الدوليــة يف املغــرب‪ ،‬وكذلــك تطويــر‬ ‫خطــوط الرتامــواي يف مدينيتــي الربــاط والــدار‬ ‫البيضــاء‪ ،‬وكذلــك إنشــاء شــبكة مــن الطــرق‬ ‫الرسيعــة والقطــارات عاليــة الرسعــة‪ ،‬وتطويــر‬ ‫املوانــئ املغربيــة عــى البحــر املتوســط الســيا‬ ‫مينــاء طنجــة‪ .‬وقــال إنــه كان شــيئاً ملفت ـاً للنظــر‬ ‫أن جميــع هــذه املشــاريع قــد تــم متويلهــا عــى‬ ‫الرغــم مــن عــدم امتــاك املغــرب للــروات النفطية‬ ‫أو عائداتهــا‪ .‬وذكــر بــأن املغــرب قــد صنــف ضمــن‬ ‫لوائــح عامليــة بأنــه بلــد يســعى أن يجعــل املنــاخ‬ ‫االســتثاري أســهل للمســتثمرين‪ ،‬ويهــدف إىل‬ ‫تطبيــق املعايــر العامليــة يف بنــاء مــا يقــرب إىل ‪22‬‬ ‫منطقــة صناعيــة متكاملــة‪.‬‬ ‫وقــال الســيد الشــيخي بــأن موقــع املغــرب‬ ‫الجغ ـرايف املميــز هــو أحــد العوامــل املهمــة التــي‬ ‫تجعــل املغــرب احــد البلــدان الجذابــة جــدا ً‬

‫السيد بليح بن سلطان‪ ،‬مدير وكالة ترويج االستثامر األجنبي ‪FIPA‬‬

‫لاســتثار والتجــارة والســياحة‪ .‬فمــن جهــة‪ ،‬يعتــرب‬ ‫املغــرب حلقــة وصــل بــن الوطــن العــريب وأوروبــا‬ ‫بينــا يربــط املغــرب أيضـاً قــارة أوروبــا مــع قــارة‬ ‫أفريقيــا‪ .‬أن هــذا املوقــع الجغ ـرايف الجــذاب يتيــح‬ ‫للمغــرب إمكانيــة خدمــة أكــر مــن مليار مســتهلك‬ ‫عــى الصعيــد اإلقليمــي‪.‬‬

‫أن هــذا وغــره مــن املمي ـزات مــن شــأنه أن جعــل‬ ‫املغــرب واحــدا ً مــن أحســن املوديــات االقتصاديــة‬ ‫يف املنطقــة‪ ،‬الداعمــة والجاذبــة لاســتثار والرشاكــة‬ ‫االقتصاديــة‪ .‬وأشــار الســيد ســعد بــن عبــد اللــه بأنه‬ ‫ال يخفــى عــى أحــد أن املغــرب قــد ارتبط بـرشاكات‬ ‫مــع صناعــات عامليــة معروفــة مبــا يف ذلــك‪-:‬‬

‫كــا تعــد االتفاقــات االقتصاديــة اإلسـرتاتيجية التــي‬ ‫تربــط املغــرب مــع التجمعــات اإلقليميــة والــدول‬ ‫املحوريــة يف العــامل أحــد العوامــل املهمــة التــي مــن‬ ‫شــأنها أن تعطــي املغــرب امتيــازات خاصــة كبلــد‬ ‫مفتــوح وجــاذب للتجــارة واالســتثار يف املنطقــة‬ ‫والعــامل‪ .‬ويرتبــط املغرب بأكر مــن ‪ 15‬اتفاقية رشاكة‬ ‫وتعــاون اقتصاديــة مبــا يف ذلــك مــع االتحــاد األورويب‬ ‫والواليــات املتحــدة وتركيــا ودول مجلــس التعــاون‬ ‫الخليجيــة‪ .‬وتضمن هــذه االتفاقــات والرشاكــة قدرة‬ ‫البضاعــة التــي تنتــج يف املغــرب ومبواصفــات تتاىش‬ ‫مــع املواصفــات العامليــة‪ ،‬وكذلــك مــن حيــث قدرتها‬ ‫التنافســية عــى الصعيــد العاملــي‪ .‬ويســعى املغــرب‬ ‫ألن يكــون الرشيــك اإلسـرتاتيجي الرئيــي يف شــال‬ ‫أفريقيــا مــع اململكــة املتحــدة‪.‬‬

‫رشكــة رينــو لصناعــة الســيارات – التــي متلــك أحــد‬ ‫أكــرب املجمعــات الصناعيــة يف املغــرب‪.‬‬

‫وذكــر الســيد الشــيخي أن أهــم نقــاط الجــذب‬ ‫التــي يتميــز بهــا املغــرب كقــوة اقتصاديــة جاذبــة‬ ‫لاســتثار األجنبــي والرشاكــة االقتصاديــة إىل جانــب‬ ‫االســتقرار الســيايس هــو‪ ،‬أن املغــرب يتميــز ببنيــة‬ ‫تحتيــة قويــة الســيا بعــد أن تركــزت الجهــود‬ ‫الرســمية والقطــاع الخــاص لبنــاء وتحســن مشــاريع‬ ‫البنيــة التحتيــة مبــا يضمــن مناخـاً يســهل االســتثار‬ ‫والتنقــل للقــوة العاملــة والبضائــع مــن وإىل املغــرب‬ ‫مــا اتــاح للمغــرب إمكانيــة خدمــة أكــر مــن‬ ‫مليــار مســتهلك عــى الصعيــد اإلقليمــي‪ .‬وقــال‪،‬‬

‫رشكــة بوينــغ لصناعــة الطائــرات – التــي متلــك‬ ‫مجمعــاً صناعيــاً يف املغــرب‪.‬‬ ‫رشكــة تاتــا الصناعيــة للســيارات – متلــك أحــد أحــد‬ ‫مصانعهــا يف املغــرب‪.‬‬ ‫املــرشوع األورويب العظيــم إلنتــاج الطاقــة البديلــة‬ ‫مــن الطاقــة الشمســية – يقــام عــى األرايض‬ ‫املغربيــة‪.‬‬ ‫حصــل املغــرب عــى أكــرب االســتثارات يف القطــاع‬ ‫الزراعــي‪.‬‬ ‫حصــل املغــرب عــى اســتثارات كبــرة لتطويــر‬ ‫شــبكات النقــل الربيــة والبحريــة‪.‬‬ ‫هــذه وغرهــا مــن االمتيــازات جعلــت مــن املغرب‬ ‫وجهــة اقتصاديــة مميــزة ال لكــون املغــرب البلــد‬ ‫األرخــص كلفــة‪ ،‬بــل باألحــرى أنــه البلــد األجــود‬ ‫مــن حيــث املواصفــات التنافســية مبــا يف ذلــك‬ ‫توفــر القــوة العاملــة املؤهلــة واملوقــع الجغ ـرايف‬ ‫واملناخــي والطبيعــة الخابــة التــي يتميــز بهــا‬ ‫املغــرب‪ .‬ويبلــغ عــدد ســكان املغــرب ‪ 33‬مليــون‬ ‫نســمة‪ ،‬وإن نحــو ‪ %64‬مــن الســكان تحــت‬ ‫ســن ‪ 34‬ســنة مــن العمــر‪ .‬ويبلــغ الناتــج املحــي‬



‫ ‬

‫صنــدوق الــروة الســيادية الــذي يتجــاوز ‪ 60‬مليــار‬ ‫دوالر مقارنــة ملــا لديهــا مــن نفــوس حيــث ال يتجاوز‬ ‫عــدد ســكان ليبيــا الـــ ‪ 6‬مايــن نســمة‪ ،‬إضافــة إىل‬ ‫االحتياطــي النفطــي الكبــر‪ ،‬والغــاز حيــث تــأيت ليبيا‬ ‫باملرتبــة الثالثــة يف القــارة األفريقيــة‪.‬‬

‫السيد ساميون وليامز‪ ،‬السكرتري األول التجاري يف السفارة الربيطانية يف مدينة طرابلس‬

‫أن توســيع دور القطــاع الخــاص يعتــرب واحــدة‬ ‫مــن التحديــات األساســية للحكومــة الجزائريــة‬ ‫وذلــك مــن خــال تشــجيع دور الــرشكات الصغــرة‬ ‫واملتوســطة يف قطــاع التجــارة والصناعــات‪ .‬وقــد‬ ‫بــدأت الحكومــة الجزائريــة بتطبيــق الخطــة‬ ‫االقتصاديــة الخمســية منــذ عــام ‪ ،2010‬حيــث‬ ‫رصــدت لهــا مبلــغ ‪ 286‬مليــار دوالر‪ ،‬تهــدف مــن‬ ‫خالهــا تحديــث البنيــة التحتيــة للبــاد ووعــددا ً‬ ‫مــن القطاعــات االقتصاديــة‪ .‬أمــا عــى املــدى‬ ‫الطويــل تتمثــل التحديــات االقتصاديــة للجزائــر يف‬ ‫تنويــع االقتصــاد خــارج قطــاع الهيدروكربونــات‪،‬‬ ‫وتخفيــف ســيطرة الدولــة عــى االقتصــاد‪ ،‬وتوفــر‬ ‫فــرص مشــجعة للمشــاريع الصغــرة واملتوســطة يف‬ ‫القطــاع الخــاص‪.‬‬ ‫وتوقعــت الليــدي ميتانــد أن تكــون مســاهات‬ ‫الــرشكات الربيطانيــة ناجحة يف هــذا الخصوص‪ ،‬وأن‬ ‫تكــون قــادرة عــى املشــاركة يف تنفيــذ هــذه الخطة‬ ‫االقتصاديــة الطموحــة ويف جميــع القطاعــات‬ ‫الســيا يف تطويــر القطــاع غــر النفطــي‪ ،‬وتحســن‬ ‫البنيــة التحتيــة مثــل الطــرق والســكك الحديديــة‬ ‫واملستشــفيات والفنــادق الدوليــة‪ ،‬وبنــاء املنــازل‬ ‫والطاقــة البديلــة إضافــة إىل قطــاع الســياحة أيضـاً‪،‬‬ ‫والــذي قــد عــاىن مــن االهــال الطويــل يف املــايض‪،‬‬ ‫إال أنــه اآلن قــد أصبــح مــن أولويــات خطــة التنمية‬ ‫االقتصاديــة املســتقبلية ملــا تتمتــع بــه الجزائــر مــن‬ ‫تنــوع طبيعــي ومنــاخ مائــم وجــذاب لحركــة‬ ‫الســياحة‪ .‬فالجزائــر متتلــك ســواحل شاســعة عــى‬ ‫البحــر األبيــض املتوســط إضافــة إىل الصحــاري‬ ‫الجميلــة واملواقــع التاريخيــة التــي مل تستكشــف‬ ‫لحــد اآلن‪.‬‬

‫وأضافــت بــأن الجزائــر تحتــاج إىل خـربات الــرشكات‬ ‫الربيطانيــة وبشــكل خــاص خــربات التكنولوجيــة‬ ‫الحديثــة يف مجــاالت الزراعــة والصناعــة‪ ،‬تحتــاج‬ ‫الجزائــر بشــكل خــاص برامــج تعليــم اللغــة‬ ‫اإلنجليزيــة والتدريــب عــى اســتخداماتها يف‬ ‫املجــاالت املختلفــة‪ .‬ويعتــرب تعليم اللغــة اإلنجليزية‬ ‫أحــد أهــم األولويــات يف الوقــت الحــارض‪ ،‬يف الوقــت‬ ‫الــذي تســعى الجزائــر فيــه للتكيّــف مــع متطلبــات‬ ‫العوملــة وتحســن مهــارات االتصــال بــن شــعبها‬ ‫والعــامل الخارجــي‪ .‬وقــد بــدأت الجزائــر تخطــو‬ ‫خطــوات هامــة يف مجــال تطويــر التعــاون والرشاكــة‬ ‫مــع بعــض الجامعــات يف اململكــة املتحــدة وذلــك‬ ‫مــن أجــل توفر املهــارات الازمــة للشــباب الجزائري‬ ‫ومتكينــه مــن اكتســاب أدوات التنافــس الناجــح عى‬ ‫الســاحة الوطنيــة والعامليــة‪.‬‬ ‫وبخصــوص الفــرص املتوفرة للمســتثمرين والرشكات‬ ‫الربيطانيــة‪ ،‬فــأن الجزائــر لديهــا العديــد مــن الفــرص‬ ‫االســتثارية مبــا يف ذلــك قطــاع الطاقــة ومشــاريع‬ ‫البنيــة التحتيــة‪ ،‬ويف مجــال الطاقة املتجــددة وكذلك‬ ‫مشــاريع الغــاز الطبيعــي املســال‪ ،‬ومشــاريع تحليــة‬ ‫امليــاه‪ ،‬ومشــاريع البرتوكياويــات إضافــة إىل باقــي‬ ‫القطاعــات القويــة الجذابــة للمســتثمرين والرشكاء‪.‬‬ ‫وبعــد ذلــك‪ ،‬تحــدث الســيد ســاميون وليامــز‪،‬‬ ‫الســكرتر األول التجــاري يف الســفارة الربيطانيــة يف‬ ‫مدينــة طرابلــس‪ /‬ليبيــا‪ ،‬وعـ ّـرب عــن ماهيــة املخاطــر‬ ‫واالمتيــازات التــي متنحهــا ليبيــا للمســتثمرين‬ ‫األجانــب‪ .‬وقــال أن عــى “املهتمــن يف الســوق‬ ‫الليبيــة القيــام بدراســة حالــة الســوق وإيجــاد رشكاء‬ ‫محليــن فيهــا”‪ .‬وذكــر بــأن ليبيا متتلــك ثــروات كبرة‬ ‫وأصــول ماليــة هائلــة تحــت ترصفهــا مبــا يف ذلــك‬

‫وذكــر الســيد وليامــز بــأن ليبيــا حاليــا متـ ّر مبرحلــة‬ ‫إنتقالية ويف انتظار اقرار دســتور للبــاد‪ ،‬إال أن الفرص‬ ‫االســتثارية موجــودة وال تــزال يف تزايــد الســيا‬ ‫يف القطاعــات االقتصاديــة الناشــئة والتكنولوجيــة‬ ‫الحديثــة‪ ،‬وقطــاع الخدمات الصحيــة والرعاية‪ ،‬والتي‬ ‫هــي يف حاجــة ماســة إىل التحســن والتطويــر‪ .‬ونصح‬ ‫الســيد وليامــز بــأن عــى األشــخاص الذيــن يرغبــون‬ ‫يف الســفر إىل ليبيــا أن يأخــذوا بالحســبان بــأن مدينة‬ ‫طرابلــس أكــر أمنــا مــن مدينــة بنغــازي‪ .‬وقــال أيضا‬ ‫أنــه قــد يســتغرق الحصــول عــى تأشــرة الدخــول‬ ‫لربيطانيــة مــن ‪ 3-4‬أســابيع‪.‬‬ ‫وســلط الســيد وليامــز الضــوء عــى األعــال‬ ‫التجاريــة املحتملــة التــي تعتــرب أكــر متاحــة يف‬ ‫ليبيــا اليــوم الســيا يف قطاعــات رئيســية مثــل‬ ‫الســكن والنفــط والغــاز واالتصــاالت والرياضــة‬ ‫والرتفيــه‪ ،‬والتدريــب عــى اللغــة اإلنجليزيــة وباقي‬ ‫أنــواع التدريــب والتعليــم واالستشــارات‪ .‬وقــال ان‬ ‫مفتــاح النجــاح يف الســوق الليبيــة هــو أن يــأيت‬ ‫املســتثمر لهــا ويبقــى فيهــا بشــكل دائــم‪.‬‬ ‫وتحــدث الســيد عــادل الشــيخي‪ ،‬مديــر ورئيــس‬ ‫قســم تطويــر األعــال يف وكالــة تطويــر االســتثار‬ ‫يف املغــرب (‪ ،)MIDA‬عــن الســوق يف املغــرب وعــن‬ ‫أهميــة حــدوث اندمــاج أكــرب يف منطقــة املغــرب‬ ‫العــريب والــذي مــن شــأنه أن يعــزز االقتصــاد‪ .‬وقــال‬ ‫انــه ميكــن للبلــدان املغــرب العــريب االســتفادة مــن‬ ‫أوجــه التكامــل فيــا بينهــا كســوق واحــدة‪ .‬وذكــر‬ ‫الســيد الشــيخي كيفيــة تطــور االقتصــاد املغــريب‬ ‫وعمليــة التحديــث التــي بــدأت وبنجــاح منــذ ‪1990‬‬ ‫عندمــا انتقلــت املغــرب مــن االعتاد عى األنشــطة‬ ‫التقليديــة مثــل الســياحة والزراعــة إىل االهتــام‬ ‫بقطــاع الصناعــة والصناعــة التجميعيــة‪ ،‬حيــث بــدأ‬ ‫االقتصــاد املغــريب بالتطــور والنضــج‪ ،‬ورافــق ذلــك‬ ‫اجـراء الحكومــة املغربيــة سلســلة مــن اإلصاحــات‬ ‫أدت إىل مزيــد مــن االنفتــاح والشــفافية والتي كانت‬ ‫حســنت وتحســن موقــع املغــرب يف خارطــة التجارة‬ ‫واالســتثار يف املنطقــة والعــامل‪ ،‬وتقويــة موقعــه يف‬ ‫خارطــة االســتثار عــى صعيــد العــامل‪.‬‬


‫السيدة كارولني أكرز‪ ،‬رئيس فريق أفريقيا يف هيئة التجارة واالستثامر يف اململكة املتحدة‬

‫لتســليط الضــوء عــى مــا ميكــن عملــه يف هــذه‬ ‫املنطقــة الحيويــة مــن أجــل خدمــة األعــال‬ ‫واملســتثمرين‪ .‬وقالــت بــان أهــم رســالة ميكــن‬ ‫أن تبعثهــا هــذه النــدوة‪ ،‬هــو أن هــذه املنطقــة‬ ‫مفتوحــة لفــرص التجــارة واالســتثار وهــي ترحــب‬ ‫باملســتثمرين والــرشكات األجنبيــة‪ ،‬وأن “عــى مــن‬ ‫يرغــب بهــذه الســوق الجذابــة أن يبــدأ مبرشوعــه‬ ‫اآلن وليــس االنتظــار حتــى اإلنتهــاء مــن الفــرتة‬ ‫االنتقاليــة التــي متــر بهــا بعــض دول املنطقــة”‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــرت بــأن الحكومــات يف هــذه املنطقــة تعمــل‬ ‫عــى وضــع أســس وترشيعــات حديثــة تنظــم عمل‬ ‫الـرشاكات االقتصاديــة عــى أســس متينــة‪ ،‬وتقديــم‬ ‫املســاعدة املطلوبــة ملارســة األعــال التجاريــة‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــرت الســيدة أكــرز‪ ،‬بــأن هيئــة التجــارة‬ ‫واالســتثار يف اململكــة املتحــدة (‪ )UKTI‬تبــذل‬ ‫جهــودا ً كبــرة ملســاعدة الــرشكات الربيطانيــة التــي‬ ‫ترغــب يف تشــكيل عاقــات تجاريــة متينــة مــع‬ ‫الــرشكاء يف منطقــة املغــرب العــريب‪ ،‬ومســاعدتهم‬ ‫عــى استكشــاف الكيفيــة التــي ميكــن للــرشكات‬ ‫املهتمــة املشــاركة يف عمليــة النهــوض والبنــاء‬ ‫االقتصــادي‪ ،‬الســيا توفــر املزيــد مــن فــرص‬ ‫العمــل للشــباب املتأهــل يف هــذه الــدول وتحســن‬ ‫مســتويات املعيشــة فيهــا‪.‬‬ ‫وتطرقــت الليــدي أولغــا ميتانــد‪ ،‬رئيــس مجلــس‬ ‫إدارة مجلــس األعــال الربيطــاين ‪ -‬الجزائــري‪،‬‬ ‫إىل أن العاقــات الربيطانيــة الجزائريــة هــي يف‬ ‫أفضــل أوضاعهــا يف الوقــت الحــايل‪ ،‬وأن الســوق‬ ‫الجزائريــة تزخــر بالفــرص واإلمكانــات الهائلــة‬ ‫ويف كل القطاعــات االقتصاديــة الســيا يف مجــال‬ ‫التعليــم والتدريــب‪ ،‬والتعديــن‪ ،‬ويف قطــاع الزراعــة‬

‫الليدي أولغا ميتالند‪ ،‬رئيس مجلس إدارة مجلس األعامل الربيطاين – الجزائري‬

‫والبنــاء والســياحة‪ ،‬وقطــاع النقــل‪ ،‬وقطــاع الطاقــة‬ ‫املتجــددة والطاقــة الكهربائيــة‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدثــت الليــدي ميتانــد عــن الســوق الجزائريــة‬ ‫والفــرص املتاحــة فيهــا‪ ،‬وقالــت أن الجزائــر تعتــرب‬ ‫واحــدة مــن أهــم األســواق يف العــامل العــريب الســيا‬ ‫مــن حيــث غناهــا بالــروات واألصــول الكبــرة‪،‬‬ ‫والخطــوات التــي تقــوم بهــا الجزائــر لتحديــث‬ ‫وتنويــع اقتصادهــا‪ ،‬والجهــود التــي تبذلهــا ملعالجــة‬ ‫املشــاكل االقتصاديــة وبنــاء البنيــة التحتيــة‪ ،‬إضافــة‬ ‫إىل االهميــة املتزايــدة للعاقــات االقتصاديــة بــن‬ ‫الجزائــر واململكــة املتحــدة‪ .‬وذكــرت الليــدي‬ ‫ميتانــد أن الجزائــر لديهــا اقتصــاد قــوي مــع‬ ‫احتياطيــات تتجــاوز حاليــاً ‪ 176‬مليــار دوالر‪ ،‬وأن‬ ‫ليــس عــى الجزائــر أيــة ديــون خارجيــة منــذ عــام‬ ‫‪ .2006‬كــا أن الجزائــر تتمتــع باســتقرار نســبي‬ ‫مقارنــة باملحيــط اإلقليمــي الــذي تعيــش بــه‪ .‬يذكر‬ ‫أن النفــط والغــاز يشــكل نســبة ‪ %60‬مــن الدخــل‬ ‫الوطنــي الجزائــري‪ .‬وتعتــرب الجزائــر أحــد أهــم‬ ‫املورديــن األساســين ألوروبــا بالطاقــة‪ .‬وأضافــت‬ ‫بــأن وفــرة الــروات الطبيعيــة واملــوارد املاليــة‬ ‫املســتحصلة مــن تصديرهــا مكنــت ومتكــن الجزائر‬ ‫مــن متويــل خططهــا االســتثارية ومشــاريعها‬ ‫مبــا يف ذلــك اســتثارات ضخمــة يف مشــاريع‬ ‫البنيــة التحتيــة ال ســيا يف مجــال تطويــر الطاقــة‬ ‫التقليديــة والطاقــة البديلــة‪ ،‬وكانــت األخــرة وجهة‬ ‫للعديــد مــن الــرشكات املطــورة واملســتثمرة يف‬ ‫الطاقــة الشمســية يف العــامل‪.‬‬ ‫وذكــرت الليــدي ميتانــد بــأن عــى الرغــم مــن أن‬ ‫القطــاع الحكومــي يهيمــن عــى االقتصــاد الجزائري‬ ‫فقــد اتخــذت الدولــة قــرارا ً بتحريــر االقتصــاد‬

‫وبشــكل تدريجــي منــذ بدايــة التســعينات مــن‬ ‫القــرن املــايض‪ ،‬مبــا يف ذلــك االنفتــاح أمام االســتثار‬ ‫الخــاص والــرشكات األجنبيــة‪ .‬وكثفــت الحكومــة‬ ‫الجزائريــة يف الســنوات األخــرة جهودهــا لتنويــع‬ ‫االقتصــاد مــن خــال جــذب االســتثارات املحليــة‬ ‫واألجنبيــة خــارج قطــاع الطاقــة‪ ،‬ومتكنــت تدريجيـاً‬ ‫مــن الح ـ ّد مــن الفقــر وارتفــاع معــدالت البطالــة‬ ‫بــن الشــباب‪.‬‬ ‫ويبلــغ عــدد ســكان الجزائــر نحــو ‪ 36‬مليــون‬ ‫نســمة يكونــون الشــباب األغلبيــة وأغلــب الشــباب‬ ‫الجزائريــن هــم مــن املتعلمــن‪ .‬كــا متتــاز‬ ‫الجزائــر مبوقعهــا املتميــز عــى مقربــة مــن القــارة‬ ‫األوروبيــة‪ ،‬وهــي مــن األمــور التــي تجعلهــا جذابــة‬ ‫للمســتثمرين والتجــارة األوروبيـةً‪ .‬والجزائــر تتمتع‬ ‫بســمعة طيبــة بســبب االســتقرار الســيايس مقارنــة‬ ‫بباقــي دول املنطقــة الســيا الــدول التــي شــهدت‬ ‫تغـرات سياســية هائلــة يف األونــة األخــرة‪ .‬وتتمثــل‬ ‫أكــرب التحديــات أمــام الجزائــر يف تحديــث وتنويــع‬ ‫اقتصادهــا وتقليــل اعتادهــا عــى صــادرات النفط‬ ‫والغــاز‪.‬‬ ‫وتتضمــن خطــة تنويــع وتحديــث االقتصــاد‬ ‫الجزائــري العديــد مــن الفــرص الجديــدة املتاحــة‬ ‫للمســتثمرين خصوصــاً يف مــا يتعلــق بتطويــر‬ ‫إمكانــات مناطــق البــاد يف مجــال الزراعــة وتنميــة‬ ‫الكفــاءات والخــربات خاصــة يف التكنولوجيــة‬ ‫الحديثــة‪ .‬وهــذه املجــاالت مفتوحــة للــرشكات‬ ‫الربيطانيــة يف جميــع املناطــق حيــث ميكنهــا أن‬ ‫تلعــب دورا ً رئيســياً يف تطويــر وتحديــث وتنويــع‬ ‫االقتصــاد الجزائــري‪.‬‬



‫ ‬

‫فرص االستثامر يف منطقة املغرب‬ ‫العريب (الجزائر‪ ،‬تونس‪ ،‬ليبيا واملغرب)‬ ‫‪OPPORTUNITIES IN THE MAGHREB‬‬

‫السيد عبد السالم اإلدرييس‪ ،‬مدير قسم الخدمات التجارية يف غرفة التجارة العربية الربيطانية‬

‫عقــدت غرفــة التجــارة العربيــة الربيطانيــة يف يــوم‬ ‫الخميــس املصــادف ‪ 20‬مــن شــهر شــباط (فربايــر)‬ ‫‪ 2014‬نــدوة لبحــث أحــدث التطــورات والفــرص‬ ‫االســتثارية الجديــدة يف الــدول املغاربيــة (الجزائــر‪،‬‬ ‫وتونــس‪ ،‬وليبيــا واملغــرب) بحضــور األمــن العــام‬ ‫والرئيــس التنفيــذي للغرفــة‪ ,‬الدكتــورة أفنــان‬ ‫الشُ ــعيبي‪ ،‬التــي ألقــت كلمــة افتتاحيــة رحبــت‬ ‫فيهــا بالشــخصيات الرســمية التــي حــرضت النــدوة‬ ‫وبالســيدات والســادة الحضــور‪ .‬وحرض النــدوة عددا ً‬ ‫كبـرا ً مــن املهتمــن بالتجــارة واالســتثار يف منطقــة‬ ‫املغــرب العــريب‪ ،‬وممثــي عــددا ً مــن الــرشكات‬ ‫الربيطانيــة ورجــال األعــال العــرب والربيطانيــن‪.‬‬

‫افتتــح النــدوة الســيد عبــد الســام اإلدريــي‪،‬‬ ‫مديــر قســم الخدمــات التجاريــة يف غرفــة التجــارة‬ ‫العربيــة الربيطانيــة‪ ،‬الــذي اســتهل حديثــه بأنــه‬ ‫يشــعر بالحــاس لهــذه املنطقــة مــن العــامل العــريب‬ ‫ألنــه هــو شــخصياً مــن أصــول مغربيــة‪ ،‬وقــال‬ ‫بــأن “املنطقــة املغاربيــة يجــب أن ينظــر لهــا‬ ‫ككتلــة جغرافيــة واحــدة وذلــك ألن هــذه الــدول‬ ‫تكمــل بعضهــا البعــض وهــي بالتــايل تكــون وحــدة‬ ‫واحــدة”‪ .‬وأضــاف بــأن هــذه الــدول تســعى لجذب‬ ‫االســتثار األجنبــي وتعزيــز عاقاتهــا التجاريــة مــع‬ ‫باقــي العــامل لــي تتمكــن مــن الســر بخطــوات‬ ‫واثقــة نحــو اســتدامة إنتعــاش اقتصاداتهــا الوطنيــة‬

‫وبنائهــا وازدهارهــا يف املســتقبل‪ .‬وشــدد عــى أن‬ ‫منطقــة املغاربيــة حريصــة عــى تعزيــز تعاونهــا‬ ‫مــع مجتمــع األعــال الربيطــاين‪ ،‬وأن الحكومــات‬ ‫يف كل مــن تونــس والجزائــر وليبيــا واملغــرب جــادة‬ ‫يف تنفيــذ عمليــة اإلصاحــات الرئيســية التــي ت ـ ّم‬ ‫تصميمهــا لغــرض تحســن منــاخ االســتثار وجعــل‬ ‫اإلج ـراءات أســهل ملارســة األعــال التجاريــة‪.‬‬ ‫وتحدثــت الســيدة كارولــن أكــرز‪ ،‬رئيــس فريــق‬ ‫أفريقيــا‪ ،‬يف هيئــة التجــارة واالســتثار يف اململكــة‬ ‫املتحــدة (‪ ،)UKTI‬وأعربت عن شــكرها الســتضافة‬ ‫الغرفــة لهــذه النــدوة ووصفتهــا بأنهــا فرصــة طيبــة‬


‫بورصة لندن‬

‫ويف يــوم ‪ 28‬كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪ ،2014‬أعلــن‬ ‫مكتــب اإلحصــاء الوطنــي الربيطــاين أن اقتصــاد‬ ‫البــاد شــهد منــوا ً يعــد األفضــل منــذ نحــو ســبعة‬ ‫أعــوام ‪ .‬وقــال املكتــب إن االقتصــاد الربيطــاين منــا‬ ‫مبعــدل ‪ %0.7‬يف الربــع األخــر مــن العــام املــايض‪،‬‬ ‫مــا يرفــع معــدل النمــو الســنوي إىل ‪ %1.9‬وهــو‬ ‫أفضــل أداء القتصــاد البــاد منــذ عــام ‪. 2007‬‬ ‫وأوضــح املكتــب أن هــذه األرقــام توضــح التقــدم‬ ‫االقتصــادي املفاجــئ الــذي حققتــه بريطانيــا يف‬ ‫مثــل هــذا الوقــت خــال العــام املــايض عندمــا‬ ‫واجهــت البــاد شــبح الدخــول يف دورة ركــود ثالثــة‪.‬‬ ‫وأشــار املكتــب إىل أن هــذا هــو أرسع معــدل منــو‬ ‫ســنوي لربيطانيــا منــذ مــا قبــل بدايــة األزمــة املالية‬ ‫العامليــة‪.‬‬ ‫ووفقـاً للخـرباء االقتصاديــن يف مؤسســة “جولدمان‬ ‫ســاكس” فــا ت ـزال هنــاك تســاؤالت حــول وتــرة‬ ‫النمــو املســتدام لاقتصــاد الربيطــاين خــال العــام‬ ‫‪ .2014‬وتــأيت إجابــة الخــرباء‪ ،‬عــى الرغــم مــن‬ ‫التفــاؤل العــام فــإن مــن املتوقــع أن “تكــون هنــاك‬ ‫وتــرة تعــايف اقتصــادي أكــر اعتــداالً مــن التوقعات‬ ‫والقــراءات التــي أطلــت علينــا يف نهايــات عــام‬ ‫‪ .”2013‬ويتوقــع الخ ـرباء أن يكــون هنــاك عاملــن‬ ‫أساســين مــن شــأنها دعــم التعــايف االقتصــادي‬ ‫للبــاد خــال عــام ‪.2014‬‬ ‫أولهــا‪ :‬اســتمرار انتعــاش القطاع املــرصيف الربيطاين‬ ‫(والتحســن امللحــوظ يف جــودة االئتان)؛‬ ‫والثــاين‪ :‬ارتفــاع معــدل الطلــب مــن الــرشكاء‬ ‫التجاريــن للمملكــة املتحــدة‪.‬‬ ‫ومــع ذلــك يتوقــع الخـرباء بعــض االعتــدال يف النمو‬

‫املطــرد القتصــاد البــاد‪ ،‬األمــر الــذي ال ميكــن أن‬ ‫نغــض الطــرف عــن تأثــره عــى قيمــة اإلس ـرتليني‬ ‫والــذي قــد يشــهد مزيــدا ً مــن االرتفــاع‪.‬‬ ‫وكان عضــو لجنــة السياســة النقدية يف بنــك إنجلرتا‪،‬‬ ‫بــن برودبنــت‪ ،‬قــد رصح يف بيــانٍ لــه يف كليــة لندن‬ ‫لاقتصــاد يف شــهر كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪ 2014‬بأنــه‬ ‫مــن املتوقــع أن يشــهد االقتصــاد الربيطــاين تعافيـاً‬ ‫أكــرب يف ‪ 2014‬يف ظــل ارتفــاع ملحــوظ يف االســتثار‬ ‫التجــاري فضـ ًـا عــن ارتفــاع إنفاق املســتهلكن‪.‬‬ ‫وأضــاف‪ ،‬أنــه “يف أعقــاب مــا شــهدته البــاد‬ ‫مــن ارتفــاع يف األســعار‪ ،‬فمــن املتوقــع أن تــزداد‬ ‫الرضائــب ويتحســن نشــاط اإلنتــاج وكذلــك دخــل‬ ‫الربيطانيــن خــال هــذا العــام‪ ،‬إذ هنــاك بــوادر‬ ‫تومــئ بذلــك”‪ .‬وقــد أشــار أعضــاء لجنــة السياســة‬ ‫النقديــة ببنــك إنجلــرتا إىل انخفــاض معــدل‬ ‫التضخــم عــن املســتوى املســتهدف عنــد ‪ %2‬وإىل‬ ‫منــو االقتصــاد الربيطــاين‪ .‬أمــا عــن معــدل البطالــة‬ ‫فقــد سـ ّجل ‪ %7.4‬يف الوقــت الراهــن ومــن املتوقــع‬ ‫أن يصــل للمســتوى املســتهدف عنــد ‪ %7‬بوتــرة‬ ‫أرسع مــن املتوقــع قــد تكــون يف النصــف األول‬ ‫مــن العــام الجــاري مــا قــد يدفــع باتجــاه مراجعة‬ ‫السياســة النقديــة‪ .‬وعلــق الســيد برودبنــت حــول‬ ‫ارتفــاع قيمــة الجنيــه اإلســرتليني قائـاً أنــه “يعكس‬ ‫ضعــف النمــو االقتصــادي يف االتحــاد األورويب”‪.‬‬ ‫ويف توقعــات بشــأن االقتصــاد الربيطــاين أصــدرت‬ ‫غرفــة التجــارة الربيطانيــة تقري ـرا يف شــهر كانــون‬ ‫األول (ديســمرب) ‪ 2013‬أشــار إىل أن أداء اقتصــاد‬ ‫اململكــة املتحــدة‪ ،‬ســرتفع يف نهايــة عــام ‪2014‬‬ ‫إىل مــا فــوق املســتويات التــي كان قــد بلغهــا قبــل‬ ‫األزمــة االقتصاديــة‪ .‬وأبــرزت الغرفــة أن اقتصــاد‬

‫بريطانيــا ســيتجاوز خــال الربــع الرابــع مــن ســنة‬ ‫‪ 2014‬املســتوى الــذي كان قــد حققــه خــال‬ ‫الربــع األول مــن ســنة ‪ ،2008‬أي قبيــل انــدالع‬ ‫األزمــة االقتصاديــة واملاليــة التــي عصفــت مبنطقــة‬ ‫(اليــورو)‪ .‬وتوقعــت غرفــة التجــارة الربيطانيــة أن‬ ‫يحقــق الناتــج املحــي اإلجــايل منــوا ً بنســبة ‪%2.7‬‬ ‫خــال عــام ‪ ،2014‬وهــو مــا ميثــل ارتفاعـاً ملموسـاً‬ ‫مقارنــة مــع توقعاتهــا الســابقة والتــي كانــت تشــر‬ ‫إىل حصــول منــو بنســبة ‪.%2.2‬‬ ‫واعتــرب التقريــر أنــه بالرغــم مــن التوقعــات القويــة‬ ‫بدخــول االقتصــاد الربيطــاين مرحلــة التعــايف التــام‬ ‫يف العــام ‪ 2014‬مــن تداعيــات األزمــة الســابقة‪،‬‬ ‫إال أنــه يجــب باملقابــل توخــي الحــذر عــى‬ ‫املــدى الطويــل ألن “املشــاكل مــا زالــت تلــوح يف‬ ‫األفــق”‪ .‬وأبــرز تقريــر غرفــة التجــارة الربيطانيــة‪،‬‬ ‫أن اســتمرار ضعــف مســتويات اســتهاك األرس‪،‬‬ ‫يجعــل الحاجــة ماســة إىل البحــث عــن مســارات‬ ‫لتحفيــز االســتثارات والصــادرات وضــان تــوازن‬ ‫امليـزان التجــاري‪ .‬واعتــرب التقريــر أن إتخــاذ قـرارات‬ ‫هامــة لتصحيــح االختــاالت البنيويــة عــى املــدى‬ ‫الطويــل‪ ،‬ومواصلــة سياســات االهتــام الكبــر‬ ‫للبنيــة التحتيــة ودعــم الصــادرات‪ ،‬تعــد الســبيل‬ ‫الوحيــد للتخلــص نهائيــا مــن شــبح األزمــة‪.‬‬ ‫أخذ بترصف من املصادر التالية‪-:‬‬ ‫•“توقعات النمو يف االقتصاد الربيطاين لعام ‪ - ”2014‬تقرير‬ ‫غرفة التجارة الربيطانية‬ ‫•موقع فوركس‬ ‫•‪BCC News‬‬ ‫•‪Arab – Euronews‬‬



‫إىل مســتويات مــا قبــل الركــود”‪ .‬وأضــاف أن ضعف‬ ‫اإلنتاجيــة هــو العامــل األســايس وراء تــدين األجــور‬ ‫باإلضافــة إىل ارتفــاع تكلفــة املعيشــة يف بريطانيــا‪.‬‬ ‫وركــز عــى دور الــرشكات والحكومــة ورضورة‬ ‫التعــاون بينهــم مــن أجــل تطويــر الطريقــة التــي‬ ‫تُــدار بهــا العالــة مــع التأكيــد عــى رضورة العمــل‬ ‫الــذيك ال العمــل الشــاق وقيمــة اإلبــداع واالبتكار يف‬ ‫العمــل‪ .‬كــا شــدد عــى أن هنــاك أزمــة ثقــة البــد‬ ‫مــن العمــل عــى تســويتها بالتــوازي مــع اســتغال‬ ‫أكــرب ملهــارات ومواهــب القــوى العاملــة‪.‬‬

‫قطاع العقارات‪:‬‬

‫وبشــأن قطــاع العقــارات يف اململكــة املتحــدة‪ ،‬أظهــر‬ ‫تقريــر للمجلــس الوطنــي لبنــاء املســاكن الــذي‬ ‫صــدر يف ‪ 31‬مــن شــهر كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪،2014‬‬ ‫أن بنــاء املســاكن الجديــدة يف بريطانيــا سـ ّجل العــام‬ ‫املــايض أعــى مســتوى لــه منــذ األزمــة املاليــة‪ ،‬لكنــه‬ ‫يبقــى غــر قــادر عــى تلبيــة زيــادة قويــة يف الطلب‪.‬‬ ‫وقــال التقريــر إن عــدد املســاكن الجديــدة التــي تــم‬ ‫تســجيلها يف اململكــة املتحــدة زاد بنســبة ‪ %28‬يف‬ ‫عــام ‪ 2013‬إىل ‪ ،133670‬وهــو أعــى رقــم منــذ عــام‬ ‫‪ .2007‬وســاعد تراجــع البطالــة وانخفــاض أســعار‬ ‫الفائــدة وبرامــج حكوميــة عــى تحفيــز انتعــاش‬ ‫قطــاع اإلســكان‪ .‬لكــن تباينــا بــن الطلــب عــى‬ ‫املســاكن وعــدد الوحــدات العقاريــة التــي تطــرح‬ ‫يف الســوق رفــع أســعار املســاكن بدرجــة أخرجــت‬ ‫بعــض النــاس مــن الســوق العقــاري عــى الرغــم من‬ ‫برامــج حكوميــة ملســاعدتهم عــى الوقــوف عــى‬ ‫ســلم اإلســكان‪ .‬وقــدرت مراجعــة ســاندتها الحكومة‬ ‫لســوق املســاكن أجريــت يف عــام ‪ 2004‬أن بريطانيــا‬ ‫تحتــاج إىل بنــاء ‪ 250‬ألــف مســكن ســنوياً‪ .‬وقــال‬ ‫املجلــس الوطنــي لبنــاء املســاكن إن معظــم مناطــق‬

‫ ‬

‫اململكة املتحدة شــهدت زيادة يف تســجيل املســاكن‬ ‫الجديــدة يف عــام ‪ ،2013‬لكــن لنــدن ســجلت أكــرب‬ ‫زيــادة‪ ،‬وهــو مــا يتفــق مــع دراســات أخــرى‪ .‬وقفــز‬ ‫عــدد املســاكن الجديــدة التــي جــرى تســجيلها يف‬ ‫العاصمــة الربيطانيــة العــام املــايض بنســبة ‪%60‬‬ ‫ليصــل إىل إىل ‪ ،26230‬مقارنــة مــع عــام ‪ 2012‬ليصــل‬ ‫إىل أعــى مســتوى لــه منــذ بــدء االحتفاظ بســجات‬ ‫إلكرتونيــة قبــل أكــر مــن ‪ 26‬عامـاً‪.‬‬ ‫وأظهــر مســح نــرش يف نهايــة شــهر كانــون الثــاين‬ ‫(ينايــر) عــام ‪ 2014‬أن أســعار املســاكن يف بريطانيــا‬ ‫ترتفــع بــأرسع وتــرة لهــا يف ‪ 7‬ســنوات‪ ،‬وهــو مــا قــد‬ ‫يزيــد املخــاوف مــن أن حوافــز اإلقـراض الحكوميــة‬ ‫تخلــق فقاعــة عقاريــة جديــدة‪ .‬وقفــز مؤرش أســعار‬ ‫املســاكن للمعهــد امللــي للمســاحن القانونيــن إىل‬ ‫‪ +36‬يف متــوز (يوليــو) مــن ‪ +21‬يف حزيـران (يونيــو)‬ ‫و‪ +5‬يف آيــار (مايــو)‪ .‬وهــي أعــى قــراءة للمــؤرش‬ ‫منــذ ترشيــن الثــاين عــام ‪ ،2006‬وواحــدة مــن أكــرب‬ ‫الزيــادات يف فــرتة مدتهــا ‪ 3‬ســنوات منــذ أن بــدأ‬ ‫إجـراء املســح يف عــام ‪ .1978‬وتتوافــق نتائــج املســح‬ ‫مــع معلومــات مــن بنــوك اإلقـراض العقــاري تشــر‬ ‫إىل عــودة الثقــة يف ســوق العقــارات‪ .‬وحســب‬ ‫تقريــر بنــك “هاليفاكــس” الــذي صــدر يف نهايــة‬ ‫شــهر كانــون الثــاين ‪ 2014‬فــإن تضخــم أســعار‬ ‫املســاكن قفــز إىل معــدل ‪ %4.6‬يف الربــع األخــر مــن‬ ‫عــام ‪ ،2013‬وتوقــع أن يواصــل االرتفــاع يف األشــهر‬ ‫املقبلــة‪ .‬ومــن جانبــه‪ ،‬رجح البنــك املركــزي الربيطاين‬ ‫يف نفــس الوقــت أن يبقــي أســعار الفائــدة عنــد‬ ‫مســتواها القيــايس املنخفــض لثــاث ســنوات أخــرى‬ ‫عــى األقــل‪ .‬وباإلضافــة إىل حوافــز حكوميــة لخفــض‬ ‫تكلفــة القــروض العقاريــة ومســاعدة األف ـراد عــى‬ ‫رشاء العقــارات‪ ،‬قــد يدعــم ذلــك قــوة الدفــع لصعود‬ ‫أســعار املســاكن لبعــض الوقــت‪.‬‬

‫رئيس الوزراء الربيطاين ديفيد كامريون ووزير املالية الربيطاين‪ ،‬جورج أزبورن‬

‫منظر للعاصمة الربيطانية لندن‬

‫اســتطالعات رأي بشأن النمو‬ ‫االقتصادي خالل ‪2014‬‬

‫أظهــر اســتطاع للــرأي‪ ،‬أجرتــه مؤسســة “إبســوس‬ ‫مــوري” ونرشتــه صحيفــة “هافينجتــون بوســت”‬ ‫يف بدايــة شــهر كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪ ،2014‬أن‬ ‫الربيطانيــن أكــر تفــاؤالً ومبعــدل ثــاث مــرات‬ ‫بشــأن انتعــاش اقتصــاد بادهــم خــال العــام‬ ‫الجديــد‪ ،‬باملقارنــة مــع مــا كانــوا عليــه يف العامــن‬ ‫املاضيــن‪ ،‬حيــث أظهــر االســتطاع ارتفــاع عــدد‬ ‫املتفائلــن مــن معــدل ‪ %9‬يف عــام ‪ 2012‬إىل ‪%29‬‬ ‫اآلن‪ ،‬فيــا انخفضــت نســبة املتشــامئن مــن ‪%74‬‬ ‫إىل ‪ %40‬خــال الفــرتة نفســها‪ .‬ووجــد االســتطاع‬ ‫أن نســبة ‪ %38‬مــن الربيطانيــن يريــدون أن تبقــى‬ ‫بادهــم يف االتحــاد األورويب وتســعى للحــ ّد مــن‬ ‫صاحياتــه بــدالً مــن ســحب عضويتهــا فيــه‪ .‬وأظهر‬ ‫االســتطاع أن نســبة ‪ %57‬هــم مــن ناخبــي حــزب‬ ‫املحافظــن الربيطــاين الحاكــم‪ ،‬ونســبة ‪ %43‬مــن‬ ‫ناخبــي رشيكــه يف الحكومــة االئتافيــة حــزب‬ ‫الدميقراطيــن األحــرار‪ ،‬ونســبة ‪ %41‬هــم مــن‬ ‫ناخبــي حــزب العــال املعــارض‪ ،‬قــد أيــدوا بقــاء‬ ‫بادهــم يف االتحــاد األورويب مقابــل الحــ ّد مــن‬ ‫صاحياتــه‪.‬‬ ‫وأشــار اإلســتطاع أن نســبة ‪ %29‬مــن ناخبــي‬ ‫حــزب املحافظــن‪ ،‬ونســبة ‪ %22‬مــن ناخبــي حــزب‬ ‫الدميقراطيــن األحــرار‪ ،‬ونســبة ‪ %19‬مــن ناخبــي‬ ‫حــزب العــال‪ ،‬قــد أيــدوا انســحاب بادهــم‬ ‫مــن االتحــاد األورويب‪ ،‬فيــا فضّ ــل ناخبــو حــزب‬ ‫االســتقال املعــارض املناهــض لاتحــاد األورويب‬ ‫االنســحاب منــه عــرب التفــاوض ومبعــدل ‪ %73‬مــن‬ ‫املؤيديــن مقابــل نســبة ‪ %19‬مــن املعارضــن‪.‬‬


‫فقــد تتدخــل الحكومــة الربيطانيــة مــن خــال‬ ‫الخطــط واإلســرتاتيجيات يف التحكــم مبعــدالت‬ ‫الفائــدة وتســهيل االقـراض وتشــجيع االســتثار من‬ ‫خــال السياســات املرصفيــة املتعلقــة بهــا‪.‬‬ ‫وتتطلــع الحكومــة الربيطانيــة إىل تقويــة القطاعات‬ ‫الرئيســية خاصــة قطــاع العقــارات ومــا يتعلــق‬ ‫بهــا مــن الرهــون‪ ،‬وتنظــر الحكومــة أيضــاً مــن‬ ‫خــال هــذه التســهيات التــي تــؤدي بدورهــا‬ ‫إىل تحســن وزيــادة يف االســتثار الــذي يــؤدي‬ ‫بــدوره إىل خلــق فــرص عمــل مــن شــأنها تخفيــض‬ ‫معــدل البطالــة الــذي يســاهم يف تحســن معــدل‬ ‫النمــو االقتصــادي‪ .‬ويف ظــل التخوفــات والحــذر‬ ‫مــن الرتاجــع يف النمــو االقتصــادي فقــد أطلــق‬ ‫بنــك إنجلـرتا خطــة مســتقبلية للســنوات القادمــة‬ ‫بهــدف تثبيــت معــدالت الفائــدة منخفضــة مقارنة‬ ‫بالتســجيات الســابقة وذلــك تشــجيعاً لاســتثار‪.‬‬ ‫ولكــن مــع أخــذ البنــك املــؤرشات األخــرى الحيويــة‬ ‫املؤثــرة عــى ســلوك االقتصــاد فقــد يتجــه إىل تغير‬ ‫إسـرتاتيجيته بالتوقعــات املمكنــة ملعــدالت الفائدة‪.‬‬

‫قطاع الصناعات الربيطاين‪:‬‬

‫أمــا بالنســبة لقطــاع الصناعــات يف بريطانيــا فقــد‬ ‫رصح مديــر اتحــاد الصناعــات الربيطــاين‪ ،‬الســيد‬ ‫جــون كريدالنــد‪ ،‬إنــه برغم التحســن الحــايل يف أداء‬

‫االقتصــاد الربيطــاين‪ ،‬فــا زالــت نســبة كبــرة مــن‬ ‫العالــة تتقــاىض الحــد األدىن مــن متوســط األجــور‪.‬‬ ‫وأكــد رضورة تحــرك الــرشكات نحــو رفــع األجــور‬ ‫وتوفــر فــرص عمــل أفضــل ملوظفيهــا‪ .‬وأضــاف أن‬ ‫“اســتمرار زيــادة اإلنتاجيــة يعنــي تحقيــق دخــل‬ ‫أكــرب‪ ،‬وميكننــا أن نتقاســمها”‪ ،‬يف إشــارة إىل رفــع‬ ‫متوســط أجــور العالــة‪ .‬وأشــار إىل أهميــة التأكــد‬ ‫مــن أن التعــايف الحــايل يف أداء االقتصــاد الربيطــاين‬ ‫مســتداماً قبــل الــرشوع يف زيــادة األجــور‪ .‬وقــال‬ ‫إن “مــن الجيــد أن نــرى رســائل تحمــل املزيــد‬ ‫مــن التفــاؤل‪ ،‬والرســالة هــي أنــه إذا كان النمــو‬ ‫االقتصــادي مســتمرا ً‪ ،‬ميكننــا أن ندفــع بالجميــع‬ ‫إىل االمــام”‪ .‬واعتــرب يف رســالته الســنوية مبناســبة‬ ‫العــام الجديــد أن ضعــف اإلنتاجيــة واالفتقــار‬ ‫إىل املهــارات يثــران “قــدرا ً مــن القلــق” بشــأن‬ ‫االقتصــاد الربيطــاين‪ ،‬وإنــه مــن املهــم أال يقــف‬ ‫االفتقــار للمهــارات حجــر عــرة يف طريــق التعــايف‬ ‫االقتصــادي‪ .‬وتابــع القــول بأنــه “ال يــزال هنــاك‬ ‫عــددا ً كب ـرا ً جــدا ً مــن النــاس عالقــن عنــد الحــد‬ ‫األدىن لألجــور دون وجــود بصيــص أمــل يف زيــادة‬ ‫أجورهــم‪ ،‬مــن غــر إيجــاد ســبل للتقــدم”‪ ،‬وهــو‬ ‫مــا اعتــربه كريدالنــد تحدي ـاً كب ـرا ً عــى الــرشكات‬ ‫والحكومــة مواجهتــه‪.‬‬ ‫ويف هــذا اإلطــار‪ ،‬حــث جــون كريدالنــد الــرشكات‬ ‫عــى لعــب دور أكــرب يف دعــم العالــة يف جميــع‬

‫أنحــاء البــاد “والدفــع بهم نحــو التطــور املهني مع‬ ‫توفــر فــرص عمــل للشــباب الذيــن يدخلون ســوق‬ ‫العمــل للمــرة األوىل”‪ .‬وقــال “هنــاك توقعــات‬ ‫بارتفــاع معــدل التوظيــف إىل مســتويات مذهلــة‬ ‫العــام املقبــل‪ .‬رغــم ذلــك‪ ،‬البــد مــن تحســن معدل‬ ‫اإلنتاجيــة الربيطانيــة وعودتهــا إىل مســتويات مــا‬ ‫قبــل الركــود”‪.‬‬ ‫ودعــا إىل وجــود نظــام مهني يشــبه مكتب تنســيق‬ ‫االلتحــاق بالجامعــات يف بريطانيــا مــن أجــل زيــادة‬ ‫الوعــي بشــأن ســبل أخــرى ميكــن إتباعهــا لإلرتقــاء‬ ‫باملهــارات املهنيــة‪ .‬وقــال كريدالنــد إنــه “إذا كان‬ ‫عــام ‪ 2013‬هــو العــام الــذي ضعفــت فيــه الثقــة‬ ‫يف الــرشكات يف مجموعــة مــن القضايــا مــن‬ ‫رضائــب الــرشكات وارتفــاع أســعار الطاقــة‪ ،‬فابــد‬ ‫أن يكــون عــام ‪ 2014‬هــو العــام الــذي يعمــل فيــه‬ ‫رواد األعــال عــى اســتعادة تلــك الثقــة وإعــادة‬ ‫بناءهــا”‪ .‬وجــاءت ترصيحــات كريدالنــد يف أعقــاب‬ ‫تحذي ـرات مــن معهــد دراســات العالــة والتنميــة‬ ‫مــن أنــه البــد مــن ارتفــاع معــدل اإلنتاجيــة‬ ‫يف ‪ 2014‬حتــى تحصــل العالــة عــى ارتفــاع‬ ‫مســتدام يف األجــور‪ .‬وقــال املحلــل االقتصــادي‬ ‫مبعهــد دراســات العالــة والتنميــة مــارك بيتســون‬ ‫إن “هنــاك توقعــات بارتفــاع معــدل التوظيــف إىل‬ ‫مســتويات مذهلــة العــام املقبــل‪ .‬رغــم ذلــك‪ ،‬البــد‬ ‫مــن تحســن معــدل اإلنتاجيــة الربيطانيــة وعودتهــا‬


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‫االقتصاد الربيطاين عام ‪ 2014‬يظهر‬ ‫تفاؤالً غري مسبوق منذ عام ‪2007‬‬ ‫د‪ .‬ياسمني حسني‬ ‫غرفة التجارة العربية ‪ -‬الربيطانية‬

‫‪BRITISH ECONOMY IN 2014 SHOWS‬‬ ‫‪UNPRECEDENTED OPTIMISM SINCE 2007‬‬ ‫عنــد بــدء العــام ‪ ،2014‬اســتهله رئيــس الــوزراء‬ ‫الربيطــاين‪ ،‬الســيد ديفيد كامــرون‪ ،‬بأن العــام ‪2014‬‬ ‫سيشــهد بــدء انتعــاش النمــو االقتصــادي ىف البــاد‬ ‫بعــد تعرضهــا لركــود اقتصــادي ناتــج عــن األزمــة‬ ‫املاليــة‪ .‬وذكركامــرون بــأن الحكومــة ســتطبق‬ ‫خطــة تشــتمل عــى ‪ 5‬أجــزاء لتحفيــز التعــايف‬ ‫والرتكيــز عــى تقليــص العجــز ورضائــب الدخــول‬ ‫مبــا يســهم ىف خلــق املزيــد مــن الوظائــف عــن‬ ‫طريــق دعــم املرشوعــات الصغــرة وتقليــص مزايــا‬ ‫الرفــاه االجتاعــي والهجــرة‪ ،‬كــا تعهــد الســيد‬ ‫كامــرون مبنــح التعليــم األولويــة التــى يســتحقها‪.‬‬ ‫وأضــاف بــأن التعــايف االقتصــادي ىف البــاد ال‬ ‫يتســم بالهشاشــة وأنــه ال تـزال توجــد العديــد مــن‬ ‫القــرارات الصعبــة التــى يتعــن اتخاذهــا الحقــاً‪.‬‬ ‫وقــد اســتطاعت بريطانيــا العــودة لتحقيــق منــو‬ ‫اقتصــادي ىف الربــع األول مــن عــام ‪ 2013‬بعــد‬ ‫انكــاش اســتمر خــال عــام ‪ .2012‬وارتفــع النمــو‬ ‫االقتصــادي ىف بريطانيــا بنســبة ‪ %0.8‬ىف الربــع‬ ‫الثالــث مــن عــام ‪ .2013‬إال أنــه وبشــكل عــام‬ ‫فــإن العــام ‪ 2013‬مل يكــن عامــاً جيــدا ً بالنســبة‬ ‫لاقتصــاد العاملــي‪ ،‬فقــد سـ ّجلت تراجعــات يف النمو‬ ‫االقتصــادي العاملــي‪ .‬أمــا بالنســبة للمملكــة املتحدة‬ ‫فعــى عكــس الــدول األخــرى قــد شــهد االقتصــاد‬ ‫الربيطــاين تحســناً بــدا واضحــاً يف األشــهر األخــرة‬ ‫مــن عــام ‪ 2013‬وذلــك عــى الرغــم مــن تســجيل‬

‫االقتصــاد الربيطــاين بدايــة ضعيفــة يف النصــف األول‬ ‫مــن العــام‪ .‬وسـ ّجل ســعر رصف الجنيــه اإلسـرتليني‬ ‫مقابــل الــدوالر أعى نســبة تــداول مقارنــة بالعمات‬ ‫األخــرى خــال األشــهر األخــرة مــن عــام ‪،2013‬‬ ‫أمــا عــى صعيــد القطاعــات األخــرى مــن مجــاالت‬ ‫الخدمــات والصناعــة فقــد شــهدت اململكــة املتحدة‬ ‫منــوا ً واضحـاً مل تشــهده منــذ ســنوات‪ ،‬وســجل مؤرش‬ ‫‪ FTSE‬الحيــوي يف عــام ‪ 2013‬أعــى مســتوى لــه منذ‬ ‫أكــر مــن عــرش ســنوات‪.‬‬ ‫وتوافــق ذلــك مــع معــدالت النمــو التــي أعلنتهــا‬ ‫البيانــات األوليــة التــي أصدرهــا مكتــب اإلحصاءات‬ ‫الوطنــي يف ‪ 28‬مــن شــهر كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر)‬ ‫‪ ،2014‬والتــي أشــارت إىل تحقيــق معــدل منــو‬ ‫بنســبة ‪ .%0.8‬وكان االقتصــاد الربيطانيــة قــد منــا‬ ‫خــال عــام ‪ 2013‬بأكملــه بنســبة ‪ ،%1.9‬وهــي‬ ‫الوتــرة األرسع منــذ عــام ‪ ،2007‬وســط توقعــات‬ ‫بتســارع ذلــك املعــدل إىل ‪ %2.4‬خــال عــام ‪،2014‬‬ ‫كــا يــرى صنــدوق النقــد الــدويل‪.‬‬ ‫وكان اتحــاد الصناعــة الربيطــاين قــد كشــف بــإن‬ ‫الناتــج االقتصــادي للمملكــة املتحــدة منــا يف شــهر‬ ‫كانــون الثــاين (ينايــر) ‪ 2014‬بــأرسع وتــرة منــذ‬ ‫ســبتمرب عــام ‪ ،2007‬مــا يشــر إىل اســتمرار قــوة‬ ‫االنتعــاش يف العــام الجديــد‪ .‬كــا أعلــن االتحــاد‬ ‫بــأن بريطانيــا قــد شــهدت العام املــايض واحــدا ً من‬

‫أرسع معــدالت النمــو بــن االقتصــادات املتقدمــة‬ ‫ومبعــدل ‪ %0.7‬عــى أســاس فصــي يف األشــهر‬ ‫الثاثــة األخــرة من عــام ‪ 2013‬مقارنة مــع ‪ %0.8‬يف‬ ‫الربــع الثالــث‪ .‬لكــن النمــو عــى أســاس ســنوي من‬ ‫املتوقــع أن يبلــغ ‪ %2.8‬يف الربــع الرابــع ارتفاعــاً‬ ‫مــن معــدل ‪ %1.9‬يف الربــع الثالــث‪.‬‬ ‫واســتمر منــو االقتصــاد الربيطــاين مــع بدايــة الســنة‬ ‫الجديــدة (‪ )2014‬حيــث دخــل الجنيــه اإلسـرتليني‬ ‫فيهــا بقــوة وهــذا مــا دعــم التوقعــات مــن قبــل‬ ‫املحللــن واملســتثمرين‪ ،‬فقــد ارتفعــت نســبة‬ ‫االحتــاالت بتحســن الجنيــه اإلســرتليني وتحســن‬ ‫االقتصــاد الربيطــاين بزيــادة النشــاط االقتصــادي‬ ‫يف ظــل التحفيــزات االقتصاديــة واملاليــة وتوجــه‬ ‫بنــك إنجلـرتا لدعــم الجنيــه مــن خــال السياســات‬ ‫النقديــة‪ .‬ويتطلــع الربيطانيــون بتفــاؤل أكــرب‬ ‫للعــام الجديــد (‪ )2014‬حيــث يــرى املحللــون أن‬ ‫اململكــة املتحــدة ستشــهد انتعاش ـاً واضح ـاً لهــذا‬ ‫العــام ورمبــا امتــدادا ً لنمــو ألعــوام أخــرى فيــا‬ ‫بعــد‪ .‬كــا ويــرى املحللــون تذبذبــات واضحــة‬ ‫يف حركــة الجنيــه اإلســرتليني مقابــل العمــات‬ ‫األخــرى كاليــورو والــن عــى عكــس حركتــه مــع‬ ‫الــدوالر األمريــي‪ .‬فاإلضافــة إىل السياســات النقدية‬ ‫الربيطانيــة التــي تؤثــر عــى حركــة الجنيــه فقــد‬ ‫تؤثــر سياســات البنــك املركــزي األورويب عليــه‬ ‫والعمــات األخــرى مــا قــد يدعمــه أو يضعفــه‪،‬‬

‫العدد األول‪ ،‬املجلد ‪ ،9‬ربيع ‪2014‬‬






‫غرفة التجارة العربية الربيطانية‬ ‫‪Arab-British‬‬ ‫ ‬ ‫‪Chamber of Commerce‬‬ ‫‪43 Upper Grosvenor Street‬‬ ‫‪London W1K 2NJ‬‬ ‫‪Tel: +44 (0) 20 7235 4363‬‬ ‫‪Fax: +44 (0) 20 7245 6688‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫“أضواء عىل قضايا العالقات العربية‪-‬الربيطانية”‬ ‫مجلة اقتصادية من إصدارات غرفة التجارة‬ ‫العربية الربيطانية يف لندن‬

‫محتويات العدد‬ ‫تقارير خاصة‬

‫أخبار ونشاطات الغرفة‬

‫ سوق فلسطني لألوراق املالية – منوذجاً عىل‬‫املرونة ‬ ‫ مقابلة مع أحد أعضاء الغرفة – البنك التجاري‬‫‪8‬‬ ‫العريب الربيطاين ‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫ الكنوز الخفية لسلطنة ُعامن ‬‫ عقود اإليجار يف اإلمارات العربية املتحدة ‪24‬‬‫‪30‬‬ ‫ التحكيم الدويل ‬‫ مقابلة مع أحد أعضاء الغرفة ‬‫رشكة القانون املختصصة باإلقامة يف اململكة‬ ‫‪36‬‬ ‫املتحدة ‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫ أحدث تقنيات تكنولوجيا املعلومات ‬‫‪44‬‬ ‫ االبتكار واالقتصاد العاملي ‬‫ ميزانية اململكة املتحدة ‬‫رضائب العقارات عىل املالكني غري املقيمني يف‬ ‫‪48‬‬ ‫اململكة املتحدة ‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪ -‬املسح االقتصادي الفصيل ‬

‫ نشاطات الغرفة ‬‫‪ -‬أعضاء جدد ‬


‫‪58‬‬ ‫‪68‬‬

‫التقرير االقتصادي العريب‬ ‫ االقتصاد الربيطاين عام ‪ 2014‬يظهر تفاءالً غري‬‫‪97‬‬ ‫مسبوق منذ عام ‪ 2007‬‬ ‫ فرص االستثامر يف منطقة املغرب العريب (الجزائر‪،‬‬‫‪93‬‬ ‫تونس‪ ،‬ليبيا واملغرب) ‬ ‫ مفهوم امللكية الفكرية ‪ -‬الحقوق والحامية ‪88‬‬‫‪81‬‬ ‫ التحكيم ىف املنازعات التجارية الدولية ‬‫ منتدى دافوس االقتصادي وتحديات املنطقة‬‫‪76‬‬ ‫العربية ‬

‫حقوق النرش‬ ‫تحتفظ غرفة التجارة العربية – الربيطانية بحقوق‬ ‫النرش للمعلومات التي تحتويها هذه املجلة‪ ،‬وال‬ ‫يحق ألي جهة أخرى إعادة أنتاجها أو إعادة‬ ‫صياغتها أو إعادة توزيعها الكيل أو الجزيئ بدون‬ ‫موافقة مبارشة من غرفة التجارة العربية‬ ‫الربيطانية‬ ‫فريق املحررين‬ ‫عبد السالم اإلدرييس‪ ،‬كليف لورانس‪ ،‬ديفيد‬ ‫موركان‪ ،‬د‪ .‬ياسمني حسني‬

‫‪Production & Design‬‬ ‫‪Distinctive Publishing‬‬ ‫‪Unit 6b, Floor B, Milburn House‬‬ ‫‪Dean Street, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 1LE‬‬ ‫‪Tel: 0845 884 2385‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫‪Advertising‬‬ ‫‪Distinctive Publishing‬‬ ‫‪Tel: 0845 884 2343‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

From Saudi Arabia Dr. Ahmed Shamiyah

Implant Dentistry | Laser Dentistry Clinic | Orthodontics | Cosmetic Dentistry Root Canal Treatment | Dentistry for Children | Sport Dentistry | Oral Hygiene

Tel Fax Mob Email

+ 966 11 4197740 + 966 11 4197710 + 966 540509111 Noble Smile Dental Care


Jefferies Bache


Experience is our greatest asset. Jefferies Bache is an industry leader specializing in exchange-traded futures & options, commodities and over-the-counter products including metals and foreign exchange.


A client-first approach. We deliver expert execution, clearing and customizable technology solutions to CTAs, hedge funds, institutional investors, producers and commodity processors globally.

Our parent company. Headquartered in New York with offices in more than 30 cities around the world, Jefferies provides clients with clearing and execution in commodities, equity, equity-linked and fixed income securities. Jefferies is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Leucadia National Corporation (NYSE: LUK), a diversified holding company.


CONTACT Ashraf Meleka Senior Vice President Jefferies Bache Limited Vintners Place 68 Upper Thames Street London EC4V 3BJ +44 (0)20 7548 4033

Investment Banking | Equities | Fixed Income | Commodities | Wealth Management Š 2014 Jefferies LLC. Jefferies Bache, LLC, Jefferies Bache Limited, Jefferies Bache Financial Services, Inc., and Jefferies Hong Kong Limited are affiliates of Jefferies LLC. Jefferies Bache Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority in the United Kingdom. Jefferies Hong Kong Limited is licensed by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong with CE Number ATS546. In Shanghai, Jefferies maintains a representative office of Jefferies LLC. In Atlanta and Los Angeles, Jefferies maintains Futures branch offices of Jefferies LLC. In the DIFC, Jefferies operates as Jefferies International Limited, Dubai Branch, licensed by the Dubai Financial Services Authority. Jefferies Singapore Limited is registered in Singapore No. 200605049K and licensed by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.

Economic Focus 6  

The Magazine of the Arab-British Chamber of Commerce

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