Guide to Universal Design - A checklist to promote inclusion into the built environment

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Guide to Universal Design

eA checklist to promote inclusion into the built environment

This is a Web Accessible document (WCAG compliant)
Page 2 Guide to Universal Design c d b Dissing + Weitling eContents 3 Guide to Universal Design 4 Definition of Universal Design 5 Universal Design versus accessibility 6 Equation for Universal Design 8 Focus on the user 9 Checklist exercise 9 Implementation plan 9 UN Sustainable Development Goals 10 What is X? 11 X1 = User involvement 13 X2 = Social context 15 X3 = Physical context 16 X4 = Client involvement 18 X5 = Senses 19 X6 = Safety 21 X7 = Comfort 22 X8 = Building code/regulations 24 X9 = Experience 25 X10 = Value and respect 26 Postscript

aGuide to Universal Design

“Guide to Universal Design - a checklist to promote inclusion into the built environment” is a tool for architects, construction engineers and designers who want to incorporate Universal Design solutions in their work.

This guide was prepared by Dissing+Weitling on the basis of internal needs, practical experience and theoretical knowledge about Universal Design. It is now being shared with the sector in order to boost the use of Universal Design by the feld and to promote awareness of equal user participation and social sustainability.

The guide was prepared as an easy-to-use tool that can open up for several user perspectives. The guide can serve as both a checklist and an aidememoire.

It provides a systematic approach to considerations about user behaviour and surroundings - not least in the crucial frst phases of a design process, when many important decisions are taken. At best, the guide will help trigger new universal ideas that can ensure access and positive experiences for as many users as possible.

As the word implies, the guide is only indicative a guide - and as an architect and designer, you will probably already know about many of the issues and perspectives from your daily work.

Therefore, think of the guide as a method by which you can challenge the “common sense” you already apply. We hope that you can expand the routine considerations you make in every project to include Universal Design.

We want as many in the sector as possible to reach the next level in understanding users by applying the guide so that, together, we can create solutions that no longer only aim at specifc users right now, but ideally at all user types and needs throughout life. The guide will stimulate holistic thinking in relation to project work, and in a wider perspective in efforts to forge a society and a community in which everyone can participate on equal terms.

Diversity in user needs demand diversity in solutions - the built environment we create across the sector must include the pledge: Leave no one behind!

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e Definition of Universal Design

In contemporary theory, Universal Design can be perceived as a design ideology, a strategy and a concept, but no matter how we understand it, it is a desire to make room for everyone. Universal Design takes account of human diversity and considers all target groups (not only specifc groups) and their participation in, and experience of, society.

Universal Design is thus a set of social values and an inclusive method of design that addresses different user needs throughout life. For the designer, this means that work takes its outset in an idea of creating solutions that can embrace as many as possible, and thereby beneft as many as possible. Respect and equality are also important perspectives for Universal Design.

The frst practice-oriented manifesto on Universal Later, in 2012, came the eight Universal Design Design was drawn up in 1997. It was entitled The Goals to supplement the seven principles with seven principles of Universal Design and the team a broader understanding of cultural and social behind it was a group of researchers and architects aspects as well as wellbeing and health. The goals from North Carolina State University. were drawn up by Steinfeld and Maisel – architect

»Universal design means the design of products, environments, programmes and services to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. Universal design shall not exclude assistive devices for particular groups of persons with disabilities where this is needed.«

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), Article 2, United Nations. and landscape architect - who are both researchers at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York. Their defnition of Universal Design is: (…) “a design process that enables and empowers a diverse population by improving the human performance, health The 8 Universal Design Goals and wellness, and social participation.”

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2 Comfort 3 AwarenessBody ft Understanding 4
5 6 Social integration 7 Wellness Personalization Cultural appropriateness 8 Side 4 1
©Steinfeld and Maisel, 2012

e Universal Design versus accessibility

Universal Design is usually perceived as an extension of accessibility, and although the two concepts concern user comfort and mobility, their approaches to social equality are different. Accessibility describes access for users with disabilities, and it is often equated with handicap-friendly solutions.

Universal Design does not divide users into disabled and non-disabled groups, but instead it looks at the physical and psychological needs of all users. Disabled is not what you are, it is what you become if there are physical barriers in buildings.

In practice, this means that accessibility touches on the technical and legal minimum requirements defned in Building Regulation BR18. In contrast to Universal Design, the related accessibility concept is about physical obstacles. Within architecture, outdoor spaces and similar, we specialists comply with the building regulations and achieve legal accessibility. Things are different with Universal Design. In principle, the Universal Design concept has no boundaries and no predefned concrete solutions. It challenges our understandings of our surroundings and reaches beyond requirements and certifcations. It is a movement that questions the accepted design practices that, often inadvertently, design and build for the average person, or fgure, and thereby potentially exclude a large group of users.

Universal Design


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Universal Design_accessibility model ©Camilla Ryhl, Bevica Fonden

e Equation for Universal Design

We will introduce the Universal Design equation as a method you can apply to consider anything from technology and design, to inclusion, to

sense stimulation. Think of Universal Design as a “good idea” and accessibility as a “must”. In other words: Think of Universal Design as the best design result, and accessibility as the necessary design approach:

Accessibility + X = UD

Now the key is to defne X and ask what X could be. How big is X? How many X's there are? Etc.

Accessibility + (X1 + X2 + X3.... + X10) = UD

The weight of the various X’s will vary from project to project – sometimes X = topography and this will have a high weight; at other times, X will perhaps be safety and comfort.


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X1 X2 X4 x X7 X6 X3 X5 Accessibility

“The Modulor Man is a healthy white male enhanced by mathematical proportional gimmicks ‘of nature’, such as golden ratio and Fibonacci series. He represents the normative and normalised body around which Le Corbusier conceived his designs. As a result, most modern architectural forms are all tellingly calibrated on a similar standard, the healthy white male body.“ ’Human, All Too Human’: A Critique on the Modulor. Federica Buzzi, 2017.

Design c d b Page 7
Modulor by Thomas Carpentier © Thomas Carpentier
to Universal

The persona Spectrum. Inclusive design toolkit. © Microsoft

e The user in focus

The guide introduces the Universal Design equation, where X is the unknown, the extra required to achieve an inclusive solution. This applies to considerations about anything from the physical and social context to the understanding of safety and respect.

All the X’s can be adjusted so they have more or less impact on the design of a building, a bridge, or a (urban) space, in order to make it as accessible as possible, for as many people as possible.

X1, user involvement, always has frst priority for the architect and designer, as in ordinary design thinking and practice, because from experience we know we achieve the most inclusive and most attractive building or infrastructure project when all users and all user considerations are brought into play. The upper X's/parameters are mutually connected and they all relate to the user analysis, or in other words: Universal Design examines the interaction between the users and the built environment - indoors and outdoors and in any scale - both the needs in a given built environment, and how these needs can be met and stimulated.

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eChecklist exercise

The following pages contain checklists you can use to consider unknown X’s. Remember that using checklists is not about being able to tick all the boxes; it is about not forgetting anything and noting things down!

e UN Sustainable Development Goals

The recommendations we present in this guide are essentially linked to the global recommendations in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The target icons under X1 to X10 are overall SDGs broken into smaller elements to make them more manageable.

The Universal Design concept was frst used in a global context in 2006, when Article 2 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was adopted.

e Implementation

It is important to use the Universal Design guide in all phases of the design process. Therefore, you should consi der X in all phases: the sketch and design phase, and later quality control and project evaluation. Thinking Universal Design does not require a specifc type of project, a specifc budget or a minimum number of square metres in a build ing. In principle, you can use the guide to encourage Universal Design thinking every time you design a new building and structure, and thereby make sure everyone is included.

The 17 SDGs were adopted in 2015 by the 193 members of the United Nations, including Denmark. Statistics Denmark's SDG platform contains a large number of targets that show progress with regard to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals in Denmark. The platform also has inspiration for how you can fll out the unknown X’s in the UD equation.

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aWhat is X?

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X1 = User involvement e Contribution

Working with user and stakeholder involvement in architecture and design projects entails understanding all the relevant user groups, their capacity and needs. Beside this is use of methods to document dialogue, collect data, and test different user perspectives.

The user analysis is to identify the products and solutions that add value for some users, and avoid those which are directly inaccessible and meaningless for others. Universal Design makes sure that not only one specifc group is addressed but as many user groups as possible.

Universal Design is also a way in which we can eliminate opposites between “them and us” and instead create a "we". We thus promote focus on inclusion and empathy, and make equal participation possible through architecture.

Use the checklist on the right to get user involvement to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

4.5 10.2

Gender equality Promote the and inclusion. social, economic and political inclusion of all.


Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Identifcation of all user groups as well as their capacity and needs.

Identify all relevant user groups in relation to the project.

Identify all relevant stakeholders in relation to the project.

Consider the possible obstacles for all the defned user groups.

Consider different user perspectives for all the defned user groups and stakeholders.

Collection of relevant data.

Review the statistics. Perform interviews. Find information on relevant organisations and associations, such as the Danish Association of the Blind and the National Autism Association.


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• .!.. ••

e Social context

Housing and common areas can be designed so that they strengthen the social and cultural community and make space for all generations.

X2 = Social contekst

Working with the social context entails having an understanding of a project’s social meaning and taking account of specifc identities, cultures, religions, traditions, history, policies and crime levels. Understanding the social context depends on dialogue with local users and experts.

In work with a comprehensive social context analysis, Universal Design can be a good method to consider all the social aspects that your design or architectural solution is to be a part of. Understanding the social context aims to reduce inequalities, stigmatisation and marginalisation and thereby help create socially responsible architecture that includes as many users as possible.

Use the checklist on the right to get the social context to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

4.a 10.2 11.7

Build and upgrade Promote the

Provide safe, inclusive safe and inclusive social, economic green public spaces. education facilities. and political inclusion of all.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Identifcation of social conditions.

Investigate religion/faith. Understand the local culture/DNA. Consider the political forms of government. Assess the level of schooling and education in the social context. Go into dialogue with local experts. Consider identity. Consider gender. Consider traditions. Investigate user behaviour. Assess the level of crime.


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e Physical context

In some areas, the climate and weather may be crucial for access and freedom of movement. In Greenland, for example, construction projects must be planned carefully, taking account of seasonal access for equipment and materials, and solutions will only be user-friendly if they are adapted to cold and snow.

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X3 = Physical context

Universal Design can help the architect and designer to explore physical possibilities for several types of user in a specifc context, and ideally steer away from conventional thinking and specialist limits.

Experts are generally already trained to analyse “the place” and understand all the specifc factors in a geographical context that can infuence the design of architecture and users’ freedom of movement. These include the location, weather, seasons, topography, materials, traffc conditions, etc.

It is also through user involvement and understand ing that any physical context should be considered, when we design. How do the surroundings infuence the use of space and place for different groups?

Use the checklist below to consider inclusive and environmentally friendly use of natural barriers and existing restrictions in the physical context.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

11.3 12.8 13.1 Enhance inclusive Ensure that people Strengthen resilience and and sustainable everywhere have adaptive capacity to climateurbanization. awareness for sus related natural disasters. tainable lifestyles.

00 itff+T

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Consider location/country.

Consider what the city/the size of the area means for relevant for users.

Consider what the landscape does for relevant users.

Consider the infuence of the terrain/topography on relevant users.

Assess whether the nature of the area has an impact on relevant users.

Consider carefully the impact of different traffc conditions.

Consider access to transport.

Think about how site-specifc climate and weather conditions impact different users.

Consider local resources/production.

Consider access to waste separation system.


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X4 = Client involvement

Working with Universal Design is relatively new in the danish building and construction sector and it is correspondingly new for designers and architects to have to convince an owner/contractor about the importance of Universal Design.

The arguments for investing in an inclusive building project must be presented in the initial project phases. The client must understand why it is important to work with Universal Design solutions: that such solutions will not necessarily make the project more expensive, but on the contrary, they may help future-proof a project and avoid costly user-adaptation in the future.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

Achieve full Ensure safe and employment and affordable housing. decent work with equal pay.

Universal Design legitimacy and relevance become understandable if you present examples of successful existing solutions. As advisors to a client, our job is to make sure that Universal Design is incorporated in programme specifcations, i.e. incorporated as a request in the design and performance of a project.

Use the checklist on the right to get owners/ contractors to understand the relationship between accessibility and Universal Design solutions, and see the fnancial and environmental benefts Universal Design can bring.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Give examples of successful, existing Universal Design solutions. Negotiate additional accessibility.

Qualify for the “God Adgang” (good access) labelling scheme or other relevant schemes.

Qualify for these DGNB certifcations:

SOC2.1 Universal Design

SOC3.2 Integrated Public Art

SOC3.3 Layout Quality

Qualify for DGNB-Ekstra certifcations (Heart/Diamond).


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8.5 11.1

e Senses

Communication - dissemination of informationcan be vital for us all. Important information can be made clearer through the senses.

c d b
Guide to Universal Design

X5 = Senses

Work on understanding the senses in a project context entails being aware of all the senses, sight/ visual, hearing/auditive, smell/olfactory, taste/ gustatory, touch and feeling/tactile, and equilibrium/ vestibular.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

A Universal Design mindset will help you to create a project in which all users are potentially stimulated and informed – not just specifc groups.

Use the checklist on the right to get the senses to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Consider how the colour and contrast affect different users.

Consider how natural lighting affects the different users.

Consider the use of openings in facades: windows and skylights.

Consider the use of artifcial lighting in relation to the different users.

Consider the use of asymmetric lighting/shadow.

Consider the infuence of materiality on different users.

Consider the use of tactile and haptic surfaces.

Think about smell and aroma, e.g. from plants and vegetation.

Consider the infuence of music, sound and noise.

Stimulate several senses at the same time.

Make accessible WiFi - hotspots possible.


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3.6 4.a 11.3 Reduce the number Build and upgrade Enhance inclusive and of deaths and inju- safe and inclusive sustainable urbanization. ries from road traffc education facilities. accidents

X6 = Safety

Working with safety in a building project involves designing safe places both inside and out, creating light and simple spaces, paying attention to hygiene, good transport possibilities, reducing risks and preventing injuries. Equally important is understanding the capacities and needs of different user groups.

Working with a Universal Design mindset from the outset of a project, we are directed towards designing and building a safe framework for everyone. All places are perceived as more accessible if users feel safe!

Use the checklist on the right to get safe spaces to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

3.8 4.a 11.7 11.b

Achieve universal Build and upgrade Provide safe, Lead policies towards health coverage. safe and inclusive inclusive green inclusion, resource education facilities. public spaces. effciency, and resili ence to disasters.

Tip! Find inspiration here:

e Nordic Safe Cities

e The Danish Crime Prevention Council

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Think about good lighting to increase safety and a sense of security in the dark.

Consider whether information, e.g. clear signs is effective for all user groups.

Consider visibility for all relevant users.

Examine the use of international and simple pictograms.

Consider protection against violence and hate crimes.

Consider hygiene products/devices.

Consider how detail solutions can prevent injury for user segments.


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e Comfort

The successful design aspects in a built environment support our positive experience of a space. These include good acoustics and lighting, appropriate layout and colour.

X7 = Comfort

Working with a relative concept like comfort in an architecture or design project means optimising your solutions to provide the most possible user wellbeing, satisfaction and health.

Comfort can also be managed by using the DGNB Heart, developed by the Green Building Council Denmark. The Heart is based on the main categories: air quality, acoustics, visual comfort, thermal comfort and architectural value. The DGNB Heart focuses on how we can create access and wellbeing for everyone, with design that supports every different life situation throughout a long life.

With Universal Design, we can sharpen our focus and understanding of users’ experience of comfort. Universal Design can defne requirements on the basis of the physical capacity of different user groups, and infuence standards for project solutions so that they accommodate as many users as possible.

Use the checklist on the right to get comfort to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

6.2 11.7

Provide access to Provide safe, inclusive a toilet, sanitation green public spaces and hygiene.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Consider several solutions to the same problem/options for different users.

Avoid discrimination or exclusion of user groups.

Think about eco-friendly solutions in relation to users groups.

Focus on sanitation and hygiene in relation to user groups.

Focus on wellbeing and happiness for all relevant users.

Think about comfortable layout/furnishing for all relevant users.

Check accessible rest areas/zones for different users.

Incorporate comfortable lighting and acoustics.


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X8 = Building code /regulations

Working from legislation on a building project en tails complying with the requirements in the building regulations and other documents. Universal Design can further focus the design practitioner’s attention on different users so that the design does more than “merely” meet the minimum requirements for the building physics and for promoting social equality.

While legislation only relates to target requirements, Universal Design extends the concept of the user to include everyone.

Besides realising an approved building or installation, Universal Design can promote an inclusive result that respects equality.

Use the checklist on the right to get legislation to interact with accessibility and achieve Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

10.3 11.a

Ensure equal Strengthen national opportunities and and regional destop discrimination. velopment planning.


Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies

Tip! Find inspiration here:

e University at Buffalo

e Rumsans (In Danish)

e DTU Skylab Universal Design

e Checklist for legislation/rules/standards

Use Building Regulations BR18 (in Danish). See older versions in English BR15.

See the Executive Order on accessibility measures in connection with renovation of renovating and transforming existing buildings, Executive Order no. 1250 published (in Danish) by Retsinformation.

Use the instructions and checklists from the Danish Building Research Institute (SBI), BUILD, Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University.

See also the handbook published by The Danish Road Directorate.

Read guidelines about accessibility for the blind and sight impaired.

(In Danish) Danish Association of the Blind TSI-PRM. (In English) Technical Specifcation of InteroperabilityPRM standard - NODES Tools.

Danish Standards

DS/ISO 21542:2012 og DS Håndbog 2017; DS 105 Outdoor areas for all

DS EN 1658x-series, 17210 og 301549

DS/CEN/TR 17621-21


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e Experience

Bicycle and pedestrian bridges take vulnerable road users safely from A to B and can also make daily transport a dynamic and healthy experience.

X9 = Experience

Architecture should in principle serve as a catalyst for good experiences. This applies to experiences of space as well as in transport hubs and infra structures. The latter are based on requirements and provisions for roads, paths, stations and bridges in the public space issued by the Danish Road Directorate, the Danish Transport Authority, Rail Net Denmark, municipalities and/or the owner/ contractor.

Universal Design is suitable for considerations about how we can best organise traffc in squares and other public spaces by working with sensory impressions, visibility, resting areas, user segmentation, etc. Implementing Universal Design in work on mobility can increase awareness of the traffc fow without barriers, conficts and unexpected incidents throughout the process.

Use the checklist on the right to get “the good experience” to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

3.6 10.2 11.2 11.7 Reduce the number Promote the social, Provide access Provide safe, of deaths and inju- economic and poli- to affordable inclusive green ries from road traffc tical inclusion of all. and sustainable public spaces. accidents

transport systems.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Be aware of local rules and by-laws.

Consider links, routing and movement.

Have full understanding of the challenges for all relevant users.

Separate different modes of transport.

Work with clear boundaries between user groups.

Read X5 again and think again about surfaces overview and lighting.

Read X6 again and think again about accidents and fear in the public space.

Read X7 again and reconsider resting places/lay-bys and what provides a comfortable experience.


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X10 = Value and respect

Value in building renovation and transformation will usually be looked at on the basis of assessment concepts such as the BREEAM eco-certifcation system, Leed and DGNB certifcation, etc., which account for the concept of value on the basis of social, cultural and environmental factors.

With regard to the holistic Universal Design approach, assess how the historic building components can best be (re)used/protected, while also creating value for as many users as possible.

In a renovation project, for example, a new ramp can create both good and bad experiences in a space, either by restricting some people's movement, or by providing access to others.

Use the checklist on the right to get values and respect to interact with accessibility and Universal Design.

e Contribution to the UN Sustainable Development Goals

4.a 11.4

Build and upgrade Protect the world’s safe and inclusive cultural and natural education facilities. heritage.

e Checklist for project-relevant user groups

Consider how existing qualities can create value and respect for different users - design, materials, colour and details.

Identify barriers in the existing environment and how different users address these.

Consider how existing barriers can create new opportunities for relevant users.

Consider how a given renovation or transformation can provide better opportunities for all relevant users.

Think about signs which do not stand in contrast to the historical architecture but which also give value for all users.

Make sure that signage does not become a barrier for people with disabilities.


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There are still only a few examples of comprehensive Universal Design projects and solutions in Denmark. This makes it even more important that, across all stakeholders in the building and construction sector, we evaluate our architecture and design solutions, and thereby forge an evidence-based foundation for further work. Pointing to good examples, together we can stimulate demand for empathic solutions that consider the users from the widest possible perspective.

The programme for the Køge Nord Station (2019) included no Universal Design requirements, but nevertheless, to a large extent the result is an inclusive transport hub. The construction includes a station, a walkway and an area for cycle and car parking. It offers both shelter, resting places and space for movement, while the tactile surfaces and openings afford overview and security.

Light, sound, wind, air and smell stimulate the senses of everyone who passes through the walkway, and this helps users to understand the space and navigate stairs, exits, etc.

Køge Nord Station has lifts and escalators, but no doors that make accessibility diffcult for some users.

Køge Nord Station offers solutions for as many users as possible, and not just one solution for all.

1'~"'----...:;: -----Guide to Universal Design c d b


a Cora Valloire, Author Architect MAA, UBA - University of Buenos Aires

Auditor in accessibility and Master’s in Universal Design and Accessibility. BUILD -Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Copenhagen. a Susanne Bendsen, Editor MA Aarhus University. a Sofie Hecksher, Collaboration Architect Student, Aarhus School of Architecture. a Mia Groth, Collaboration Architect Student, Royal Danish Academy, Copenhagen.


Mace, Ron. (1985) Universal design, barrier-free environments for everyone Designers West 33 (1): 147–152. Los Angeles.

Steinfeld E. & Maisel J. (2012) Universal Design - Creating inclusive environments John Wiley & sons, INC. New Jersey. Statistics Denmark - The UN Sustainable Development Goals. Hildebrandt, Steen (2020) ”Gør verdensmål til vores mål – 197 danske målpunkter for en mere bæredygtig verden”. Copenhagen.


“Guide to Universal Design - a checklist to promote inclusion into the built environment" ©Dissing+Weitling.

Universal Design - Equation ©Cora Valloire, Dissing+Weitling.

eGraphic design

Layout & design Hey Jack Studio.

Cover photo Rasmus Hjortshøj – COAST Studio. Artillerivej 86, 3. tv. 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark +45 3283 5000

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