CONCORD SUMMER 2021
100 YEARS OF FARMING & FAMILY at Verrill Farm DON HENLEY’S
THINGS TO SEE & DO THIS SUMMER
INVESTED IN TREASON: John Brown’s SECRET SIX
A S K U S A B O U T B U Y B E F O R E YO U S E L L 2 0 B R U C E W O O D R O A D, AC T O N
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What a wonderful time of year. School is out. The days are longer. And as COVID slowly makes its way to the rear-view mirror, we relish all the more the sweetness of vacation time with friends and family. Concord is truly happy to see so many visitors coming to experience the history, the shops and restaurants, and the natural beauty that make this town so special. Many famous writers, poets, conservationists, and passionate champions of social justice have been drawn to Concord over the centuries. And that tradition continues today! You may know Don Henley as a founding member of The Eagles, a solo artist, and Grammywinning vocalist. Did you know that he has also played a vital role in protecting Walden Woods? We sat down with Don Henley to learn about his career in music, his commitment to conservation, and what inspired a Texan to help save this place that was so precious to Henry David Thoreau. Learn more about this remarkable, multi-faceted man and his connection to Concord in “Don Henley’s Two Waldens” (p. 12). Speaking of remarkable places, the Verrill family has been farming in the Concord area since 1918. Steve Verrill and his family continue that tradition. Whether they’re tending more than 100 varieties of tomatoes, seeding lettuce, or converting a barn to a commercial kitchen, the Verrills never lose their focus on food, family, and community. Join their adventure in “100 Years of Farming & Family at Verrill Farm” (p. 22). The women of Concord, both past and present, have inspirational stories to share. “Charting New Paths: Women of Concord” (p. 18) explores the influence of Sophia Hawthorne, Lidian Emerson, and others. The article is a fascinating introduction to Concord Museum’s exhibition, Every Path Laid Open: Women of Concord and the Quest for Equality. What does one do when conscience is in conflict with the law of the land? In the case of six men in 1857-1859, you take action. Find out how these six individuals came together in “Invested in Treason: Concord and John Brown’s Secret Six” (p. 38).
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Revolution, whether military, literary, or social, has long been an integral part of Concord’s ethos. “An Approaching Storm of War and Bloodshed: Massachusetts on the Eve of Revolution” (p. 24) explores the events leading up to the Revolutionary War. Like many great historical events, the cause of the American Revolution wasn’t a single act, but a complex series of events that helped form a new nation. On a lighter note, you might want to consider carefully when giving – or receiving – a bouquet of flowers. The Victorians imbued flowers with a rich, albeit inconsistent, language that allowed friends, family, and lovers to exchange messages without saying a word. Don’t order that next bouquet until you’ve read “Tell-Tale Tussie Mussies: The Victorian Language of Flowers” (p. 48). So, from musician/conservationists to farmers, from influential women to fermenters of revolution, the risky business of giving flowers, and more . . . we bring you this issue of Discover Concord with all our best wishes for a happy and healthy summer!
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Top Things to See & Do in Concord This Summer
Don Henley’s Two Waldens
Charting New Paths: Women of Concord
Artist Spotlight 100 Years of Farming & Family at Verrill Farm n Approaching Storm of War and Bloodshed: A Massachusetts on the Eve of Revolution eorge Washington Dugan: No Longer Missing, G No Longer Forgotten xploring 1836: Michael Goodwin Charts a New E Course for Social Justice ook Review: Battle Green Vietnam: The 1971 B March on Concord, Lexington, and Boston
Serving Up a Big Cup of THANKS at Dunkin’
A Day in Lexington
Concord’s Summer Paradise
Arts Around Town
elcome to the Neighborhood: W Concord-Carlisle Neighbors
Contents Continued on Page 6 4
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Discover CONCORD discoverconcordma.com CO-FOUNDER
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Marie Foley REVOLUTIONARY CONCORD
Michael Glick CONCORD’S COLONIAL INN
THE ROBBINS HOUSE
Jennifer McGonigle JOY STREET LIFE + HOME
“Invested in Treason” Concord and John Brown’s Secret Six
Summer in the Parks
oncord Reopens - Updates on C Popular Destinations
List of Shops & Restaurants
The Concord Ice Cream Crawl
Go Out Doors!
oncord’s Abundant C Farm Stands J oin in the Summer Solstice Passport Event J ohn Kaag’s Studies in Self-Reliance
Walking Maps of Concord Tell-Tale Tussie Mussies: The Victorian Language of Flowers
Concord Trivia he Intriguing Sights T of Summer
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COVER PHOTO: Jo Davidson’s bronze of Henry David Thoreau, outside the replica of Thoreau’s cabin at Walden Pond State Reservation ©Scot Miller/ScotMiller.com AUTHORS/CONTRIBUTORS:
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C o m in g S oon F O U R C U R AT E D H O M E S B U I LT A R O U N D A L O V E F O R N AT U R E , G A R D E N I N G & C O M M U N I T Y Exclusively offered by The Attias Group Contact Zur Attias Zur@TheAttiasGroup.com for more details
A wooded path at Walden pond
Things to See & Do
Courtesy of Concord Visitor Center
Stop by the Concord Visitor Center. You’ll find maps, helpful tips on where to eat, and updates on events around town. You can also book a walking tour on topics including the Indigenous People of Concord, Historic Concord, Little Women, the History of West Concord, African-American History of Concord (Bike Tour), Concord After Dark, and more. For information or to book your reservation, go to visitconcord.org.
Watch for Concord Museum’s opening of 16 newly redesigned galleries this summer. This completes a multi-year process in renovating the entire Museum! The new exhibitions include Concord’s famous Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, stories about Louisa May Alcott, the women who led the effort to abolish slavery in our land, and African American families who lived in Concord before and after the Civil War. Visit concordmuseum.org for opening date of the redesigned galleries and more information.
Take in some art. Whether your passion is music, visual arts, or theatre, there’s something going on this summer that you’re sure to love. See “Arts Around Town” (p. 36), “Go Out Doors!” (p. 54), and this issue’s “Artist Spotlight” (p. 20) for more information.
Concord Visitor Center
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Go Out Doors!
in Concord this Summer
Summerfest is live again! Join the Middlesex West Chamber of Commerce for a day of great food, live music by Vintage Party, and more. July 20 at NARA park, 25 Ledgerock Way, in Acton. From 5 – 7pm. Visit mwcoc.com for details and to purchase tickets.
Ranger-guided programs are back! The Visitor Centers are open at the Minute Man National Historical Park (seven days a week, 9am – 5pm) and the North Bridge (seven days a week, 10am – 5pm). Stop by the Visitor Centers for daily ranger-guided programs: • Concord’s North Bridge: History and Memory, daily at 11:30. Learn about the momentous battle at Concord’s North Bridge, where the British Army suffered its first casualties of the war, and the legacy of this event in American history. • North Bridge Battlefield Walk, daily at 1:30. Learn about the battle of April 19, 1775, from the perspective of the participants. • Battlefield in a Box, Thursday through Sunday at 2:30. Join a National Park Service ranger for an interactive overview program that explores the story of the midnight alarm riders and the brutal fighting on April 19, 1775. Participate in the action as you build a map of the story using simple props. • Lexington’s Lost Battlefield Walk, daily at 1:30 and 3:15. Despite suffering a devastating loss on the Lexington town green in the morning of April 19, 1775, the Lexington militia company marched to fight the British soldiers for a second time that day; where did this second battle take place? Learn how, after nearly two centuries of debate, modern investigative research and technology solved the mystery of this battle. • Minute Men: Neighbors in Arms, Tuesday through Sunday at 11:15 and 2:15. Discover the motivations and realities faced by those who volunteered to be “ready at a minute’s warning.” New tours to be added later this summer. Visit the website for information and updates concerning inclement weather: nps.gov/mima/ planyourvisit/ranger-programs-and-tours.htm
Spend a day in Lexington! April 19, 1775, was a momentous day in the history of the United States. The first bullets fired on colonial residents happened in neighboring Lexington and sparked anger and fury that would help inspire the “shot heard ‘round the world” later that morning in Concord. See our article, “A Day in Lexington” (p. 34) for a list of the key sights to round out your historic experience. Want to combine the Concord and Lexington experience into one 90-minute visit? Book your ticket on the Liberty Ride Trolley Tour to see the top historic sights of both towns. Learn more at tourlexington.us and at lexhistory.org.
Concord Solstice Passport
When checking out, ask for a stamp. Keep receipt from online purchases. Stamped squares must be from at least three different shops or restau rants. Get all 10 squares stamp ed at stores in Conco rd, MA and you will be entered into the Weekly Wednesday Drawing and automatically entere d in the Grand Prize When board is filled Drawing. email it to Visitors@co ncordma.gov. or drop it of at the Visitor Cente r at
No limit on how many
Sponsored by the
you can enter! Keep
58 Main Street.
shopping locally and increase your chanc es of
of Commerce, Conco
rd Together, and
the Town of Conco
The Summer Solstice Passport Event is back by popular demand. Gather 10 stamps on your ‘passport’ from any shop or restaurant around Concord (from at least three different businesses). Turn your passport in at the Concord Visitor Center for a chance to win weekly prizes. There is no limit to how many passports you can complete and enter. Visit concordtogether.com to download your ‘passport’ and start shopping!
The Thoreau Society Annual Gathering will be presented online July 7-11. The topic this year is “Thoreau and Diversity: People, Principles, and Politics” with Keynote Speaker Dr. Ibram X. Kendi. George Schaller, the 2020 recipient of the Thoreau Prize for Literary Excellence in Nature Writing, will also join. Visit thoreausociety.org for more information. Swimming at Walden Pond
Grab some fresh fruit and veggies at one of Concord’s many farm stands and put together a fresh-fromthe-farm dinner. Did you know that there are more than 800 acres of farmland in the Concord/Carlisle area? With farm stands bursting with nature’s bounty, you’re sure to find something special. See “Concord’s Abundant Farm Stands” (p. 56) in this issue for more information.
Take a swim in Walden Pond and beat the heat. Why not pack a picnic lunch and make a day of it? You can also visit a replica of Thoreau’s cabin, stroll the lovely, shaded paths around the pond, or take in the Visitor Center exhibits and gift shop run by The Thoreau Society. Read our article “Summer in the Parks” (p. 40) for tips on planning your visit.
Minuteman Statue, Lexington, MA
© Dylan Sanford
Artists, transcendentalists, abolitionists, civil rights advocates, and revolutionaries have been drawn to Concord from its very earliest days. There’s something in the air here…or perhaps it’s the ancient waters of places like Walden Pond…that moves a person to take action to protect this place. We sat down with musician and passionate conservationist Don Henley, a founding member of the legendary band The Eagles, to learn more about what moved a native Texan to save a place that was precious to one of his own role models – Concord’s Henry David Thoreau. You have had a brilliant career – both as a founding member of The Eagles, and also 12
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as a solo artist. Where do you draw the inspiration for your music? I get ideas and inspiration from lived experience. This includes literature, poetry, film, music, nature, travel, and human interaction. Sometimes that experience is negative, and sometimes it’s positive. Attentiveness is a key component of creativity – the kind of focus and concentration that Thoreau demonstrated during his time at Walden. Thoreau said, “The question is not what you look at, but what you see.” We are living in an age of distraction. We’re constantly being bombarded by myriad stimuli, most of them electronic. In order to concentrate, to hear that “small
voice” inside us, we have to learn how to filter, to buffer. Getting out into nature is one of the best ways to clear the head and renew the spirit. I’ve found that ideas for songs come to me when I’m working with my hands, doing relatively simple tasks like washing dishes, gardening, or chopping firewood. How have you stayed connected to your music during COVID? Touring came to a screeching halt in March of 2020. This might seem odd, but the pandemic has given me a welcome respite from my music and provided an opportunity to listen to other people’s music, both old and new. When The Eagles are constantly
What would you most like people to know about you as a musician, singer, songwriter, and record producer? The ‘Music Business’ is a tough business. I’ve been in the thick of it for over a half century now, and I’ve learned a lot ... some of it the hard way. But, I am grateful for all of it ... the opportunities I’ve been given, the extraordinary people I’ve met, the places I’ve traveled, the wider perspective, the steadfastness of the fans, and the conservation work, including The Walden Woods Project and the Caddo Lake Institute (my own Walden), that I’ve been able to do as a result of my success. I’m a working musician, a husband, a father, a grandfather, and an environmental activist, but I am first and foremost a citizen ... a voting, tax-paying, concerned citizen of these United States, and I didn’t relinquish that citizenship when I became a famous recording artist. I think that each and every one of us has a duty to help care for our natural environment, even if it’s something as simple as not throwing your fast-food wrapper out the car window. You are a founding member of The Walden Woods Project – how did a Texas native find such a deep connection to this particular piece of nature? Why Concord? What drew you here? I found the literature long before I set foot in the place that inspired it. Thoreau’s famous essay “Civil Disobedience” was an influence in the Civil Rights Movement of the 60s, the protests of the war in Vietnam,
and among the Baby Boomers who sparked the back-to-the-land movement as they sought to escape the strife of cities and embrace a more bucolic lifestyle. It was during this time (1968-1969) that I picked up a copy of Walden (or, Life in the Woods). Some of Thoreau’s principles in Walden and “Civil Disobedience” still directly relate to today’s social reform issues and the climate change crisis. I first traveled to Concord in the wake of a cable news report about an impending real estate development. A sizeable office park was slated for a historically significant site in Walden Woods, called Brister’s Hill. Brister Freeman, born in 1744, was enslaved in Concord for the first 30 years of his life.
(on his mentor Emerson’s land), but he was also a Harvard graduate, a gifted gardener, a boat-builder, a carpenter, a scientist, a surveyor, a free thinker, an early abolitionist, a keen observer, and meticulous keeper of the particulars of his observations in nature. He was a work in progress. His mentor, Emerson, famously said, “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds…” To quote the late writer, Wallace Stegner, “Thoreau could be wrong, but when he was right, he was often spectacularly right, and he was, right or wrong, American to the marrow. But it was in his love of wildness, his perception that ‘In Wildness is the preservation of the world,’ that he spoke his nation’s mind at its best and highest reach. Don Henley and Billy Joel performing at The Walden Woods Project’s 2007 fundraiser in New York City.
© Larry Busacca
touring, or recording, it’s possible to get oversaturated with music. In those times, it’s good to have other pursuits: gardening, reading, or watching documentaries. Like many of my musical peers, I’ve not felt particularly inspired to write or record during this past year. The logistics were too complicated, too risky, and I’m not a fan of remote digital performances. I think that many authors, poets, and songwriters are in a gestational stage, still trying to process and get perspective on the past 18 months. Some interesting material should come out of these times. My bandmates and I very much look forward to resuming live performances in the fall. On May 1st of next year, the band will mark its 50th anniversary of hitting the airwaves, and we hope to be able to make a victory lap.
After serving in the American Revolution, he was freed and, in 1785, purchased an acre of land in Walden Woods. He and his family were among a number of formerly enslaved people who lived in the area. Thoreau, an early abolitionist, mentions Brister Freeman in Walden, as well as the apple orchard planted by Brister. My many visits to Concord over the past three decades have served to heighten my appreciation of history, especially American history and, by extension, world history. The area residents that I’ve met are dedicated curators of their local backstory. History, at least in some respects, is not settled. It’s in a state of flux. This holds true for all of America. Thoreau himself was inconsistent and self-contradictory – he was a squatter
There is little of that in Walden – he was learning it there, but did not fully formulate it until later – but Walden Woods is the proper place to commemorate it. Walden is the place for Thoreau’s monument as surely as Washington is the place for the temples we have erected to Jefferson and Lincoln, although Thoreau would want no such sculpted shrines. This little lake within site of the tracks and sound of the train whistle should be part of the American iconography. We need no marble columns. The pond itself, and the creatures that find life in it and in the woods that surround it, are the most fitting monument for the man who took so much from them, and gave it back in unforgettable terms to his countrymen, and to the world.”
When did you first discover Walden Woods? What was your first impression? What moved you to want to help protect this place? My first visit to Walden Woods was in March of 1990. As we crunched through the snowy woods, I remember thinking that the trees were smaller than I had expected. I would eventually learn that most of the timber in Walden Woods had been cut, more than once, by the time Thoreau built his cabin near the pond. Thoreau bemoans the disappearance of old-growth forests in the pages of Walden. But, I soon came to understand that modern-day Walden Woods not being a pristine, untrammeled wilderness is not the point. Acclaimed American novelist, E.L. Doctorow put it most eloquently: “Walden is the material out of which Thoreau made his book, as surely as he made his house from the trees he cut there, and he made his book from the life he lived there. The pond and woods are the visible, actual, real source of Thoreau’s discovered, invisible truths, the material from which he made not only his house, but his revelation. We need both Waldens - the book and the place. We are not all spirit any more than we are all clay; we are both and so we need both: You’ve read the book, now see the place. You have to be able to take the children there and to say, ‘This is it – this is the wood old Henry wrote about. Do you see?’ You give them what is rightfully theirs, just as you give them Gettysburg because it is theirs.”
© Matt Burne
Ken Burns and Don Henley at the premiere of the Thoreau film Ken executive produced for the Walden Pond Visitor Center.
What would you most like people to know about you as a nature conservationist? My conservation awareness began early, and somewhat unwittingly. My parents and grandparents, all of whom had lived through the Great Depression, saved things, re-used them: canning jars, milk jugs, twine, bacon fat, or even pieces of fabric that were turned into quilts. As a boy, I followed along behind my father as he plowed his winter cover crops under, thereby enriching the tilth of the topsoil and eliminating the need for commercial fertilizers. He also applied cow and chicken manure to his crops. He was an organic gardener long before the term became popularized. Dad also planted a number of trees on our property and was
© Matt Burne
Don Henley and Ali Taghdarreh from Iran (who translated Walden into Farsi) in The Walden Woods Project library.
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continued on p. 16
“We would have every path laid open to Woman as freely as to Man.”
Margaret Fuller, 1845
In Concord, generations of women have organized and advocated to expand their liberties and the liberties of others. In honor of the recent 100th anniversary of the passage of the 19th Amendment, this exhibition celebrates their remarkable achievements.
on exhibit through November 7, 2021
Community Grants Concord Cultural Council
For a full list of supporters please go to: www.concordmuseum.org
always sure to include me in the process. Those trees are mature now, and serve as a touchstone for me. I think my father would be pleased to know that The Walden Woods Project operates an organic farm in Concord. Sometimes, life comes full circle. This is very simple, basic stuff compared to how we think about conservation today. But these experiences and observations, preserved on the bridge of memory, were the beginnings of my personal conservation ethic. What would you recommend a musician to absolutely see or do here in Concord? I suggest a visit to The Concord Museum to see the flute owned and played by Henry David Thoreau and his brother, John. Many people don’t realize that Thoreau enjoyed music. I also suggest catching a performance at The Umbrella Arts Center, a wonderful small venue here in Concord. It showcases a range of talent, including my friend Lyle Lovett who performed there a few years ago. What would you recommend an environmentalist absolutely see or do here in Concord? The new Walden Pond Visitor Center is a must. It offers some wonderful interactive exhibits. The Brister’s Hill interpretive trail (called Thoreau’s Path on Brister’s Hill) is stewarded by The Walden Woods Project. It is an excellent choice, as is the Thoreau cabin replica near the Visitor Center parking lot. Certainly, taking a walk around Walden Pond out to Thoreau’s original cabin site and using our new, free app — walden.org/education/the-walden-pondand-woods-app/ — for interpretation at various points of interest along the trail is a great experience. Thoreau and Emerson’s grave sites at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery are very poignant. Last but not least... go see the exhibits in The Walden Woods Project’s library (by appointment only). What else would you like people to know about you, your work, or Walden Woods? The most important thing for people to know about The Walden Woods Project is that our work here is not finished. We just entered our 32nd year at a time when 16
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millions have sought refuge from the pandemic by reconnecting with the natural world. In recent months, much has been said and written about the importance of nature to our physical and spiritual wellbeing – the same message Thoreau was imparting more than 150 years ago. Visitation at Walden Pond was up dramatically with over 600,000 visitors in 2020. The land and trails stewarded by The Walden Woods Project were used by an unprecedented number of people last year. The line between preservation and public use is often a fine one, and in our efforts at Walden, we strive to maintain a balance. While many parts of Walden Woods are now protected, a 35-acre Concord landfill is just a stone’s throw from Walden Pond. Town officials and residents have debated the future of the landfill for decades. The Walden Woods Project has made several attempts to secure protection for the landfill to ensure that one day it can be restored to as natural a condition as possible. I believe that with challenges come opportunities, and the landfill is a case in point. It all comes down to the legacy we want to leave our children and grandchildren. Surely, the good people of Concord can meet the challenge, with resolve, to protect and restore this gateway to Walden Woods. As the world’s population grows and societal pressures mount, more and more people will seek the solace of nature. The problem is that there is less and less nature to go around. In large part, that is why I founded The Walden Woods Project – to help preserve one of the most iconic landscapes in the world. I would invite your readers to join in that effort. Together, we do make a difference for the next generation.
The Walden Woods Project is a nonprofit organization, headquartered near Walden Pond. We preserve the land, literature and legacy of Thoreau, and protect 175 acres in Walden Woods, much of which had been threatened with commercial development. Our conservation work continues at other key sites facing development threats. The land we steward at Brister’s Hill and Bear Garden Hill in Concord are popular destinations for residents and visitors, alike. The Walden Woods Project Farm on Route 2 offers healthy, locally grown produce. Our programs for students, teachers and the general public link Thoreau’s philosophy to urgent challenges of our time – including climate change and human rights – and foster engagement in environmental and social reform initiatives. The Walden Woods Project library welcomes the public to advance their understanding of the life and literature of Thoreau. We are the state-designated “Friends of Walden Pond” organization, furthering public support for the care of Walden Pond and for public programming at the Walden Pond State Reservation. Donations to the Walden Woods Project are tax deductible to the extent permitted by law. Please give at Walden.org
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Profile of Margaret Fuller, Boston, before 1830
BY ERICA LOME
In her pioneering book Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), writer and thinker Margaret Fuller articulated the goal of women’s progress in America: “We would have every arbitrary barrier thrown down. We would have every path laid open to Woman as freely as to Man.” Spoken seventy-five years before women had the legal right to vote, Fuller’s words served as a rallying cry for generations of people who fought to live and work as they pleased. On a broad historical scale, the path to gender equality was marked by incremental but meaningful victories in the courtroom and at the ballot box. Against the backdrop to these highly reported events were hundreds of smaller moments where women of Concord, sometimes in defiance of propriety or tradition, made their mark on the world. Each of them encountered the social and political barriers of their time, and while some persisted in their chosen occupation, others eventually took a different path. Sophia Peabody (1809-1871) was a wellknown member of the early nineteenthcentury Boston art world. Trained in the arts while she and her family lived in Boston and Salem, Peabody viewed herself as a 18
Concord Museum, Gift of Miss Mary Gill (1935), Pi1611
Charting New Paths: Women of Concord
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professional rather than an amateur at a time when few women could claim such a distinction. Peabody had the support of her teachers and mentors, including Washington Allston, one of the most important American landscape painters of the early nineteenth century. Sophia Peabody eagerly copied Allston’s work for practice before embarking on her own landscape paintings to great success. In 1841, American educator Samuel Gridley Howe reached out to Sophia Peabody to commission a portrait bust of one of his students, Laura Bridgman, who lost her sight and hearing as an infant. Bridgman (18281889) learned to read and communicate at the Perkins School for the Blind under Howe’s tutelage, becoming the first deaf-blind person in America to receive a formal education. This was Sophia Peabody’s first serious work in sculpture, and she modeled it on twelveyear-old Bridgman, who was described by Howe as having a face “radiant with intelligence and pleasure.” Sophia Peabody’s portrait-bust not only commemorated Laura Bridgman’s achievements, but Howe had dozens of plaster copies made to take on his travels across the nation to promote schools
for the blind, and these copies now reside in libraries, schools, and private collections throughout the country. One article praised the Laura Bridgman bust as an “early product of [Sophia Peabody’s] genius as a sculptor” though it was Peabody’s last major work of art. The following year, she married Nathaniel Hawthorne and the two set out for Concord to begin their lives together. For over three years, the pair lived at The Old Manse, and became affiliated with Concord’s circle of intellectuals known as the Transcendentalists. Sophia Peabody Hawthorne remained a critical voice in her husband’s work, but her marriage marked a shift in her artistic career. She no longer painted or sculpted, but instead transitioned to making inlaid fire screens and hand painted lampshades to sell, supporting her family while Hawthorne wrote The Scarlet Letter. While in Concord, the Hawthornes frequently socialized with Ralph Waldo Emerson and his wife Lidian Jackson Emerson. Witty and feisty in her conversations, Lidian Emerson (18021892) gave her attention to the causes she supported, including the rights of women and Native people, and the humane treatment of
the country and in major galleries in New York and Boston. As war broke out in Europe, Elizabeth Roberts turned her attention to the thousands of Belgian women and children displaced by the conflict, and who were now refugees in England. She organized groups of artists to create exhibitions at Concord’s Town House and Trinity Episcopal Parish House, and proceeds went directly to aid the victims of war. At the same time, the women of Concord mobilized to assist in the relief effort. From 1914-1919, women meeting at the Episcopal, Trinitarian, and Unitarian
cause they all believed in. Roberts did not necessarily aspire to “paint like a man,” but the recognition of her talents paid off: both paintings earned Roberts $10,000, which she used to purchase an ambulance and have it driven in France during the war. Elizabeth Wentworth Roberts left behind another legacy in Concord several years later with the founding of the Concord Art Centre in 1922 (now Concord Art). Throughout the town’s history, the women of Concord strove to advance their liberties and the liberties of others. Many of them achieved national recognition, while others Collection of Concord Art
animals. She was also a “zealous member” of the Concord Female Anti-Slavery Society, according to her daughter Ellen. Lidian Emerson supported the immediate emancipation of enslaved people and the more radical notion of “disunion,” splitting North from South, long before the Civil War. A painting completed in 1882 by the artist Rose Lamb (1843-1927) portrays 80-yearold Lidian Emerson as a formidable presence with dignified bearing. Born in Boston, Lamb hailed from a wealthy and socially elite family and studied under William Morris Hunt and Helen Knowlton during the 1870s. Through her friendship with writer Sarah Orne Jewett, Lamb became acquainted with Edith Emerson, daughter of Lidian and Ralph Waldo Emerson. It was likely this friendship which brought Lamb to Concord in 1882 to observe her next portrait subject. In a letter written to her husband, Lidian Emerson recalled a pleasant day spent in Rose Lamb’s company, unaware that Lamb was actually in Concord to “slyly study your old lady’s face.” Edith presumably set up the meeting as a way for Lamb to view Lidian Emerson without the rigid formality of a portrait sitting. Afterwards, Lidian felt somewhat tricked by the encounter, but “I am reconciled to having been unconsciously subjected to surveillance.” The resulting portrait depicts a luminously lit Lidian Emerson against a dark backdrop, brows furrowed, and mouth pursed as if struggling to hold back her opinion of the viewer. Around the time Rose Lamb established herself as a portraitist in Boston, a young Elizabeth Wentworth Roberts (1871-1927) began to make waves in Philadelphia as an artist of uncommon talent. She studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and, at the age of seventeen, she won the Mary Smith Prize for a work of art “showing the most originality of subject, beauty of design and drawing, and finesse of color and skill of execution.” She then went to Paris to study at the Julian Academy under Jules Lefebvre, a French figure painter. By 1898, Roberts was back in the United States. While staying at a family homestead in New Hampshire, she met Grace Keyes of Concord. The two women formed a strong bond and soon after Elizabeth purchased a home on Estabrook Road for them to live together. Over the next two decades her career blossomed, with Roberts exhibiting works at museums around
Women Sewing for Belgian Refugees by Elizabeth Wentworth Roberts, Concord, 1915
churches of Concord hand-knit over a thousand mufflers, socks, and fingerless gloves. The Red Cross Society organized their work to send overseas, and Roberts documented these historical moments in two small paintings. These works of art demonstrate Roberts’ expressive style, characterized by fast, broad brushstrokes and a heavy application of paint. John Singer Sargent, one of her contemporaries, allegedly remarked that she “painted like a man, slap, dab...fast and large...and it’s done.” The women in the paintings are hard at work, faces obscured, taking part in a communal activity for a
remained, for many years, virtually unknown. With the recent 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th amendment, giving American women the right to vote, the time is ripe to revisit these women and tell their stories once more. To learn more about these and other remarkable women be sure to go to Concord Museum’s exhibition: Every Path Laid Open: Women of Concord and the Quest for Equality open now through November 7, 2021. For more information go to concordmuseum.org. ——————————————————————— Erica Lome is the Peggy N. Gerry Curatorial Associate at the Concord Museum.
BY JANE DEERING
ADIN MURRAY Adin Murray is an American Realist painter. He was born and raised in Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts, and received a BA in Art/Biology from Tulane University and an MFA from the Savannah College of Art and Design. His work and travels have taken him to the California coast and Western Australia where the enormity of the sky became the subject of six immense paintings for his graduate thesis. His interest in atmospheric change is captured in a series of ongoing paintings Adin refers to as The Horizon paintings. In his words — “The horizon, that ‘thin place’ where the sky and water meet; it can be beautiful or foreboding, tumultuous or calm, light or dark, and always it speaks to the universal truth of constant change.” His work has been featured in Faultline, the literary and art publication of the University of California, Irvine, and has also appeared in Southern Living and North Shore Magazine, as well as the Boston Globe. A selection of his remarkable small-scale graphite drawings will be in a two-person show at the Cape Ann Museum, Gloucester, MA this July, and his most recent luminous paintings will be the subject of a solo exhibition titled There’s a Certain Slant of Light in August at the Jane Deering Gallery, Gloucester, MA. His work is held in both private and corporate collections nationally and internationally. Adin currently lives and works on Cape Ann, Massachusetts. adinmurrayart.com ESTHER PULLMAN Esther Pullman has a BA from Smith College and an MFA from Yale University. On becoming a photographer, she says “I was trained as a graphic designer at Yale in the 1960s and was fortunate to have Walker Evans as my photography professor during my graduate study. His influence on me grew over time as I had a chance to know him and become increasingly familiar with his explorations of the vernacular and the commonplace. Later — thirty years later! — an interest in horticulture and garden design led me back to photography. I found, hiding within photography’s apparent facade of fact, an emotionally charged and expressive medium.” Esther is noted for her panoramic triptychs of greenhouses from around the world. She is a member of the Concord Center for the Visual Arts (Concord Art). Her work has been exhibited nationally and internationally and is in the collection of the Cape Ann Museum, the Danforth Museum, and numerous corporate and private collections worldwide. Esther lives in Cambridge and Annisquam, MA. estherpullman.com ———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— Jane Deering is the owner/director of the Jane Deering Gallery in Gloucester, MA and The Garage @ JDG in Concord. She has been a resident of Concord since 1985 and now divides her time between Massachusetts, California, and London, UK. She has a BA from Regis College and a post-graduate degree from the Courtauld Institute of Art, London. janedeeringgallery.com 20
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Boundless. Oil on canvas. ©Adin Murray
Reynolda Greenhouse, Winston Salem, NC. Archival pigment print. ©Esther Pullman
A treasured summer pastime is exploring the creative riches found in art museums and galleries, and Concord offers much in the way of such explorations. In addition to the superb Concord Museum, the town boasts the Concord Center for the Visual Arts (Concord Art), founded in 1922 by artist and activist Elizabeth Wentworth Roberts, the Umbrella Arts Center, a collective of local artists’ studios, and the Lucy Lacoste Gallery which presents ceramics by national and international artists. In West Concord you’ll find Three Stones Gallery, Sun Stone Gallery, and the Bradford Mill Artscape. The area’s newest space — The Garage @ Jane Deering Gallery — is a contemporary gallery on the owner’s property at 94 Elm Street, a short walk from the town center.
A unique shop with gifts you love to give…and receive! 49 Commonwealth Ave. Concord MA 01742 49 Commonwealth Ave. Concord MA 01742 joystreetgifts.com | @joystreetgifts joystreetgifts.com
Grace Faddoul, Tim Faddoul, Jen Verrill, Joan Verrill, Steve Verrill, and Chloe Faddoul
of Farming & Family
at Verrill Farm BY SAM COPELAND
If, on a summer day, you drive down Sudbury Road toward Nine Acre Corner, then, having left the shade of the woods and passed by a line of sunlit fields, you will see a squat brown building standing amidst the rows of crops. This is the farm stand of Verrill Farm. This local family business has gone through many shapes and sizes over the course of its 100-year history, surviving economic changes and even a devastating fire, but it has always carried on in its mission to “nourish the body and soul of our customers by providing healthful food of superb flavor in surroundings of beauty.” The cars of eager customers pack the parking lot of Verrill Farm, just as local foods pack its shelves. Perched on the roof of the farm stand is a weathervane in the shape of a minuteman who, like the statue at the Old North Bridge, stands proudly beside his plow in a reminder that it was, as Emerson said, the “embattled farmer” who first made Concord a historic place. 22
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The man who built that weathervane is Steve Verrill, who has been running Verrill Farm since 1957. A born-and-raised Concord native, Verrill has lived in the area of Nine Acre Corner for nearly his whole life. Along with his work at the farm, he has been a lifelong advocate for farms and small businesses in the area. He was instrumental in the creation of Massachusetts’ Agricultural Preservation Restriction Program, which protects the state’s farmland from being developed into condominiums and office parks. Verrill has also been involved with local government, serving on many of the town’s committees. This past year he teamed with the organization Concord Together to help the town’s small businesses weather the COVID-19 crisis. But for all his public work, the family business, which he inherited from his father, has remained Verrill’s central project. Steve Verrill fondly remembers his father’s dairy farm. The Dairy, as it was called, was
founded in 1918, and delivered milk from its own cows across town, eventually setting up a shop in Concord center where there now sits a Dunkin’ Donuts. Growing up on the farm, Verrill milked his first cow when he was five years old and knew by eight that he wanted to become a farmer himself. Years later, in 1957, he returned to Concord after graduating from Cornell and took over his father’s business. The Dairy gradually grew until they had over 150 cows. An associate recommended that they sell strawberries, their first crop, which they did out of a wooden wagon. That cart can still be seen by the side of the road behind the farm stand that eventually replaced it. Over the years Verrill Farm grew more and more produce as dairy farming became a tougher and tougher business. “When I started there were probably 3000 dairy farmers in Massachusetts,” Verrill recalls; today there are barely more than 100. In 1990 Verrill Farm, the last of Concord’s dairy farms,
Steve, Jennifer, and Joan Verrill Photos ©Verrill Farm
auctioned off its herd. But as the traditions of the previous generation passed away, the next generation brought new traditions. Jennifer Verrill, Steve’s daughter, loves cooking, so she converted a barn left empty by the cows into a commercial kitchen. Baked goods have been a staple of the farm ever since: during Thanksgiving season they turn out thousands of their renowned pies. With the expanding range of produce and the addition of the kitchen, it became necessary for the Verrills to build a permanent farm stand, which went up in 1995.
On September 20, 2008, Steve and his wife Joan were coming home from a wedding when they got a call from an employee about a fire at the farm stand. An exhaust fan in the rafters had caught fire and started a four-alarm blaze. There were no fire hydrants in range, so the fire department had to wait for a water truck to arrive from Hanscom Airforce Base seven miles away, “and by then there wasn’t much to save,” says Verrill.
But work never stopped at the farm. Two days later they were selling produce off of temporary tables and the old wooden wagon. The Verrills moved immediately to build a new permanent farm stand. At first, their architects told them that it would take 16 months to build a new farm stand, but by will and good fortune the current farm stand was completed exactly 365 days after the fire. Today Verrill Farm crops around 150 acres of land – although it used to do even more, as when the Verrills had a field by the Hanscom airfield and had to wave down the control tower to let them move their tractors across the tarmac. Their fields are filled with rows of lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, potatoes, and many other crops including their signatures of sweet corn and tomatoes, the latter of which they grow in well over 100 varieties. Verrill Farm is a rarity in modern farming. Most farms today grow one or two crops, allowing them to have mechanized, largescale production with industrial machines. Verrill Farm harkens to an earlier time when communities relied on a handful of small local farms for all of their food. But the Verrills have not shied from technological advancement
either; they sport a fleet of state-of-the-art machines to seed, weed, water, and till their fields. One machine eliminates weeds by throwing flames onto the ground out of the mouths of propane tanks. When asked what the future holds for Verrill Farm, Steve Verrill simply answers, “No one knows.” It will, however, eventually pass over into the hands of the next generation, to Jennifer Verrill. And it will undoubtedly remain a rare gem. Walking around the premises, one is struck that a place of work could be so beautiful. Trays of lettuce about to be planted lie arranged in a checkerboard of deep crimson and green; tractors dot an open field beside a pen full of horses; and everywhere the smell of wet soil, of new life, fills the nostrils. Steve Verrill likes to say that in the spring, when they harvest and plow the fields, they are “clearing the canvas” for the summer. And what more fitting description is there for this great communal effort called Verrill Farm, which changes with the seasons while staying fixed in its spirit? It is a work of art – and like all works of art it calls forth from nature beauty and joy. Visit verrillfarm.com for the latest information on what’s happening at the farm stand or to buy a copy of their book, A Farm Grows in Concord – Celebrating 100 Years of Verrill Farm; a blend of family, farm, and Concord history along with 80 favorite Verrill Farm kitchen recipes. ——————————————————————— Sam Copeland is a Concord native and a writer based in New York.
An Approaching Storm of War and Bloodshed
Massachusetts on the Eve of Revolution
The people of Massachusetts were slow to anger, but when they got mad, there was hell to pay. They protested the Stamp Act in 1765, but they remained British subjects. They denounced the killing of five civilians in the Boston Massacre in 1770, but they didn’t strike back against the soldiers who patrolled their streets. What finally provoked them to take up arms was a play by the English government to disenfranchise them—in effect, to suppress their voting rights. The Massachusetts Government Act, passed by the British Parliament in May 1774, was the most intolerable of the so-called Intolerable Acts. The Massachusetts Government Act was itself a retaliation for the latest in a string of increasingly defiant acts by the people of Massachusetts—the one we know as the Boston Tea Party (a nickname coined half a century later). The colonists—or provincials, 24
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BY VICTOR CURRAN as they called themselves—had chafed for a decade under a series of taxes, but the most odious was the tax on tea. Tea wasn’t cheap in the American colonies, but despite the cost, tea had become a daily essential for just about everyone. So the tax aroused widespread resistance, with both men and women participating in boycotts. There was even a public tea-burning in Lexington in 1773. The most famous tea protest was the one in Boston Harbor December 16, 1773, when as many as 150 men boarded ships to destroy the hated tea while sympathetic onlookers cheered from the shore. Dramatic as it was, it remained a peaceful protest. The provincials took care to harm no one and even more surprisingly, British officers watched the whole scene from the deck of a nearby warship, but held their fire lest they injure the bystanders on shore.
England’s Prime Minister, Lord North, wasn’t so benign. “Boston had been the ringleader in all riots,” he fumed when informed of the Tea Party. “Therefore Boston ought to be the principal object of our attention for punishment.”1 Parliament’s first rebuke was to shut down the port of Boston, cutting off essential trade, but what really struck a nerve was the Massachusetts Government Act. The act removed elected judges, sheriffs, marshals, and other officials and replaced them with men appointed by the military governor, General Thomas Gage. Jurors would be chosen by the Governor’s handpicked sheriffs. All members of the Council, or upper house, of the Massachusetts legislature would be appointed by the Crown. Town meetings, the most vital channel for the voice of the people, were forbidden unless sanctioned by General Gage, who also
Library of Congress
England imposed the Massachusetts Government Act as retribution for the Boston Tea Party.
Massachusetts militias armed themselves with any weapons available. Samuel Dakin of Concord used his own hunting gun at the North Bridge in 1775.
courthouse, marching to fifes and drums, had to approve the agendas in advance. and forced the officers of the court to put The overall effect was to give Crown their signatures on a pledge renouncing the appointees unchecked control over the lives Massachusetts Government Act. of Massachusetts’ citizens. By the end of the summer of 1774, both Although town meetings were banned, no the provincials and General Gage could see one could stop the provincials from gathering that they were drawing perilously close to informally in the tavern or on the green. war. If the Massachusetts militias took up These “de facto out-of-doors civic bod[ies]”2 arms, Gage knew they would overwhelm his soon evolved into a shadow government, the occupying force of a few thousand soldiers, committees of correspondence, a network that enabled local leaders to share information so he decided to cut off their supply of gunpowder. On September 1, he sent troops and plan responses to England’s crackdown. to move more than 200 barrels of powder The committees of correspondence began from Quarry Hill (in what is now Somerville) at once to undermine the Massachusetts to Castle William, a British fort on an island Government Act. They called for a boycott in Boston Harbor. The following day, four of all British goods. The Massachusetts thousand or more Assembly (the lower house, club-wielding protestors whose members were elected) marched in Cambridge urged citizens to conduct town to protest the removal of meetings in defiance of the new the powder. law. When a judge, Peter Frye, Meanwhile in tried to arrest Salem men who Worcester, a group met illegally, the people of Essex calling itself the County united to stop him by American Political refusing to do business with Society had set itself him. Unable to buy so much as up as an independent a sack of flour to feed his family, governing body and Frye resigned his post. directed towns to form Such acts of resistance companies of combatremained nonviolent even as ready minutemen. If they escalated in number and Gage sent troops to intensity. Although the British Massachusetts’ Provincial Worcester County, the government denounced the Congress defied British towns would deploy activists as a mob, their protests authority by publishing the “properly armed and were planned with care and Rules and Regulations for the accoutered” militias to executed with restraint. They Massachusetts Army in 1775. “protect and defend the sometimes destroyed personal place invaded.”3 property, but they rarely inflicted bodily harm. The Massachusetts Assembly severed The people refused to let the Crownits ties with the Crown-controlled Council controlled courts operate. On August and declared itself the Provincial Congress. 16, 1774, Berkshire County court officials Meeting at Concord’s First Parish on October arrived to find the courthouse packed 20, they listed supplies they would need to wall-to-wall with protestors. They simply equip an army, including 1000 barrels of couldn’t get into the building. Two weeks powder and 5000 muskets with bayonets, later, a crowd of over three thousand at an estimated cost of over £20,000. people thronged the Hampshire County Towns bought what they could—often on
credit—but when they had to, they stole it, like the men who took muskets, cannons, and hundreds of barrels of powder from Fort William and Mary in Portsmouth, NH on December 14. By the early months of 1775, the Provincial Congress had procured “all kinds of warlike stores, sufficient for an army of fifteen thousand”4 and arranged to have them stashed in attics, cellars, and barns in Worcester and Concord. In March 1775, committees of the Provincial Congress directed Colonel James Barrett, commander of Concord’s minutemen, “to keep a suitable number of teams in constant readiness, by day and night.”5 Rev. William Emerson warned his Concord flock, “In all probability you will be called to real service . . . [There is] an approaching storm of war and bloodshed.”6 That same month, General Gage sent two officers in disguise to assess the situation in Concord. They found it “an armed camp, with sentries posted at its approaches, and vast quantities of munitions on hand.”7 The Provincial Congress resolved on April 8 that it was “necessary for this colony to make preparations for their security and defence, by raising and establishing an army,”8 and published a booklet called Rules and Regulations for the Massachusetts Army in flagrant defiance of English rule. You know what happened next. Less than two weeks later, Gage’s troops faced the minutemen at Concord’s North Bridge. What they didn’t count on was that the provincials had been rehearsing for this fight since the day the Massachusetts Government Act tried to silence their voice in selfgovernment. ———————————————————————— Victor Curran writes and leads tours of historic Concord and is an interpreter at the Concord Museum. He teaches courses and writes articles about the men and women who made Concord the home of American independence and imagination.
NOTES 1William Cobbett and T C. Hansard. The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803. London, Printed by T.C. Hansard [etc.] 1806-20. 2Ray and Marie Raphael. The Spirit of ’74: How the American Revolution Began. New York, The New Press, 2015. 3William Lincoln, ed. The Journals of Each Provincial Congress of Massachusetts in 1774 and 1775. Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, Printers to the State, 1838. 4Ibid. 5Ibid. 6William Emerson; Amelia Forbes Emerson. Diaries and letters of William Emerson, 1743-1776. Privately printed, 1972. 7David Hackett Fischer, Paul Revere’s Ride. New York, Oxford University Press, 1994. 8Lincoln, op. cit. Book photo courtesy of Concord Museum. Rules and Regulations for the Massachusetts Army, printed by Samuel and Ebenezer Hale, “Published by Order”, Salem, MA, April 10, 1775. Concord Museum; Gift of the Cummings Davis Society, Neil and Anna Rasmussen Foundation, Philip and Betsey C. Caldwell Foundation, Charles and Frances Grichar, Anonymous Gift, the Society of Colonial Wars in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 2006.299. Musket of Samuel Dakin, France, 1730. Concord Museum; Gift of Cummings E. Davis. A2006.
George Washington Dugan: No Longer Missing, No Longer Forgotten
January 1, 1863. As the Civil War entered its third bloody year, President Abraham Lincoln signed his Emancipation Proclamation. With a stroke of his pen, Lincoln ensured that the war now took on a bigger objective. It was not just a fight to save the Union; the lives — and freedom — of nearly four million enslaved African Americans now depended on the success of the Federal armies. With the Emancipation Proclamation, nearly 200,000 Black men, many of whom had been slaves, now joined the Union Army to fight in a war that had already taken the lives of tens of thousands of white men. This sudden surge of manpower would help tip the balance to Union victory in 1865. Concord had already sent off a couple of hundred of her men to fight, and many of them had been killed or wounded. But there was one man in the town who had not enlisted, and, in fact, was not even allowed to join the army: his name was George Washington Dugan. Before the Proclamation, George Dugan could not join the Union army because he was Black. But now, at long last, it was his turn to join the war effort. On February 16, 1863, a page in the Boston Journal announced that the newly formed 54th Massachusetts Colored Infantry was looking for “good men of African descent” to join the Union cause. Four days later, Dugan, a 44-year-old farmer and widower, arrived at the regimental recruiting station in Boston and enlisted. The 54th was one of the first Black regiments to be formed, and the majority of its enlistees were free people of color. George Dugan would have the distinction of being not only the only Concordian to join the 54th, he would be the only Black man from Concord to fight in the Civil War. Led by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the 26
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Both photos public domain
BY RICHARD SMITH
ABOVE: Storming of Fort Wagner; 1890 lithograph by Kurz and Allison LEFT: Recruitment Poster; 1863
regiment’s first major fight was the Second Battle of Fort Wagner on July 18, 1863, and it was a bloodbath; Shaw and 280 of his men were killed or wounded. Fifty-two of those casualties were never accounted for, meaning that their bodies were never identified or recovered. Among the missing was Private George Washington Dugan. It’s now presumed that he was buried in a mass grave with his comrades. Fast forward to April 19, 1867, as the Town of Concord dedicated its new monument, erected to honor the men of Concord who lost their lives in the Civil War. Over time, 48 names would be inscribed on the west side of the monument, men who “Found Here a Birthplace, Home or Grave.” But Concord lost 49 men in the war; the name of George Washington Dugan was missing. Why? Because Dugan’s body was never recovered. The men whose names appeared on the monument had all been accounted for,
identified, buried on the battlefields where they died, or brought home to Sleepy Hollow. Sadly, Dugan was simply “missing” and not verified as dead. He was not eligible to be on the tablet. But Dugan’s exclusion from the monument will soon be rectified! Thanks to the work of local historian Rick Frese, George Dugan will no longer be forgotten; the Concord Select Board recently and unanimously approved the installation of a tablet honoring Dugan, to be placed at the base of the Monument in a ceremony that will take place in the fall of 2021. At long last, George Dugan will take his place among Concord’s heroes, no longer missing. No longer forgotten. ——————————————————————————— Richard Smith has worked as a public historian in Concord for 21 years, specializing in Henry David Thoreau, the Transcendentalists, the Anti-Slavery movement, and the Civil War. He has written six books for Applewood Books and is a tour guide for Concord Tour Company.
for Social Justice
Michael Goodwin, acclaimed Concord educator and lecturer, sat down with Discover Concord to outline a compelling new course he is teaching on the pivotal year 1836. Having been an educator for more than 20 years, he has seen time and again that the vast majority of students exiting the public school system emerge ill-equipped to fight for social justice. There are many academic courses that offer students a deep knowledge of the history of a place and time but fail to offer the opportunity to translate history into action by involving students in the real-time life of the community. Conversely, many service programs offer participation in community projects, but often without the backdrop of history and context that allow one to truly understand the place and time. Sometimes, the best way forward is to look back and learn. And so, Michael created a course focusing on the pivotal year 1836, to bridge that gap. This timeline to the right shows just how much was brewing in the United States in this pivotal year – and these lessons serve as a fantastic springboard to activate real change in our modern time. Climate change. Systemic racism. Disparity of educational opportunity along socio-economic lines. These are holistic problems that require holistic action. Taking a cue from the change agents of 1836, students will position themselves to intervene in a meaningful way today. As Louis Pasteur once wrote, “Chance favors the prepared mind.” “Upon being steeped in the content,” offers Goodwin, “students will work collaboratively to design a community-based project that aims to create local and national impact. We will not need screens, because 1836 was a time of the content lives and breathes all around us. We will not need a great ferment - here schoolhouse, because the world will be our classroom. We will in Concord, and not need administrators, because we will create a self-sustaining across the country. community of our own; a community without hierarchy in which Ideas were thrown into the cauldron we all have a role to play. All we need is trust in one another, a and revolution willingness to explore the unknown, and the shared purpose of bubbled to the working towards amelioration.” surface. Now, as The course is open to students of all ages - 18 or 81. The more then, we must be diverse the age range, the richer the experience will be for all. The grounded in the only prerequisite is a high school diploma, or equivalent. For more truth and prepare information, or to enroll in the course, please visit concord1836.org. for action.
Darwin sets sail on the H.M.S. Beagle, en route to the theory of natural selection. Margaret Fuller graces Bronson Alcott’s Temple School in Boston, MA. Revolution brews in Texas. Thoreau does not attend his graduation from Harvard College. “Let every sheep keep its skin,” he writes, refusing to receive the diploma made of lamb’s flesh. The patent for steam train tires is granted. Maria Mitchell, the grandmother of astronomy, becomes the Head Librarian at the Nantucket Athenaeum. On the run, Frederick Douglass is captured and returned to bondage in Baltimore, MD. An abolition riot breaks out at the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Two fugitive enslaved women are freed from the courtroom by spectators. Mount Holyoke Female Seminary is chartered in South Hadley, MA, to become the first women’s liberal arts college in the country.
The whaling vessel Edward Quesnel departs from Fall River, MA, returning with 1,440 barrels of oil.
Courtesy of Madelyn Henry
Michael Goodwin Charts a New Course
A BRIEF HISTORY OF
Emerson gazes out his window from The Old Manse and pens the essay Nature, launching forth the literary shot heard round the world. “The sun shines today also. Let us demand our own laws, our own work, our own worship.”
Battle Green Vietnam:
The 1971 March on Concord, Lexington, and Boston
Hundreds of soldiers marching from the North Bridge in Concord, through Lexington, and onto the Bunker Hill battlefield in Charlestown — this sounds like a scene from the Revolutionary War. But this event didn’t take place in 1775; this march took place in 1971, and the men were American soldiers. More specifically, they were Vietnam veterans. Battle Green Vietnam: The 1971 March on Concord, Lexington, and Boston is the latest book by historian and writer Elise Lemire. A native of Lincoln, Massachusetts, Lemire first grabbed the attention of Thoreauvians and Concordians in 2009 with her wonderful book, Black Walden. And now, Lemire has taken a littleknown piece of Concord history and turned it into a thrilling story of patriotism and dissent. By 1971 the Vietnam War was in its seventh year, although America’s involvement in Southeast Asia went back even further. With casualty rates climbing, many Americans, especially the younger generation, were becoming disillusioned with the war, which seemed to be dragging on with no particular plan from President Nixon or the Pentagon on how to achieve victory. Many
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people began to see the war as unnecessary and immoral. One of the more vocal anti-war groups were Vietnam veterans. They’d seen the war firsthand, felt that Vietnam veterans begin march at Old North Bridge. the war was unwinnable, and they wanted the things at play here. The veterans felt that United States to get out of Southeast Asia. it was their patriotic duty to speak out The veterans saw their march as patriotic, against the immorality of the Vietnam War, and what better place to protest than where to stand up to a government that was doing the American Revolution immoral things. By protesting in Concord began? “Vietnam Veterans and Lexington, the vets were demonstrating Against the War are planning a connection to what they believed were the a reverse Paul Revere March founding principles of the nation, in the very from Concord to Boston” place where that nation began. read the press release. Much Battle Green Vietnam is a great book, like Revere did in 1775, the highlighting an event that should be better veterans saw their march as known and remembered by students of a way to warn the American history. Concord takes great pride in its people that the Vietnam War history of civil disobedience, from the was immoral and illegal. minutemen in 1775 to Henry Thoreau in Lemire brings the story 1846, and Lemire’s book adds another of the march vividly to life story to that proud history of dissent and in her new book. While it’s resistance. And the veterans understood relatively forgotten now, the that history of resistance when they event was a big deal in 1971; announced at the beginning of their protest: it made the American public “Just as the Minutemen gathered freely in more aware that Vietnam was a needless 1775, we gather freely in 1971.” Lemire’s war. And it led to the largest mass arrest in book is the telling of a single event, while United States history. honoring a long history of participation in While the book specifically tells the story the democratic process. In a free country, of a particular event, there were bigger dissent can be patriotic.
Boston Public Library/United Press International
BY RICHARD SMITH
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Welcome to the Neighborhood: Concord-Carlisle Neighbors
M First Friday Coffee at Fern’s
Moving to a new town can be hard if you don’t know a lot of people. Getting adjusted to the town and making new friends can be a daunting task. If you are moving to Concord or Carlisle, that’s where Concord Carlisle Neighbors club comes in. For many years now, Concord Carlisle Neighbors has been welcoming new Concordians and Carlislians by providing fun and engaging activities to meet other residents. Originally created as the ConcordCarlisle Newcomers club, the group changed its name a few years ago to reflect the fact that many members have been here a while. Either way, members just enjoy meeting new people and engaging in club activities. Local resident Susan Lynch says “We were new to Concord in 2009 with two kids in elementary school and a baby on the way. Newcomers and the Gourmet Group opened up circles of new and veteran Concordians, giving us new friends for local advice, dinners, and even family vacations. It was, and still is, a great way to ‘break the ice’ with getting to know a wider set of neighbors and the neighborhood.”
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Photos ©David Rosenbaum
BY DAVID ROSENBAUM
By far the most popular, and well subscribed, activity is the Gourmet Group. If you like to cook this is for you! Groups of five couples/singles are created and given five menus per year to prepare. The menus follow a theme given annually, such as regional cuisines for a country or continent, or famous chefs. Each menu has recipes for appetizers, main course, side, and dessert along with wine pairings. Groups rotate who will be responsible for cooking each part of the meal or buying the wine so that everyone participates each time. In most groups, the hosting also rotates. Wine, beer, and whiskey tastings are also popular. Some of these have been held at a member’s home, others at a local business. In each of them you have an opportunity to taste different beverages and learn about them from an expert, to eat some snacks, and, of course, to socialize. Traditionally, Concord-Carlisle Neighbors (CC Neighbors) also holds one or two parties with no agenda other than socializing. Prepandemic, the last party was at the Concord Museum, where guests could see some of
the historic exhibits in the newly opened addition. CC Neighbors has also hosted cocktail hours at local establishments, and even trivia night teams at the Colonial Inn. Other activities include monthly newcomer coffees, book groups, a dining-out group, and an art salon. Members with ideas for activities are encouraged to organize something they think might be enjoyable, as well. If you are interested in learning more about CC Neighbors, go to the website ccneighbors.org and check it out. Club activities will be starting up in September after a COVID hiatus, so check their online calendar later this summer. Finally, as member Lis Martin said, “Joining CC Neighbors accelerated our assimilation into the community, and we have made friends and connections we will keep for our lifetime.” You may find you do the same! ———————————————————————— David Rosenbaum is a Concord resident. When he’s not heading up the ConcordCarlisle Neighbors club, cycling, or brewing beer, his day job is Solutions Engineer for Kaltura, Inc.
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Photos courtesy of Dunkin’
Serving Up a Big Cup of
Megan and Mark Pesce, the Concordian couple who own the Dunkin’s around town, have always made community the focal point of their business. For years, they donated coffee and treats to local sports teams and generously gave to fundraisers and philanthropic events. They also made a point of giving back to the amazing community of employees who make Dunkin’ run so smoothly every day – creating shifts for mothers’ hours, giving high school students a chance to learn new skills, and providing free language classes for employees who wanted to learn English. The Pesces took pride in creating a fun and supportive workplace for their whole staff. That effort created a strong foundation that saw the Dunkin’ team through an incredibly trying time when COVID shut down the town in 2020. The lockdowns, quarantines, and partial openings would continue for more than a year – stretching the business to the limit.
Weathering the Storm The Dunkin’ employees pivoted quickly to do all they could to keep customers – and the team – as safe as possible during the pandemic. As soon as the guidelines allowed, the team created a system of curbside (contactless) pickup – with employees running outside in rain, snow, and cold dozens of times each shift. Inside, teams cleaned high touch points every 30 minutes. A detailed contact tracing and quarantine system protected customers and team members. Everyone juggled to help the single moms left with no childcare as schools closed. “Everyone really came together to support one another,” said Mark Pesce.
“We were blown away by the dedication, the commitment to each other, and the can-do attitude of our entire team during one of the hardest times we’ve ever experienced together. We are so grateful.” Finding Strength in Giving Back The Dunkin’ commitment to community provided a great focal point to lift everyone’s spirits during COVID. Hundreds of meals were donated with love to the Fuel the Fight effort to support health care workers. Team members brought smiles to kids’ faces at Halloween by dressing up in costumes – including the team at one store who dressed as ‘healthcare superheroes’ complete with capes! And when Mark and Megan were able to buy a large batch of N95 masks, they donated more than 300 to the school system to help keep teachers and kids safe. Renewed and Excited for the Future Mark and Megan have been making plans to renovate the Thoreau Street store with a new design that showcases the community that means so much to them. “There is one word that most sums up how we made it through such a difficult time – and that is community,” said Megan
Kicks for Cancer
Fuel the Fight
Pesce. “Our amazing team of dedicated and hardworking employees and the incredibly supportive people in Concord made a world of difference. Our hearts are so filled with gratitude. It was a really difficult time and we are relieved to still be here – serving up good food and great coffee - in the town we love so much.” Stop by and say hello to the hardworking team at any of the Concord Dunkin’ stores (there is a coupon for a free donut with any purchase at the back of this publication) and follow the latest happenings on Facebook at Dunkin’ of Concord and Instagram @concorddunkin.
BY KATIE JOHNSON
It’s the perfect time to rediscover Lexington… Here in Massachusetts, we are lucky enough to live and work in an area rich in history and natural resources. It’s easy to take this for granted sometimes, and we forget how much there is to see and do right here in our own backyard. But this summer, local attractions may have the advantage over more exotic places. The pandemic has turned tourism on its side, but at least one positive trend has emerged: the desire to seek enjoyment locally. So if you’ve postponed your European trip or canceled that tropical island getaway, fear not. Adventure awaits but one town away… We invite you to travel east on Battle Road through Minute Man National Historical Park to spend a day in Lexington Center. Grab a coffee and check out our Visitors Center directly across from the iconic Minuteman Statue and Lexington Battle Green at 1875 Massachusetts Avenue. We have created an outdoor, onehour “Let it Begin Here” guided walking tour of the Battle Green. Travel back in time with your costumed guide to the morning of April 19, 1775, where “the first blood was spilt in the dispute with Great Britain,” as George Washington wrote in his diary. Eight Minutemen lost their lives and 10 were wounded. Two British soldiers were also injured. After the battle, Samuel Adams exclaimed to John Hancock, “What a glorious morning for America!” On this one-hour walking tour of Lexington Battle Green, you’ll explore the many notable sites surrounding this National Historic Landmark. It is considered consecrated ground, both for the blood shed on it and for 34
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Photo courtesy of the author
A Day in Lexington
the minutemen who are interred here. Some highlights include: • The iconic Henry H. Kitson Minuteman Statue • The Revolutionary War Monument, a granite obelisk erected in 1799, where the remains of seven militiamen killed in the battle are buried. • Captain John Parker monument inscribed with: “Stand your ground. Don’t fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.” • The Old Belfry, which sounded the alarm on April 19, 1775, calling the militia to the common. • The Old Burying Ground where Captain John Parker, ministers John Hancock and Jonas Clarke, and an unknown British soldier are buried. After your tour concludes, stop for lunch at one of several great family-friendly outdoor
spots, and then stroll by the three witness houses in and around Lexington Center. They are: the Hancock-Clarke House, Paul Revere’s final destination; Buckman Tavern, the militia’s headquarters; and Munroe Tavern, used as a British field hospital on April 19, 1775. We are also delighted to announce that the Liberty Ride Trolley Tour is back! Starting July 16, this 90-minute tour of Lexington and Concord will run every Friday through Monday at 10am, 11:30am, and 1pm. Tickets for the Trolley Tour, the Lexington Battle Green Tour, and lots of information about Lexington can be found at the Visitors Center at 1875 Massachusetts Ave. in Lexington. Learn more at tourlexington.us and at lexhistory.org. We hope to see you this summer! ———————————————————————— Katie Johnson oversees the Lexington Visitors Center, its tours, and its retail shoppe.
Courtesy of Concord Visitor Center
Concord’s Summer Paradise BY VICTOR CURRAN
“Is not all the summer akin to a paradise?” wrote Henry David Thoreau in 1852. This summer seems especially heavenly as we start to travel and enjoy social activities safely again. Concord has much to offer literary pilgrims, Revolutionary War buffs, and nature lovers from near and far. Minute Man National Historical Park lands are open, including the North Bridge and Meriam’s Corner areas, and Battle Road trails. The National Park Visitor Centers at the North Bridge and Route 2A in Lexington offer exhibits, ranger programs, gift shops, parking, and public rest rooms. Next door to the North Bridge is The Old Manse. Like many other properties of the Trustees of Reservations, the Manse invites visitors to its beautiful grounds right on the Concord River, where signage tells of the Manse as witness to “the shot heard ’round the world” and host to Concord’s literary community. Concord’s historic cemeteries are just a few steps from the town center. The Old Hill Burying Ground is the final resting place
of early Puritan ministers, minutemen, and John Jack, whose eloquent epitaph tells of his journey from slavery to freedom. At Sleepy Hollow Cemetery you can pay your respects to Concord’s literary celebrities, including Louisa May Alcott, Hawthorne, and Emerson. Thoreau is there, of course, and so is the guy who put him in jail, Sam Staples. Sleepy Hollow is renowned for its beautiful landscaping, and you can also feast your eyes on the Daniel Chester French sculpture, “Mourning Victory,” which adorns the grave of three Melvin brothers, Concord men who lost their lives while serving the Union in the Civil War. The Emerson-Thoreau Amble is a nature trail connecting the Emerson house on Cambridge Turnpike with Walden Pond. Highlights include the secluded Fairyland Pond and Brister’s Spring, named for Brister Freeman, a Concord African American who emancipated himself from slavery. Another summer favorite is Walden Pond State Reservation, where you can saunter along trails in Thoreau’s footsteps.
Swimming is allowed, and rest rooms are open. The Visitor Center is staffed by park rangers and features exhibits and a Ken Burns film. Stop by the Thoreau Society’s shop for soft drinks, apparel, gifts, and of course, books. Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, about a mile and a half from the town center, is one of the best inland birding areas in the state. Visitors can hike the trails and observe, photograph, and study a rich diversity of animal and plant life. Our own Concord Visitor Center at 58 Main Street welcomes you every day from 10:00 to 5:00, with expert staff and public rest rooms. Daily tours tell Concord’s story from its earliest inhabitants to its central roles in the American Revolution and American literary history. Other tours let you take a closer look at the town’s African American history, its indigenous people, its noteworthy women, Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women, West Concord, and more. There’s so much to do, you almost wish the summer would never end.
Arts Around Town
As summer arrives in Concord, we are delighted to see many of our town’s extraordinary art venues continuing their online programs and adding live events as national, state, and local governments issue updated guidance on safely coming together once more. This summer will bring exciting visual arts programs, a concert, and even live theatre once again. Please check each organization’s website for more information on events and the steps they are taking to keep attendees safe. Courtesy of the artist Ying Li
CONCORD ART 37 Lexington Road | concordart.org MAIN GALLERY (un)seen: Artist Panel featuring Rashin Fahandej, Lyssa Palu-ay, Stephen Tourlentes, and Keith Morris Washington. Exhibition Dates: June 17 - August 15 ARTIST TALKS Painting from Life with Keiran Brennan Hinton Keiran Brennan Hinton will show examples of his plein air paintings and discuss how close observation through painting can increase ones perceptual sensitivity. July 9, 7:00-8:00 pm on ZOOM Raw and Cultivated: Transformation from Nature to Art by Painting with Ying Li, Charles Dean, and Aschely Michael Vaughan Cone MacMahon for July 29, 7:00-8:30 pm on ZOOM Dazzleship THE UMBRELLA ARTS CENTER 40 Stow Street | theumbrellaarts.org MAIN GALLERY Dazzleship will present art by regional artists in a variety of media — from painting and sculpture to animation and fiber — and styles. Named for the short-lived Dazzle Ship camouflage, whose intention was not to 36
conceal but to obscure an object’s heading, the show’s theme intends to explore obscure trajectories of regional artists who persevered to make exciting work and develop their own processes and working practices while navigating “unprecedented and turbulent times.” July 21 - September 12 ONE REVOLUTION This year-long collaborative project by Minute Man National Historical Park and The Umbrella Arts Center invites you to explore the beauty, history, and unique nature of the park. Each season brings a new activity that will inspire you to draw, paint, write, take a photo, or even make your own video. Visit theumbrellaarts.org/arts-environment/public-art/onerevolution for more information. JANE DEERING GALLERY 19 Pleasant Street, Gloucester, MA | janedeeringgallery.com The Jane Deering Gallery is now exhibiting in Concord! The Concord gallery is open weekends 1:00 – 4:00 pm and by appointment. Visit their website for information on upcoming shows. Courtesy of The Umbrella Arts Center
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Sarah Whitney of Go Beyond The Notes
THREE STONES GALLERY 115 Commonwealth Avenue | threestonesgallery.com SUN STONE STUDIO Welcome Sun Stone Studio! This exciting new gallery is an offspring of Three Stones Gallery and showcases artwork that reflects a unique sensibility by artists from New England and the British Isles. It’s just a few doors down from Three Stones Gallery, so stop by and have a look.
Pandemic Memorial Heart
Courtesy of The Umbrella Arts Center
OUTER EDGES: FABRIC, THREAD, PAPER, WAX, INK, AND FOUND OBJECTS Merill Comeau and Jodi Colella combine their keen aesthetic vision with their individual social/political sensibilities and the multilayering of meaning woven throughout their work. These intricate and creative pieces reflect a thought-provoking collaboration. July 7 – August 18
MUSIC THE UMBRELLA ARTS CENTER 40 Stow Street | theumbrellaarts.org BEYOND THE NOTES @ THE UMBRELLA Performing live from The Umbrella Arts Center, violinist and Beyond The Notes founding artistic director, Sarah Whitney, is back with a unique, interactive concert experience that changes perceptions of traditional classical concerts and deepens the connection between the audience and performer. July 31 - August 1
Courtesy of Village Art Room
VILLAGE ART ROOM 152 Commonwealth Avenue | villageartroom.com PANDEMIC MEMORIAL HEART With more than 14,000 hearts contributed by almost 40 people, the Pandemic Memorial Heart is a tribute to those who passed from this world due to COVID-19. This community art project is truly a work of love and is available to be displayed in medical settings as a show of gratitude to the hospital workers who have saved lives and brought comfort during these difficult times.
CONCORD PLAYERS 51 Walden Street | concordplayers.org AS YOU LIKE IT This pastoral tale of lost souls in Shakespeare’s fictional Forest of Arden will draw inspiration from the real Ardennes Forest of France and the Lost Generation of men and women who struggled through the displacement of World War I. It is a play about the redemptive power of love, full of the whimsy, farcical mistaken identity, and word play that make Shakespeare’s comedies so fun. Presented on the lawn at the Concord Free Public Library July 24, 25, 31 and August 1. STEEL MAGNOLIAS Alternatively hilarious and touching, this beloved comedy-drama portrays the bond among a group of Southern women in northwest Louisiana. It reveals, over time, the depth of the strength and purposefulness of its unforgettable characters — ladies who are “as delicate as magnolias but as tough as steel.” September 3 - 12
THE SECRET SIX TOP ROW:
Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, Thomas Wentworth, Theodore Parker BOTTOM ROW:
Franklin Sanborn, Gerrit Smith, George Luther Stearns
“Invested in Treason”
Concord and John Brown’s
On May 8, 1859, John Brown was back in Concord. The tall, humorless abolitionist had grown a flowing white beard, making him look like an Old Testament prophet. Like he did during his first visit in 1857, Brown spoke on his anti-slavery activities in Kansas to a large crowd at the Town Hall; he had come east in the hope of raising money for those activities. As in 1857, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Thoreau were again in the audience, and they supported Brown; intellectually, philosophically, and monetarily. The man who brought John Brown to Concord was a 27-year-old schoolteacher 38
| Summer 2021
BY RICHARD SMITH
named Franklin Sanborn. An 1855 graduate of Harvard College, young Sanborn moved to Concord, was befriended by Emerson, Thoreau, and Bronson Alcott, and was openly admitted into their select company for walks and Transcendental conversation. Sanborn was also a fanatical abolitionist. By 1856 he had become the secretary of the Massachusetts State Kansas Aid Committee, an organization dedicated to helping antislavery emigrants settle in Kansas and make it a Free State. Bronson Alcott called Sanborn “something of a revolutionary” while Henry Thoreau wrote that the young man’s “quiet,
steadfast earnestness and ethical fortitude are of the type that calmly...ignites and then throws bomb after bomb.” By the late 1850s, it was evident to many abolitionists that slavery was not going away; the Fugitive Slave Law, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the attack on Senator Charles Sumner in the United States Congress, and the Dred Scott decision showed many Americans that more drastic measures were needed to bring an end to slavery. When Sanborn met John Brown in 1857, he felt that Brown was just the man to do it. He would later write that Brown’s devotion to Abolition and the
Concord Town Hall
John Brown in 1859
Photo by Richard Smith
principles of the American Revolution were a constant in Brown’s mind; he quoted Brown as saying, “I believe in the Golden Rule and the Declaration of Independence. I think they both mean the same thing.” Of course, Sanborn was not the only one who would support John Brown; between 1856 and 1859, a small group of supporters would become Brown’s closest confidants and the chief suppliers of the money and weapons that he would ultimately use in his raid on Harpers Ferry. These men, all but one a New Englander, would become known as The Secret Six. George Luther Stearns and Gerritt Smith were the wealthiest of the Six. Stearns, in particular, was a successful industrialist who lived in a large mansion in Medford, Massachusetts. He personally gave hundreds of dollars for Brown’s activities. Samuel Gridley Howe was a physician and an advocate of education for the blind; he was instrumental in the creation of the Perkins Institute for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts. He was also married to Julia Ward Howe, who is best remembered for writing “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” in 1861. The last two members of the Six, Theodore Parker and Thomas Wentworth Higginson, were Unitarian ministers who, like Sanborn, had close connections to Concord. These men of God were the most radical of the group. They openly advocated for and instigated the violent overthrow of slavery, which is why they admired John Brown; they had high hopes that Brown was the man who would bring slavery to an end, and they would help him do it. “I am always ready to invest money in treason,” Higginson would write to Brown in 1857. Theodore Parker was an associate of Ralph Waldo Emerson and one of the first members of the so-called Transcendental Club. Like Emerson, he preached on the divinity of Nature. Unlike Emerson, Parker refused to resign from the ministry when his Transcendentalism upset the Unitarian hierarchy; “I preach abundant heresies,” he proudly proclaimed. After the Fugitive Slave Law was passed, Parker, already a committed abolitionist, ramped up his radicalism. He openly preached against the new law, was involved in the Underground Railroad, and led
attempts to free captured runaway slaves in Boston. Because of his efforts in the war on slavery, Emerson would call Parker a “standard-bearer of liberty.” Thomas Wentworth Higginson was a Worcester minister whose connections with the Concord literati ran deep. He became a Transcendentalist because of Emerson, and an abolitionist because of Parker; he would comment on the immense influence both men had on his style of radical Unitarianism. He often lectured in Concord and became friends with both Emerson and Thoreau. He married Ellery Channing’s sister, Mary, and was a good friend to Margaret Fuller and her siblings. From 1857 to 1859 the Six were constantly funneling money and weapons to Brown. All six of them would be privy to,
and supportive of, his raid on the Harpers Ferry arsenal; by October 1859 they had given Brown at least $2000, and he’d collected 200 Sharp’s rifles and 1000 pikes that he hoped to use to arm slaves. But the raid was a failure; most of Brown’s 21 men were killed or captured, while Brown himself would be hanged by the State of Virginia for murder and inciting a slave rebellion. By the time of Brown’s execution in December 1859, Theodore Parker was in Italy, desperately hoping to recover from the tuberculosis that would kill him on May 10, 1860. Only Higginson would neither deny his involvement with Brown, like Gerritt Smith, or flee the country for Canada, like Sanborn, Howe, and Stearns. Instead, Higginson remained in Worcester and dared authorities to come and get him. They never did. Higginson would continue his own antislavery work by joining the Union Army in 1862 and becoming the Colonel of First South Carolina Volunteers, one of the first all-black Union regiments to fight in the Civil War. The Secret Six saw the fight against slavery as a revolution, and they viewed John Brown as no different from the men who fought at Lexington and Concord in 1775. After many decades of compromise and appeasement with the slaveholding South, these men believed that drastic actions like Brown’s were needed to free the enslaved millions. While Brown’s attempt at Harpers Ferry failed, his raid was the match that lit the fuse toward civil war, a war that ultimately freed almost 4 million African Americans. While Brown’s raid may be regarded as insane or foolish, he was a man who put his convictions into action, a man willing to die for the anti-slavery cause. Henry Thoreau called Brown a “transcendentalist above all.” To him, Brown was living out the moral imperative, the transcendental ideal, fighting and dying for the notion that all men are created equal. ———————————————————————— Richard Smith has worked as a public historian in Concord for 21 years, specializing in Henry David Thoreau, the Transcendentalists, the Anti-Slavery movement, and the Civil War. He has written six books for Applewood Books and is a tour guide for Concord Tour Company.
Summer in the Parks
natural beauty. As the warm days of summer arrive,
residents and visitors alike deeply appreciate having
access to national and state parks which provide a great way to get outside and enjoy nature. Here, we present
the key features of two of our most popular destinations.
BY JENNIFER C. SCHÜNEMANN
Concord is well known for its rich history and stunning
Minute Man National Historical Park Welcome to one of Concord’s most popular destinations! If you are visiting Minute Man National Historical Park this summer, the park has modified its operations as we make our way out of the COVID pandemic. The park grounds and trails are open for your enjoyment – stroll the grounds, have a picnic with friends or family, or stop to learn the history presented on plaques and signage throughout the park. Three comfort stations are available during the day at North Bridge, Merriam’s Corner, and Hartwell Tavern. The North Bridge Visitor Station is now open at 174 Liberty Street, seven days a week, from 10am – 5pm. The Minute Man National Historical Park Visitor Center off Route 2A is open seven days a week from 9am – 5pm. Programs are offered daily. Here are some suggestions if you are visiting the park: • Walk over the Concord River on the North Bridge, site of “the shot heard ‘round the world,” featuring the famous minuteman statue • Walk, bike, or run the Battle Road Trail. This 5.5 mile (8.9 km) historic trail follows the footsteps of British soldiers and Colonial minutemen through the battlefield and the heart of the park; today, you’ll pass many historic farms, witness structures, and serene woods; visit the website to take the cell phone tour. • Dogs are welcome, but please pick up after them and keep them leashed, and do not leave them in your vehicle Please follow the park website (nps.gov/mima) and social media (@MinuteManNPS) for updates and information. 40
| Summer 2021
Walden Pond State Reservation – Swimming, Boating, and Hiking A visit to Walden Pond State Reservation will bring you back in time to the mid-1800s, where you can experience the connection with nature that inspired Henry David Thoreau’s “Walden.” Bring the family and enjoy a day of swimming, walking the trail that loops around the famous pond, or boating out on the water. You can also visit the replica of Thoreau’s single-room cabin where he took inspiration for his work. Restrooms and changing stations are available at the park. There are wonderful exhibits at the Visitor Center, which is open 10am – 4pm daily. And The Thoreau Society Gift Shop is a great place to find a book, postcard, poster, or t-shirt to remember your visit. They are open 10am – 7pm daily. Summer is a busy time, so it’s important to plan ahead. A state mandate limits the number of people allowed on the property at any one time to 1,000 and is strictly enforced. COVID guidelines may further limit capacity and are changing as the state reopens. It’s a good idea to check before heading to the park by calling 978-369-3254 or by following their Twitter account @waldenpondstate. Life guards are on duty Memorial Day to Labor Day – please check the website for specific days and hours. There is a daily parking fee of $8 for Massachusetts license plates, $30 for all other plates. To protect the grounds and water quality for future generations, the state only allows registered service animals. For more information, please visit mass.gov/locations/walden-pond-state-reservation.
The Robbins House
Updates on Popular Destinations
As Massachusetts continues to see COVID cases fall and vaccination rates increase, some of Concord’s most popular destinations are reopening. To help you plan your visit, we have put together our best understanding of what is open as of the time we went to press in late June. Things evolve daily, so please check websites and/or social media outlets for the latest information before heading to your destination. CONCORD FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY – OPEN on weekdays - key historical documents can be found in the special collections area, and rare art is on display by Ralph Waldo Emerson, N.C. Wyeth, and Daniel Chester French, among others. ConcordLibrary.org CONCORD MUSEUM – OPEN Thursday to Sunday – An irreplaceable cornerstone of the Concord experience, the Concord Museum speaks to the deepest historical, literary, and cultural roots of our American identity. Exhibits, events, and virtual program information available at ConcordMuseum.org CONCORD VISITOR CENTER – OPEN seven days a week in summer 10am to 5pm. Lots of information and helpful guides available. You can also book a walking tour here. VisitConcord.org
LOUISA MAY ALCOTT’S ORCHARD HOUSE CLOSED, with plans to reopen by August 1st. Access to the gardens and grounds remains free and available to all. Updates on status, as well as a delightful virtual visit are available at LouisaMayAlcott.org THE OLD MANSE – CLOSED. Access to the grounds remains free. TheTrustees.org/place/ the-old-manse/ RALPH WALDO EMERSON HOUSE CLOSED (museum and grounds). RalphWaldoEmersonHouse.org THE ROBBINS HOUSE – OPEN 11am to 4pm (closed on Tuesdays), with a limit of six visitors inside at one time. Concord’s African American History Museum is one of the only known historic sites commemorating the legacy of a previously enslaved Revolutionary War veteran. Information on the families who lived here, as well as interactive content and a self-guided walking tour map are available at RobbinsHouse.org THE WAYSIDE – CLOSED. Information on the authors who lived here can be found at NPS.gov/ mima/learn/historyculture/thewayside.htm
A note as you plan your visit: We are all so happy to see visitors (and locals!) returning to our museums, shops, inns, and restaurants. We have missed you so much! We just ask for a bit of patience – the whole country opened up at once, and many of our local establishments are having trouble finding enough employees to handle the sudden influx of (much appreciated) business. Parents are still figuring out summer camps and schools are out – so childcare is barrier for some workers. Normally, we might have some seasonal help from students seeking a summer in New England – but international travel is still heavily restricted. Additionally, our vendors and key infrastructure are all also operating on reduced staff. That means that deliveries may be delayed, products might not always be available, and service may be slower than we would like it to be. Patience and understanding will go a long way. We know things will make their way back to normal – just know that we are all SO happy to see you, and we are eager to make you feel welcome.
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& Surrounding Areas CONCORD rounding Areas WHERE TO STAY
Concord’s Colonial Inn 740 Elm St North Bridge Inn 320 Baker Ave
West Concord 48 Monument Sq 21 Monument Sq
Best Western Residence Inn by Marriott
740 Elm St 320 Baker Ave
WHERE TO SHOP Concord Center
Albright Art Supply 74 Commonwealth Ave Artinian Jewelry 23 Commonwealth Ave Artisans Way 33 Commonwealth Ave Barrow Bookstore r Shop 135 Commonwealth Ave Blue Dry Goods ters 113 Commonwealth Ave Brine Sporting Goods ral Gourmet 98 Commonwealth Ave Cheese Shop of Concord 45 Commonwealth Ave Comina + Home 49 Commonwealth Ave Concord Bookshop 33 Bradford St Concord Lamp and Shade 101 Commonwealth Ave Concord Market Gallery 115 Commonwealth Ave The Concord Toy Box Pharmacy 1212 Main St Copper Penny Flowers Wine & Spirits 1215 Main St The Dotted i Fairbank & Perry Goldsmiths FatFace Footstock Fritz & Gigi ter French 55Lessons Main St George 33 Vassel Main StJewelry Gräem and Chocolate nial Inn 1 48Nuts Monument Square Grasshopper Shop na 1 24 Walden St Irresistables 12 Walden St J McLaughlin rant 17 Main St Jack & Market & Café 1 42Toba Main St Jane 73 Deering ery & Food Shop Main Gallery St Lucy 97 Lacoste 1 LowellGallery Rd Nesting North Bridge Antiques ot Patina 80Green Thoreau St Priscilla Shop Ice Cream 68 Candy Thoreau St Revolutionary Concord aurant 10 Concord Crossing Sara 117 Campbell LtdSt Thoreau Tess & Market Café 26Carlos Concord Crossing Hill d Asian Fusion 1 Thistle 105 Thoreau St Thoreauly Antiques yle Pizza 71 Thoreau St Vanderhoof Hardware k Oven Pizzeria 58 Thoreau St Viola159 Lovely Sudbury Rd Walden Liquors d Walden Street Antiques 1200 Main St 1 Commonwealth Ave Nine20 Acre Corner kes 59 Commonwealth Ave Colonial Gardens & Pizzeria Main St Verrill1135 Farm 1191 Main St Bakery 152 Commonwealth Ave Thoreau Depot Cheerful 110 Commonwealth Ave ATA Cycles n 84 Commonwealth Ave Concord Optical Kitchen 92 Commonwealth Ave Concord Provisions ble 1 24 Commonwealth Ave Frame-ables Juju resco dining options Period Furniture Hardware
WHERE TO EAT
Money Saving Coupon on p. 70
West Concord 32 Main St 39 Main St 18 Walden St 79 Main St 16 Walden St 69 Main St 29 Walden St 9 Walden St 65 Main St 21 Walden St 77 Lowell Rd 32 Main St 9 Independence Court 1 Walden St 32 Main St 4 Walden St 46 Main St 79 Main St 8 Walden St 40 Main St 49 Main St 36 Main St 16 Walden St 14 Walden St 10 Walden St 94 Elm St 25 Main St 44 Main St 28 Walden St 59 Main St 19 Walden St 32 Main St 41 Main St 81 Main St 13 Walden St 25 Walden St 28 Main St 38 Main St 18 Walden St 23 Walden St
442 Fitchburg Tpke 11 Wheeler Rd
93 Thoreau St 80 Thoreau St 75 Thoreau St 111 Thoreau St 82 Thoreau St 113 Thoreau St.
A New Leaf Belle on Heels Concord Firefly Concord Flower Shop Concord Outfitters *Debra’s Natural Gourmet Forever Tile Joy Street Life + Home Rare Elements Reflections Three Stones Gallery West Concord Pharmacy West Concord Wine & Spirits
74 Commonwealth Ave 23 Commonwealth Ave 33 Commonwealth Ave 135 Commonwealth Ave 113 Commonwealth Ave 98 Commonwealth Ave 45 Commonwealth Ave 49 Commonwealth Ave 33 Bradford St 101 Commonwealth Ave 115 Commonwealth Ave 1212 Main St 1215 Main St
WHERE TO EAT Concord Center Caffè Nero Comella’s Concord’s Colonial Inn 1 Fiorella’s Cucina 1 Haute Coffee Helen’s Restaurant Main Streets Market & Café 1 Sally Ann’s Bakery & Food Shop Trail’s End Cafe 1
55 Main St 33 Main St 48 Monument Square 24 Walden St 12 Walden St 17 Main St 42 Main St 73 Main St 97 Lowell Rd
Thoreau Depot 80 Thoreau 1 Bedford Farms Ice Cream Chang An Restaurant *Dunkin’ Farfalle Italian Market Café Karma Concord Asian Fusion 1 New London Style Pizza Sorrento’s Brick Oven Pizzeria Starbucks
80 Thoreau St 68 Thoreau St 10 Concord Crossing 117 Thoreau St 26 Concord Crossing 105 Thoreau St 71 Thoreau St 58 Thoreau St 159 Sudbury Rd
West Concord Adelita 1 Club Car Café 1 Concord Teacakes Dino’s Kouzina & Pizzeria *Dunkin’ Nashoba Brook Bakery Reasons to Be Cheerful Saltbox Kitchen Walden Italian Kitchen Woods Hill Table 1
1200 Main St 20 Commonwealth Ave 59 Commonwealth Ave 1135 Main St 1191 Main St 152 Commonwealth Ave 110 Commonwealth Ave 84 Commonwealth Ave 92 Commonwealth Ave 24 Commonwealth Ave
1 Call for al fresco dining options
* Discover CONCORD
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Concord Visitor Center
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Concord Center — See detailed map on next page
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North Bridge Visitor Center 174 Liberty St H Old Hill Burying Ground 2-12 Monument Sq I The Old Manse 269 Monument St J Ralph Waldo Emerson House 28 Cambridge Turnpike K The Robbins House 320 Monument St L Sleepy Hollow Cemetery & Authors Ridge 120 Bedford St M South Burying Ground Main St & Keyes Rd N The Umbrella Arts Center 40 Stow St O Walden Pond State Reservation 915 Walden St The Wayside P 455 Lexington Rd
Concord Free Public Library 129 Main St B Concord Museum 200 Lexington Rd C Concord Visitor Center 62 58 Main St D Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House 399 Lexington Rd E Minute Man National Historical Park 250 N. Great Rd (Lincoln) F The North Bridge
Points of Interest d tR Prescot
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Barrett Sotheby’s Int’l Realty Barrow Bookstore Concord’s Colonial Inn Concord Players
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Jane Deering Gallery
William Raveis Real Estate
North Bridge Antiques
15 14 16
Fairbank & Perry Goldsmiths
Engel & Völkers
Compass Real Estate
9 9 10
The Cheese Shop
The Concord Toy Box
Albright Art Supply + Gift
Points of Interest
Concord Train Station
90 Thoreau St
United States Post Office
35 Beharrell St
West Concord Train Station
Commonwealth Ave & Main St
Featured Businesses 1 3
Appleton Design Group
The Attias Group
Concord Flower Shop
*Debra’s Natural Gourmet
6 7 8 9 10
*Dunkin’ (two locations)
Three Stones Gallery
West Concord Pharmacy
West Concord Wine & Spirits
Woods Hill Table
Forever Tile Joy Street Life + Home Lincoln Physicians NorthBridge Insurance
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WEST CONCORD 9
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Tell-Tale Tussie Mussies: The Victorian Language of Flowers
Imagine you lived in Victorian era Concord and you heard a knock on the door. Grasping the door’s handle, you open it and see a hopeful suitor standing on the granite doorstep, handing you a small bouquet with a red rose in the center and tied with a piece of lace. If you reached out with your right hand, took the bouquet, and pressed it to your heart, it meant you were saying “Yes, I accept your affections!” If you took the nosegay and held it upside down by your side it meant, “I’ll keep the flowers, but it’s a hard ‘no’ from me and you can move along.” And if you took the nosegay, admired it, and both the flower and you instantly started shriveling and disintegrating into dust, it meant you were likely a character in a Nathaniel Hawthorne story. Coming on the heels of the Georgian era (1714-1837), when Jane Austen’s characters took hundreds of turns around the room, long brooding walks in miserable weather, and spent over 300 pages staring out the window before they got around to sharing their hearts’ desires, people in the Victorian age found a way to cut to the chase and express themselves in ways that societal norms prohibited them from saying aloud. They did this by using floriography, the ancient 48
| Summer 2021
language of flowers in which meanings were assigned to each flower and plant, their colors, and state of bloom. Dating back to 14th century China, flower symbolism bloomed through the centuries, spreading through the world and taking root in different cultures. In his poem “The Language of Flowers”, Victorian poet James Percival wrote, “In Eastern lands they talk in flow’rs, And they tell in a garland their loves and cares; Each blossom that blooms in their garden bowr’s, On its leaves a mystic language bears…. Tell the wish of thy heart in flowers.” Victorians could send their heartfelt, coded messages in “Tussie Mussies”, small, fragrant nosegays of carefully chosen flowers and herbs, tied with lace, ribbon, or wrapped in doilies. As described in Tussie-Mussies: The Language of Flowers (Laufer, 2000), the name likely originated from the Middle English words “tuse” (a knot of flowers), and “mose” (damp moss that was wrapped around cut flower stems to keep them fresh). The tussiemussie could speak for itself, although the sender might also tie a letter or a poem to it. Upon receiving your tussie-mussie, you might retreat— forthwith— to your bookshelf to consult a floriography dictionary and interpret the flowers’ message. By the
BY JAIMEE LEIGH JOROFF
late 1800s, nearly one hundred different floriography dictionaries had been published and, after the Bible, it was the second most common book found in middle and upper-class households in England and America. Some floriography dictionaries contained basic sketches and descriptions of flowers and their meaning; others, such as Kate Greenaway’s 1884 The Language of Flowers, were elaborately illustrated and complemented by floral-related poetry from notables such as Shakespeare, Plato, and other Greek and Indian philosophers. But, in the moment, the only words that really
ALICE, You know what the flowers mean. Will you wear one, or all tonight, and make me still prouder, fonder, and happier than I am?” Alice receives the tussie-mussie and answers with the flowers, pinning the bud and half-blown rose to the collar of her dress, and securing the full-blown rose over her heart as a symbol TUSSIE-MUSSIES IN CONCORD of “I accept.” Like many living in the 1800s, Concord A woman who turned residents Louisa May Alcott, Henry David down a marriage proposal Thoreau, and Nathaniel Hawthorne used the had a less happy fate in language of flowers in their lives on and off Nathaniel Hawthorne’s the page. story, Dr. Heidigger’s As a child living at the Hillside house Experiment. Decades after (now called Wayside) on Lexington Road, turning down a suitor, the Louisa admired her father’s older friend woman is presented with Ralph Waldo Emerson and left wild-flower a mysterious crimson bouquets on the doorstep of his home. Years rose. Perhaps the elderly later, in May of 1860 when the Alcotts lived woman would have been at Orchard House, Louisa’s older sister Anna wise to pay attention to the rose’s color, for was married. Anna’s hair was adorned with deep crimson roses could represent “death lilies of the valley symbolizing “return of and mourning.” In true happiness”. Louisa used this Hawthorne fashion, by the detail in her 1868 novel Little Select Sources: time the tale is done, the Women. And later, in Jo’s old woman and the rose are Boys (the third book in the Greenaway, K. (1884) aged and near the dust of Little Women trilogy), Louisa The Language of Flowers, deathly decay. illustrated the use of flower George Routledge & A real-life example of language when Meg’s son Sons, London a famed tussie-mussie in Demi proposes to his love, Concord comes from Henry Alice. Demi has not actually Ingram, J. (1887) Flora David Thoreau. In 1837 discussed marriage with Alice Symbolica, Fredrick Thoreau wrote the poem (Heaven forbid!), nor does he Warne & Co., London “Sic Vita” for Emerson’s directly ask her. Instead, with sister-in-law, Lucy Jackson help from his sister, Josie, he Alcott, L. (1898) Life, Brown. Nearly twenty-years turns to flowers to present his Letters, and Journals, older than Thoreau, Lucy proposal. Josie advises Demi Little, Brown, and had been abandoned by that she has “‘read… about a Company, Boston her husband and moved man who offers three roses to to a house in Concord. his lady—a bud, a half-blown, Percival, J. (1823) The Making a tussie-mussie of and a full-blown rose… pick Poems of James G. violets and sorrel tied with the sweetest rose you can Percival, Charles Wiley, a piece of straw, Thoreau find, and I’ll tie them up and New York wrapped his poem around put them in her room.’ Josie the flowers and tossed it tied a graceful bow of ribbon Hawthorne, N. (1837) through Lucy’s window. about the stems… while Demi Twice Told Tales, While different floriography wrote upon a card: DEAR American Stationer’s Company, Boston mattered were the ones hidden in the flowers in your hand! Yet, there was one potential problem… floriography dictionaries and flower meanings varied based on who wrote the particular dictionary, and if the tussiemussie giver and recipient had different dictionaries, the wrong message might be conveyed. For example, in one floriography dictionary a yellow rose might mean “friendship”, in another, “jealousy.”
dictionaries vary in their interpretations, Lucy could have discerned the violets as meaning either “loyalty”, “devotion”, “faithfulness”, or “modesty”; and sorrel as either “affection” or “ill-timed wit.” By the early 1900s, as norms began to change, the giving of tussie-mussies and speaking through the language of flowers slowly drew back from daily life. But the intention of flower-giving has always remained … to share something with another person. And, today, if you wish to share a tussie-mussie with someone, you cannot go wrong in your choice of flowers, for as Louisa May Alcott wrote in her last line of Little Men, “For love is a flower that grows in any soil, works its sweet miracles undaunted by autumn frost or winter snow, blooming fair and fragrant all the year, and blessing those who give and those who receive.” ———————————————————————— A Concord native, Jaimee Joroff is Manager of the Barrow Bookstore in Concord Center which specializes in Concord history, Transcendentalism, and literary figures. She has been an interpreter at most of Concord’s historic sites and is a licensed town guide.
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The Concord Ice Cream Crawl BY JENNIFER C. SCHÜNEMANN
Nothing says summer quite like ice cream – and Concord has plenty of options for kids of all ages (even ‘big kids’) seeking to cool off on a hot day. So, scoop up the family and head to these delicious local favorites! Bedford Farms Ice Cream (Thoreau Depot) – Great flavors and friendly staff are the hallmarks of this family-owned establishment. Located right next to the Concord Center train station (and next to fun shops and two great options for pizza!). Open 12-9 pm everyday… you’ll find everything from scoops to ice cream sundaes, and frappes. Bedfordfarmsicecream.com Helen’s (Concord Center) – This local favorite has been run by the same family for generations. Delicious flavors from Gifford’s Ice Cream are available in a cup, a cone, or in a sundae. Looking for more? Try the Molten Lava Cake Sundae or the Awesome Brownie Sundae. And if you’re not in the mood for ice cream, DO try a piece of Sue’s famous homemade pies! Open 8 am to 7 pm Monday through Saturday, 8 am to 5 pm on Sunday. Helensrestaurantmenu.com
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Kimball Farm (in nearby Carlisle) – Celebrating 80 years of ice cream, sprinkles, and fun, this classic go-to for enormous servings of delicious ice cream also offers the little ones a chance to see sheep and geese. Started in 1939, the grandson of founders Jack and Clara Kimball is still running this charming summer stop. Open 10 am to 10 pm daily. Kimballfarm.com Reasons to Be Cheerful (West Concord) – Perhaps the best name for an ice cream shop anywhere, this West Concord gem lives up to its name. Delicious flavors, creative toppings, and ice cream cakes light up the imagination of little ones and adults alike. Looking for a really fun idea for your next party? Ask about the Chillwagon – an ice cream truck that will bring the cheer to you! Open 12 pm to 8 pm Sunday through Thursday, 12 pm to 9 pm on Friday and Saturday. cheerful-reasons.com Whatever your favorite flavor may be, we hope you’ll take a moment to enjoy the cool side of Concord this summer!
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Make the Inn your home while visiting Concord. Walk to Concord Center’s charming Center’s charming sights and Thenunique come home to afternoon tea, meal. sights and shops. Then come home toshops. a relaxing cocktail and a delicious a unique cocktail, a delicious meal. Welcome to Concord! We or look forward to your visit.
Welcome to Concord! We look forward to your visit.
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Groups & Events: 978.341.8201
Groups and Events: 978.341.8201
“I only went out for a walk and finally concluded to stay out till sundown, for going out, I found, was really going in.” — John Muir
Go Out Doors!
BY ELISA ADAMS
| Summer 2021
Outdoor exploration is a fabulous means to slowly emerge from our strange, long year of hibernation. What better way to enliven ourselves than to view art in nature. Both have an extreme impact on our happiness index. The Go Out Doors project was initiated by The Umbrella Arts Center in 2020 with the goal of bringing art to public spaces and answering the questions: What happens if you open the door and step outside? What happens if the opportunity to engage presents itself? What might we discover if, on foot or wheel, we find ourselves on a path through the woods – hidden from the roads we travel daily? Doors were donated to six artists on which they could execute their creations and those doors can be seen on the Bruce Freeman Rail Trail between Route 2 and Powder Mill Road. Arts & Environment Coordinator for The Umbrella, Caroline Provost, said, “The idea was conceived by Nancy Lippy from The Umbrella, who had seen the En Plein Air door installation on the High Line in New York City. She brought this idea to Concord.” Kayo Burnam, one of the artists of the 2020 project says, “You not only walk the trail, you stop and have conversations…[the project is] a punctuation on the trail instead of walking ahead.” An extension of the 2020 Go Out Doors exhibition, Go Out Doors – Neighbors, expands the original concept to connect neighboring towns — three towns, three bike paths, and three cultural districts (Concord, Lexington, and Arlington). New doors will be added to the exhibition in 2021 and The Umbrella invites all artists to submit a proposal for inclusion in Go Out Doors – Neighbors. Learn more at theumbrellaarts.org and Go Out Doors to find your own inspiration this summer! ———————————————————————— Dr. Elisa Adams is a local chiropractor and stone sculptor. Her enthusiasm for sculpture as community art landed her the position of President of New England Sculptors Association (NESA). elisaadamssculptor.com
“ ‘Tis the good reader that makes the good book.” ~Ralph Waldo Emerson
Barrow Bookstore RARE AND GENTLY READ BOOKS
Specializing in Concord Authors and History; Transcendentalism; Revolutionary War, American, and Military History; Children’s Literature; and a wide selection for the eclectic reader. Literary-themed gifts, postcards, and beeswax candles. 79 Main Street, Concord, MA (behind Fritz and Gigi) | www.barrowbookstore.com | 978-369-6084
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Concord’s Abundant Farm Stands
There are 812 acres of working farmland surrounding Concord and Carlisle and summertime provides a bumper crop of fresh fruit and vegetables; the options are beyond abundant. These working farm stands use every acre of farmland to provide healthy options for salads in every home! The standard fare of crisp lettuce, ruby red tomatoes, crunchy cucumbers, and spicy hot peppers are available throughout the summer months. There are some standout varieties that provide unique twists at each farm stand. It is worth the wait and time to travel to these ‘grocery stores’ of summer. In a dash, the harvest can go from your grocery tote to dinner plate without needing more than a splash of oil and vinegar. Walden Woods is best known as the home of Henry David Thoreau, a noted Transcendentalist who lived off the land from 1845-1847. Today, The Farm at Walden Woods is a USDA-certified organic farm and profits from the farm support The Walden Woods Project. This farmland has been in continual use since 1928. Harvests from the farm are sold at their farm stand near Sudbury
Courtesy of Saltbox Farm
| Summer 2021
Courtesy of Marshall Farm
BY ANNE LEHMANN
Courtesy of Marshall Farm
Courtesy of Marshall Farm
Road off Route 2. The 12 acres of farmland yields items such as beets, squash, lettuce, eggplant, pumpkins, tomatoes, and corn. The staff has created a flexible touchless system where customers can call in to order for curbside pick-up or you can stop by to see what is available each week. The farm is also selling their fresh produce to local restaurants which enables farm-to-table dining. The Farm at Walden Woods continues to be an advocate for minimizing the world’s carbon footprint. Sourcing food locally is one way to ensure the reduction of this effect versus customers purchasing vegetables that have traveled great distances to appear on dinner tables. Sourcing and consuming locally is a healthy way to shrink our individual carbon footprint. Built in the 1940s, Saltbox Farm is a 10-acre farm filled with new ideas and oldschool tried and true technology. The farm relies on keeping things pure, using organic and sustainable farming practices. They do not use pesticides and focus on the soil; the deeper and fresher the soil the better. Crop rotation and compost are part of their strategy. The farm produces a variety of fresh vegetables, meat, eggs, honey, flowers, and hops used in their brewery at Saltbox Kitchen Restaurant. The new twist is the fact that Saltbox Farm is more than a farm stand; it has an incredible and quite unique triangular set of offerings. The triad is comprised of an outstanding local
restaurant/brewery, catering business, and farm stand. Saltbox farm is led by none other than fireworks enthusiast Ben Elliott who also was the Chef de Cuisine for No. 9 Park. He carries on his family farm tradition focused on community, family, and food. When meeting Ben he carries an aura of warmth and pure happiness. Something emanates from Ben and his businesses, as in whatever he is involved with will meet and or exceed expectations. The farm stand is now located inside the Saltbox Kitchen Restaurant and another unique twist is the offering of farmer’s choice produce bags which are filled with freshly picked herbs and veggies enough for two adults. If you are in the West Concord area, it is definitely worth the stop for lunch and a Saltbox beer, or farm stand items for dinner. A bit further up the road, Marshall Farm can boast that they have the two largest mobile chicken tracker coops in Eastern Massachusetts. Fresh eggs are abundant on this farm as well as honey. The chickens fertilize and the bees pollinate the farmland. This farm stand boasts pickling cucumbers, watermelon, and cantaloupes along with the mainstay veggies from the farm. In addition, they have partnered with local vendors to provide farm-fresh milk and locally sourced meat including bacon, steaks, sausages, and ground beef. The cut flowers and front door planters are abundant. Seedlings are ready for planting in gardens and kitchen
herbs are available as well. Ricky Marshall is now the third generation of the family who has tended and run the farm stand, taking over for his Grandfather Richie. Farming is in the family blood. They love caring for the land and providing healthy food for the local community, many of whom they have known for years. Carrots, onions, winter squash, beets, scallions, and a lettuce mix are in high demand as well as summer strawberries at Barrett’s Mill Farm. Melissa Maxwell, one of the farmers and owners, mentioned that they have had to make a few changes due to Covid requirements. But with a bit of creativity, they have expanded their pick-up area, added tents, and also included a ‘pick your own’ option at the farm stand. She shares “If people have time to go out into the fields they will have space, fresh air, and plenty of crops to harvest.” Their herbs are plentiful and the produce is bountiful. If you are on your way out of town on Monument Street, you will find one of the most picturesque farms, Hutchins Farm. Where trust is part of their fabric, early in the season it is a self-service, exact change honor system. You select your herbs and veggies and plunk the cash in the wooden box for payment and that is that! The prices look like this; Asparagus: $5/half pound bunch Rhubarb: $5/ one pound bag Nettles: $5/bunch
Courtesy of Marshall Farm
Arugula: $3.50/bunch Radishes: $3.50/bunch Hutchins Farm uses seeds from past harvests to begin their season, providing unusual vegetables to customers such
as garlic chives, kohlrabi, amaranth, and spicy hot peppers. The standard vegetables are always available as well as fresh blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries. Verrill Farm is a longstanding farm stand, bakery, and lunch hot spot that features all types of fresh salads and ready-to-heat dinners. Late in the summer they offer a reduced rate box of ‘seconds’ tomatoes that are just perfect for making homemade marinara or tomato bisque. For more on Verrill Farm, see our profile on Steve Verrill in this issue. A bit further down the road in Acton is Cucurbit Farm. They have an amazing array of fresh veggies, herbs, and hanging baskets. In addition, they offer fresh fish on Fridays between 2:00 and 6:00. A plus beyond the farm stand produce is the
offering of hot bagels on the weekends. Go early because they are usually gone by noon. If you are craving a light summer salad tossed with corn, green beans, summer squash, and tomatoes, Scimone’s Farm is a great place to stop and pick up these ingredients. They skirt the Bedford town line and are located right off Old Bedford Road. Millbrook Farm offers fresh flowers, hanging baskets, and a variety of herbs for planting. With the road to the farm stand now open, after a two-year closure, access to this family-run farm stand is now ready and they are looking forward to seeing everyone. Concord’s hidden treasures go beyond the rich history of the Revolutionary War. Its treasures are farmers, community, and healthy delicious food. ———————————————————————— Anne Lehmann has merged two disciplines, business consulting and journalism. Working for GE, Andersen Consulting, and Fidelity Investments, she uses this business background and now adds freelance writing for metro west publications, including the Boston Globe, into the mix.
walden.org/property/the-farm-at-walden-woods | saltboxfarmconcord.com | marshallfarm.com | hutchinsfarm.com verrillfarm.com | cucurbitfarm.com/farmstand | barrettsmillfarm.com | cucurbitfarm.com
Join the Summer Solstice Passport Event Shop – Dine – Support Local - and Win Prizes!
To provide a fun incentive to support the shops and restaurants still recovering from being closed for so many months during the pandemic, the Concord Together initiative is launching the “Summer Solstice Passport Event” which will run through August 20th. The event is a shopping challenge. The goal is to collect 10 stamps or signatures when you buy from any of the Concord shops or restaurants. If you buy online or pick up curbside, just note the store name and date in one of the spots on your passport yourself. It all counts! Your 10 stamps must include at least three different businesses - making this the perfect time to try a new shop or restaurant! Once your Passport is full, simply add your name, email, and phone number and
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email a copy to firstname.lastname@example.org or drop it off in person at the Visitor Center at 58 Main Street. You’ll be entered to win gift cards in any of the weekly drawings. You receive one spot in the ongoing weekly drawings for each completed passport. There is no limit to how many Passports you can enter – keep shopping and dining all summer to increase your chances of winning! Weekly winners are automatically re-entered for the grand prize drawing on August 20th. Gift cards range from $25 to $100 and include shops, restaurants, and farms! The grand prize drawing includes more than $500 in gift cards! To download and print your Summer Solstice Passport – or to learn more please visit www.ConcordTogether.com.
hve fun wi t
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John Kaag’s Studies in Self-Reliance
On a cold February day John Kaag went for a jog down Lowell Street and had a heart attack. This was no case of an out of shape man pushing himself too hard. On the contrary, Kaag is a lifelong runner and a formidable racer. Running, for Kaag, was akin to an ascetic practice. He found inspiration in legendary mountain-climbing monks in Tibet who use physical discipline to reach beyond human limitation and embody a pure ideal. But on that cold February day the ideal was not forthcoming, and Kaag met instead with human limitation. At Tufts Medical Center doctors told him he had inherited a deadly heart condition and would require bypass surgery. Heart surgery is a harrowing prospect to anyone, but to Kaag it presented a special spiritual challenge. Kaag is a philosophy professor at UMass Lowell and the author of multiple acclaimed books including American Philosophy: a Love Story, Hiking with Nietzsche, and Sick Souls, Healthy Minds. His philosophical interests center on the American tradition inaugurated by Concord’s Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson was the great intellectual champion of the independent individual. In his famous essay “Self-Reliance,” he entreats us: “Trust thyself – every heart vibrates to that iron string.” But the very vibration of Kaag’s heart was failing him, and he had to rely on others to save him while he lay unconscious on the operating table. Kaag’s writings constitute, among other things, a series of meditations on the possibility of self-reliance. He wrestles constantly with the view that individuals have everything they need within themselves to become something better. 60
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BY SAM COPELAND
That view appeared in this country in response to the revolution started in Concord. “The thinkers who became the transcendentalists were the direct descendants of those minutemen,” says Kaag, “They had a sense that the political revolution was only a first start, and that what we needed was a revolution of the soul and mind.” The old values had been swept away with the old order, so American philosophers looked to the heroic striving of
individuals to supply life’s purpose. Now Kaag lives among the same woods as those thinkers, but in his writings he ponders whether their philosophy can really answer the central question: is life worth living — or at least provide a better answer than, as William James said, “It depends on the liver.” Kaag has fashioned a unique style for himself that weaves together philosophical ruminations with stories from his own life, synthesizing intellectual history with personal
All photos courtesy of John Kaag
memoir. His merciless self-reflections reveal a life that is itself exemplary of self-reliance and its fraught nature. Kaag’s mother was a substitute english teacher and his father was an absent drunk, yet his heroic striving brought him to the halls of Cambridge and Harvard before he accomplished the dual impossible tasks of securing a tenured professorship and writing best-selling philosophy books for the American public. At the same time, depression, eating disorders, and two divorces plague his biography. Kaag appears in his writings as someone who can rely on himself for everything except that which lies closest to himself. At his lowest points, Kaag finds his salvation in the care of his wife and children, not in the force of his own will. Often when Kaag confronts the limits of Emerson’s self-reliance he turns to Concord’s other great sage: Thoreau. Although he is no less of an individualist than Emerson, Thoreau’s picture of heroic striving often takes the shape of quiet things like hoeing a garden or walking. In the essay “Walking” Thoreau says, “If you are ready to leave father and mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends, and never see them again—if
you have paid your debts, and made your will, and settled all your affairs, and are a free man—then you are ready for a walk.” As a young man, Kaag took this to be a statement about society’s corrupting influence on the individual, but as he grew older he came to see it as a sober plea to get the occasional distance from one’s life in society. After his heart attack, “Walking” took on an entirely new meaning for Kaag. Now Thoreau’s statement struck him as “an encouragement that you don’t need to be a hero, you don’t need to run seven miles, you can just put one foot in front of the next, do what you can, and try to experience the world a bit more naturally and a bit more meaningfully.” In order to “live deliberately” and “suck out all the marrow of life” it no longer seemed necessary to push the self to extremes, be they physical or intellectual. Being a heroic individual could simply mean walking in Estabrook Woods, provided that one is ready to leave father and mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends – at least for an hour or so. Even still, Thoreau poses ongoing challenges to Kaag, who worries that his comfortable life with its walks in Estabrook falls short of the philosopher’s standards. “I
can’t pretend to be living a simple life these days – I don’t,” says Kaag, “I am as guilty as anyone of indulging in things that Thoreau would say are not essential.” Faced with the moral challenges of his success, Kaag looks to Thoreau and Emerson for reminders to “not take ourselves too seriously, or take luxury too seriously, because in the end we’re all worm food.” What ultimately emerges out of John Kaag’s meditations on self-reliance is the centrality of other people. It seems the only better answer than James’s to whether life is worth living is “It depends on the livers.” Heroic striving is not, in the end, something we do alone, but with others, be they father and mother, and brother and sister, and wife and child and friends, or a circle of surgeons around an operating table, or, indeed, a philosopher from two hundred years ago. They could even be the high school Latin teacher who took Kaag to visit Walden Pond at the age of 14. After walking around the pond together the young Kaag turned to his teacher and said, “I think I’m going to be a philosopher, and I think I’m going to live in Concord.” ———————————————————————— Sam Copeland is a Concord native and a writer based in New York.
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650 814.8542 Brigitte Steines
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Barrow Bookstore Presents:
In 1842, which author celebrated their birthday in a fantastically independent manner, and then five days later married and moved to Concord, Massachusetts? a) Margaret Fuller b) Ralph Waldo Emerson c) Edgar Allan Poe d) Nathaniel Hawthorne e) Herman Melville
As schools enjoy a well-earned summer break and prepare to reopen in the fall, test your local school knowledge with questions 1-4.
True or False: Concord’s Alcott Elementary School is named after Concord’s Louisa May Alcott, author of Little Women.
Which Concord school is named after a town resident who was a member of The Secret Six, the group that funded John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry?
What prestigious landscape architectural firm designed Middlesex School’s campus in Concord? If you need a hint, their other projects included The Biltmore Estate in North Carolina and the infrastructure of the Smoky Mountain Parkway, Acadia National Park, and Yosemite Valley.
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Preventable today, what illness caused the death of Henry David Thoreau’s brother, John? a) Scarlet fever b) Lockjaw c) Typhoid pneumonia d) Tuberculosis
Throughout his lifetime, Henry David Thoreau worked a variety of jobs. Which of the following jobs did he not do? a) Surveyor b) Writer c) Flute manufacturer d) Teacher e) Pencil maker
Built in 1747, the Wright Tavern is located in Concord Center on the corner of Main Street and Lexington Road. On April 19, 1775, the tavern was briefly taken over by British officers as a command post while their troops searched the town for hidden weapons and military supplies. As described in A.S. Hudson’s 1904 book, The History of Concord, Massachusetts, the tavern eventually closed and over the centuries the building was used as a home for which of the following people: a) A liveryman b) A baker c) A bookbinder d) A storekeeper e) A tinsmith f) A shoe dealer
Which famous author gave the 25th anniversary address at Concord Academy? a) Ralph Waldo Emerson b) Harriet Lothrop (pen name Margaret Sidney) c) Samuel Clemens (pen name Mark Twain) d) T.S. Eliot e) Agatha Christie
How many siblings did Henry David Thoreau have? Bonus points for putting them in order!
Just when colonial residents of Concord thought they had their newly formed country’s flag figured out, President George Washington signed the Flag Act of 1794 calling for a total number of how many stars on the American flag? a) 13 stars b) 15 stars c) 19 stars d) 23 stars
6. All of them!
Arrest and rescue of Frank Sanborn
2. Sanborn Middle School. Born in 1831 (died 1917), Franklin Benjamin Sanborn was a journalist, writer, teacher, and abolitionist. A Harvard graduate, Sanborn was friends with Emerson and Thoreau, and moved to Concord in 1854 when he became headmaster of a small co-ed school. Located at today’s 49 Sudbury Road, his school’s students included the young Louisa May Alcott and her siblings. Sanborn was also an ardent abolitionist and supporter of John Brown. Following Brown’s failed raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, federal marshals showed up at night outside of Sanborn’s Concord home and attempted to arrest him on suspicion of being one of six men secretly backing Brown’s endeavors. As a struggling, protesting, and handcuffed Sanborn was carried by marshals to a carriage, Sanborn’s sister started screaming, alerting Concord neighbors who came to Sanborn’s aid, wrenching him away from the deputies and harassing the deputies out of town.
3. d) Meow-wow! The answer is T.S. Eliot. Eight years after he wrote Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats, (which became the basis for Andrew Lloyd Weber’s musical, Cats), T.S. Eliot delivered a speech at Concord Academy’s graduation ceremony. Established in 1922 as a girl’s school for grades 1-12, the school was
still small, and Eliot spoke to a graduating class of 17 seniors. Eliot’s presence at Concord Academy was arranged by his friend and Concord Academy teacher Emily Hale, with whom he had a multidecade and extremely confusing (for her) relationship. Biltmore
1. False. Alcott Elementary School is named after Louisa’s father, Amos Bronson Alcott, who was the superintendent of Concord schools from 1859-1864.
Bookbinder at work
4. The Olmsted Brothers landscape architectural firm. Brothers John Charles and Frederick Law Olmstead, Jr., inherited America’s first landscape architectural business from their father, Frederick Law Olmsted. In 1901, at the invitation of Middlesex School’s founder Frederick Winsor, the brothers designed the school’s campus. 5. d) Nathaniel Hawthorne. Born July 4, 1804, Hawthorne celebrated an Independence Day birthday. On July 9, 1842, Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody in a small wedding held in a
By Jean-Pol Grandmont - Own work, CC BY 2.5, commons.wikimedia.org
Boston bookshop owned by Sophia’s older sister, Elizabeth. Following the ceremony, the newlyweds took a carriage to Concord, MA, where they moved into the Old Manse on Monument Street. Renting the home from the Emerson family, the Hawthornes lived in the Manse from 1842-45.
7. b) Lockjaw. On January 1, 1842, Henry David Thoreau’s older brother, John, accidentally cut himself with a rusty razor while shaving. Lockjaw (another name for a tetanus infection) set in, causing tightness of the facial muscles and hindering his ability to breathe and swallow. John died eleven days later in Henry’s arms. Tetanus vaccines were developed 82 years later in 1924 and by the 1940s had become a common immunization. 8. c) Flute manufacturer. Thoreau played the flute but he did not manufacture them. (Thoreau’s flute may be seen on display at the Concord Museum.) 9. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) had three siblings: Helen (1812-1849); John, Jr., (1815-1842); and Sophia (1819-1876). 10. b) 15 stars. With a star representing each state, the 1794 Flag Act added two additional stars to reflect Vermont and Kentucky being admitted into the Union.
Golden glow at Fenn Field
Swamp rose mallow
| Summer 2021
The Intriguing Sights
of Summer STORY AND PHOTOGRAPHY BY DAVE WITHERBEE
T Pileated woodpecker
There is so much to see in our natural world; colors, birds, flowers, critters, lovely patterns, and even pretty and interesting insects. To help you see as much as possible on your outdoor adventures, bring a camera, a nature app like iNaturalist, and a guide book such as the Audubon New England Field Guide, the creation of which happens to have been led by Concord resident, Peter Alden. The more we see and the more we learn, the more we want to know. When we are outside there are intriguing sights, even in our own yards. We have to remind ourselves to look up if we want to catch sight of the Yellow Warbler. If we look closely, we will see many things we once walked past, like this skipper moth. Listen! If you have a few favorite birds, you might want to learn their songs and calls so that you notice them more often. Perhaps we will hear a pileated woodpecker like the one shown here hammering a hole in a tree. These striking birds not only find insects to dine on but create holes for many other birds and critters to nest in. Listen for their hammering and distinctive call. Listen for the sounds of nature, such as those of the American bullfrog. The swamp rose mallow, found in Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, does not need to be pointed out. It is seen by almost everyone who passes by. Look for it on the Concord River side of the lower compound in the latter part of summer. Brighten your days by getting outdoors and soaking in the summer sights!
Take a Stroll With Us Through Living History Unique and Fun Walking Tours for All Ages Bring History Alive for your Kids Reenactments & Living History Featuring: The Rude Bridge Tour The Real Little Women African American History in Concord Wide Awake in Sleepy Hollow And many more!
For more information about our safe, socially distanced, and fascinating outdoor tours, please visit us online or call 978.399.8229 | concordtourcompany.com
Home Decor Puzzles Jewelry Accessories
Apothecary Garden Children’s Paper
COME TO THE COUNTRY Come to Verrill Farm for family events & good times
Sunflower field for picking and photo ops | Farm dinners & events Fall pumpkin picking | Blueberry pancake breakfast Check website for dates and times of events.
A SUMMER OF FAMILY FUN
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59 Main Street, Concord, MA 978-369-1708
| Summer 2021
11 Wheeler Rd. | 978-369-4494 | Verrillfarm.com
Antique Caucasian Karachof circa 1880
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CONCORD SUMMER 2021
100 YEARS at Verrill Farm
OF FARMING & FAMILY
THINGS TO SEE & DO THIS SUMMER
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135 Commonwealth Ave. in West Concord | www.concordflowershop.com | 978-369-2404
| Summer 2021
80 Beharrell Street | 781-259-9292 | www.LincolnPhysicians.org
Summer 2021 ANTIQUES 62 North Bridge Antiques ARCHITECTURE, CUSTOM BUILDING & INTERIOR DESIGN 1 Appleton Design Group 70 Forever Tile 62 Inkstone Architects 59 Native Interior Design Studio 73 Platt Builders ARTS, GUITARS & ART SUPPLIES 62 Albright Art Supply 32 Jane Deering Gallery 50 Minuteman Guitars 70 Three Stones Gallery BOOKS, MAGAZINES & SCHOLARLY WORKS 29 Barefoot Books 55 Barrow Bookstore 69 Discover Concord 55 The Thoreau Society CATERING, RESTAURANTS, AND SPECIALTY FOOD & WINE SHOPS 29 Adelita 51 Concord Cheese Shop 70, 74 *Debra’s Natural Gourmet 70 *Dunkin’
Advertiser Index 21 68 51 29
Fiorella’s Cucina Verrill Farm West Concord Wine & Spirits Woods Hill Table
CLOTHING & ACCESSORIES 70 Sara Campbell EXPERIENTIAL 15 Concord Museum 37 Concord Players 68 Concord Tour Company FLORISTS 70 Concord Flower Shop HOME FURNISHINGS, DÉCOR & UNIQUE GIFTS 59 Artisans Way 21 Joy Street Life + Home 59 Nesting 68 Patina Green 62 Revolutionary Concord 69 Woven Art LODGING 53 Concord’s Colonial Inn
JEWELERS 37 Artinian Jewelery 59 Fairbank & Perry Goldsmiths PROFESSIONAL SERVICES 70 Lincoln Physicians 70 My Side Virtual Assistant Professionals 32 NorthBridge Insurance Agency 55 West Concord Pharmacy 63 Pierre Chiha Photographers REAL ESTATE 3, 7 The Attias Group C2, 72 Barrett Sotheby’s Int’l Realty 5, 17, 69 Compass 42 Engel & Völkers 31 LandVest 47 William Raveis TOYS 62
The Concord Toy Box
VISITOR RESOURCES 11 Concord Visitor Center 10 Lexington Visitors Center *Money Saving Coupon on page 70
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9 8 C o m m o n we a lt h Ave n u e / We s t C o n c o rd , M A 0 1 7 4 2 /
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