CONCORD FALL IN
LOVE WITH CONCORD
ON CONSCIENCE & KITTENS:
THE TWO MINDS OF
Stories from the
THINGS TO SEE & DO THIS FALL
& s ap ide M u g G n i g alk ppin side W ho In S
Fall in Love
Ah, the beauty of fall! It is such a magical season here in New England. Mother Nature graces us with a stunning array of colors, inviting us to get outside and enjoy her spectacular show before the chilly days of winter set in. In this uncertain time, we appreciate the gifts of nature all the more. Several articles in this issue share our enthusiasm for Concord’s natural beauty – from photo essays (p. 60) to a walking guide of Concord’s Battle Road (p. 22), and tips for enjoying our rivers, trails, and farms (p. 8). More than the leaves are changing this fall. In West Concord, the beloved West Concord 5 & 10 will close at the end of this year (when owner Maynard Forbes retires). But fellow entrepreneur Debra Stark has wonderful plans to ensure that families will have a community-centered gathering place for years to come. Read the heartwarming story of these two community leaders in Passing the Torch on p. 10. Fall also brings the beginning of the holiday season. Halloween invites us to explore the macabre, and our talented authors oblige with great stories, ranging from insights into the troubled mind of Nathanial Hawthorne (p. 42) to the mysterious case of the traveling British soldiers’ skulls (p. 50). And, of course, Concord’s cemeteries are filled with tales of their own! November brings us Thanksgiving. It’s a great time to take a moment to learn more about the native people of Concord. If you find yourself intrigued by the People of Musketaquid (p. 46), be sure to visit the Concord Museum and spend time with their stunning new display of artifacts from the first people to call this area home. History buffs will enjoy articles ranging from the roots of Transcendentalism in Concord, led by its Patron, Ralph Waldo Emerson (p. 40), to the irreverent ideas of Bronson Alcott (p. 18), to Brister Freeman’s efforts to build a community for formerly enslaved persons near Walden Pond (p. 24).
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There is so much to share about Concord. Visitors and residents alike will want to explore the iconic homes, museums, and National Park offerings in Surrounded by History on p. 14. Be sure to read more about the legendary Thoreau’s Cabin (p. 20). And if you’re curious about architecture, you may enjoy learning more about efforts to preserve the unique Mid-Century Modern homes in Concord (p. 54). Concord in fall is simply glorious! We hope you will take the time to enjoy all this beautiful town has to offer. For a truly warm welcome – along with great information, ideas, and maps – be sure to stop by the newly renovated Concord Visitor Center (p. 28). And so we invite you! Stroll through our parks and trails. Explore our history. Shop our charming town centers. Relax over a wonderful meal (indoors or outside!) at our delightful restaurants and coffee shops. Everyone here is working hard to make sure you have a safe and enjoyable experience with us. We look forward to hearing about your experiences as you Discover Concord!
Cynthia L. Baudendistel Co-Founder
Jennifer C. Schünemann Co-Founder
© Pierre Chiha Photography
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w w w . T h e A t t i a s G r o u p . c o m 978.371.1234 - 48 Thoreau Street, Concord MA 01742
14 16 18
20 22 24 26
32 38 40
Top Things to See & Do in Concord This Fall
assing the Torch: A Big Change P in West Concord Surrounded by History Time to Fly A mos Bronson Alcott: Peddler of Ideas Tightly Plastered & Shingled A House: Thoreauâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cabin at Walden Pond
Stories from the Battle Road t the Frontier of Hope: A Brister Freeman he North Bridge Inn: A T Hospitality Gem in the Heart of Concord Center How do you Concord? here to Shop, Eat, and W Stay in Concord Walking Maps of Concord The Healing Power of Art acred Integrity: Emerson & the S Home of Transcendentalism
p.24 Contents Continued on Page 6
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THE CONCORD YOU NEVER KNEW
Little Women visitconcord.org
3 Cemeteries Tour (starts in September)
If you have visiting guests, we have info, maps and merchandise.
discoverconcordma.com CO-FOUNDER Cynthia L. Baudendistel CO-FOUNDER Jennifer C. Schünemann ART DIRECTOR Beth Pruett
DISTRIBUTION DIRECTOR Wilson S. Schünemann ADMINISTRATIVE DIRECTOR Olga Gersh SOCIAL MEDIA DIRECTOR Ricky Ortiz ADVISORY BOARD Bobbi Benson North Bridge Antiques
Patricia Clarke Sara Campbell
contents 42 44
n Conscience and Kittens: O The Two Minds of Nathaniel Hawthorne T horeau Farm: A Place Where Thoreau Guides the Discussion he People of Musketaquid: T Concord’s First Residents
rave Insult: The Mysterious G Case of the Traveling British Soldiers’ Skulls
Michael Glick Concord’s Colonial Inn
Alida Orzechowski Concord Tour Company
reserving the Lessons P of Mid-Century Modern Architecture
58 A Bit of Fall Fun: Cocktails
Carol Thistle Concord Museum
to Inspire a Night Out reathtaking Autumn B in Concord Concord Coupons
© 2020 Voyager Publishing, LLC. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISSN 2688-5204 (Print) ISSN 2688-5212 (Online) For reprint and permission requests, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org 314.308.6611 FOR ADVERTISING INFORMATION: Jennifer C. Schünemann at email@example.com | 978.435.2266
Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House
The Umbrella Arts Center
Jim White Millbrook Tarry
COVER PHOTO: Autumn in Concord, MA ©istock.com/mitulspatel AUTHORS/CONTRIBUTORS: Elisa Adams Cynthia L. Baudendistel Pierre Chiha Victor Curran Holly Harrison Eve Isenberg Jaimee Leigh Joroff Kristi Lynn Martin Alida Orzechowski Jennifer C. Schünemann Richard Smith Nancy Snyder Beth van Duzer Dave Witherbee PUBLISHED BY:
NOTE FROM OUR SUMMER ISSUE: The photo on pages 6 and 11 should have included the caption: Sculpture titled The Secret: Sid and the Kids by Nancy Arkuss. 6
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Things to See & Do
The 28th annual Concord Festival of Authors celebrates the written and spoken word live, online, October 16 – 31. Don’t miss the Concord Free Public Library’s Ruth Ratner Miller Award for Excellence in American History, presented to Jill Lepore bestselling author, Harvard professor, The New Yorker staff writer, and author of These Truths and This America. Register for a wide range of fascinating programs. www.concordfestivalofauthors.org 8
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Let the spirit of Halloween put a scare in you by visiting Concord’s famous cemeteries: Old Hill Burying Ground, South Burying Ground, and, of course Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. Perhaps you would enjoy a quiet stroll at dusk on a crisp autumn evening. See page 14.
Did you know that Concord has three rivers that have been designated by Congress as Wild & Scenic Rivers? Rent a kayak from the South Bridge Boat House and enjoy the flora and fauna along the Concord, Sudbury, and Assabett Rivers. www.southbridgeboathouse.com
Surround yourself with art at Three Stones Gallery. September 4 – October 14, Archetypes Rising will feature Pamela Baldwin’s abstract paintings, Ray Ciemny’s metal sculpture, and Catherine Comstock’s hand-fashioned gourds and natural icons. October 16 – November 25, Our Numinous Places will present paintings and photography by Jonathan MacAdam and Jennifer M. Johnston. www.threestonesgallery.com
Painting by Pamela Baldwin
in Concord this Fall
©Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House
Courtesy of Concord Museum
Jan Turnquist leads the way as Louisa for the (Virtual) Annual Benefit Walk/Run at the Louisa May Alcott Orchard House
Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House is one of Concord’s most-visited sites. While the house may be closed due to the pandemic, you can still enjoy a “virtual visit” through their website. And don’t forget to get out and show your support through the 15th Annual Benefit Walk/Run. The event is virtual this year, so you can walk or run anywhere you like! Dates are September 10-20. Visit www.louisamayalcott.org/events for more information and to register.
Embrace your inner child and go apple picking, eat cider donuts, wander the pumpkin patch, or get lost in a corn maze. You can give back by picking your own pumpkins at Verrill Farm - proceeds benefit Emerson Hospital’s Pediatric Unit. Learn more at www.verrillfarm.com
Explore new exhibits at the Concord Museum, including a newly redesigned gallery devoted to the events of April 19, 1775. The Museum has more than a dozen new programs and forums this fall on topics ranging from the muskets of the American Revolution, to artist demonstrations, and Abraham Lincoln. On October 12, Larry Spotted Crow Mann, a citizen of the Nipmuc Nation of Massachusetts, will share his music, culture, and the history of the Nipmuc people.
Fall is a magical time of year. The leaves reveal their true, vibrant colors and then obligingly drop to the ground so that we can rake them into piles and jump
in them. To revel in all this fall color, try a walk around Walden Pond, Great Meadows Nature Preserve, or Minute Man National Historical Park.
The Umbrella Arts Center has a number of exciting events coming up this fall, including an ArtRamble outdoor exhibition in Hapgood Wright Town Forest, newly commissioned works for live digital presentation, and a black lives-themed multimedia exhibition including Justin Douglas’ “One Day I Will Walk Into The Umbrella.” Visit The Umbrella website for more information. www.theumbrellaarts.org
Grab the kids and head to the 6th Annual Trunk or Treat on October 25 from 4:30 – 5:30 in the Beede Center parking lot. Costumes and candy! www.concordrec.com/288/Trunk-or-Treat
Larry Spotted Crow Mann
Shop Concord’s wonderful shops, dine in our delightful restaurants – and win prizes! The ‘Fall in Love with Concord’ event, brought to you by Concord Together, is simple and fun. Download a “Fall passport” at www.ConcordTogether.com (or pick one up at the Visitor Center), shop or dine in 10 places around town and ask for a stamp, turn in your passport and be entered to win in weekly drawings through October 20th!
Passing the Torch:
All photos © Pierre Chiha Photography
A Big Change in West Concord BY JENNIFER SCHÜNEMANN
When something this historic comes to pass, it’s only right that a publication dedicated to telling Concord’s important stories pauses to pay homage to the people behind that moment. This is one such tale – something that the people of Concord will look back upon as a milestone in their shared history. And the two people behind it are just as important. They have long loved this town and worked hard to build a thriving community here. What we are witnessing is the passing of the baton – one beloved chapter closes, while another opens to new possibilities. The doors of the West Concord 5&10 will close forever on December 31, 2020. In 2021, Debra’s Natural Gourmet will take the up the mantle of community entrusted to it and expand into a space that families have depended upon for generations. It’s a big transition, and an emotional one for all involved. Two Businesses, One Community For close to 85 years, children and adults alike have delighted in the unique treasures 10
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to be found at the West Concord 5&10… one of the last remaining 5&10 stores in New England, if not the country. Established by Pasqual Miele in 1935, the store moved in 1946 from across the street from today’s spot to the building now occupied by Walden Kitchen. The Forbes family purchased the business in 1951 and moved it to its current location in 1959. Many changes took place over the next 60 years — a building expansion, a changing of the guard from John Forbes to his son Maynard, who in turn worked alongside his stepson Chris when John Forbes passed away in 1991. The late 90s into early 2000s were good years for Maynard, Chris, and for the 5&10. With an inventory of more than 43,000 items, school year supplies, holiday decorations, spring gardening tools, sewing supplies, nick knacks, and summer fun needs kept the business thriving. “The crash of 2008 was far into the future, and Amazon didn’t exist,” said Maynard. “The community was a constant
presence in and out of the door of the West Concord 5&10. Times were good. There are so many wonderful stories over the years – this store has been everything to me.” Meanwhile, one building over, a woman named Debra Stark was embarking on a crazy adventure of her own. In 1989, this woman with no business experience – but plenty of hutzpah - bravely planted her organic, homeopathic, holistic flag in the heart of a working town that had likely never heard of chia seeds or quinoa. “The whole dream began with my Mom – who raised us on organic foods before anyone knew what organic foods were,” said Debra. “My vision was to create a space for great food and a holistic way of living for this amazing community. With no business experience, but a big dream, I definitely learned everything the hard way. But I never thought I wouldn’t succeed.” And succeed she did! Thirty years after a tough start – with many starts and stops along the way – Debra’s Natural Gourmet is a household name in Concord and has even
attracted national attention. Debra and her pioneering approach to organic foods have been featured on television, in Whole Foods Magazine, and even has a new book out: The Little Shop that Could. In 2015, she was named Retailer of the Year for the natural products industry (in all the USA!) by New Hope Natural Media. And in 2016, she was named a legend in the natural products industry. Together, these two businesses have become the pillars of a thriving West Concord cultural center. They routinely collaborate to help small businesses on the block get better established, to organize festivals and community events, and – most recently – to support their community in the midst of a global pandemic. When you ask anyone in town about leadership in West Concord, both Maynard’s and Debra’s names are at the top of the list. It’s a collaborative, community-minded spirit behind their passion and genuine care for the people of this town. An Unexpected Homecoming Maynard’s stepson Chris ran the shop for 8 years until a sad day in 2013, when he passed away unexpectedly in his sleep while traveling. In shock and sadness, Maynard and his wife moved back from their home in Maine and Maynard once again ran the store he had known inside and out since childhood. Stoically, he soldiered on and ensured the integrity of the family business. In fact, Maynard was named Concord’s Business Person of the Year in 2015 – an award that all agreed was long overdue. But tragedy hit again in June of last year when Maynard’s beloved wife of 27 years, Jean, passed away. By this time, online shopping and big box stores were taking a real bite out of what was once a reliable income. It became more and more challenging to make sense of a business model that depended upon small sales of tens of thousands of inventory items. And nobody seemed interested in buying the 5&10. “We stayed as long as we did because we owned the building – and my pension from my years in the Army made sure we could
pay the bills,” said Maynard. “But there came a point where retirement seemed like a good idea. I just needed to make sure the building didn’t become another chain store. That’s when Debra and I reached an agreement.”
Maynard Forbes of West Concord 5&10
Debra Stark outside her Natural Gourmet Shop
Passing the Torch For several years, Debra and her son Adam (who is now a partner with his mom) had been trying to find a solution. Their shop was now a success, and bursting at the seams. It was important to them to stay in the town that had become such a cherished cornerstone of their community, rather than opening a second location. When Maynard indicated that he was open to selling the building to Debra, it presented a perfect solution. Debra and Adam are excited about the future. They are looking forward to better serving the community with an improved space, better flow, expanded offerings, new recipes, and more options to support fellow small businesses in West Concord. They recognize the weight on their shoulders that comes with accepting the torch from an iconic community leader like Maynard. “Having Maynard as our neighbor these many years has been an honor,” said Debra. “We intend to continue a shared value of community-focused service. Everything we do is driven by passion and a commitment to doing something special. We are grateful to Maynard for entrusting us with the building that housed his family business for multiple generations.” As for Maynard Forbes, his eyes glisten with memory and a hint of sadness when he shares, “I am relieved to have made the decision…but sorry to see that this business, which has been here for more than 85 years, 70 of them in my family, is going to disappear.” But will it, truly? The generations of stories, of children coming and going, of families sharing good times and bad, will continue on in the building which housed the West Concord 5&10. It will have a new name, and a new guardian…but Maynard and Debra’s carefully curated outcome for this ‘passing of the torch’ ensures that community and family will still have a cherished gathering place in West Concord for generations to come.
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Surrounded by History
Concord is a town steeped in history. From the American Revolution that began here in 1775, to the beginnings of transcendentalism in the 1830’s. From ground-breaking social justice activists who opposed slavery and supported women’s rights, to authors whose works are pillars of the American literary canon. While we could happily spend a lifetime studying the myriad aspects of Concord’s history and its vibrant contemporary society, here are just a few of our favorite places to visit.
www.concordmuseum.org Concord Museum includes in its collections some of the most important artifacts from the past three centuries. This is where you’ll find one of the actual lanterns that Paul Revere ordered to be hung in the belfry of Boston’s Christ Church on the night of April 18, 1775 to alert colonists that British regulars were on the march! You can also see the simple green desk on which Henry David Thoreau wrote Walden, Civil Disobedience, and more. Whether your interests lie in a Late Paleoindian spearhead found in the Concord River, or
BY CYNTHIA BAUDENDISTEL
the extraordinary silver work of Paul Revere, there is something here to capture your imagination.
The Old Manse
www.thetrustees.org/places-to-visit/ metro-west/old-manse.html Ralph Waldo Emerson lived here and drafted his famous essay Nature in an upstairs room. Almost a decade later, Nathaniel Hawthorne and his wife Sophia moved into the Old Manse following their marriage in 1842 and lived there until 1845. You can still see the poems that the young newlyweds wrote to each other etched on the windowpanes of the house. Hawthorne memorialized the house in Mosses From an Old Manse.
The Robbins House
www.robbinshouse.org The rich history of African Americans in Concord is one aspect of the town that is not as widely known as our revolutionary and literary heritage. The Robbins House is dedicated to raising awareness of Concord’s African, African American, and anti-slavery history from the 17th through the 19th centuries.
The Robbins House is an early 19th century house formerly inhabited by the first generation of descendants of formerly enslaved African American Revolutionary War veteran Caesar Robbins, and by fugitive slave Jack Garrison. The stories of the occupants of The Robbins House reveal the ways in which the first generations of free Concord African Americans pursued independence and contributed to the antislavery movement and abolitionist causes. The Robbins House website includes an excellent walking map of African American and anti-slavery sites in and around Concord.
Walden Pond State Reservation
www.nps.gov/places/walden-pond-in-thewalden-pond-state-reservation.htm Walden Pond is best known for being the place at which Henry David Thoreau built his modest log cabin and lived for two years. Nearly 600,000 people visit Waldon Pond each year, many to learn more about Thoreau and visit the replica of his cabin. The pond and surrounding 462 acres are now loved as much for their stunning hiking trails and lovely places to swim, fish, and canoe.
www.louisamayalcott.org Orchard House is best known as the home where Louisa May Alcott wrote her most famous book, Little Women. Amazingly, there have been no major structural changes to the house since the Alcotts’ time, and approximately 80% of the furnishings on display were owned by the Alcotts, ensuring that the rooms look very much as they did when the family lived there. Hillside Chapel on the grounds of Orchard House housed “The Concord Summer School of Philosophy” from 1880-1888. The school was founded by Amos Bronson Alcott and hosted a series of lectures and discussions on a range of philosophical topics.
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©Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House
Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House
Minute Man National Historical Park
North Bridge and Minute Man Statue It was here on the North Bridge that British troops faced the militias and Minutemen of the region. As the militiamen marched toward the bridge, shots rang out from the British soldiers. In response – and for the first time in the Colonies’ history - colonists fired on British soldiers. America’s Revolutionary War had begun! The famous statue by Daniel Chester French was unveiled on April 19, 1875 and sits near the spot where two local militiamen were killed on April 19, 1775. The statue was cast from ten Civil War-era cannons and shows a minuteman putting down his plow to pick up a gun. Battle Road Trail and Witness Houses The Battle Road Trail follows, in part, the route taken by the British soldiers as they retreated following the battle at the North Bridge. The Trail passes several key places, including Meriam’s corner, Hartwell Tavern, and the Bloody Angle. Currently, 11 Witness Houses stand along the Battle Road. These houses, carefully preserved, stood witness to the historic events of April 19, 1775 and several played integral roles in the events of that day. The home of Elisha Jones was only yards from the battle at Concord’s North Bridge. Even today, you can see the mark where a bullet, aimed at Elisha Jones on April 19, 1775, struck his home. The Wayside The Wayside has been home to three literary families: the Alcotts, Hawthornes, and Lothrops and is the only National Historic Landmark to have been lived in by three literary families. The Alcotts lived in the house from 1845-1852 and called it “Hillside.” Although Louisa May Alcott did not live here when she wrote Little Women, she and her sisters spent much of their childhoods here. Nathaniel Hawthorne and his family lived here from For current information on 1852 through 1869 and gave the house the name it which sites are open during carries today, “The Wayside.” the COVID-19 pandemic, Harriett Lothrop, who wrote under the name Margaret please check the websites Sidney, is best remembered for her book Five Little Peppers. or visit the Concord Visitor She and her daughter, Margaret Lothrop, lived in The Center at 58 Main Street, Wayside from 1883 to 1965, when it became part of open daily 10:00 to 4:00. Minute Man National Historical Park.
www.nps.gov/mima/index.htm Minute Man National Historical Park spans 970 acres and includes many of the area’s most important sites.
Concord encompasses three famous cemeteries, all of which are worth visiting. www.concordma.gov/1955/Town-ofConcord-Cemeteries Old Hill Burying Ground Concord’s earliest burial site is located on a hillside overlooking the town center and includes some of the town’s oldest graves. John Jack, likely Concord’s first enslaved man to gain his freedom and purchase land and a house, is buried here. His epitaph, written by Daniel Bliss, is famous around the world. South Burying Ground Also called Main Street Burying Ground, this is Concord’s second-oldest cemetery. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery www.friendsofsleepyhollow.org Sleepy Hollow is Concord’s largest, and best known, cemetery. Spanning 119 acres, Sleepy Hollow includes the graves of Bronson Alcott, Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Daniel Chester French, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Sophia Peabody Hawthorne, Henry David Thoreau, and more. The cemetery is also home to the famous sculpture “Mourning Victory” by Daniel Chester French. The haunting statue watches over the Melvin memorial, burial place of Asa, John, and Samuel Melvin – Concord brothers killed during the Civil War.
Snow Geese passing over
STORY AND PHOTOGRAPHS BY DAVE WITHERBEE
Do you think about going south for the winter? So do many birds. As the days get shorter and cooler, many of Concord’s resident birds get restless and think about wintering elsewhere. These birds migrate primarily because of food and not to avoid our cold winters. Many of the birds that migrate depend mostly on berries, seeds, and insects for their daily meals, but the insects crawl into the ground, dig under leaves, or drill under tree bark and sleep through the cold winter months. The migratory birds are not as well equipped as a woodpecker to hammer a hole in a tree to gather sleeping insects. Woodpeckers account for about 30% of birds that stay. Other noticeable birds that stay are chickadees, cardinals, titmice, nuthatches, wrens, and the family of corvids: blue jays, crows, and ravens. The corvids will eat about anything, including carcasses. The birds that stay tend to form groups to help each other find food and warmth, which is why we see more of them together in winter. Birds that eat fish and frogs, like the great blue herons, have a problem dining when layers of ice shield the fish and frogs snuggle in the mud. The great blue herons are late to leave Concord but when 16
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the rivers and lakes ice up, they move a relatively short distance toward the ocean because it stays open and mostly free of ice. Migration is a risky undertaking. Many of our birds do not make it to their destination, so they have to plan well to limit the risks. Birds that can soar, such as hawks, use the daytime thermals to carry them aloft. (If you go to the top of Mt. Wachusetts in October on a sunny day you will likely see many hawks getting lift from the air currents and soaring south.) There are also non-soaring birds that use the daytime thermals, such as swallows. These birds also tend to fly in the morning and then take Osprey heading south
Heron ice fishing
a rest. It’s like people driving to Florida and stopping at motels along the way. Geese and some other birds have found it very helpful to fly in a V formation to take advantage of a leader who breaks up the air currents. The leaders have to work harder so the geese take turns. Many of the smaller birds like warblers are not helped by thermals so they travel at night when the cooler air temperatures and smoother air are better for their energetic flights. All of these migrating birds need a lot of fat for energy, but those that travel long distances, such as one or two thousand miles, need a large percentage of their weight as fat to sustain themselves. And that brings me to perhaps the most outstanding flyer of all birds, our ruby throated hummingbirds (the only hummingbirds in Concord), who fly over the Gulf of Mexico to South America at night. It helps that these tiny birds, usually weighing around three ounces, can store up to two ounces of fat to fuel their journey. And they can not only hover to gather nectar and insects, but also fly backwards. All that is hard to beat. ———————————————————————— Dave Witherbee is a Concord native, an avid nature enthusiast, and a wildlife photographer.
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Peddler of Ideas BY JAIMEE LEIGH JOROFF
Amos Bronson Alcott was about to drown. How could this be happening? Born on November 29th, 1799, he was the eldest son of a poor farmer from Wolcott, Connecticut, and he was only 19 years old! Straining to keep his head above water, Bronson could see his bag on the shore with the $100 he was bringing home to help pay his father’s debts. And what of his mother, who taught Bronson his ABCs by having him trace them on her dirt parlor floor, her warm memory in stark contrast to the rigid teacher in the one room schoolhouse Bronson attended until leaving at age 10 to work full-time on his father’s farm. He had continued to love 18
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reading and learning, amassed books, and dreamed of becoming a teacher. At 17, he passed his teacher’s certification, but no teaching positions had yet opened for him and he’d taken to the road as a peddler, joining a “peddling fever” of New England men selling trinkets and household wares through Southern states. On this May morning, in the company of another young peddler, Bronson was returning from his second trip south. Near Williamsburg, Virginia, the two stopped to bathe in the James River. A sudden rip current seized them! Petrified, Bronson’s companion grabbed him, dragging Bronson down until
death loosened his grasp. Now, fighting the current alone, perhaps a line from Bronson’s favorite novel, Pilgrim’s Progress, screamed through his head, “What shall I do to be saved?” I shall kick, and I shall swim, and I shall claw my way to shore. And with that, this grandson of an American Revolutionary War soldier saved himself from the James River. After three more peddling expeditions, Bronson finally attained a teaching job. From 1823-1828, he taught school in Connecticut, applying unconventional methods foreign to the time. Influenced by the Swiss educator Pestalozzi, who promoted individualized, moral, and harmonious education, Bronson believed that children had their own minds and should be taught to think rather than be forced to memorize. He saw inherent goodness in each child, and disdained corporal punishment and the sedentary schools of old. He encouraged students to get out of chairs, act out lessons, and exercise. He also started evening classes for students’ parents. Despite being recognized by area newspapers as a school “of a superior and improved kind” and perhaps the best common school in the United States, some regarded his radical methods with fear and suspicion and his school closed in 1828. A lifetime of educational pursuits followed. Marrying Abigail May in 1830, Bronson moved to Boston, MA, where, with the teaching assistance of Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, (the brilliant sister-inlaw of Nathaniel Hawthorne), he opened and ran The Temple School. In an age where “children should be seen and not heard”, Bronson continued to ask questions of the children, encouraging their self-expression. His methods began to garner public notice and controversy, particularly when Bronson initiated a series of “Conversations on the Gospels” with his young students. For the families, this was an outrageous entering of religion reserved for the church. Backlash against Bronson was fierce, but the Bostonian minister Ralph Waldo Emerson came to his defense calling Bronson a Socrates of his time. Although Bronson was forced to close the Temple School, he began a lifetime friendship with Emerson, which
Photos courtesy of Barrow Bookstore
Amos Bronson Alcott:
1880s press photograph of Amos Bronson Alcott sitting on the entry stairs of his Concord School of Philosophy.
19th century Concordians, most of whom led Bronson to write that, for all the trouble that well suited him. In 1868, Louisa wrote viewed Bronson’s School of Philosophy Little Women. The novel was a tremendous closing the school had brought, having as a waste of time, destined to fail. But success and the Alcotts became financially gained the friendship of Emerson made when crowds of American and European secure. Bronson was now free to fully “the hemlock, though bitter… [still] a visitors started coming to attend summer pursue the academic life that had called to healthful and invigorating drink.” him since childhood; he traveled throughout sessions at the School, and were willing Undeterred, Bronson opened the small to pay for accommodation and food, the country attending and giving lectures Beech School. Here, his stand on equality the town welcomed them! In an 1882 and meeting like-minded scholars such as drew further ire. When Bronson admitted journal entry, Louisa noted this change in Transcendentalist William Torrey Harris. an African American child, many of the Concord sentiment writing, “The school Harris and Bronson discussed opening other children’s parents demanded the is pronounced a success because it brings an educational center for adults, a place child be removed. Bronson, an ardent money to the town. Even philosophers can’t of conversation and learning. In 1879, with abolitionist, refused. Approximately half do without food, beds, and washing.” School Concordian abolitionist Frank Sanborn of the families withdrew their students, of Philosophy speakers included Bronson, forcing Bronson to close the school. Despite operating as secretary, and William Torrey Emerson, William Torrey Harris, Elizabeth Harris as consultant and financier, Bronson experiences like this, Bronson continued Peabody, Julia Ward Howe, Emma Lazarus, opened the Concord School of Philosophy to live by his principles both as a teacher and more. The school continued until and Literature. The first session was held and in his personal life. For example, one Bronson died in 1888. His eulogy was read in Orchard House; an enthusiastic crowd of the Alcott’s homes in Concord was an in the building and on the mourners’ way crammed into one room. active stop on the underground railroad, out, the doors closed for the final time in the The following year, Bronson built Hillside and Bronson was once arrested for refusing 19th century. Chapel near Orchard House. Reflecting to pay taxes that he thought supported The building was preserved by slavery, an action that Thoreau Concord author Harriet Lothrop (author emulated years later. of The Five Little Peppers series under As time continued, financial the pen name of Margaret Sidney) who, hardships dogged Bronson and when living next door at the Wayside, his family, which now consisted bought the Orchard House property and of his wife Abigail and children used the School as a play-house for her Anna, Louisa, Elizabeth, and daughter, Margaret. When Margaret May. They moved more than 20 inherited the property, she sold Orchard times. Throughout all, Bronson House and the School to a group of continued intellectual endeavors, women who turned the properties into including founding the American a museum. Transcendental Movement with his In 1975, the Orchard House museum friends Emerson, restored Bronson’s School of Philosophy Thoreau, and Select Sources and started a recurring “Summer Margaret Fuller. & Recommended Conversation Series” for adult scholars. In 1857, with Hillside Chapel (aka The Concord Reading: And now in present day, hopefully School of Philosophy and Literature). assistance from Built by Bronson in 1880. soon, Orchard House may once again Emerson (who kept a Shepard, Odell (1937) Pedlar’s open those doors to you. Until then, if revolving $500 sum Progress, Little, Brown, and Co., Boston, MA unexpected tides are threatening to drag Bronson’s ideas for his earlier referred to as “the you down, perhaps you too will hear the classrooms, the building was full Alcott sinking fund”), Alcott, Bronson (1850) Pilgrim’s cry, “What shall I do to be saved?” of windows, and heated. Churchthe Alcotts bought New Connecticut. An Autobiographical Poem and Bronson’s voice will answer, “Follow Your like, a gabled entry stood ready Orchard House, a Ideals” and keep swimming. to welcome visitors who came home next to the Alcott, Louisa, (1888) E. Cheney ———————————————————————— to hear lectures on many topics, Wayside (where they (Ed.) Life, Letters, and Journals of Louisa May Alcott, Little, Brown, A Concord native, Jaimee is the manager including Transcendentalism and had previously lived). and Co., Boston, MA of the Barrow Bookstore in Concord Center the closely related philosophies While living in which specializes in Concord history, of Platonism and Hegelianism. Orchard House, Joroff, A. D. (1995), Amos Transcendentalism, and literary figures. If the words Transcendentalism, Bronson became Bronson Alcott, Scrap-Baggers, (Vol. 2, No. 2, 1-3) She has been an interpreter at most of Platonism, and Hegelianism Superintendent Concord’s historic sites and is a licensed don’t excite you, you have of the Schools of Matteson, John (2007) Eden’s town guide. something in common with Concord, a position Outcasts: The Story of Louisa May Alcott and Her Father, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, N.Y.
A Tightly Plastered & Shingled House:
Thoreau’s Cabin at Walden Pond
On September 6, 1847, Henry Thoreau left his small house at Walden Pond and moved back into the town of Concord. Having lived at Waldon Pond for over two years, he was, he would write, “a sojourner in civilized life again.” Less than a month after leaving Walden, Thoreau moved into the home of his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson was going to England for a one-year lecture tour, and Thoreau moved to Emerson’s home in order to watch over the family and take care of the chores while Emerson was away, living in what Thoreau called “dangerous prosperity.” But what about Thoreau’s cabin? What happened to that once he was done with it? That is a story unto itself! To begin with, Thoreau was not particularly attached to his cabin. He would later say in Walden that he was not “anchored” to it, and once he left Walden Pond, he physically and emotionally left his house behind. As it was on Emerson’s land, it was now Emerson’s problem to deal with. And Emerson had plans for the house; he immediately rented it to his gardener, Hugh Whelan, who would move “the cottage” to where Thoreau’s bean field had been and expand the house for him and his family. Sadly, this never happened. Whelan soon abandoned his family and left Concord, never to be heard from again. The house sat empty for many months, beside the cellar hole that Whelan had dug for it, which can still be seen in Walden Woods today. In September 1849, the house was sold to Brooks Clark, who moved it to his farm near the Estabrook Woods, north of town. It was moved around Clark’s property several times as his use for it changed when it was needed at new locations. Initially it was used to store grain - probably corn. In 1867, it was moved to the northwest pasture of Clark’s farm. Clark then pilfered the cabin for parts as he repaired 20
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STORY AND PHOTOGRAPHS BY RICHARD SMITH
A replica of Thoreau’s cabin at Walden Pond
various buildings around his property. Most sources agree that, over time, the house boards were used to repair a barn. Another source wrote that the cabin was demolished and the boards were used to enlarge the Clark farmhouse. Ellery Channing noted the cabin’s windows were already gone when he saw it in 1863. In 1868, the roof was removed and used to cover a pig sty. In that same year, Channing wrote that he saw the cabin “in ruins,” the structure having recently been pulled down. Later, in 1885, the floor and some timbers were also reported to have been used to make a shed on the side of a barn. Eventually, that shed collapsed and Site of Thoreau’s original cabin
the wood was used to repair the barn itself. Thoreau’s front door was used over time in a variety of spots on the Clark property. Today, virtually nothing remains of the original house. There are bits and pieces of brick, plaster and nails, as well as larger pieces, including an original timber, in the collections of the Concord Museum and the Walden Woods Project, but that’s all. The house site itself at Walden has become a pilgrimage site for lovers of Thoreau from all around the world. Thoreau left Walden because he had “several more lives to live.” It is evident that his house did, too! Today, both the man and his cabin live on in our hearts and minds as symbols of simplicity and living in harmony with nature. ———————————————————————— Richard Smith has worked as a public historian in Concord for 21 years, specializing in Henry David Thoreau, the Transcendentalists, the Anti-Slavery movement, and the Civil War. He has written six books for Applewood Books and is a tour guide for Concord Tour Company.
Beyond Midnight Paul Revere and His Ride
Explore the political activist and Revolutionary War legend.
Extended through October 12, 2020; purchase your timed-entry tickets online now.
www.concordmuseum.org Organized by the American Antiquarian Society with generous support from CHAViC, Center for Historic AmericanVisual Culture,AAS;The Henry Luce Foundation; and The Richard C. von Hess Foundation.
This October, the Concord Museum debuts three new permanent galleries focused on April 19, 1775, a watershed moment in American history. Join us for this New Museum Experience! Images: Lantern, one of the two used as a signal April 18, 1775, Concord Museum; N.C.Wyeth, Paul Revere, 1922, The Hill School, Pottstown, PA
Minutemen ride horses on the Battle Road in Concord during the Commemorating the Patriot Day.
Stories from the Battle Road
The Battle at the North Bridge on April 19, 1775, was well documented, but the running battle of the Minutemen and militia companies chasing the Regular Army out of Concord back to Charlestown along what we now call Battle Road is lesser-known. Records are incomplete and make the first five miles of the retreat impossible to reconstruct accurately. Nevertheless, the National Park Service has hunted down slender clues to provide a more complete history to the forgotten families who experienced fighting on their front lawns. Minute Man National Historical Park Ranger Jim Hollister was able to share some stories about families that lived on the Battle Road. When you start to explore the Battle Road at Meriam’s Corner you will see Nathan Meriam’s house. However, two 22
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BY BETH VAN DUZER
houses stood on Meriam’s Corner on April 19, 1775. The house that no longer stands belonged to Josiah Meriam, whose household most certainly saw the line of Redcoats pass their home in the early morning hours. While Josiah Meriam and his older sons fought at North Bridge, his wife and youngest son remained home, for a while. According to William Emerson, most of the women and children of Concord fled into the woods and other places for safety. The Meriams do exactly this and take refuge behind a hill. When they returned to their home, the youngest son was distraught to find some unbaked pies that had been in the oven were gone. The young lad blamed the Regulars; however, it is highly unlikely the Redcoats had taken the pies.
One person that did leave at least a partial record of the fighting along Bay Road was Ensign Jeremy Lister of the 10th Regiment of Foot. As he marched over the hill to Meriam’s Corner he recorded, “immediately as we descended the hill into the Road the Rebels begun a brisk fire but at so great a distance it was without effect, but as they kept marching nearer when the Granadiers found them within shot they returned their fire…it then became a general Firing upon us from all Quarters, from behind hedges and Walls we return’d the fire every opportunity which continued till we arriv’d at Lexington…”1 Thanks to Lister’s entry, we can return to the pilfered pies. The Redcoats were much too busy trying to cross a narrow bridge just past the Merriam homes and dodge the volley
©Beth Van Duzer
Captain William Smith House
from the colonists to stop and eat. What is more likely is some Minutemen or militia men stopped and ate. No matter who ate the pies, the young lad was undoubtedly impacted by the loss of them. About two and a half miles up the trail lies Hartwell Tavern. That night, Dr. Samuel Prescott most likely alerted the tavern owners, Ephraim and Elizabeth Hartwell, about the incoming column on his way to Concord. Three of Hartwell’s sons fought at North Bridge that morning in the Lincoln Minute company. As the colonists continued hounding the British column back to Boston, the three young men passed right by their home. According to pay records, one son, John Hartwell, was at camp as a Minuteman from April 19-24. On April 24, he enlisted in the Continental Army. Not only did John Hartwell fight at the North Bridge and on the Battle Road, but he also fought at Bunker Hill and was away from his home through December 1775. Next door to the tavern are the remains of the Samuel Hartwell House. While history is not clear as to whether it was Dr. Prescott or a neighbor that awakened Samuel Hartwell’s family, what is known is Mary Hartwell played a significant role that day by spreading the alarm to neighbors. Mary Hartwell’s heroism was well recognized at
that time. Unfortunately, there are so many versions that, without documentation, it is impossible to know which is true. Ultimately, in addition to being remembered as a hero for spreading the alarm to neighbors, Mary Hartwell is also recognized for mourning five unknown, fallen British soldiers during their burial in the Lincoln cemetery. Her care and compassion were her strength. Just past the tavern, the Battle Road trail is the actual Bay Road. While walking toward the Captain William Smith House, you are walking where history happened. After receiving the alarm, William Smith, captain of the Lincoln Minute company and brother of Abigail Adams, rallied his company, including the Hartwell brothers. The Lincoln Minute company was the first to arrive in Concord later that morning and fought at North Bridge. The company also joined the pursuit of the Regulars back toward Boston. The fighting took William Smith right past his home, but no record exists if he stopped. The last story to share about April 19 is the Jacob Whittemore House. Jacob and Elizabeth Whittemore were in their mid-fifties and lived in the home with their daughter and son-in-law, Sarah and Moses Reed. The men did not join any of the battles on April 19. Instead, they had
to decide whether to uphold duty to their family or their community. Sarah Reed had given birth just weeks before and was in poor health. Whittemore and his son-in-law chose duty to family. They carried Sarah and the newborn into the woods on a mattress to hide from the imminent danger. They apparently stayed with her as Moses Reed did not appear on muster rolls that day. Despite this, just a few weeks after the first shots were fired, Moses did join the Continental Army. The annual reenactment of April 19, 1775, allows us to relive the extraordinary lives of ordinary people. These lesser-told stories about families that lived on Bay Road on April 19, 1775, provide us with an idea about the fear and anxiety they had that day. As of this writing, there are no public programs currently happening at Minute Man National Historical Park. Nevertheless, if you see a ranger outside one of the Visitor Centers, near North Bridge, or along the Battle Road, ask them to share more of the stories of the forgotten families that called the Battle Road their home. ——————————————————————— Concord resident Beth van Duzer is General Manager of the Concord Tour Company and a licensed town tour guide. Beth is currently pursuing a Masters in Public History.
Jeremy Lister, Concord Fight: Being so much of the Narrative of Ensign Jeremy Lister of the 10th Regiment of Foot as Pertains to his Services on the 19th of April, 1775,
and to his Experiences in Boston during the Early Months of the Siege, (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1931), 69-70. Accessed August 11, 2020. https://archive. org/details/concordfightbein00list/page/n67/mode/2up
At the Frontier of Hope: BRISTER FREEMAN
W When you hear the words ‘Walden Pond’ you probably think of Henry David Thoreau and his cabin in the woods. If you’ve been here, you might also think of the many hiking trails and sandy little coves surrounding the gin-clear water of the pond where tens of thousands of people enjoy swimming and walking each season. What you might not think about is the community of formerly enslaved people who once lived near Walden. Not because it was the beautiful, tranquil scene we flock to today, but because it was considered an infertile, out of the way, undesirable piece of land to Concord’s white population. As Elise Lemire writes in her excellent book Black Walden, as many as fifteen formerly enslaved people ‘made a life for themselves in Walden Woods, enough that Henry David Thoreau could describe their community as a “small village.”’ One of the members of that community was Brister Freeman, who, for a short time, would become Concord’s second formerly enslaved black landowner. (The first was John Jack, he of the famed epitaph whose grave you can visit in Old Hill burial ground.) Freeman’s story is just one of many that make up the African American experience in Concord, but it is an encompassing place to start. Before we embark on our journey with Brister it should be noted that although there is a fair amount written on slavery in New England, nearly all of it is from the white perspective. First person accounts of what it was like to live as an enslaved person in pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts are almost nonexistent. What little we know of their personal lives comes almost exclusively through the dispassionate and 24
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BY ALIDA ORZECHOWSKI
callous lens of slave owners, tax records, and offhand observations like Henry’s description in Walden that are but footnotes in an otherwise white world. What has been pieced together, thanks to the herculean efforts of authors like Lemire, is that Brister was probably the fifth and last child of Lincoln and Zilpah. At the time of their youngest son’s birth in 1744, the married couple was enslaved by Chambers Russell, a justice of the peace and wealthy landowner of what is now the Codman Estate on the Lincoln, MA side of Walden Pond. While there’s no hard evidence, such as a bill of sale, of Brister being subsequently taken from his family and given to Timothy Wesson, it’s circumstantially logical that this was the same Brister that Wesson then gifted his ambitious son-in-law, Dr.
John Cuming, and daughter Abigail on the occasion of their wedding in 1753. Brister was nine years old when he was enslaved by the prominent Cuming family in Concord, and he would remain so for the next 25 years. That John Cuming’s gravestone would later describe him with words like pious, compassionate, and generous, simply underscores the persistent but false notion of ‘good’ slave owners, as no amount of benevolence - short of liberating Brister - should be seen as anything less than the monstrous act it was. Fortunately for Massachussetts, the American War for Independence would lead to the relatively early abolition of slavery here, though it was more an unintended consequence rather than any kind of collective moral stand on the part of white colonists. African Americans across the
All photos ©www.baycolonymedia.com
Marker at Brister Hill
Bay Colony deftly took advantage of the political and social upheaval and began gaining their freedom well before the new law was passed in 1783. Brister served three enlistments in the war and by the last one in 1779, had begun Cuming House referring to himself as Brister Freeman, build it, and, in most cases, would work a powerful declaration of his own actively against that realization of equality. independence. Six years later he would gain A combination of poverty, sickness, and the additionally coveted title of landowner. By malnutrition would see the last descendant pooling his limited financial resources with of Brister Freeman die in 1822, thus ending another freed black veteran, Charlestown the family’s presence here. The RobbinsEdes, the men were able to purchase just Garrison line would continue near Great over an acre near Walden Pond, across from Meadows a bit longer. Ellen Garrison, born in what is today the high school. They split what is now the Robbins House, would go on the occupancy of a two-room house, where to be recognized as ‘Concord’s Rosa Parks’ Brister dwelt with his wife Fenda and three for her courageous and very public stand children, in the heart of the “small village” against segregation in 1866. She devoted her within Walden Woods. life to activism and education for the newly Other residents of this remarkable freed black people across America. village include Brister’s older sister Zilpah History is often mistakenly thought of as (abandoned by the Russell family) who eked a static thing, permanent and fixed. But if out a living for herself via spinning wheel in “all history is biography” as Ralph Waldo a tiny shanty where the town allowed her to Emerson once said, then uncovering the stay as a squatter. Cato Ingraham (formerly lives of Concord’s African Americans should enslaved to Captain Duncan Ingraham) and necessarily change what we think we know his wife Phyllis (formerly enslaved to the about our collective past. If we’re open to Bliss-Emerson family) would also become what their stories have to teach us, then neighbors. Brister’s son Amos would marry perhaps we can allow our ever-evolving and Love Oliver and thus connect the Freemans dynamic history to guide us towards a more to another black community in Concord out honest and justice-driven future. by Great Meadows, the Robbins-Garrisons. ——————————————————————— This burgeoning society was at the very Alida Vienna Orzechowski has served as the frontier of hope, and Brister Freeman was Director of Marketing and historic interpreter determined to keep breaking new ground. at The Old Manse, Board Member of Thoreau The cards were overwhelmingly stacked Farm Trust, and a member of the Concord against all of Concord’s black population, Historical Collaborative. She is the founder however. Neither the town, nor the country of Concord Tour Company and is a licensed as a whole, was yet able to accept the full Concord guide. citizenship of the very people who helped
If you’d like to know more about the history of Concord’s African Americans, visit www.robbinshouse.org for a comprehensive list of books and interpretive resources. We also highly recommend “Black Walden: Slavery and Its Aftermath in Concord, Massachusetts” by Elise Lemire, which can be purchased locally at The Concord Bookshop and Barrow Bookstore. Additionally, Concord Tour Company has created an in-depth and interactive walking tour, “Black History Matters: Uncovering the African American Experience and the Myth of Benevolence in Concord, Massachusetts.” Tours can be booked by visiting www. concordtourcompany.com. Five percent of all tour proceeds will be donated in support of The Robbins House, the only museum dedicated to Concord’s African American History.
The North Bridge Inn:
A Hospitality Gem in the Heart of Concord Center
Welcome to Concord! Our history, literary legacy, and charming downtown will enchant you. We invite you to stay with us at the North Bridge Inn, just off Monument Square… a short walk from the Concord Center shopping district and local Concord historic attractions. Here in this charming town, Innkeeper Heidi Godbout has lovingly cared for guests from around the world for more than 20 years.
Photos © Richard Pasley Photography
Classic New England Charm Each of the six elegant suites at this ideal location feature unique charm and individual décor, with a separate seating area for relaxing and unwinding. Several of the suites feature a full kitchen – a wonderful option for those who prefer to cook in or enjoy take out in a private setting. The top floor suite is even set up for longer term rental – with a whole floor of comfortable, relaxing space. Extra Care During Uncertain Times With COVID-19, guests can take comfort in knowing that Heidi and her team have adopted strict protocols to ensure the health and safety of all who frequent the Inn, including: • Suites remain vacant for 24 hours between guest stays – during which, air is filtered through a HEPA filter, a UV light treatment, and an ozone generator to optimize clean and fresh air • Thorough cleaning and disinfecting, with extra focus on sanitizing high touch areas, furniture, linens, and amenities • Once your room is cleaned and prepared for you, no one enters your room prior to arrival • Each suite has its own air conditioning system – air is not recycled from other areas • Staff are trained to comply with all state guidelines regarding COVID-19 safety • Courtesy masks, hand sanitizer, and disposable gloves provided for all of our guests Enjoy Beautiful Concord this Fall Stunning foliage in the heart of America’s living history makes working remotely or home schooling an enjoyable adventure. Connect via our reliable internet when you need it - and then step out your door to enjoy stunning Concord this Fall! We also offer extended stay specials for those who are renovating, building, or who simply have fallen in love with Concord and are relocating to make this their new home! Come experience the charm, comfort, and personalized care that our classic New England Inn offers you. Call or email us today to make your reservation and discover Concord’s hidden hospitality gem – the North Bridge Inn.
North Bridge Inn | 21 Monument Street | Concord, MA 01742 | 978.371.0014 | northbridgeinn.com
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How Do You
BY VICTOR CURRAN
All photos ©Concord Visitor Center
Travel books love to include tips on how to experience a place “like a local.” But if you’re lucky enough to be a local, how often do you actually experience the fun that’s right in front of you? When family or friends come from out of town, we show them the North Bridge, Author’s Ridge, and Walden Pond. We take them to our favorite restaurants and shops, and maybe go canoeing on the river. But why wait for visitors? Even if you’re a townie, Concord’s Visitor Center might surprise you with some of the experiences you can enjoy here. Maybe you think of the Visitor Center at 58 Main Street as “where the bathrooms are”—and that’s true. But take a minute to step in the other door. You can find free maps of Minute Man National Park, area hiking and bike trails, information about Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, and more. You can get books, post cards, fridge magnets, a nice cold box of water (no single-use plastic bottles here!), and of course, a pocket-size bottle of hand sanitizer. There are “I came, I saw, I Concord” T-shirts, and even tricorn hats (of course you know a kid that wants a tricorn hat). The Visitor Center is staffed with trained guides 10:00-4:00 daily. Beth Williams joined the Concord Recreation Department last year as Tourism Manager, and she’s available year-round to answer questions and arrange private tours. Regular walking tours run daily at 1:00 (in November, tours will run on Saturday and Sunday). If you’ve been around Concord for a while, you could probably give a tour yourself, but Beth Williams has cooked up some tours that might give you (or your out-of-town guests) a new perspective on the town. • There’s a Little Women tour that highlights Louisa May Alcott and the real-life Concord family that inspired her best-selling novel. • There’s a 90-minute bicycle tour exploring sites connected to Concord’s African-
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American history, including the Robbins House, John Jack’s grave, and houses that were stops on the Underground Railroad. • There’s a Three Cemeteries walking tour, including the colonial-era Old Hill Burying Ground and South Burying Ground as well as scenic, wooded Sleepy Hollow with the graves of Concord’s literary giants. • The Visitor Center also has information on custom tours on a range of living history topics through private companies in town – just ask. We asked the Visitor Center staff to tell us about the small pleasures that make Concord special for them, and here are some of their replies: • John Jack’s gravestone in the Old Hill Burying Ground. His eulogy by Daniel Bliss, Jr., is a powerful statement against slavery written before the American Revolution. • The railroad tracks on the far side of Walden Pond. It’s hard to imagine that there was a fairground there in the late 1800s. • Favorite foodie tips: Concord Provisions for the Country Kitchen Thanksgiving Sandwich; “Pick 3” special at the Cheese Shop (enjoyed on a bench in Monument Square); Chang An for Mai Tais and the buffet (the buffet will be back someday); the outdoor tables overlooking the brook at Nashoba Bakery; anything from Sally Ann’s Bakery. • Special Collections downstairs at the Main Library (not currently open to the public, but they are happy to assist you at firstname.lastname@example.org). • Here’s a real hidden gem: The bench at the top of Annursnac Hill. It’s the highest point in Concord and when it’s clear, you can see almost to Boston. What are your favorite Concord experiences? Stop by the Visitor Center anytime between 10:00 and 4:00 and share them with the staffer at the desk. Maybe you’ll meet some out-of-towners who want to hear about them, too.
Come Home to Concord! Cathy Folts | Realtor® 85 Main Street | Concord | MA 01742 email: Cathy.Folts@raveis.com website: CathyFolts.raveis.com Cell: 978-201-9537
9 Walden St • Concord • 978-341-0091 • Instagram @comina.inc
NEW FUNCTION TENT
Book your event outside in our tent! Window sides, liner & chandeliers. Social distanced seating up to 36
April through November • Weather Permitting Radiant Outdoor Heaters
mo www.concordscolonialinn.com 48 Monument Square • Concord, MA 01742
Hotel: (978) 369.9200 • Restaurant: (978) 369.2373 • Events & Group Planning: (978) 341.8209
CONCORD& Surrounding Areas WHERE TO STAY Concord Center Concord’s Colonial Inn Hawthorne Inn North Bridge Inn
West Concord 48 Monument Sq 462 Lexington Rd 21 Monument Sq
Best Western Residence Inn by Marriott
740 Elm St 320 Baker Ave
WHERE TO SHOP Concord Center *Albright Art Supply + Gift Artinian Jewelry Artisans Way Barrow Bookstore Blue Dry Goods Cheese Shop of Concord Comina Concord Bookshop Concord Lamp and Shade Concord Market Copper Penny Flowers Dotted i Fairbank and Perry Goldsmiths Footstock Fritz & Gigi French Lessons George Vassel Jewelry Gräem Nuts and Chocolate Grasshopper Shop Irresistables J McLaughlin Jack & Toba Lacoste Gallery Lyn Evans Nesting North Bridge Antiques Patina Green Priscilla Candy Shop *Revolutionary Concord Sara Campbell Ltd Tess & Carlos The Umbrella Arts Center Thistle Hill Thoreauly Antiques Vanderhoof Hardware Viola Lovely Walden Liquors Walden Street Antiques
West Concord 32 Main St 39 Main St 18 Walden St 79 Main St 16 Walden St 29 Walden St 9 Walden St 65 Main St 21 Walden St 77 Lowell Rd 9 Independence Court 1 Walden St 32 Main St 46 Main St 79 Main St 8 Walden St 40 Main St 49 Main St 36 Main St 16 Walden St 14 Walden St 17 Walden St 25 Main St 29 Main St 44 Main St 28 Walden St 59 Main St 19 Walden St 32 Main St 41 Main St 81 Main St 40 Stow St 13 Walden St 25 Walden St 28 Main St 38 Main St 18 Walden St 23 Walden St
11 Wheeler Rd
Thoreau Depot ATA Cycles Concord Provisions Frame-ables Juju
Money Saving Coupon on p.64 Outdoor dining with table service
74 Commonwealth Ave 23 Commonwealth Ave 135 Commonwealth Ave 113 Commonwealth Ave 98 Commonwealth Ave 45 Commonwealth Ave 49 Commonwealth Ave 33 Bradford St 101 Commonwealth Ave 115 Commonwealth Ave 106 Commonwealth Ave 1215 Main St
WHERE TO EAT Concord Center Caffè Nero Comella’s *Fiorella’s Cucina 1 Haute Coffee Helen’s Restaurant Liberty at the Colonial Inn Main Street’s Market & Café 1 Merchant’s Row at the Colonial Inn 1 Sally Ann’s Bakery & Food Shop Trail’s End Cafe 1
55 Main St 33 Main St 24 Walden St 12 Walden St 17 Main St 48 Monument Square 42 Main St 48 Monument Square 73 Main St 97 Lowell Rd
Thoreau Depot 80 Thoreau 1 Bedford Farms Ice Cream Chang An Restaurant Dunkin’ Donuts Farfalle Italian Market Café Karma Concord Asian Fusion 1 New London Style Pizza Sorrento’s Brick Oven Pizzeria Starbucks
80 Thoreau St 68 Thoreau St 10 Concord Crossing 117 Thoreau St 26 Concord Crossing 105 Thoreau St 71 Thoreau St 58 Thoreau St 159 Sudbury Rd
Nine Acre Corner Verrill Farm
A New Leaf Concord Firefly Concord Flower Shop Concord Outfitters *Debra’s Natural Gourmet Forever Tile Joy Street Life + Home Rare Elements Reflections Three Stones Gallery *West Concord 5 & 10 West Concord Wine & Spirits
93 Thoreau St 75 Thoreau St 111 Thoreau St 82 Thoreau St
99 Restaurant & Pub 1 Adelita 1 Club Car Café Concord Teacakes Dino’s Kouzina & Pizzeria Dunkin’ Donuts Nashoba Brook Bakery Reasons to Be Cheerful Saltbox Kitchen Walden Italian Kitchen Woods Hill Table 1
13 Commonwealth Ave 1200 Main St 20 Commonwealth Ave 59 Commonwealth Ave 1135 Main St 1191 Main St 152 Commonwealth Ave 110 Commonwealth Ave 84 Commonwealth Ave 92 Commonwealth Ave 24 Commonwealth Ave
Concord Visitor Center
W ald en S
Au th or s
Lexington Rd Ca mb rid A ge Tu rnp ike
Concord Center — See detailed map on p. 33
Rd artlett Hill
d es R Key
Great Meadows Rd
onu m e n t St
ba rd S
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O Lexington Rd
d ng R
La ur e
ll we Lo Ct
St Da vis
North Bridge Visitor Center 174 Liberty St Old Hill Burying Ground 2-12 Monument Sq The Old Manse 269 Monument St Ralph Waldo Emerson House 28 Cambridge Turnpike The Robbins House 320 Monument St Sleepy Hollow Cemetery & Authors Ridge 120 Bedford St South Burying Ground Main St & Keyes Rd The Umbrella Arts Center 40 Stow St Walden Pond State Reservation 915 Walden St The Wayside 455 Lexington Rd
Concord Museum 200 Lexington Rd Concord Visitor Center 58 Main St Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard 62 House 399 Lexington Rd Minute Man National Historical Park 250 N. Great Rd (Lincoln) The North Bridge
Points of Interest d tR Prescot
Be dfo rd
Spri _Peter St
Pa r t r i dge Ln
ent dence Rd
L 20 4
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H 2 15
Rd Concord Visitor Center
d es R y e K
Discover CONCORD 13
W al 10 de n St .
To W ald
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gt on Rd
Barrett Sotheby’s Int’l Realty Barrow Bookstore The Cheese Shop
3 4 5 6
*Fiorella’s Cucina Inkstone Architects
11 12 13
North Bridge Antiques
* Money Saving Coupon on p. 64
William Raveis Real Estate
Sara Campbell Ltd
North Bridge Inn
- Forge Tavern
- Merchant’s Row Restaurant
- Liberty Restaurant
Concord’s Colonial Inn:
Compass Real Estate
Brokerage (2 locations)
Coldwell Banker Residential
*Albright Art Supply + Gift
Points of Interest
Concord Train Station
90 Thoreau St
United States Post Office
35 Beharrell St
West Concord Train Station
Commonwealth Ave & Main St
Featured Businesses 4
A New Leaf
Appleton Design Group
The Attias Group
Concord Flower Shop
6 7 8 9 10
12 13 14
Three Stones Gallery
Woods Hill Table
*Debraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Natural Gourmet Forever Tile Joy Street Life + Home Lincoln Physicians
*West Concord 5 & 10 West Concord Wine & Spirits * Money Saving Coupon on p. 64
WEST CONCORD 10
5 13 12 11
C 15 6 3 9
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“Wonderful to work with! The Chip and Joanna of Concord”
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C O M PA S S . C O M
4 62 L E X I N GTO N ROA D, CO N CO R D $3,695,000 | 10 BD | 10 BA | 7,775 SF | 1.53 Acres Just listed! Set along the American Mile, the renowned Hawthorne Inn is a literary treasure, rich in history. Currently operating as a successful boutique bed and breakfast, the Inn provides an incredible opportunity as a business or grand estate home. The current owners have meticulously renovated and expanded the original c.1867 property – creating jaw-dropping public spaces with stunning designer finishes. Seven guest rooms, a private two-bedroom owner’s residence, as well as Innkeeper’s quarters, are each individually styled to perfection. The Hawthorne Inn is centrally located in Concord Center, convenient to all commuting routes and just 20 miles to downtown Boston.
C H R I S R I D I C K T E A M @ C O M PA S S . C O M 61 7. 5 93 . 3 4 9 2 Andrew Martini, Annie Juanzi Liu, Chris Ridick, Kristie Ridick, Kim Piculell
Compass is a licensed real estate broker and abides by Equal Housing Opportunity laws. All material presented herein is intended for informational purposes only. Information is compiled from sources deemed reliable but is subject to errors, omissions, changes in price, condition, sale, or withdrawal without notice. No statement is made as to the accuracy of any description. All measurements and square footages are approximate. This is not intended to solicit property already listed. Nothing herein shall be construed as legal, accounting or other professional advice outside the realm of real estate brokerage.
Experience sustainable farm to table cuisine right here in Experience sustainable farm to table cuisine right here in West Concord. Choose from fine dining at Woods Hill Table West Concord. Choose from fine dining at Woods Hill Table or relaxed, casual Mexican cuisine at Adelita! or relaxed, casual Mexican cuisine at Adelita! For more information, or to make a reservation, visit: For more information, or to make a reservation, visit: www.woodshilltable.com www.adelitaconcord.com www.woodshilltable.com www.adelitaconcord.com 978.254.1435 978.254.0710 978.254.1435 978.254.0710 We hope to see you soon! We hope to see you soon! Outdoor dining and curbside takeout available.
Pick Your Own Pumpkins!
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Turkey Day plans are in the making! Check our website for fresh turkeys, all the side dishes, and desserts for a stress-free holiday! 11 Wheeler Rd. Concord MA 01742 978-369-4494 | Verrillfarm.com
© Monika Andersson: Starling Rescue
POWER of ART
BY DR. ELISA ADAMS & CYNTHIA BAUDENDISTEL
Throughout history, people have turned to art for inspiration, solace, escape, and healing. Scientific studies around the world have confirmed what artists and art lovers have instinctively known: art has the power to heal. In fact, the National Library of Medicine reports more than 23,000 articles on the topic of art therapy have been published in the past 10 years. Concordian and self-taught sculptor Elisa Adams began sculpting in 2004. Her work is exhibited worldwide as well as in national
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museums and galleries, and she has won numerous awards. A practicing chiropractor for 35 years, she sees art and the healing process going hand in hand. “Art is so important in the healing process that in my office I have a rotating gallery for my patients to enjoy.” The main comment from my patients is, “I feel so peaceful from the moment I enter your clinic.” Elisa not only balances her professional life with art making, she is also the current President of the New England Sculptors Association.
Elisa’s belief is that “Art reaches out across humanity to have conversations without need for words. Art builds communities and connections through sensing instead of thinking.” Elisa says, “Creating art is a respite from my external world and quiets my mind into a meditative state.” Elisa also sees art from the viewer’s lens, saying, “Viewing art is provocative, it stimulates a vibrancy and engagement that taps into deep places within.” Photographer Monika Andersson says, “Making art connects me to the flow of the world, present and aware. Whether I experience joy, grief, or silence, each creative act brings me closer to my original self.” Growing up in Sweden, Monika came to Boston in 1979 to go to art school at Massachusetts College of Art and Design and went on to get her Master’s in Photography from the Yale School of Art. After graduating, she worked as a freelance and art photographer for the next 15 years, specializing in black and white film. In 2000, Monika began teaching photography at Groton School, in Groton, MA. These days, Monika mostly does digital photography, which allows her to create
images and collages that do not exist in the actual world. “At my school I also run an art gallery, and I am an active member in Concord Art. I have lived in Concord for 21 years now and love the beauty and spirit of this small town. There is a distinct feeling to it, as if the authors and thinkers that shaped this town, left behind their sense of mindfulness, spirit, and regard for nature.” Concordian Holly Harrison is a mixed media artist whose work is exhibited internationally. “The thing about creativity is that it meets you wherever you are. When things are going well, things just seem to flow at the studio. But even when they aren’t, if you stay open to exploring different forms of expression, you can find ways to create that are surprising and ultimately satisfying,” Holly says. Interestingly, Holly studied poetry in graduate school and had a career as a writer/editor for many years in New York, Massachusetts, and Singapore. She began to focus on visual art after her daughter was born and is now a full-time artist. Holly also serves on the board of trustees at the Concord Center for the Visual Arts. Art is everywhere in Concord, inspiring and bringing our community together.
©Elisa Adams: Indomitable Spirit
The Umbrella Arts Center, Concord Art, Village Art Room, and other studios provide Concordians with a place to create. For art lovers Concord Players, Concord Chamber Music, Concord Conservatory of Music, 51 Walden Performing Arts Center, The Umbrella Arts Center, Three Stones Gallery, Lucy Lacoste Gallery, and other venues provide performance and exhibition spaces in which we can observe, celebrate, and even participate in art. Now as we face the isolation and stress of the COVID-19 pandemic, why not learn a new art form? Take up painting, learn to play a musical instrument, learn to dance, write, sew, or garden. Creativity can be a wellspring of peace, discovery, and solace. ———————————————————————— Dr Elisa Adams has been in private practice as a chiropractor since 1984. For her, art and healing are deeply linked. Elisa is an internationally recognized stone sculptor and currently serves as the President of New England Sculptors Association. Cynthia Baudendistel is co-founder of Voyager Publishing and Discover Concord.
©Holly Harrison: Cry Me A River
SACRED INTEGRITY: BY KRISTI LYNN MARTIN, Ph.D.
declared, was a new and limitless, yet natural relation.1 Emerson intentionally made his Concord home into a geographical center for American Transcendentalism. The house was conveniently located on the Cambridge Turnpike, approximately twenty miles from Boston by road or train. There he authored his works and gathered other original voices. The Emerson family hosted meetings and lectures, welcoming thinkers, activists, and enthusiasts as guests and intimates. Close to the intellectual stimulation of the city, but rural enough to evoke pastoral imaginings, Emerson sought to form a community of romantic writers and thinkers Emerson House in Concord. He invited the Alcotts, Hawthornes, Margaret Fuller, and Thoreau, among others, to reside with him or settle nearby in living situations he facilitated with his connections and income. Located down the road from Louisa May Alcott’s Orchard House, where Little Women was written, and across the street from the Concord Museum, the simple,
yet refined and stately Emerson house is now a not-for-profit museum with an extensive collection of original artifacts, managed by the Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association. Emerson’s life offers us an example of principled living and generosity of spirit; his words remind us of our oneness with nature, of revolutionary impulse, and the sacred integrity of our own minds. ——————————————————————— Kristi Lynn Martin, Ph.D., is an independent scholar. As a public history and museum professional, she has worked with all of Concord’s literary-historical sites, including The Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial House.
Recommended for further reading: Robert D. Richardson, Jr., Emerson: The Mind on Fire (University of California Press, 1995). 1”
Self-Reliance”, Essay [First Series] (1841). “The American Scholar” was delivered in 1837 and “Divinity School Address” in 1838.
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Photos from commons.wikimedia.org
Ralph Waldo Emerson was not the originator of the romantic ideals known as Transcendentalism. Nor was his premier essay, Nature (1836), the first publication to set forth the philosophy. Emerson was, rather, the most successful public voice of New England Transcendentalism in the nineteenth century. Dissatisfied with his traditional ministry, Emerson embarked on an untried profession as a lecturer, essayist, and poet; gaining an international reputation. His eloquent and provocative prose resonated with a young American republic yearning to define itself against the time-honored past. Emerson turned his personal search for meaning into a national paean for a self-actualized identity. Nature was closely followed by his controversial “American Scholar,” “Divinity School Address,” and iconic “Self-Reliance.” Preaching the divinity of nature, intuitive truth, and the sacredness of the individual mind, Emerson led a revolution in thought from his ancestral home-place in Concord, Massachusetts, itself steeped in legacies of “American Independence.” With his call, “Trust thyself … Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind,” Emerson transformed the esoteric mysticism of Transcendentalism into an accessible popular culture, philosophically reforming the relationship between the individual and society. “The power” of the intuitive individual who rises above conventional expectations, Emerson
Emerson & the Home of Transcendentalism
THREE STONES GALLERY
Jennifer M Johnston
115 Commonwealth Avenue, Concord • threestonesgallery.com
FALL for FALL 41 MAIN STREET, CONCORD SHOP.SARACAMPBELL.COM
What’s easier than a wine run?
Same day wine, beer, and liquor delivery means you can stay home and relax. It’s also one less item on your to do list. We even offer no-contact curbside pickup for phone or online orders.
Order online at www.westconcordwine.com or give us a call at 978.369.3872 1216 Main St. Concord, MA 01742 (Near Adelita Restaurant)
On Conscience & Kittens: BY ALIDA ORZECHOWSKI
If you were asked to supply a few words describing the American gothic fiction author Nathaniel Hawthorne, it’s probably safe to assume ‘funny’ would not be among them. Known for his dark romances full of guilt, torment, suffering, and sin, with nary a happy ending to be found, it seems quite improbable that anything even remotely humorous could emerge from this brooding cobbler of words. The fact that Hawthorne spent the better part of twelve years holed up in his bedroom like a moody teenager, scribbling madly in his notebooks certainly didn’t help to normalize his relationship with the world. If you’ve ever seen the movie Beetlejuice where Wynona Rider, dressed entirely in black, is composing a dramatic goodbye letter in which she declares, “I am utterly… alone!”, it probably looked a little bit like that. Or, as Philip McFarland explains in Hawthorne in Concord, during those twelve years in his bedroom, “Hawthorne was thinking about those who are different than others, alienated, tormented, have secrets, must confess. He brooded on cruelty, suffering, and guilt, on decay, and death, on loneliness.” It’s no wonder even Nathaniel seems concerned by his solitary weirdness, as he writes in an 1837 letter to his friend Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, “I seldom venture abroad till after dark. By some witchcraft 42
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Nathaniel were married on July 9th, 1842 and moved immediately to the Old Manse in Concord to continue their utter aloneness with each other. From this moment forward, Hawthorne’s journals undergo a radical transformation. He was always a keen observer, but suddenly all is light, and sweetness, and beauty, as he proclaims their new home Paradise, and themselves, Adam and Eve. Into these blissful musings is woven a gently sardonic humor, rarely seen in his early journals, such as when he chides lesser humans for the unforgivable sin of interrupting their honeymoon. “One rash mortal, on the second Sunday after our arrival, obtruded himself upon us in a gig. There have since been three or four callers, who preposterously think that the courtesies of the lower world are to be responded to by people whose home is in Paradise…” As if the mere idea of visitors was not insulting enough, it appears Nathaniel Hawthorne circa 1848 there was some sort of problem with the water at the Old Manse or other - for I really cannot assign any reasonable why and wherefore - I have been upon their arrival there. Hawthorne feels this is decidedly unacceptable for Heavenly carried apart from the main current of life, residents, and he takes up his grievance and find it impossible to get back again...I directly with the great Landlord in the sky. have put me into a dungeon; and now, I “…it is one of the drawbacks upon our cannot find the key to let myself out…” Paradise, that it contains no water fit either The key to his timely escape would turn to drink or bathe in; so that the showers out to be the equally strange and lonely of Heaven have become, in good truth, a little soul of Sophia Peabody, introduced godsend. I wonder why Providence does not to Hawthorne by her sister, Elizabeth. cause a clear, cold fountain to bubble up In a meeting of true minds, Sophia and
Photo by John Adams Whipple, Boston, Peabody Essex Museum, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org
The Two Minds of Nathaniel Hawthorne
By Elenore Abbott, Twice-Told Tales, Public Domain,commons.wikimedia.org Sophia portrait by Stephen Alonzo Schoff, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org
at our doorstep… At present, we are under the ridiculous necessity of sending to the outer world for water. Only imagine Adam trudging out of Paradise with a bucket in each hand, to get water to drink, or for Eve to bathe in! Intolerable!” Having got that off his chest, the almost unrecognizable Hawthorne from just months ago concludes his petition with an adorable and wholly ungothic request, “Also, in the way of future favors, a kitten would be very acceptable.” This from the man who would soon gift us with The Scarlet Letter, a novel that would immediately take its place on the top ten list for Least Fun Books Ever Written. With the striking exception of his nonfiction work, such as Twenty Days with Julian & Little Bunny, Hawthorne would go on to produce an impressive repertoire of sad and somber volumes, often completely at odds with the cheerful and chatty missives in his personal notebooks. But while it’s at first difficult to reconcile the desperate depression in a book like
By Daderot, Library of Congress HABS record, Public Domain, commons.wikimedia.org
FAR LEFT: Illustration from The Minister’s Black Veil. The artist was depicting the scene “the children fled from his approach.” LEFT: Sophia Peabody Hawthorne BELOW: The Old Manse
The Blithedale Romance or the alarmingly creepy The Minister’s Black Veil with what is Hawthorne’s visibly joyful life, there remain definite hints of the original struggle between good and evil that so profoundly permeates his literature. In a letter to his publisher after the completion of The Marble Faun in 1860, Hawthorne returns briefly to his dark dungeon room when he reveals to James Fields, “The devil himself always seems to get in my inkstand, and I can only exorcise him by pensfull at a time.” Whatever demons clung to his inner psyche, Nathaniel Hawthorne seemingly managed to compartmentalize these, and, when they proved overwhelming,
channelled them outward through his pen, as if by banishing them to the public realm, he could reserve only what was wholesome and good for his private life. Like kittens. You might be delighted to know that Hawthorne’s cheeky prayer at the Old Manse was answered just a short time later with the addition of a little black kitten to the family, whom they named ‘Pigwiggen’. And to the great disappointment of melancholy writers everywhere, they all lived happily ever after. If you’d like to learn more about Nathaniel Hawthorne and his personal journals, Concord Tour Company recommends “The Business of Reflection: Hawthorne in His Notebooks,” edited by Robert Milder and Randall Fuller.
All photos ©www.thoreaufarm.org
A Place Where Thoreau Guides the Discussion BY NANCY SNYDER
In October 2019, I designed a literary pilgrimage that would take me to the Thoreau Farm in Concord, Massachusetts. I would be a writer in retreat in the secondstory bedroom where Thoreau was born, and a few days later I would be a student participating in a writing workshop held by The Write Connection and taught by Heidi Jon Schmidt. It was a trip meant to happen: Concord’s dazzling fall foliage made Thoreau Farm more beautiful, more reflective of the possibilities of living an authentic life. I returned from Thoreau Farm challenged with eliminating all that was unnecessary and paying attention to what is most significant. 44
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Thoreau Farm is about four miles east of Concord center. The house and its adjoining farmland had long been established before Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817. Native Americans cultivated the land for centuries before Concord was chartered in 1635. The first known private owner of the land was Sgt. Thomas Wheeler, an early settler. Sgt. Wheeler acquired large amounts of acreage in the area. Wheeler’s son, John, made the farm more prosperous and in 1730 built the farmhouse that would become Thoreau’s birthplace. In 1756, the farm was sold to John Wheeler’s cousin, the Deacon Samuel Minot. When Deacon Minot passed, his
son, Jonas Minot, acquired the farm and expanded it to almost 104 acres, making Minot Farm one of Concord’s largest. Jonas was widowed in 1792 and married Mary Jones Dunbar six years later in 1798. Mary, Thoreau’s grandmother, brought her children from her previous marriage, including her daughter Cynthia (Thoreau’s mother), to the farm with her. Cynthia lived on the farm for fourteen years and would later tell young Henry cherished memories of growing up there. In 1812, Cynthia married John Thoreau and the young couple returned to the farm in 1813 to assist Mary in making the farm prosperous once again. Unfortunately, as a
Visitors to Thoreau Farm are asked to share their ideas on how to live a deliberate life.
result of historic New England bad weather, John and Cynthia returned to the town center of Concord in 1818 when Henry was just eight months old. After the Thoreaus left, the land was operated as a tenant farm and was worked predominantly by African Americans and Irish, Nova Scotian, and Scandinavian immigrants. James Breen Sr. took acquisition of the farm in the early 20th century. Breen was an Irish immigrant and successfully ran the farm, which was now twenty-two acres, for most of the twentieth century. His son, James Been Jr., was 81 years old in 1995 and died while working the fields. It was on December 14, 1995, that Lucille Stott, editor of the Concord Journal, received a phone call from a Virginia Road neighbor, Doris Smith. Stott was startled to learn that Thoreau’s birthplace was being sold to developers who had plans to demolish the birthplace house and build a small housing development. Shortly after that phone call, Stott went to the Virginia Road farm and visited the muchdeteriorated farmhouse. Thoreau’s birthplace was empty of furnishing and people, and had a “weary and forlorn” feeling. As Stott ascended the rickety stairs to the empty bedroom where Thoreau was born, “The original wide pine floorboards creaked in welcome, and without warning, I was overcome with emotion,” Stott wrote of that first visit. “I realized a little sheepishly, for I’d always thought of myself as a practical,
feet-on-the-ground kind of person, that what I was feeling was awe.” In 2018, Lucille Stott published an extraordinary non-fiction book, Saving Thoreau’s Birthplace: How Citizens Rallied to Bring Henry Out of the Woods, that chronicles fifteen years of tense negotiations and constant fundraising to establish Thoreau Farm. Stott’s book exemplifies the best of the Thoreauvian spirit: citizens working together to restore Thoreau Farm and fulfill its mission to become a place of education, a source of inspiration for living deliberately, practicing simplicity, and exploring positive change. Stott writes of Thoreau Farm, “it remains simple and unassuming, a reflection of Henry’s full life. True to the original vision, it has become a sight of lively programs for all ages, designed to highlight Thoreau’s forward-thinking ideas and explore the many ways his life and work continue to urge us to action.” Following Thoreau’s principles of education and observation, Thoreau Farm partnered with the Thoreau Society last year and began a series of lectures and immersive writing workshops called The Write Connection. The workshops follow Thoreau’s ideals, placing an emphasis on developing one’s own “different drummer”; the writer’s unique and singular voice in which to convey their stories. Unfortunately, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Write Connection programming for the spring of 2020 had to be cancelled. It will be offered online
Henry David Thoreau’s birth room also serves as a Writer’s Retreat.
this fall, however, and more information can be found at https://thoreaufarm.org/ the-write-connection-at-thoreau-farm. Featured writers include George Howe Colt, Heidi Jon Schmidt, Lucille Stott and Sandy Stott, Ken Lizotte, and Nancy Shohet West. What would Henry do? How is it possible to participate in a writing workshop when everyone is at their isolated computer settings and far too distant to build community? Thoreau would have thought about the immediate urgency of the community’s public health and considered how he and other Concord citizens could help squash the pandemic. Thoreau would adapt to a computer community to teach the art of living deliberately, practicing simplicity, and learning how to build lasting positive change. Visit www.thoreaufarm.org for more information on this historic site. ———————————————————————— Nancy Snyder is a freelance writer who, after 30 years working at the City and County of San Francisco, is now absorbed in learning everything about Henry David Thoreau.
The People of Musketaquid:
Concord’s First Residents
| Fall 2020
1,600 years ago they adopted the bow and arrow, and about 1,000 years ago they began to practice agriculture in the areas of Punkatasset, North Bridge, South Bridge, and Nashawtuc (“hill between the rivers” in the Algonquian language). A Nipmuc folktale tells of a crow who gave the people seeds and taught them how to grow corn, beans, and squash. In exchange, the story says, the crows return every year at harvest time to claim their share of the corn.3 In reality, it’s likely that new practices like bow hunting and farming were learned from other tribes with whom the Musketaquid people traded. These trade networks extended hundreds of miles; Tahattawan—the sagamore, or local chief, of Musketaquid—is said to have had an axe made of stone found in upstate New York.4 Visitors often ask about the tribal heritage of the Musketaquid people. It’s impossible to say conclusively, because tribal territories had porous boundaries, unlike the hard lines drawn by the English settlers. Musketaquid adjoined Nipmuc territory to the west, Penacook territory to the north, Pawtucket to the northeast, and the Massachusetts tribe to the southeast. Archeologist and anthropologist Shirley Blancke thinks it likely that the people living here in the early 1600s were of Pawtucket lineage.5 When English settlers arrived in Massachusetts in 1620, they built their
first towns on the coast. To maintain their balance of trade with the mother country, they needed a local commodity that was in demand in England, and “the fur trade was the life blood of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.”6 An English fur trader, Simon Willard, ventured inland to Musketaquid to buy beaver pelts, and became so familiar with the place, the people, and the Algonquian language, that in 1635 he and Puritan minister Peter Bulkeley led the first party of English men and women to settle in the place they called Concord. The native population had been drastically reduced by a smallpox epidemic in 1633, so perhaps it seemed like there was room for everybody, but in 1637 the English decided to formalize their ownership of the land. A sign near Monument Square marks the site where, TH30a Micmac/Mi’kmaq Quill box, mid 1800s. Concord Museum Collection; Gift of Cummings E. Davis (1886)
© Concord Museum
You see the names all over town: Musketaquid, Nashawtuc, Nashoba, Squaw Sachem. These words invite us to learn the stories of the people who lived in this place for thousands of years before English settlers arrived. The English named this place Concord in 1635, but it had long been known by the region’s first peoples as Musketaquid. In the Algonquian language, the name means “grassy river” or “grassy island,” and the Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Rivers have always been the lifeblood of the land. As Lemuel Shattuck recounts in his 1835 History of Concord, the local people lived “[by] planting, hunting, or fishing . . . and few places produced a supply more easily than Musketaquid.” 1 Archaeological evidence shows that humans lived here as long as 12,000 years ago, migrating into the region from the west after the last Ice Age. At first, people lived here only part of the year, following the fish and game. Freshwater mussels were a favorite food, as we know from the vast number of shells discovered near the present site of Emerson Hospital. Their diet also included deer, turkey, muskrat, alewife, salmon, and eel, as well as a variety of nuts, fruits, and berries.2 Around 8,000 years ago, local activity expanded to new areas including Fairhaven Bay, Walden Pond, and present-day Lexington Road and Bedford Street. A popular misconception about the Indigenous peoples of North America is that their way of life scarcely changed from the Stone Age until first contact with Europeans. In fact, the Musketaquid people made game-changing innovations. Around
BY VICTOR CURRAN
according to tradition, Willard and Bulkeley sealed their agreement with the sagamore Tahattawan; the tribal leader we know only by her title, Squaw Sachem (Shattuck calls her “the great queen of the tribe”7); and her husband, the shaman Webcowet. The English gave the Musketaquid people metal tools, European textiles and clothing, and “a parcel of Wampumpeage,”8 which they understood to purchase them ownership of six miles square of land. The native people saw themselves as living on the land, but didn’t believe anyone could own it, so they likely didn’t realize until it was too late that the English expected them to move out. At first, the English seemed to be good neighbors to the Musketaquid people. They added native crops like corn and pumpkins to their menu, and found the local beans to be better for their health than the English variety. They bought Indian-made brooms and baskets, and “both men and women . . . acquired a pipe-smoking habit.”9 In the 1640s, John Eliot, an English minister, launched a mission to convert the
Photos by Laura Kozlowski © Concord Museum
The focal point of the Concord Museum’s People of Musketaquid gallery is the Turtle Island Stone Tool Display - a 600-piece ancient stone tool display in the shape of a turtle.
Concord Museum’s People of Musketaquid gallery pays tribute to Indigenous people in the Concord area from ancient times to present day.
native people to Christianity. He believed this was necessary to save them from the fires of hell, but of course it also taught them to respect English culture and values, so they might side with the English against their more intransigent kin. Eliot established a community of Christian Indians called Nashoba in 1651, at present-day Littleton. He placed John Tahattawan—whose father had sold Musketaquid to the English—in charge of the Nashoba community. The fragile alliance between the English and the so-called praying Indians at Nashoba lasted until 1675, when the Wampanoag sachem Metacom (called King Philip by the English) led attacks to try to drive out the English settlers in southern New England. The conflict, known as King Philip’s War, spread across the region. The Nashoba people were moved into Concord, where John Hoar sheltered them on his property (the present site of Orchard House10). His frightened neighbors “secretly arranged for a soldier of ill repute, Captain Moseley, to come and forcibly remove the Nashoba Indians to Deer Island.” 11
We can’t erase that shameful chapter in Concord’s history. But we can honor the first people to cherish this land as their home. The Concord Museum has an extensive collection of native artifacts as much as 10,000 years old, and many of them can be seen in the People of Musketaquid gallery that opened in 2019. Designed in collaboration with Aquinnah Wampanoag consultant Elizabeth JamesPerry and Shirley Blancke, it showcases this work not as relics of an extinct past, but as the history of a living people with a vibrant culture. Educator Barbara Robinson shared this insight from that culture: “Socially inclusive, [native people] did not view the first settlers as strangers, but welcomed them.”12 Such inclusiveness is a lesson worth learning. ———————————————————————— Victor Curran teaches Concord history, including the Concord Guide Course. He writes and leads walking tours for the Concord Visitor Center, and is an interpreter at the Concord Museum.
Shattuck, Lemuel. A History of the Town of Concord … Boston, Russell, Osborne, and Co., 1835. 2 Blancke, Shirley and Robinson, Barbara, From Musketaquid to Concord, The Native and European Experience, Concord Museum, 1985. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Blancke, Shirley, Concord and Native First People, in New Perspectives on Concord’s History, Massachusetts Foundation for Humanities and Public Policy, 1983. 6 Ibid. 7 Shattuck, op. cit. 8 Ibid. Wampumpeag, or wampum, was the native currency, consisting of cylindrical beads made from seashells. 9 Blancke, Concord and Native First People. 10 Wheeler, Ruth R., Concord: Climate for Freedom, Concord Antiquarian Society, 1967. 11 Blancke, Concord and Native First People. 12 Blancke and Robinson, From Musketaquid to Concord. 1
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GRAVE INSULT: The Mysterious Case of the Traveling British Soldiers’ Skulls
BY JAIMEE LEIGH JOROFF
Grab your shovel and a rope, we’re going to go dig up two bodies. It won’t take long; we just need their heads. We’ll start by making our way down the Battle Road from Concord Center towards the neighboring town of Lincoln, retracing the frantic footsteps of King George’s men as they fled back to Boston on April 19th, 1775. The unexpected battle at the North Bridge still ringing in their ears, the British troops and colonists were engaged in an 18-mile battle back to Boston, sometimes collectively referred to as “The Battle of Concord.” Along the road in Lincoln, near Hartwell’s Tavern, a 50
| Fall 2020
colonist’s musket ball slammed into the head of a British solider. Legend says that, on impact, the soldier’s body levitated high into the air before crashing dead to the ground. Around him, four more British soldiers were struck down, blood seeping through their blood red jackets into the dirt of centuries now below our feet. For the rest of that fateful day and well into the next, these five soldiers, likely Brigadiers given their height and stature, lay on the road. Later in the day, Edmund Wheeler, a local farmer, dragged them onto a cart and pulled them to a nearby
graveyard in Lincoln. There, he dug a pit on the edge reserved for paupers and undesirables and buried them together. Years passed, and with them, changes in England and America’s identities. Yet both shared an increasing study of science and medicine, which included a need for human anatomy subjects for dissection and experiments. The bodies of the poor and criminals were freely turned over to medical schools, but this supply did not meet the demand. Additional bodies came from professional body snatchers, “resurrectionists” as they called themselves (hinting at the Bible’s reference to the dead rising upon the day of judgment). The legality and ethics fell in a gray area, but the money to be made was golden. In 1815, Massachusetts banned the possession of an unauthorized body, but the demand for them didn’t stop. To avoid detection, the body snatching had to be done quickly and experienced resurrectionists had it down to an art: begin at the head, dig a hole just large enough to break through the top of a coffin to expose the head and shoulders, then take a rope, feed it under the deceased’s arms to make a loop, and heave! The body would follow. Then, quick! Throw it over your shoulder or into a cart and make your way to the buyer before daylight. Buyers were usually discreet, but on occasion, such as in the case we are about to dig up, acquirers would publicly reach out with their requests. Sometime in the 1830s, Massachusetts resident Walton Felch, a former cotton mill superintendent and poet, was studying and promoting the relatively new pseudoscience of phrenology, the interpretation of boney bumps on the head. Started in 1790 by Viennese physician Franz Joseph Gall, who thought peoples’ characters and innate intelligence could be determined by measuring the bumps on their heads, phrenology was becoming the craze with practitioners across Europe and America. Followers of phrenology included Walt
All photos ©istock.com
Whitman who commissioned a reading of his own head, and there was great public interest in the topic. Lectures sold out and presenters were motivated to give audiences a good show - complete with sensation and skulls! Felch reached out to the Select Board of Lincoln and requested permission to take two skulls from the grave. Now this is the part where you grab your shovels and rope because permission was presumably granted and the grave unearthed. The digging up of the soldiers and taking of their heads was witnessed by William Wheeler (Edmund Wheeler’s grandson) who later narrated the events to Henry David Thoreau. In an 1850 journal entry, written after visiting the cemetery in Lincoln, Thoreau wrote, “A few years ago one Felch, a phrenologist, by leave of the selectmen dug up and took away two skulls [from this cemetery]. The skeletons were very large, probably those of grenadiers. William Wheeler who was present, told me this… William Wheeler, saw a bullethole through and through one of the skulls.” With the two skulls of the British soldiers in his possession, Felch took to the road displaying the skulls in his lectures, including bringing the skulls to their likely least-favorite town in America, Concord, where Felch was booked to give four lectures at the Concord Lyceum.
The traveling “British soldiers’ skulls” became well known, including to members of the American Antiquarian Society, among whom was Concord-born George Frisbee Hoar. A lawyer and Massachusetts State Senator, Hoar felt a certain unease with the skulls being out and about like this, and after Felch died, Hoar and the Worcester Society of Antiquity approached Felch’s widow about acquiring the skulls to rebury them. One account says Felch’s widow agreed to give the skulls to them… for a price. Alas, poor Yorik, you’re expensive. But, the price would be 50% off because only one skull— the one with the bullet hole in it— could be found. (It is theorized that on his deathbed, Felch gave the second skull to his attending physician, Dr. Bates, who collected antiquities. Despite Hoar’s efforts to recover it, it remains lost in history’s fog of unlocatable objects).
The skull with the bullet hole was sent to Concord. It’s possible that Hoar and others involved did not know the exact location from whence this skull had come; they may only have known that it was the skull of a British soldier killed during the day-long “Battle of Concord.” In 1891, in secrecy and in a manner not to draw public attention to the desecrated remains of a fallen adversary, the skull is thought to have been quietly buried in the grave of two other British soldiers that is located near the North Bridge in Concord. The few men in attendance signed a document bearing witness to the burial. The document ended up in a museum but, as of this day, it cannot be located. So, here we put down our shovels and rope, and we ask, how many lie below the grave at the North Bridge? This mysterious case of the traveling British soldiers’ skulls will have no ending until perhaps, one day, a grave is once more dug up and one, two, or three skulls, are once more brought into the light of day.
Places to Visit
• Grave of the British Soldiers at the Old North Bridge • The Battle Road from Concord to Lincoln, part of Minute Man National Historical Park. Details: www.nps.gov/mima/thebattle-road.htm
• Journal of Henry David Thoreau, May 31, 1850 • The Journals of Edmund Quincy Sewall, 1837-1840, (n.d), retrieved from www. americanantiquarian.org/sewall-vol4 • Proceedings of the Worcester Society of Antiquity, Volume 21, pg. 140-141 • Sabin, Douglas P., (2011), April 19, 1775: A Histographical Study • Mathis, R., Watras, J., and Dort, J. (2016). Grave Robbing in the North and South in Antebellum America. American College of Surgeons
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Preserving the Lessons of Mid-Century Modern Architecture
BY EVE ISENBERG & HOLLY HARRISON
America in the mid-20th century was full of promise. WWII had ended and the economy was booming. A new sense of optimism about the world and progressive thinking influenced all realms of life including business, art, and politics. Today we can still see evidence of this “Modern” movement in the architecture that remains. “Mid-Century Modern” homes are famous for their clean straight lines, large expanses of glass, and low sloped roofs but they do not always age well over time. The large expanses of glass have thin steel frames, which conduct cold in winter. The single pane windows are drafty and expensive to replace. Air conditioning, a necessity today, was rare in the 1950s. Deck and stair railings prioritized views and do not meet today’s safety requirements. Additionally, as a testament to their day, these houses often prioritized quality over quantity and are considered too small by today’s standards with insufficient closets and small bathrooms. How do we preserve the lessons and maintain the beauty of these architectdesigned homes of the 1940s, ‘50s and ‘60s, while renovating them to meet the current standards for building codes, environmental efficiency, and increased spatial requirements of families today? This is the story of two newly-historic houses
in Concord and the work of the resident homeowners to keep them relevant. One of our favorite houses in Concord is hidden in the woods near Walden Pond. Homeowners Holly Harrison and Jim McManus have lived there for eighteen years. Jim and Holly were attracted to their home’s connection with nature. “Our house is built on a hillside, so it’s got two levels that kind of nestle into the landscape,” says Holly. “It’s a good-sized house, 3,100 square feet, but it’s totally unassuming because you don’t see all of it at once. The giant window wall in the open living room makes you feel like you are always connected to the outdoors.” Local architect and artist Bayard Underwood, who died in 2010 at the age of 93, designed this house in 1957. Bayard earned a Masters of Architecture degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He later moved to Groton, becoming a partner in Lawrence, Shannon & Underwood. This house, his second, was initially a test prototype of a machine for living, a common theme among architects at that time. As a model for homes of the future, it had to be affordable, flexible for planning and finish selection, and promote and clarify modern living. This is one of the earliest houses to have a butterfly roof, made possible by a steel frame, which was
The new art studio reflects the aesthetic of the original 1957 home. A typical 1960s Deck House staircase featuring code defying railings and risers.
©Ben Gebo Photography
| Fall 2020
© Stefan Hagen Photography Brochure image printed with permission of the Acorn Deck House Company, Acton MA
conducive for mass production. As far as we know, however, this house is the only one of its kind. “Our house was renovated by two families before us, so it’s an interesting hybrid,” explains Holly. “The original footprint was expanded on in the 1980s, adding a lower level. In 2000, the couple we bought the house from renovated the main level creating an open concept living space.” “One of our favorite design elements is the visible infrastructure,” adds Jim. “Bayard built the house so the steel support beams can be seen in every room. In the 2000 renovation, the homeowners installed HVAC in the same spirit, running the ducts visibly through the space.” Both artists, the couple’s desire for a studio was realized in 2008. The studio space evolved along the lines of the original house and captures the original design intent to marry structure with plan and relate indoor and outdoor spaces. This addition beautifully accomplishes the goal of adding space to work from home, a popular need for today. About four miles away on a street that is home to the largest collection of Deck Houses in Concord, two other homeowners
1976 Deck House Company brochure shows classic elements including iconic roofline, deep overhang, and vertical siding.
recognize the intrinsic value of their home. In the 1960s, Deck Houses were sold as factory-built kits to be assembled on site. The post-and-beam structure allows for ribbons of windows, flexible floor plans, and central fireplaces. Most Deck Houses are carefully sited such that views of trees and rocks of New England resonate with the carefully sourced interior woods and stones. Rob and Louisa Paushter have worked hard to balance modernizing their Deck House for today with carefully preserving enough of the original character. Over the years, they have updated the furnace, chimney, and roof and have added skylights in the kitchen, bathroom and front hall to bring in light. They also brought the deck railing up to code. Cosmetic changes have
been basic: refinishing the floors upstairs and installing cork downstairs, updating the kitchen countertops, and replacing some windows and the front door. “We are about to completely redo the upstairs bathroom,” says Louisa. “And the best thing we did was to install central AC.” Despite having to take on some expensive updates, the Paushters continue to appreciate the things that made them want to live in a Deck House. “We loved the huge windows and the way they bring the outdoors in,” says Louisa. “We loved the natural feel of all the wood. We have been here for almost 19 years.” As for preserving the character of their home, she adds, “We have not painted any wood. We have minimal window coverings. Rob’s mother was an interior designer in the ‘50s and ‘60s, and we have inherited a lot of her furniture which fits in perfectly.” Deck Houses embody the same values of the Modern architect-designed one-off houses: flexibility, connection to nature, and open floor plans, all of which are still important today. One of the lessons of the houses of this time period is that architecture can be made to serve its inhabitants instead of existing to serve itself or honor its creator. Our Concord history is in these houses as much as it is in our more famously historic homes. ———————————————————————— Eve Isenberg is a registered Architect in the State of Massachusetts and a Principal of the women-owned InkStone Architects LLC, Concord. Visit www.inkstonearchitects.com for more information. Eve is also happy to be a Deck House homeowner in Concord. Holly Harrison is a visual artist living and working in Concord, MA. She is represented by Abigail Ogilvy Gallery in Boston and Edgewater Gallery in VT. Her work can be seen at www.holly-harrison.com or follow her on instagram at @hollyharrisonart.
Barrow Bookstore Presents:
Which 19th century suffragette spoke at the Concord School of Philosophy and wrote a famous poem that is now on the Statue of Liberty in New York?
Which of the following women attended the Concord School of Philosophy: a) Louisa May Alcott b) Margaret Fuller c) Julia Ward Howe d) Lucy Stone
Before the Alcotts moved to Concord in 1845, they lived in a utopian community in Harvard, MA. What was it called? a) Fruitlands b) Brook Farm c) October Farm d) Brewster’s Farm Bronson Alcott
Henry David Thoreau
Famous for his illustrations of books such as Kidnapped, Treasure Island, Robinson Crusoe, Last of the Mohicans, and Men of Concord, original works by this prolific artist hang in the Concord Free Public Library. Who is the artist?
In 1862, while serving as a nurse in a crowded Civil War hospital, Louisa May Alcott suffered which of the below ailments: a) Spanish Flu b) Covid-62 c) Typhoid fever and pneumonia d) Sodium hypochlorite poisoning
Which of the following Concordians was arrested for not paying a poll tax? a) Bronson Alcott b) Ralph Waldo Emerson c) Frank Sanborn d) Henry David Thoreau
Play ball! Concord’s July 4, 1879 festivities included a baseball game against the “Diamonds” of Boston. The Concord team won by a convincing score of 36-2. What was the name of the Concord team? a) The “Revolutionaries” of Concord b) The “Minutemen” of Concord c) The “Concords” of Concord d) The “Transcendentalists” of Concord
Transcendentalism is most closely associated with which religion? a) Catholicism b) Puritanism c) Transylvanianism d) Unitarianism
To name a few, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Bronson Alcott, Theodore Parker, Henry David Thoreau, William Henry Channing, Margaret Fuller, and Elizabeth Peabody belonged to which club that was started in 1836? a) The Diogenes Club b) The Transcendental Club c) The Junto Club d) The Boston Athenæum club
Solve the riddle! I was present on April 19th, 1775. I stood motionless as a tree, and quiet as a root cellar mouse. I watched through glassy eyes and was shot by a British soldier. I did not flinch, and I still stand tall with a bullet hole seen by all. Where am I? All photos wikimedia.commons.org
| Fall 2020
1. Emma Lazarus
2. All of them except B) Margaret Fuller, a famed transcendentalist who died in a shipwreck in 1850 before the school was opened. (Want to hear the story of the shipwreck? Listen to “The Strange Fate of the Bark Elizabeth” on Barrow Bookstore’s YouTube channel: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=3HyxgRNgkAw) 3. Fruitlands
4. A and D, Alcott and Thoreau. In 1842, Bronson Alcott refused to pay a poll tax to a government that supported slavery. For failing to pay the tax, Bronson was arrested and taken by a constable to the Concord jail. The jailor wasn’t there and the doors were locked. The constable left Bronson unattended and went to look for the jailor and the keys. Bronson patiently waited for two hours for someone to show up and incarcerate him. During that time, a friend, Judge Samuel Hoar, paid Bronson’s tax for him, thus sparing Bronson jail time but ruining his stance against the government. Four years later, in 1846, for similar reasons, Thoreau also refused to pay a poll tax and spent one night in prison. 5. C. The “Concords” of Concord 6. N.C. Wyeth 7. C. Typhoid fever and pneumonia 8. D. Unitarianism 9. B. The Transcendental Club 10. The Bullet-Hole House on Monument Street, diagonally across the road from the Old Manse. In 1775, this was the home of Concord blacksmith Elisha Jones. After the battle at the North Bridge, a retreating British soldier shot at Jones who was standing in his doorway. The bullet lodged in the doorframe where it can still be seen today from the street.
SENIORS CLASS OF
IT'S TIME TO SCHEDULE YOUR SENIOR PORTRAIT MENTION
A Bit of Fall Fun: Cocktails to Inspire a Night Out BY JENNIFER C. SCHÜNEMANN
Our local restaurants understand that chilly nights and quarantine can be a sad combination. So we’ve asked them to share some inspirational cocktails to warm up those ‘pre-winter blues.’ While these libations are certainly delicious to enjoy at home – you may want to venture out to try one in person. Cheers! 380 THOREAU That chill in the air is no match for El Camino – a delightful blend of mezcal, rye whiskey, Benedictine, and Peychaud’s bitters. A distant relative of the Manhattan, the mezcal adds some nice smoke while the Benedictine and Peychaud’s add depth and balance with their herbal and spice notes.
ADELITA4 Need a bit of extra vitamin C to ward off those early sunsets? The Smokey Apricot features cinnamon infused mezcal, organic apricot puree, triple sec, fresh squeezed organic lime juice, and organic agave nectar.
3SALTBOX The delicious Bees Knees brings together honey thyme simple syrup, lemon, bourbon, melon purée (with melons from the Saltbox farm), Aperol, and bitters. Feel like enjoying a tasty treat in the comfort of your own home? This delicious cocktail is available to-go!
TRAIL’S END CAFE 4 Snap out of summer and into fall with a Ginger Pear Snap made with pear vodka, ginger liqueur, pear soda, lemon juice, and rosemary.
3COLONIAL INN (LIBERTY AND MERCHANTS ROW) Embrace the delights of fall flavors with the Caramel Apple Martini - made with Bailey’s, butterscotch Schnapps, and apple Vodka. Your inner child will love the caramel dipped apple garnish and a dollop of whipped cream. 58
FIORELLA’S4 Mixologist Brigitte wows once more with the Dark Side of the Moon – a delicious treat made with blackberry infused gin and Amaro Montenegro, topped with ginger beer and a lemon twist.
| Fall 2020
3WOODS HILL TABLE Chilly nights call for a Strong Hand – featuring fall favorites such as bourbon, apple brandy, allspice, lemon, and soothing honey. Garnished with a sprig of rosemary.
“ ‘Tis the good reader that makes the good book.” ~Ralph Waldo Emerson
Barrow Bookstore RARE AND GENTLY READ BOOKS
Specializing in Concord Authors and History; Transcendentalism; Revolutionary War, American, and Military History; Children’s Literature; and a wide selection for the eclectic reader. Literary-themed gifts, postcards, and beeswax candles. 79 Main Street, Concord, MA (behind Fritz and Gigi) | www.barrowbookstore.com | 978-369-6084
Delightfully Unexpected Treasures
Our friends and neighbors need us now more than ever – please support the Annual Campaign. All gifts received by April 30, 2021 will directly support local non-profit human service organizations serving Concord and Carlisle residents in need. Your one donation makes a big impact.
WAYS TO GIVE: ONLINE: www.cccommunitychest.org TEXT: NEIGHBOR to 707070 CALL: 978-369-5250 MAIL:19 Main Street, Suite 2, Concord, MA 01742
74 Commonwealth Ave. Concord MA 01742 | 978.341.8471
AUTUMN IN CONCORD STORY AND PHOTOS BY DAVE WITHERBEE
| Fall 2020
Each year, Concord is transformed as the bright, busy days of summer give way to fall and Concord snuggles in. The deciduous leaves lose their summer green and reveal their rich reds, yellows, golds, and browns before dropping to the ground. For us, this transition provides visual delight. The color of autumn leaves varies by species. Our red maples and sugar maples glow with bright reds and oranges. The silver maples turn yellow, bringing their own note to the symphony. The leaves of our native birch trees are also yellow, while oak leaves turn a somber brown with blotches of red. The oaks like to hold onto their leaves longer than most trees, as well. The beech are a favorite of mine as they turn a warm golden color later than most others and are generally the last to drop their leaves to the ground. As autumn approaches, the animals, birds, and insects also prepare for the slow winter season. Many of these critters are storing up food and energy to hold them over until spring. Chipmunks and blue jays gather acorns to hide away for long winter days. Our beloved area farms slow down and begin their winter rest. And in all of this, the light is changing from the sharp light of summer days to the muted light that photographers enjoy. Take a moment this fall to stop and marvel at the wonder of nature as she lovingly prepares Concord for winter.
Shop Locally and Make a Difference Here’s how much of your $100 purchase stays in your community when you spend at . . .
… an independent local store
… a local chain store
… a remote online store (if the delivery driver resides locally)
Source: American Independent Business Alliance
Fresh Flowers • House Plants • Balloon Bouquets Delivery or Curbside Pickup Available Store Hours Mon-Fri 9-5:30 Sat 9-3
135 Commonwealth Ave. in West Concord | www.concordflowershop.com | 978-369-2404
WOMEN’S CONSIGNMENT BOUTIQUE 101 Commonwealth Ave West Concord www.ReflectionsConcord.com Facebook/Instagram: @ReflectionsConcord
A little bit of everything in 4000 sq. ft.!
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45 Commonwealth Ave. Concord, MA 978-371-1256
CONCORD FALL 2020
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| Fall 2020
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Fabulous kitchens are our first love—we’ve been building them for nearly thirty years and will bring our expertise to create a unique kitchen that’s centered on you.
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