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H VIMapp Interactive Historical Mapping and Data Representation of Built Heritage for Multipurpose Use Created with QGIS:

The case of historical centre of Vimercate

Politecnico di Milano Student: Dina Jovanović Professors: Stefano Della Torre Daniela Oreni Rossella Moioli


“Like a piece of architecture, the city is a construction in space, but one of vast scale, a thing perceived only in the course of long spans of time... Nothing is experienced by itself, but always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences of events leading up to it, the memory of past experiences.“ Kevin Lynch, 1960. The Image of the City

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Summary: 1. Introduction of the mapping.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9 2. Brief historical introduction in the context of Vimercate. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13 3. Chronologically important findings, figures and events 3.1. The Roman era.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15 3.2. The medieval age... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16 3.3. Feudatory in Vimercate.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17 3.4. Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 3.5. From Fascism to Reconstruction... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 3.6. The second half of the twentieth century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-23 4. Overall methodology... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-29 5. Related works.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-31 6. Close-up methodology for the analysis of collected data 6.1. Collection of the maps and their comparison. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-37 6.1.1. Map Originale del Comune Censuario (1720-23). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33 6.1.2. Map Catasto Teresiano (1721) and Cadaster Teresiano (1757). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-34 6.1.3. Map Lombardo-Veneto Prima Copia (1832). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34-35 6.1.4. Map Nuovo Catasto Terreni (1903). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-37 6.1.5. Expansion of Vimercate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-37 6.2. Thematic maps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-41 6.2.1. Presence of the basements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 6.2.2. Presence of old wooden roof system Lombardian truss system (capriata). . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 6.2.3. Presence of the elements in the courtyards that are older from the build ings that surround them. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 6.2.4. Presence of abandoned or not used buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-41 6.2.5. Presence of the mural paintings, affresco and graffiti decoration on the facades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-41 6.3. Historical buildings’ ID. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40-41 7. Scheme of projects' data, descriptions, proposed reading and usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42-43 7.1. ID of buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-47 7.2. Historical Maps 1721-1994. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-55 7.2.1. Mappa Originale del Comune Censuario 1720-1723. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-49 7.2.2. Historical maps converted to vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-55 7.2.2.a. Catasto Teresiano 1721. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-51 7.2.2.b. Lombardo Veneto Prima Copia 1832. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52-53 7.2.2.c. Nuovo Catasto Terreni 1903. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54-55 7.3. Modern times maps 2012-2019. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56-59 8. Other uses of the project, participations and locals’ interviews 8.1. 3D model generated by Qgis2threejs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60-61 8.2. Online engagement of the locals to collect and share knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62-63 8.3. Treasure hunt project with Proloco in Vimercate and high school students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-67 8.4. Interviews and “face to face” experiences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64-65/68-73 9. Future work and additions to the thesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 10. Personal conclusion and thoughts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 11. References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-79 12. Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 13. Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-137

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H-VIMapp INTERACTIVE HISTORICAL MAPPING AND DATA REPRESENTATION OF BUILT HERITAGE FOR MULTIPURPOSE USE CREATED WITH QGIS: THE CASE OF HISTORICAL CENTRE OF VIMERCATE

Department of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering

Thesis project, October 2019 Student: Dina Jovanović, 10553414 Professors: Stefano Della Torre Daniela Oreni Rossella Moioli 3


Abstract Vimercate is a city located in the province Monza and Brianza, not far away from Milan and Monza. This excellent position has been very important since the way back to the Roman period when Vimercate was founded. Such an important historical development of the city needs to have special attention in analyzing its urban core. Nevertheless, Vimercate only recently got the attention of the individual researchers and institutions for its protection and investigation. More recently one of the biggest drivers in developing the awareness and interest in Vimercate is Politecnico di Milano, particularly the course of Preservation studio in the Master degree in Architecture and other researches from this academic institution. The focus was mainly on the architectural scale, that puts the single monument in front of the urban scope. The project intends to reverse the situation, putting the urban scale and the town as a whole in the first place. Observing the wider image will provide a creating of the policies and strategies over this historically significant city, for its elementary understanding, protection and maintaining. Many of relevant information are collected, but they have remained until now just the pieces of the complete appearance of Vimercate. Therefore, this project tends to create one unique database of the built heritage of Vimercate, first as a city and then as a single object, all equally important to create a proper system in service to all stakeholders: from the municipality, university, students to the locals and single enthusiast. The database is imagined as an interactive map, that can educate, but also to inform and point to the ways of reconstruction and protection. The map can provide all historical and contemporary facts, documentation, photos and projects, creating a timeline easier to manage and to comprehend. Software used for this project is free and open QGIS program, but in the future the map should be also accessible online.

Key words: interactive mapping of built heritage, historical centre of Vimercate, open and free QGIS software, data cadastre representation, local community engagement, students’ preservation projects database 4


H VIMapp

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1. Introduction of the mapping As a conclusion of this metaphorical story, it could be derived that most of the cultural heritage ‘objects’ actually do not speak for them self, so it is necessary to dig for information. If their beauty does not prevail, it is even harder to understand its true importance. These objects then are in desperate need of ‘the story’, since their value is not self-evident. The other part of the story is reflecting the attitude towards this ‘objects’ due to ignorance or negligence and in this case, the piece of history can be lost forever.

What is the map today? Can map help us to understand the contemporary city? In the end, what is a city, from a perspective of history, contemporary urban development, citizens, tourists, and above all how we can represent it? These are one of the main questions in the analyses of the city. The one should consider the city as a complex layering of the time, culture, decisions and social influences. This thesis has a particular focus on the built heritage of Vimercate, reviewed throughout all of these parameters mentioned above. As the Shane said:

This also pulls the question of the importance of the representation of the ‘stories’---collected data. The thesis has for a goal to present built heritage of Vimercate though the interactive mapping in the open and free software. Maps, indeed, have been one of the most important human inventions for millennium. People created maps to navigate, explore, and to apply political power and control. Next, they considered a map as a medium to share urban images and at the same time, a device able to express visions and ways of living in the city (Figure 4).

“The contextualization of historical and architectural information about historic buildings aims to provide multi-dimensional and vivid experiences of physical space throughout time for inhabitants, tourist and visitors as well as a sophisticated and specialized knowledge base for students, historians and archaeology experts. The process of contextualization will take place through the recognition and convergence of two series of dimensions of historical artefacts within the urban context: Spatial Dimensions that consist of ‘Codes’, ‘Contents’ and ‘Language’ and Immaterial Dimensions which include ‘The Narration of Information’, ‘Time’, and ‘The Simultaneity of Presence’ (2011)”

Cartography in total, as a form of art and scientific discipline, is strongly connected to the rise of European colonial countries. Maps defined the borders, territory ownership, even provided surveillance and spatial control (Figure 5). The state has been then and has remained for a very long time, the main advocate of the cartographic activity. (Contin, A. et al., 2014, pg 125). Working with maps in different scales was created the perfect tool for defining the value of the land property, and economic perspective of territory through geometric measurement (Farinelli, 2009, pg 26).

One story that will perfectly describe what is the importance of collecting and layering of data, but also as much as important, representation of the same, can be found in the book of Contin, A. et al. (2014, pg 1). Let us imagine that there is a pebble, grey, medium size, rough. You will never stop to take a picture of it, to keep it or to make an exhibition about it. You will never write a book about this pebble. It is an insignificant pebble until you do not collect enough information. If the information that you collected are indicating that this piece of rock is the one with which soon-to-be-king David killed Goliath, that changes perspective completely. The stone is not ‘just the pebble’ anymore, but has a story, it is exposed in the museum in the special glass, it is treated with maximum care. If you do not know how valuable it is or you neglect that, and you will use it for stone skipping on a surface of a lake, the pebble will go under the water, and it will be lost for eternity. (Figures 1 and 2) 6


Figure 1. - World’s oldest and most important rock bands telling the story of Earth for more than 2.6 billion year source:https://www.riotinto.com/ourcommitment/spotlight-18130_22775.aspx

Figure 2. - A polished pebble stone probably used in conjunction with a palette for grinding eye-paint, made in 4000BC in Egypt source:http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/wml/collections/ antiquities/ancient-egypt/item-316484.aspx

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Further on, there are many examples in the history of art, of a strong linkage between cartography, and political power (Ribeiro, D. M, and Caquard, S., 2018). One of such examples is Queen Elizabeth I (‘The Ditchley portrait’) by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger in 1561, where Queen is standing on the top of a map of the British possessions (Contin, A. et al., 2014, pg 125). These art pieces, from maps to the paintings, proclaimed the ultimate right of political control and it helped to colonials to bridge the big distance between their conquered lands. (Harley, 1988, pg 277). Nevertheless, using the cartography in the whimsical and self-oriented way, left a trail in the history of the whole continents (Figure 3).

existence. Following the idea of digital storytelling, the thesis will start with a short introduction of the history of Vimercate and its wider context.

Since the state held most of the geographical information, the type of representation and interpretation of data (paper maps, globes, written documents and cadastres, etc.) was very stiff and accessible just to the exclusive group of people in the past. Within the arrival of the internet, mobile phones and servers that can store a massive amount of information online, ‘network society’ turns the cartographical data into something ‘liquid’. The limitations are few, and the varieties of representations are bigger each year. That includes interactive mapping, geo-referenced image maps, crowd-sourcing, hazard mapping, augmented reality, etc. The influence of the role for ‘non-experts’ in mapping is increasing. Citizens are no longer only witnesses, but they are urban actors, active stakeholders, making and contributing to the quality and quantity of data in the map that travels much faster and reaches many more than in the past times. “Nowadays, maps are becoming no more tools of power, but means of social and political “empowerment” for those who participate to this process of knowledge-sharing.” (Contin, A. et al., 2014, pg 127) This is one of the main reasons why this thesis is focusing on the interactive interpretation of the historical maps and cadastres, to provide the other dimension for their comparisons. Mapping project consists of analysis, knowledge, can be an administrative tool, and above all, can be available and accessible to anyone interested in understanding the city of Vimercate from the very beginning of its 8


Figure 4. - Christian Faith: Hereford’s Mappa Mundi made in 1300, Hereford Cathedral depicts “what the world looked like to medieval Christians source:https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/12/12-maps-that-changed-the-world/282666/

Figure 3. - Queen Elizabeth I by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger (1561-2) source:https://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/portrait/ mw02079/Queen-Elizabeth-I-The-Ditchley-portrait

Figure 5.- Imperial Politics: Kwon Kun’s Kangnido Map (1402), China is the gigantic blob at the center of the map, with Korea, looking disproportionately large source:https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2013/12/12-maps-that-changed-the-world/282666/

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4. Overall methodology • Geo-referencing and digitalization of historical maps. These maps can contain some of the most valuable knowledge. Adding exact coordinates to these maps, they could be placed in the exact place in the real world model inside the GIS software. Using the technique like rubber-sheeting, the historical maps can be converted to fit more accurate the modern maps.

Gathering the pieces of history, this project tends to create complete jigsaw, when it is finally collected, presented, and placed in the right place, only then the whole image can be understood. The story of one town should be read in the layers of information, overlapping and confronting them, to derive other conclusions. The importance of Vimercate is already well known, but still, these are a lack of consistency of the data and the timeline without interruptions is missing. Firstly, this thesis is oriented to searching, organizing, filtrating, and presenting all collected data to provide urban scale material through time. From this point, it is going to be easier to interpret and analyze information, and have other conclusions. Secondly, building an interactive map, it will allow the further collection of data, without losing or repeating the previously collected.

• Redrawing the features from the historical maps in the vector layer could be fulfilled and compared with other data from the other times in history, all the way to the nowadays state of the city. This approach can provide strong conclusions, about changes in time. • Geo-referencing of historical micro-data, such as census, parish records, cadastres, and so on, provides the third dimension to the written documents, which are often very rich with information and descriptions. Some of these inscriptions are connected directly with the maps, and other, that is more difficult to interpret, are not connected with any kind of visual representation. 6

Why this approach is from the crucial importance of understanding the city of Vimercate? Imagine a curriculum vitae of a person, so this is the same approach to the city. All the information from its ‘birth’ until ‘growth’ through all the changes could be read in the maps. All these maps are stored in the Geographic Information System [GIS] software that is trying to imitate the real world (Figure 29.). GIS is a system developed to collect, store, manipulate, analyze and present all types of geographical data. Combining people, methods together with geospatial software and tools can enable managing vast datasets, spatial analysis and representation of information in a map or graphic. Additionally, by visualizing and storing data, GIS is used as a tool in decision-making and problem-solving processes. In this case, area of interest [AOI] --- Vimercate, is subjective to collecting of features, comparing them, calculating density and gaps in the same, extracting conclusion what is happening in AOI, how this specific area changed over time and why. 5 Specifically, the thesis is oriented to the one branch called Historical Geographic Information System [HGIS] that basically can store, analyze and display data of the historical geographies and track changes through time. Techniques that are used in the HGIS are: 5 https://researchguides.library.wisc.edu/GIS

6 http://www.hgis.org.uk/what_is.htm

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Figure 29.- GIS work-flow and processes source:http://www.sam.mncn.csic.es/cursos_seminarios1.php?idcursosimi=56, author: Dina Jovanovic

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Firstly, collecting the material is primarily step. One of the most important things is knowing the accuracy and truthfulness of the source from where information is coming. All material in this thesis is collected from:

Primarily, the students' interest was into the urban scale of the town, that has been fast-switched to the architectural scale. In this way, there is just a glance of the insight into the urban scale of the town and its development through centuries. An interactive map will allow students to fulfil that gap of information. They will use a map for primary knowledge and then contribute to it, placing their information and conclusions for the next generation, but also to the others who are interested to discover and understand Vimercate.

1. Historical and modern maps: • From professors’ private collection 7; • Archivio di Stato di Milano 8; • Geoportale della Lombardia 9; • Sportello Telematico Unificato del Comune di Vimercate 10; • OpenStreetMap downloaded with Overpass turbo on March 2019;

On the contrary, if there is no technical support of the students' works in the form of these maps, and they are stored just inside of University, their work is accessible just to a very small amount of people. The similar is for researchers, publishing their work in the conferences but not distributing the information even further. These works, from two groups of stakeholders, are then captured among limited circles, without opportunity that their work can be criticized, compared to the others and suffused. Yes, some mistakes can be found, maybe work is not finished at the students' projects or there is a too specific and complicated topic of research papers, but this is the only contemporary insight without the direct influence on the architecture of the built heritage, not influenced by the money, budget or personal desires (Della Torre, S. et al., 2019).

2. Buildings information: • Lombardia Beni Culturali 11; • Students from a course Preservation studio (2017), in Politecnico di Milano; • References, papers and books; • Cadasters and inscriptions; • Personal survey and interviews with locals; Secondly, when these data are collected, they need to be placed on the map, as virtual spatial features. Historical maps are geo-referenced, modern maps are interpreted, and written data are presented in the attribute table, so they can be visually represented. At the end, when all the pieces are put in the software, it can be concluded where is the lack of information, what is the density of features, and what should be found to complete the puzzle image.

Finally, it should be noticed that one should not consider data as the ultimate truth. They are there to give an insight into the way of thinking, working and reasoning of different persons from different times and for a different cause. Conclusions that they derived, may not be the same to someone else, so all data presented should be used with the caution. While collecting these pieces, they are also a big lack of data, and inconsistency, that one should keep in mind. Some certain limits and difficulties should be noted.

One of the important goals of this thesis is also one unique and accessible map for students in Politecnico di Milano. During the past several years Vimercate was at the peak of the attention for the students and researchers. Most of the Preservation studios held in the International courses in the Department of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering on a Master degree, as the main topic had the historical centre of Vimercate (Figures 30-33). 7 Professors: Della Torre, S., Oreni, D. and Moioli, R. 8 http://www.asmilano.it/AriannaWeb/main.htm#archivio 9 http://www.geoportale.regione.lombardia.it/ 10https://sportellotelematico.comune.vimercate.mb.it/metadati 11http://www.lombardiabeniculturali.it/ricerca/?q=vimercate+&a=201

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8/21/2019

Vimercate, il centro storico si studia alla Facoltà di Architettura del Politecnico

Giornale online della Provincia di Monza e Brianza

GIOVANI

Figure 30. - Students and professor Della Torre in Palazzo Trotti source: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=101583736760 81840&set=g.1897930053626081&type=1&theater&ifg=1

Vimercate, il centro storico si studia alla Facoltà di Architettura del Politecnico  30 Ottobre 2017 Facebook

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Il centro storico di Vimercate si studia all’Università. Giovedì 26 ottobre, chi si trovava a passeggiare in centro, si sarà probabilmente imbattuto in un gruppo di studenti stranieri, in buona parte asiatici, che, muniti di strumenti di misurazione più o meno tradizionali, si aggiravano tra i palazzi, facendo foto e prendendo appunti. Se vi siete chiesti cosa stessero facendo così tanti giapponesi, sappiate che, sebbene alcuni di loro fossero muniti di fotocamera, non stavano facendo semplici foto ai monumenti. I ragazzi, studenti del Politecnico di Milano, stavano prendendo le misure, non solo degli edifici, ma anche della loro futura vita da architetti. Perché proprio a Vimercate? Presto detto: perché, benché chi ci vive, come spesso accade, non si renda conto della fortuna che possiede, il centro storico vimercatese è uno dei più interessanti dal punto di vista architettonico.

Figure 32. - Newspaper article source: https://www.mbnews.it/2017/10/il-centro-storico-di-vimercate-si-studia-alla-facolta-di-architettura-del-politecnico/

https://www.mbnews.it/2017/10/il-centro-storico-di-vimercate-si-studia-alla-facolta-di-architettura-del-politecnico/

Figure 31.- Student taking measurements of the door of Casa Corio Author: Dina Jovanovic

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Figure 33. - Students taking laser scan source: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10215625694469730&set =g.1897930053626081&type=1&theater&ifg=1

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For example, historical maps had problems that they did not have a satellite image, to check their data and as a perfect example is Plan of Imola made by Leonardo da Vinci in 1502. Maps are made by hand measurements in the field, even then they were incredibly precise (Figure. 34). Most of the historical documents are rewritten or redrawn, sometimes they forgot something or they measured wrong, so not rarely could be seen the additions with different pen and handwriting. For the case of written documents, it is particularly hard to understand medieval terminology, way of writing and describing notions.

For a final word, the thesis does not have an aim to create simple storage of data. It tends to show the importance of interactive mapping, criticizing and analyzing all the information that are consisted. Interpreting different stages of the past and the present times, together in the same system, they can be interpolated for other purposes and conclusions. The main target is to contribute to larger scientific knowledge, by increasing and reinforcing civic awareness of the “cultural assets� of the city of Vimercate and its community by carrying out the research and making its outcome available to the wider public. The main purpose is overcoming the attitude of looking the single elements, but stressing the importance of the whole urban tissue.

As a conclusion, the thesis is developed as an administrative tool, storing the information and indicating future decision-making in the historical centre of Vimercate. As an example, in the 1960s, some high rise buildings were built in the historical centre, popping out of the context of the city, deeply violating this sensitive tissue. As Moioli, R. (2017) wrote: "It is clear that the historical centre is not considered as an “urban settlement structure that constitutes cultural unity or the original and authentic part of settlements, and witnesses the characteristics of a lively urban culture ... but as a set of individual buildings not related to each other. Finally, there is no trace of the archaeological potential, marking a serious gap for the prediction of preventive archaeology activities, mandatory by law in all public works and strongly recommended for private initiative works." A town as a whole is an ecosystem of people, keeper of memories and architecture of previous times, and therefore, it is more important than a single monument. Preserving the context of the entire city it is primary, and then dealing with the single elements. This issue triggered that in 2011 UNESCO adopted the term Historic Urban Landscape [HUL] and described it as:"The Historic Urban Landscape approach moves beyond the preservation of the physical environment and focuses on the entire human environment with all of its tangible and intangible qualities. It seeks to increase the sustainability of planning and design interventions by taking into account the existing built environment, intangible heritage, cultural diversity, socio-economic and environmental factors along with local community values." 12 (Figure 35.) 12 https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1026/

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Figure 34. - Leonardo da Vinci's map of Imola in 1502 compared to the current satellite view source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DLhiLAZVYAA5YuK.jpg

Figure 35. - HUL diagram author Dina Jovanovic

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5. Related works Book "Microanalisi di una città" (Eng. microanalysis of a city) written by Stefano Della Torre and Matteo Gianoncelli in 1984, give us insight in property and use of the houses of Città Murata ( Eng. walled city) of Como from XVI century until XIX century. Thirty-five years ago, authors did not have advanced technological tools that we have today, nevertheless, they provided the inexhaustible amount of data which are deeply entering into the historical cadastres, descriptions and drawings of built heritage.

One of the main inspirations for the thesis was a project of Treviso Urbs Picta developed between 2012-2013. The research made in Treviso starts with the analysis of facades, their styles and iconography, of the houses and other buildings decorated in the period between XIII and XX century ( Riscica, R. and Voltarel, C., 2017). The interactive map provides different information that can be filtered. Each "building dot" has data about the type of the painted facade, year and type of construction, photography survey, and bibliography. 13 (Figure 36.)

Other examples are more oriented to the mobile apps and touristic discovering of the city. Free app Hidden Florence allows you to download stories of different characters through history, and to follow their stories that will lead you through Florence. The character is your virtual guide and has thematic walking paths and interactive maps with a presentation of rich historical stories, architecture and art, that are linked to the sites 17 (Nevola, F. and Rosenthal, D., 2016).

Visualizing Venice is another project with a similar aim started in 2009. Their research is based on archival and printed sources (cartography, documents, images, etc.) from which is generated animations and a three-dimensional model of Venice that are aiming to stress the question of urban change and transformation (Huffman, K.L., Giordano, A., Bruzelius, C., 2017). 14 The Project that is dealing with the different theme but within the same boundaries is HUL approach for “World Heritage City Preservation Management” in Cuenca, Ecuador. With this research, they are trying to activate wide spectrum of new actors who are involved in the management of the city, from public bodies to public participation groups, which implies a large area of the partaking disciplines. 15 They evaluated the state of conservation of the city of Cuenca, identifying the urban, architectural, touristic, landscape, economic, social, and spatial impact on the cultural heritage values. In the end, involving all stakeholders, academics, students and experts, but especially the citizen, for collective value assessment gave the best results (Roders, A.P. and Bandarin, F., 2019, pg 208).

These examples and related works with the similar topics of mapping, listing and analyzing built heritage of different case studies inspired the thesis. Process of learning from the previous studies was an important part of this project, its construction, development and presentation.

Example of mapping Genova with the name "Mappatura culturale della città vecchia", is the overall result of the subprojects 2 and 3 of the European project "Civis Ambiente". They wanted to provide an original planning support tool for the historic city centre. Mapping is finished in 1999. 16 (Figure 37.) 13 https://trevisourbspicta.fbsr.it/ 14 http://www.visualizingvenice.org/visu/ 15 https://gohulsite.files.wordpress.com/2016/11/2014-mayworkshop.pdf 16 http://civis.comune.genova.it/mappatura.htm

17 https://hiddenflorence.org/

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Figure.36. - Treviso Urbs Picta interface

Figure 37. - Mappatura culturale della cittĂ vecchia interface

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Living in Vimercate, and having the roots in this historical place, gives to the residents a reason to be proud of their city. There are visible engagements of the locals, through social networks, events, stories, festivals, etc. Their interest goes even beyond, so they investigate the history of Vimercate ofter by themselves. This attitude towards the city is incredibly important because ignorance and disinterest ruined the cities even greater than some wars. For example, the Facebook group "Cartoline di Vimercate" 19 has a big community of locals interested to participate and share their photos and knowledge of old days Vimercate. They share personal photos, stories about their grandparents, and they share opinions with each other (Figure 52.).

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Similar Facebook group called "Vimercate Historic Living Lab"20 initiated and guided by the professor Rossella Moioli with others, to collect all the people that like the history of Vimercate, and what to know more. In the group people exchange the materials, stories, they discuss measurement for the reconstruction of the built heritage, etc. Also, could be visible some students' works shared by the professor Rossella Moioli and professor Lorenzo Cantini, projects that were done in the Preservation courses. Among the photos there are processes of making the projects, technical solutions, student's revisions, etc. (Figure 51.)

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La fiera di S. Stefano e le visite guidate. Ecco la squadra al completo: Dario Brambilla, Alessandra Pili, Matteo Villa e il prof. Stefano Della Torre. Grazie a tutti See Translation

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Gianni e le visite guidate. Ecco la squadra al completo: Dario Brambilla, La fieraDino di S. Stefano Alessandra Pili, Matteo Villa e·ilAugust prof. Stefano Della Founding Member 3 at 1:10 PMTorre. Grazie a tutti See Translation

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Figure 51. - Facebook group "Vimercate Historic Living Lab"


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Dentro al cimitero guardando la Molgora a sinistra c'era questo uccello, ma è View 1 moreIncredibile comment cosa si può incontrare a Vimercate in estate un airone? Laura Anna Corno C'erano anche gli animali!! See Translation Like · Reply · See Translation · 6h

https://www.facebook.com/groups/298952374105956/ Erika Gasparri Lo ricordo.all'entrata c'erano gli animali.un pavone bellissimo .bei ricordi

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63 https://www.facebook.com/groups/298952374105956/

Figure 52. - Facebook group "Cartoline di Vimercate"

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8.3. Treasure hunt project with Proloco in Vimercate and high school students

8.4. Interviews and "face to face" experiences

When this thesis project started, also during its way until the end had different paths. This is just one more recognition, that this type of the project has wide use, and it is helpful to form the youngest to the oldest, from the public municipalities, private firms until the single individual. During the festival "Vimercate Ragazzi Festival" that was held in Vimercate from 7 until 9 June 2019, Proloco di Vimercate made an event called Treasure hunt: "Discovering the past". I was a collaboration with the Pro Loco, directly to professor Rossella Moioli and with the students from a high school within charged students Dario Brambilla and Fabian Kyrie Imasuen, which developed idea and itinerary for kids. My responsibility was a map for a treasure hunt and short text that will contain information about the heritage, which will lead elementary students throughout their town and will represent the story of each important building (Figures 53 and 54).

Investigating the historical centre means entering in the private houses and courtyards, firstly asking permission to do so. Locals are full of stories, what they know about the object, how it changed throughout the year. If it has been executed any project in recent years, tenants are even able to show some projects that they took from the municipality. Some of the owners have old photos of the property, from their grandparents, or they just remember the city how it used to be when they were young. Listening to the stories that they have to tell is a very important part of this research, but they should be considered with caution. Spoken information is just a trigger for further research about the actual historical fact, which should be a prior element for a well-proven analysis (Figure 55.).

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c) Figure 53. - Photos a) and b) are from the preparation meeting with the high-school students in Vimercate Photos c) and e) are from the event "Discovering the past" held in June, 2019. Pupils were holding the maps with which they navigated. Photo d) is the poster of the event in the Festival for Children

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TREASURE HUNT

VIMERCATECACCIA AL TESORO

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Discovering The Past: passeggiando con il naso all’insù Il progetto, svoltosi in collaborazione con la proloco di Vimercate, è una caccia al tesoro per le vie storiche di Vimercate organizzato in due lingue: italiano ed inglese. Esso punta ad erigere una conoscenza di almeno parte della storia di questa città e l’incremento della conoscenza dell’inglese poichè l’attività sarebbe svolta in parte in lingua italiana e in parte in lingua inglese con vari giochi ed obbiettivi che verranno proposti ai ragazzi per poter proseguire nella caccia al tesoro e infine con l’uso di cartine per orientarsi più agevolmente.

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VIMERCATECACCIA AL TESORO

Ponte di San Rocco / Saint Rocco Bridge

TREASURE HUNT

ITA: Il ponte di San Rocco svolge una duplice funzione ovvero quella: di ponte sul torrente Molgora e contemporaneamente di porta del borgo medioevale. È stato costruito su un ponte romano del III secolo d.C., a cui nel XII secolo venne sovrapposta una porta difensiva, quella occidentale, ovvero la Porta de Moriano. Sull'arco in pietra della torre occidentale è scolpito una piccolo viso della fine del XII secolo. ENG: The bridge of San Rocco has a dual function, namely that of a bridge over the Molgora stream and at the same time a gateway to the medieval village. It was built on a Roman bridge from the 3rd century AD, to which a defensive gate, the western one or Porta de Moriano, was superimposed in the 12th century. On the stone arch of the western tower is carved a small human face from the 12th century.

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Oratorio di Sant'Antonio / Oratory of Saint Antonio

RISPOSTE / ANSWERS: 1. 2. 3. 4.

ITA: Questa chiesa fu eretta in onore di S. Antonio Abate, protettore dell’agricoltura e degli animali, guaritore del fuoco di S. Antonio. La Chiesina fu un Oratorio di una Scuola che in realtà erano associazioni di laici, aventi scopi religiosi e caritativi. Inoltre avvicinandoci ai giorni nostri le due campane, non furono trasformate in ordigni di guerra. Osservando invece l’aspetto architettonico la chiesa è caratterizzata da uno stile semplice riconducibile al periodo romanico. ENG: This church was built in honor of St. Antonio Abate, protector of agriculture and animals, healer of the fire of St. Anthony. The small church was an oratory of a school that in reality were associations of lay people, having religious and charitable purposes. Furthermore, by approaching the present day, the two bells were not turned into weapons of war. Looking at the architectural aspect, the church is characterized by a simple style that can be traced back to the Romanesque period.

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Casa Corio / House Corio

ITA: Nella cantina di Casa Corio (sec. XV – XIX) visse Francesco Sforza. Quindi si tratta di un edificio medioevale e pluripiano, dotato di torretta e di un pittoresco balconcino, le cui facciate erano ornate di affreschi ancora parzialmente conservati. Inoltre la resa dei milanesi a Francesco Sforza fu firmata il 26 febbraio 1450 a Vimercate nella casa dei conti Corio. ENG: Francesco Sforza lived in the cellar of Casa Corio (15th - 19th centuries). It is a medieval and multi-storey building, with a turret and a picturesque balcony, whose facades were adorned with frescoes still partially preserved. Furthermore, the surrender of the Milanese to Francesco Sforza was signed on 26 February 1450 in Vimercate in the house Corio.

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Chiesa di Santo Stefano / Church of Saint Stefano

ITA: La facciata ospita tre statue raffiguranti la Madonna col Bambino tra santo Stefano e un santo guerriero. La chiesa è frutto di numerose trasformazioni ed è stata eretta tra il X e l'XI secolo, forse sul luogo di più antiche fondazioni. L'edificio ha tre navate e terminazione a tre absidi semicircolari. Alla seconda metà del XII secolo, risale la torre campanaria e la parte superiore di essa, fu rifatta nell'Ottocento riprendendo le forme originarie. L'edificio venne alzato con la conseguente distruzione del tetto a capriate e dunque della conseguente ricopertura a volta delle navate.

READY, SET,

ENG: The facade houses three statues depicting the Madonna and Child between Saint Stephen and a warrior saint. The church is the result of numerous transformations and was erected between the 10th and 11th centuries, perhaps on the site of more ancient foundations. The building has three naves and three semicircular apses termination. In the second half of the 12th century, the bell tower dates back to the upper part of it, it was rebuilt in the nineteenth century taking up the original forms. The building was raised with the consequent destruction of the trussed roof and therefore of the consequent vaulting of the naves.

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HAVE FUN!

Casa Turati (Torre) / House Turati (Tower)

VIMERCATECACCIA AL TESORO TREASURE HUNT

ITA: Questo è un edificio a forma di torre la cui architettura rimanda alla fortificazione medioevale del borgo e al successivo utilizzo come carcere. Queste strade forse furono fortificate in seguito con l'erezione di una torre, dalla quale prese forma una rocca con mura lungo il perimetro e torri agli angoli. Una traccia di questa fortificazione si individua alla base dell'edificio a torre, Casa Turati. ENG: This is a building in the shape of a tower whose architecture refers to the medieval fortification of the village and its subsequent use as a prison. These roads were perhaps later fortified with the erection of a tower, from which a fortress with walls along the perimeter and towers at the corners took shape. A trace of this fortification can be found at the base of the tower building, Casa Turati.

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RISPOSTE / ANSWERS: 5. 6. 7.

Santuario della Beata Vergine del Rosario / Sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin of the Rosary

ITA: La sua storia risale a qualche decennio dopo l'anno 1000, quando nella cittadina si ravvivò una devozione a Maria Santissima. Nel 1628 fu decisa l'edificazione della nuova chiesa e nel 1688 la torre campanaria venne demolita e sostituita con un campanile. Le cinque campane presenti tutt’oggi e che si possono suonare ancora a corda, si chiamano: Santa Maria, Santo Stefano, Sant'Ambrogio, San Carlo e Santa Eurosia. All’ interno si possono osservare le antiche fondamenta della chiesa precedente oltre che alla vecchia fonte battesimale oramai interrata a causa dello scorrere del tempo. ENG: Its history dates back to a few decades after the year 1000, when a devotion to Mary Most Holy was revived in the town. In 1628 the building of the new church was decided and in 1688 the bell tower was demolished and replaced with a bell tower. The five bells still present today that can still be played on a string are called: Santa Maria, Santo Stefano, Sant'Ambrogio, San Carlo and Santa Eurosia. Inside you can see the ancient foundations of the previous church as well as the old baptismal font now buried due to the passage of time.

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Palazzo Trotti / Palace Trotti

ITA: Il fronte è caratterizzato da una torre quadrangolare tronca, nella quale è presente il portale di ingresso che dà accesso al cortile interno. Il suo valore è costituito dai quadri mitologici delle sale interne, appartenenti a tre distinte fasi decorative settecentesche. Il primo intervento decorativo, con gran parte delle pitture interne, fu commissionato da Giovan Battista Seccoborella. Poi riprese con Giovan Battista Trotti, che aveva sposato Giulia Seccoborella. Intorno alla metà del XIX secolo iniziò per Palazzo Trotti un periodo di disinteresse. Questo e il giardino annesso furono venduti all'amministrazione pubblica, che la trasformò in sede municipale. ENG: The front is characterized by a truncated quadrangular tower, in which there is the entrance portal which gives access to the internal courtyard. Its value consists of the mythological paintings of the inner rooms, belonging to three distinct eighteenth-century decorative phases. The first decorative intervention, with most of the interior paintings, was commissioned by Giovan Battista Seccoborella. Then he resumed with Giovan Battista Trotti, who had married Giulia Seccoborella. Around the middle of the nineteenth century a period of disinterestedness began for Palazzo Trotti. This and the annexed garden were sold to the public administration, which turned it into a municipal seat.

READY, SET, HAVE FUN!

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Figure 54. - Map for the pupils for "Discover the Past" Author: Dina Jovanovic


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9. Future work and additions to the thesis During the period of the survey, collecting data and investigating, professor Rossella Moioli had an idea to ask the municipality and people in charge of the MUST museum in Vimercate, what is their attitude and willingness to participate in this project. In April 2019, we had a meeting and dialogue is in process.

As a conclusion, it is significant to appoint some questions for further development of this project:

• There is a significant lack of information about Vimercate in Roman times, and the archaeological map that is presented in this project is based on the referenced book, some assumptions need to become well-proven truths.

The primal goal for making this project is setting the framework for future students of Politecnico di Milano which area of interest in Preservation course was and will be Vimercate (Della Torre et al., 2019). As for them, as equal for any other researcher, scholar but also local, or anyone interested in the heritage of the historical centre of Vimercate. A secondary goal was making the administrative tool---database which will collect more and more data, deriving layered and complex conclusions, helping to improve policies and protection laws, and full filling the gaps in the historical timeline of the selected heritage site. With this project as it is, and years of making it better can be provided instant insight of the history of one building, or part of the city, which will help the one to understand by which means and how he/she should intervene in single buildings or urban scale projects. This will only be possible if the municipality has its part of providing the online Geo-portal for uploading the project that will be free and open to anyone, and if in the future they will keep updating the data contributed from the citizens, students and researchers. This collaboration is still in development, but it is one of the most important steps for future work and progress.

• Collecting more information about the single historical buildings, full-filling their 'ID cards', will provide not just the complete image of the timeline of one building but also the whole town. • Since only Cadastre Teresiano from 1757 was compared with the maps, and translated, the future work will consist analyzing and translating cadastre from other times, and comparing it between themselves to understand the change throughout the time. • Future work will consist of constant reviewing and critical attitude toward the data that are presented. Work will also request of the one to collect more data, in different scales, architectural detail, the architectural scale of the building, or urban scale of the block and town. It is necessary looking at the these information in different scales as elements of the same system, that only together they create a unique and complete image. • The most important goal of this project is to be free, open and available to anyone. That is why there is a need for a server that can contain all of this information online.

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San Rocco Brigde Author: Dina Jovanovic, 2019

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10. Personal conclusions and thoughts The thesis is developed with the main idea that through interactive digital environments information technologies should provide access to information, both for an architectural and urban scale. Mapping inside the historical sites, begun with the idea to valorize cultural heritage which means to generate values for the receiver that later can hold the prior role for teaching field. Observing mapping in this way, as an opportunity to use a map as an expressive tool able to extract those hidden ensigns, to attract user's attention, to provide a deeper understanding of the city.

Applying these rules into the historical centre does not mean that beyond these imaginary borders the one should be blind of the urban transformation, and other objects that are just as much as important for their architectural and historical values. Historical centre and those urban elements "out of the borders" that we call "historical centre", should not be considered as a stiff and rigid with the precisely defined borders, but yet the perspective needs to be wider and deeper, including all changes throughout the time and space, thinking about the town as it is fluid, flexible and alive.

In the book by Contin, A et al. from 2014 is written:

Collecting data was not an easy job. There are many institutions and stakeholders to interact together so they can provide valuable data. After collecting these pieces of knowledge there is a process of selecting, understanding and presenting those data as less subjective as possible. It was very important for me to think critically by yet not to change any of the received information. Some clues are leading one way, that can finish with the dead-end or with further discoveries. Mapping and collecting information, I understood as an archaeological digging through the past, revealing the layers of the town, its physical and mental aspects, everything in the desire to find a string of the continuity of urban transformation throughout time and to learn from it.

"Digital storytelling is emerging as the most relevant way to deliver content in the digital age... the mapping of dynamic urban processes through digital open interactive platforms has become very important to facilitate self-management dynamics for the lack of services." Furthermore can be concluded that the map has resulted as a necessary tool of all collected experiences throughout the years. It represents the continuous process of development, to produce the collective database, with more information each year. From each import of data, the new digital story is created. The process should be improved each year, having a constant and unique system. Collecting the projects and surveys into one system will be very important after years of studio courses with the support of students and professors, for building a more complex image of the city.

What I found interesting while working in this thesis project, is that looking at the city from the plans, satellite views, though �bird's eyes" is completely something different than looking at the city from the position of the local. Standing in the street, passing by the houses entering the hidden courtyards. The experience that the historical part of the town is providing to the observer is something that cannot be presented and shown in the maps. Therefore, changing the scales of perception, from the urban scale to "real-life scale" was crucial to understand the city.

I needed to understand what is historical centre firstly. The historical centre, how we are perceiving it now, is a quite new invention. The idea began when the scholars noticed that the built heritage in the city centre is violated and damaged. The context of the historical site and perceiving of the old urban tissue started changing without any control. Dealing with the violation of the single monuments but also of the urban scale of the city, it needed to pull some restrictions, policies and rules when it comes to reconstruction, preservation, demolition and building new objects in these areas of interest. 76


Painter in Park Gussi Author: Dina Jovanovic, 2019

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11. References Albertini, L. et al., 2014. l vino a Monza e in Brianza, fra storia e geografia, Associazione Amici della Storia della Brianza ricerca scientifica - pedologia e climatologia AGER s.c.- Agricoltura e Ricerca, Promosso dalla Provincia di Monza e della Brianza Settore Agricoltura, Coordinato dalla Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza, Monza, Italia

Dossi, S. and Crippa, S., 1992. Vimercate medievale: Storia, Civilità e vita attraverso i suoi monumenti, Vimercate, Il Gabbiano

Cantù, C. and Sartorio, M., 1836. La Lombardia Pittoresca, o disegni di ciò che la Lombardia chiude di più interessante per le arti, la storia, la natura; levati dal vero da Giuseppe Elena e da altri distinti artisti, etc.; Giornale agrario lombardo-veneto e continuazione degli annali universali di agricoltura di industria e d'arti economiche (1840 set, Serie 2, Volume 14, Fascicolo 9)

Farinelli, F., 2009. La crisi della ragione cartografica. Piccola Biblioteca Einaudi Ns, Torino, Italia

Dozio, G., 1853. Notizie di Vimercate e sua pieve raccolte su vecchi documenti, Milano, Presso Giacomo Agnelli

Gruppo dirigenti Fiat, 1997. La villa lombarda, luogo di lavoro e di delizia, Zonta Club Milano I, La grafica Arlunese Harley, J. B., 1988. Maps, Knowledge and Power. In: Cosgrove DE, Daniels S (eds) The Iconography of Landscapes: Essays on the Symbolic Representation, Design and Use of Past Environment. Cambridge University Press, New York, pg 277-312

Cazzani, E., 1975. Storia di Vimercate, Penati, Vimercate. Chitty, G. and Baker, D. (eds), 1999. Issues in Heritage Management, Managing Historical Sites and Buildings: Reconciling Presentation and Preservation, published by Routledge, 270 Madison Ave, New York NY 10016

Huffman, K.L., Giordano, A. and Bruzelius, C., 2017. Visualizing Venice : Mapping and Modeling Time and Change in a City. Routledge, London, UK DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315100685 Inzaghi, G.C., 1999. Partiamoci a Vimercate, Vimercate, Mattavell

Comitato Unitario Antifascista, 1985. Vimercate nella storia contemporanea: 1918-1945., Vimercate, Comune di Vimercate

Marchesi, A., 2001. Vimercate: Chiese rimaniche, affresch gotici e Ville di delizia, Missaglia, Bellavite

Contin A., Paolini, P., Salerno, R., 2014. Innovative Technologies in Urban Mapping: Built Space and Mental Space, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pg 1-125

Merati, A., 1968. Antichità vimercatesi, Vimercate, Pro cultura Moioli, R., 2017. The new frontiers of conservation: Conveyances, contaminations, crossbreedings, Bressanone, 33° convegno internazionale Scienza e Beni Culturali, Collana Scienza e Beni Culturali, Edizione Arcadia Ricerche Srl, Parco Scientifico Tecnologico di Venezia, Italia , pg 160-162

Della Torre, S., Moioli, R. , and Cantini, L., 2019. The Historic Centre of Vimercate: Investigation, Education, Community Involvement, Springer Nature Switzerland AG, A. Moropoulou et al. (Eds.): TMM_ CH 2018, CCIS 961, pg 319–328. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-030-12957-6_22 Della Torre, S. and Gianoncelli, M., 1984. Microanalisi di una città, Editore New Press, Como, Italia, pg 2-23

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Nevola, F. and Rosenthal, D., 2016. Locating experience in the Renaissance city using mobile app technologies: the ‘Hidden Florence’ project,’ in Mapping Space, Sense, and Movement in Florence: Historical GIS and the Early Modern City, eds. Terpstra, N. and Rose, C., London: Routledge, pg 187-209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0963926817000128

Vergani, A. G., 1994. Mirabilia Vimercati: Irinerario in un patrimonio d'arte: il Medioevo, Marsilio Editori, Venezia, Italia Vergani, A. G., 2005. Il complesso del ponte di San Rocco a Vimercate. Identità e storia, Silvana, Italia

Orlando, M., 2008. Il ruolo dei Sistemi informativi territoriali nel processo di recupero dei centri storici, Edizioni Franco Angeli, pg 191-203 Penati, L., 1957. Raccilta di notizie storiche, Vimercate, Penati Ribeiro, D. M, and Caquard, S., 2018. Cartography and Art. The Geographic Information Science & Technology Body of Knowledge (1st Quarter 2018 Edition), John P. Wilson (ed). DOI:10.22224/gistbok/2018.1.4. Riscica, R. and Voltarel, C., 2017. Treviso urbs picta. Facciate affrescate della città dal XIII al XXI secolo: conoscenza e futuro di un bene comune. Fondazione Benetton Studi Ricerche-Antiga Edizioni, Treviso, Italia Roders, A.P. and Bandarin, F., 2019. Reshaping Urban Conservation: The Historic Urban Landscape Approach in Action, Springer, pg 208-221 Sacchi, F., 2011. Vimercate in età romana, in MUST - Museo del territorio, a cura di A. Marchesi e M. Pesenti, Milano, Electa Shane D.G., 2011. Urban Design Since 1945: A global Perspective, John Wiley & Sons, London Venturelli, P. and Vergani, A. G., 1998. Mirabilia Vimercati: Irinerario in un patrimonio d'arte: l'età moderna, Marsilio Editori, Venezia, Italia

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12. Acknowledgments Firstly, to my parents, Marjan and NataĹĄa, for constant and irreplaceable support during my whole journey. To my professors: Stefano Della Torre, Daniela Oreni and Rossella Moioli for their mentorship and knowledge. To Milos ÄŒeman for all his patience and motivation. To my friends and family, for celebrating my every success. To Matteo Villa for the greatest help in surveying and sharing data. To the students from the Preservation studio course in 2017 at Politecnico di Milano for sharing their projects (detailed list of all students is in the project). To the citizens of Vimercate for their unselfish stories, sharing experiences and for willingly opening the doors of their houses and courtyards.

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Via Maddalena di Canossa Author: Dina Jovanovic, 2019

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13. Appendix

82


Summary for Appendix:

Cadastre Translation Vimercate "Capo di Pieve" (1757). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-101 Appendix 1 - Carta astronomi (1788)................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Appendix 2 - Second Military Survey of the Hapsburg Empire (1818-29). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Appendix 3 - Intituto Geografico Militare (1888). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Appendix 4 - Intituto Geografico Militare (1937). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Appendix 5 - Mappa Regione Lombardia (2012). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Appendix 6 - General Maps - Catasto Teresiano (1721). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Appendix 7 - General Maps - Catasto Lombardo Veneto (1832). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Appendix 8 - General Maps - Nuovo Catasto Terreni (1903). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Appendix 9 - General Maps - Regione Lombardia (2012). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Appendix 10 - Historical City Development - Catasto Teresiano (1721). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Appendix 11 - Historical City Development - Catasto Lombardo Veneto (1832). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Appendix 12 - Historical City Development - Nuovo Catasto Terreni (1903). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Appendix 13 - Historical City Development - Intituto Geografico Militare (1937). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Appendix 14 - Historical City Development - Carta Tecnica Regionale (1980-94). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Appendix 15 - Historical City Development - Mappa Regione Lombardia (2012). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Appendix 16 - Historical City Development - 300 year span. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Appendix 17 - Historical Block Development - Square 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Appendix 18 - Historical Block Development - Square 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Appendix 19/27 - Ownerships of the parcels from Catasto Teresiano (1721) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120-128 Appendix 28 - Function types of built parcels from Catasto Teresiano (1721) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Appendix 29 - Old street names from the map in 1832 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Appendix 30 - Old street names from the map in 1903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Appendix 31 - Presence of basement under historical buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Appendix 32 - Presence of old truss roof system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Appendix 33 - Historically important buildings with different types of courtyards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Appendix 34 - Courtyards that have elements from a different period from building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Appendix 35 - Abandoned and not used buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Appendix 36 - Facade decoration on historical buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

83


CADASTRE TRANSLATION 02.Teresiano - fondo di seconda stazione Vimercate "Capo di Pieve" - 1757 1. Introduction and explanation of the terms 1.1. Navigation Yellow = Directions Red = Churches/Religious buildings 1.2. Sides of the World • Levante= east • Mezzogiorno = south • Tramontana= north • Ponente = west 1.3. Types of green elements • orto = vegetable garden • giardino = Garden • prato = meadow • pascolivo = pasture land 1.4. Abbreviations • B.V. del Rosario = Beata Vergine del Rosario • R.R.P.P. = Reverendissimi Padri • R.R.M.M. = Reverendissime Madri • qm = quondam = son of • Peδ = s. pèrtica / p. periche* • Can.co = Canonico = Canon) • Ven.do = Venerando = Venerable • Cap.lo = Capitolo • Abbate = Abbot • Rev.do = Reverendo = Reverend* • D.a = Donna • D.e = Don? • S.a = Signora = Madam • Sig.e = Signore = Sir • M.R. = Molto reverendo* • Avit.o = Avitato= wheat + vineyards • Arat.o = Aratorio = arable land

* explanation below

A page from the Catasto Teresiano Underlined the therms in the Introduction

84


Appendix 1

Carta astronomi 1788 In the map Vimercate, Oreno, Ruginello and Oldaniga are separated villages that are connected just with the roads. It is clearly visible Torrente Molgora on the map. Also it was decided towns to be represented with the darker color, while the agrarian fields and other vegetation around the villages, is presented with the symbols reverse “S“. In the surrounding there are not smaller villages, or yet they are not presented in the map. Road network is not strongly developed.

N

Scale 1/20.000

102


Appendix 2

MAPIRE - Second Military survey of the Habsburg Empire 1818-1829 In the next century, representation and the scale are different, showing more details. Still Vimercate, Oreno, Oldniga and Rugginello are keeping their previous shape, probably with minor changes. In this map now could be seen smaller villages around this area made next to the main roads. The road network is now more developed, the streets are more branched. In the graphical representation the buildings are shown with the red color and gardens inside the village boundaries are presented green. Other vegetation around villages have neutral beige color, on which black roads could be easily visible.

N

Scale 1/20.000

103


Appendix 3

Instituto Geografico Militare (IGM) 1888 Because of its military purpose, in this map the roads are the most emphasized. Next to the roads the city blocks are painted in black color to be easy noticeable. Even the narrowest paths to the agrarian fields or the smallest cottages are drown. Also small hight cotes are written in the map.

N

Scale 1/20.000

104


Appendix 4

Instituto Geografico Militare (IGM) 1937 In the beginning of the 20th century Vimercate collected the status of the city. The expansion is visible in the map, and now Vimercate, Oreno, Oldaniga and Ruginello is difficult to distinguish where the one city is ending and other starting. Since it comes also from the IGM, graphically is made with the similar representation as the on from 1888. Now it is visible also the expansion of the other smaller villages near by. Hight cotes are visible in this map. Trees are represented like a small circles, and buildings are represented with more details.

N

Scale 1/20.000

105


Appendix 5

Mappa Regione Lombardia 2012

Ruginello

Oldaniga

Oreno Vimercate

N

Scale 1/20.000

106

Complete sprawl of Vimercate, Oreno, Oldaniga and Ruginello, made that those places are not behaving like one, they are fully connected between themselves. This is the only map from the other represented above, that is in the digital format, so the representation is something that depends on the users and their cause. Buildings are represented with the maximum accuracy, and the scale does not play important role anymore, since with the one set of data, user can make maps with different scales and to change the level of the details.


General Map

Appendix 6

Catasto Teresiano 1721 100 0 N

Legend: historical parameter of the town historical parameter from 1903 buildings construction addition of roads or parking lots demolition Giardino Meadow Forests Flowers Agriculture fields Churches Buildings/Built parcels Roads Highlight of specific elements Torrente Molgora San Rocco bridge Catasto Teresiano1721 CITY GATES Catasto Lombardo Veneto1832 PRIVATE AND PUBLIC PONDS 107


General Map

Appendix 9

Regione Lombardia 2012 N

0

100

Legend: historical parameter of the town historical parameter from 1903 buildings construction addition of roads or parking lots demolition Giardino Meadow Forests Flowers Agriculture fields Churches Buildings/Built parcels Roads Highlight of specific elements Torrente Molgora San Rocco bridge Catasto Teresiano1721 CITY GATES Catasto Lombardo Veneto1832 PRIVATE AND PUBLIC PONDS 110


Historical City Development

Appendix 10

Catasto Teresiano 1721 100 m 0 N

111


Historical City Development

Appendix 13

Instituto Geografico Militare IGM 1937 100 m

less density

more density Legend:

historical city boundaries of the town

historical city boundaries of the town historical city boundaries from 1903

historical city boundaries from 1903 buildings construction addition of roads or parking lots

more density

0

less density

N

addition of roads or parking lots

Legend:

buildings construction

Shape of the historical city from 1903

demolition

114

demolition


Historical City Development

Appendix 15

Regione Lombardia 2012

100 m

less density

more density Legend:

historical city boundaries of the town

historical city boundaries of the town historical city boundaries from 1903

historical city boundaries from 1903 buildings construction addition of roads or parking lots

more density

0

less density

N

addition of roads or parking lots

Legend:

buildings construction

Shape of the historical city from 1903

demolition

116

demolition


Historical City Development

Appendix 16

Regione Lombardia 2012 100 m 0 N

300 years span

City development and change of Vimercate from 1721 until 2012. The change is roughly showed in the urban scale, understanding the city’s boundaries in total. Difference of alhistorical city boundarie most 300 years is presented in this map, emcity expans phasizing the urban development and road addition of ro network development.

ombardia 100 m Legend: historical city boundaries from 1721 city expansion / sprawl addition of roads / paths

117

Shape of the historical city from 1721


Ownerships of the parcels from Catasto Teresiano (1721)

Appendix 19

Legend:

Scuola della Beata Vergine del Rosario in Vimercate

Built Parcel Meadows (Prato) Vegetable garden (Orto) Garden (Giardino) Agrarian fields (Aratorio Avitato)

N

scale 1/6.000

120


Appendix 29

0

100 m

Lo

Old names of streets presence from the1832 map (Presented on Map Regione Lombardia 2012) scale 1/2.500 130

N


Appendix 31 0

100 m

1

4 1 2

2

3

3

Presence of basement under historical buildings

N 4

Presented in the Regione Lombardia 2012 map

scale 1/2.000

*based on visual observation 132


Appendix 35 0

100 m

2 1

3

2 4

1

3

N

Abandoned and not used buildings

Presented in the Regione Lombardia 2012 map

scale 1/2.000

4

*based on visual observation

136


Catasto Lombardo Veneto1832

Milan, October 2019

Profile for Dina Jovanović

INTERACTIVE HISTORICAL MAPPING AND DATA REPRESENTATION OF BUILT HERITAGE  

This thesis project tends to create one unique database of the built heritage of Vimercate, first as a city and then as a single object, all...

INTERACTIVE HISTORICAL MAPPING AND DATA REPRESENTATION OF BUILT HERITAGE  

This thesis project tends to create one unique database of the built heritage of Vimercate, first as a city and then as a single object, all...