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CharAT Ergonomics the virtual human engineering tool

....do you have human engineering problems? we have the human engineering solutions!


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Copyrights: László Ördögh Dipl.Des, Dipl Inf (UNI) CEO and owner Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. Scharrstraße 7. 70563 Stuttgart Germany 2011 03 07


virtual human engineering

Ergonomics is the fundamental basis of design. Ergonomics provides the information and means by which we can make essential changes in our thinking about the relationship between people and machines. Ergonomics makes commercial sense because it helps making designs work for people. It helps to keep people healthier, happier and more efficient. This makes ergonomics an important part of what we call product quality. CharAT Ergonomics is a real-time visual simulation solution that enables you to create virtual environments by importing CAD data or creating objects, populate your environment with biomechanically accurate human figures, assign tasks to these virtual humans, and obtain valuable information about their behavior. With knowledge from biomechanics, anthropometry, inverse kinematics, and simulation, CharAT Ergonomics gives companies the human simulation solution they need to improve the way they design, manufacture and maintain their products.

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Virtual Human Engineering GmbH

„Industrial avatars“ in CAD environments (CADDS5 ,CATIA, Autocad, 3dsMAX, Cadkey (1989-1999)

For the best integration of human factor from product development through production process to product usage, we need to model the physical, physiological, psychic nature of humans as precisely as possible and effectively integrate the model to the corporate design and business processes. Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. is a company founded in 2010, but our experts have experience of decades in the fields of base and user technologies, modular softwarearchitecture, CAD and virtual reality technologies, human modelling and ergonomics. Some members of our developer team took pioneer roles in the developing of this technology in the ‚80s of the last century. Human simulation softwares named Oscar, Anybody, Antropos, Ergonaut, Ergomax, IDO Ergonomics, CharAT Ergonomics are the milestones of this 30 years long development. We not only realized these softwares supporting engineers‘ work but also contributed to their development with innovations of decisive nature. The first human model programmed by our experts for PC technology was a rarity in the ‚80s, today it is standard.

Company Profile The primary aims of Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. are the virtual realisation of humans and its successful integration into corporate business models. With this we intend to position humans - as producers and consumers - to the center of development of products and services. State of the art automation efforts aid human work but do not replace the human itself. The development of computer-aided simulation tech-

nologies allows us to model the physical, physiological, psychic nature of humans more and more accurately. This allowed the so called human simulation models - completing the design systems already generally used in product design - to become an integral part of corporate business strategy. These human simulation models represent undoubted strategic advantages for companies manufacturing products that satisfy human needs. Problems concerning the connection of product and human are easily detectible in the early phases of product design. This allows every company to make products that fit to human characteristics better. Production policies intentionally considering human characteristics mean a definite advantage for competing companies on the market, contribute to the making of successful product design and thus decisively affects the success of a company on the market.

CharAT Ergonomics The name CharAT stands for „Character animation tool (for) ergonomics“. Character animation means high-quality design of an animated figure. In this case it stands for a human model, that represents human properties. Special attention lies on ergonomic use. Therefore the human model CharATErgonomics realizes human properties computer-aided, which are important for the consideration of ergonomic requirements in a certain creative context. CharAT-Ergonomics helps to plan and evaluate ergonomic problem solutions through the usage of ergonomic tools.

Competence in human engineering The high level competence, innovation skill and experience of decades on stati-


stical processing of human parameters, their geometrical processing, the kinetic, biomechanic, physical modelling of the human body, on immersive interaction technology, virtual reality, quality assurance and process integration of Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. allowed us to make an extensive and functional software portfolio. Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. works in close cooperation with leader software companies and famous universities to create the necessary know-how according to the challenges of new markets. Our aim is to merge established knowledge and innovation in the form of user friendly programs. We consider it vitally important to successfully integrate human engineering knowhow into the software and process environment of our users.

30 years virtual human engineering development The human simulation core systems and plugin systems developed by us have been serving the work of engineers, designers, researchers, university lecturers and student at design groups of global concerns, medium and small companies, educational cabinets of research institutes and universities since 1986. The results of decades long cooperation, mutual programs, researches, development and pilot projects with noted technological concerns and research institutes can be found in our newest products. Because of the fast changes in technology, old software technologies are replaced with new ones. But we always kept the results of high values of well-established researches and realized them in new forms on new technologic levels. This activity has always had a dual aim. One aim was to plot human as realistic as possible, and the other one was to realize the user friendly usage of the already developed software technology.

Our successful past obliges us to keep on supporting our partners‘ work with innovative technologies focusing on humans as the center of production and product usage. Developing anthropocentric technology is the trend defining the future. Nowadays this trend decisively influences the success of numerous industries and service sectors on the market.

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The praxis oriented concept The first computer simulated human model (First Man) was created by William Fetter, employee of Boeing in 1964. During the almost 5 decades that passed since that, this field of technology has undergone an incredible development. The present developer group of Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. has taken the lead in almost every phase of this development. Our current products join the advantages of the newest visualization technology‘s image quality and user interface philosophy of virtual reality technology. High picturing quality and realtime workspeed do not exclude each other. However this is not enough. A human simulation program shall offer the maximal content level possible for users. The primary aim of our arrangement with Institute of Material Handling and Industrial Engineering, Professorship of Ergonomics, Dresden University of Technology is to employ the latest achievements of academic research as an effective design and control aid in practise oriented form. The newest research results will become useful when we make them available for users in a practise oriented way. In our current product philosophy we give great emphasis on integrating European and German ergonomic norms (DIN, VDI, ISO, DIN EN). With this we would like to make the everyday work of product design engineers and ergonomics easier.

William Fetter „First Man“ Boeing Aircraft Company1964

CharAT Ergonomics graphical representation


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The future vision

CharAT Ergonomics plugin for 3dsMAX (user interface)

Nowadays virtual human engineering devices are wide spread all over the world. Numerous CAD plugins, VIS plugins or virtual reality systems with excellent performance serve the everyday work of engineers. The future conturs of this technology are visible too. Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. intends to actively determine the development of human simulation technologies in the future as well. In this context we determined those trends that will - in our opinion - shape the future of virtual human engineering. The web has become a part of our everyday lives and of our work. The ever growing capacities allow more and more complex task to be done. In the world of technologic design online collaborative platforms are becoming more wide-spread every day. In the future developing groups will more and more often choose geogra-

phically independent virtual meeting points for supporting research and development works. Collaboration platforms allow users to reach outer competence via internet. On the other hand virtual reality is one of the online collaboration devices and will get more space with the growth of internet capacities. With these trends taken into consideration we would like to satisfy our users‘ needs in the future as well.

The VHE Services Maintaining a human engineering department is worth for companies and research institutes developing complex, large scale systems. Within a company producing airplanes or cars there are always ergonomic problems to be solved. In case of a small or medium size company it is not the same. Most of the cases ergonomic problems connected to the technologic design of a product under development only occur ye-


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arly or once in every 2 years. In this case it is recommended to include outer experts with much experience into the development process. The experts of Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. possess experience of decades gathered during projects with companies like Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Daimler AG, Ford-Werke GmbH, John Deere Deutschland, Siemens Transportation AG., EADS, Eurocopter, BOSCH GmbH., Fraunhofer IAO Stuttgart, DFKI, Human Solutions GmbH, Polar Mohr GmbH., Heidelberg Druckmaschinen etc.

Ergonomic analysis Products can be designed many different ways within the borders of technologic possibilities. The aim of ergonomics is to create an as efficient human-device connection as possible, considering humans as a constant factor. Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. possesses an analyses methodology that is based on decades of industrial practise..

Corrective ergonomy analysis Challenges of the market make a successful company continuously develop, improve its products and services. In case of products made for human usage, this applies not only for the technical contents. The closer a product stands to human use, the more success it will achieve on the market. Corrective ergonomic analysis helps discovering the problems related to the understanding and usage of a product, helps discovering alternatives that can make a technical system more user friendly. The aim of corrective ergonomics is to apply the results of technical development for continuous increasing of efficiency of human-

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device system.

Conceptive ergonomy analysis

During the last decades several revolutionary new technologies were invented. Whether the new products are developed in a garage or in a hypermodern research institute, the aim is to create products that are useful for people and successful on the market. A new technology becomes useful when we properly define its relation for the users. The aim of conceptive ergonomics is to innovatively and basically harmonize the new results of technology with human needs and attributions.

Ergonomic consulting

Ergonomic guidance is also a part of our activity. We help our partners finding and implementing the newest methods and technologies.

Education Knowledge engineering values that much what a user can mobilize from the system‘s performance for solving his own problems. Softwares supporting modern technical design have modular structure. Learning the efficient, intelligent, combinative usage of performances and particular functions is a critical, deciding factor of successful developing process. We support our clients‘ work on this field as well.

Education of our programs Acquiring the usage of a new software technology depends on three important factors: 1. Programs - as far as the topic allows shall teach about themselves.

CharAT Ergonomics manfacturing simulation examples. (POLAR MOHR GmbH)


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2. You can learn about our programs from online and printed manuals as well. 3. We are available for teaching our programs for the customers.

Tutorial Our contractual partner, Institute of Material Handling and Industrial Engineering, Professorship of Ergonomics, Dresden University of Technology possesses priceless experience in education and training. Dr. -Ing. Christiane Kamusella and her students make their experiences available as tutorials for our customers every year. They are working step by step on developing the efficient and combinative usage of the programs and besides this they are also developing the methodology of virtual human engineering under the name of ERGOTYPING and publish it on www.ergotyping. net. The using of the software advances the developing of new methods and that gives a positive feedback for the developing of the software.

The CharAT Ergonomics Core System

PHIAMO electro car corrective human engineering analysis. (in collaboration with HansPeter Hemmer)

Due to the modular software architecture, CharAT Ergonomics core system can be integrated to any user system with the help of the clearly defined program interface. Vis core system (3dsMAX plugin) -With minimal costs on your desktop PC you can achieve maximal quality and virtual reality work speed. The 3dsMAX plugin has been developed since the first version of the base system. The advantages of this technology are

clear. We take the quality advantages of the visualization program and combine it with the unbeatable speed of virtual reality workflow. This allows us to concentrate on what we are the best at during the developing: ergonomic efficiency. We could always rely on Autodesk as partner in this developing work. Ergonomics is perhaps the fundamental basis of design. Ergonomics provides the information and means by which we can make essential changes in our thinking about the relationship between people and machines. Ergonomics makes commercial sense because it helps making designs work for people. It helps to keep people healthier, happier and more efficient. This makes ergonomics an important part of what we call product quality. CharAT ergonomics is a real-time visual simulation solution that enables you to create virtual environments by importing CAD data or creating objects, populate your environment with biomechanically accurate human figures, assign tasks to these virtual humans, and obtain valuable information about their behavior. With knowledge from biomechanics, anthropometry, inverse kinematics, and simulation, CharAT ergonomics gives organizations the human simulation solution they need to improve the way they design, manufacture and maintain their products. VR core system (ICIDO VDP plugin) -immersive experience, intuitive usage The virtual human engineering core system has a long story. We developed our first versions for a virtual reality base system called Fraunhofer IAO Lightning. The first productive system, Ergonaut was developed from this. Since 2001 we had been developing the VR core system that supports the work


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of ergonomists and engineers at several companies in its present form as the plugin of VDP VR program. The basic feature of CharAT ErgonomicsVR core system is the support for intuitive usage in a high efficiency immersive VR system.

The CharAT Ergonomics Virtual Environment An effective human simulation solution begins with an interactive, real-time virtual environment. The CharAT Ergonomics 3dsMAX virtual environment enables you to: - Import models from CAD and vis sim applications - Animate in different way objects in the environment - Work with an extensive library of equipment and hand tools - Enhance visualization with such features as lighting, shadows, mirrors, texture maps, transparency and translucency - Animate camera positions for walkthroughs and fly-bys

The CharAT Ergonomics Human Figure A viable human simulation solution must have a realistically detailed and biomechanically correct human figure that can be accurately scaled using anthropometric measurements from respected sources. CharAT ergonomics provides the industry’s most detailed and accurate human model. The CharAT Ergonomics human figure: - Has 84 bones, a realistic 24-segment spine, and 150 degrees of freedom - Features dimensions based on 172 an-

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thropometric measurements - Can be customized based on user database Placing a biomechanically accurate human figure in an interactive virtual environment is of little value unless the virtual human acts like you would expect a person to behave. Behave like you – through virtual reality technology that makes the human figure an „avatar“ performing your movements. React to situations – with real-time collision detection

What CharAT Ergonomics Tells You A biomechanically correct human figure, a real-time virtual environment, and realistic behavioral simulation are the essential ingredients for human simulation. However, to become a viable solution to real problems, human simulation software must be able to output information that can be leveraged to improve the way products are designed, manufactured and maintained.

PHIAMO electro car corrective human engineering analysis. (in collaboration with Hans-Peter Hemmer)

- Visualize the feasibility of certain tasks - Generate custom reports based on accurate and valid results - Create persuasive animations - Evaluate the comfort of postures - Evaluate the visual perception - Evaluate the body froces

Why use CharAT Ergonomics? Countless organizations in a variety of industries are facing the same problem: the human element is not being considered

OCCUPATIONAL BIOMECHANICS Bodysegment volume and weight, Body-segment locations of center of mass


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early or thoroughly enough in the design, assembly and maintenance of products. More importantly, this is having a devastating impact on cost, time to market, quality and safety.

CharAT Ergonomics graphical representation

For a growing number of organizations, however, factoring the human element into design, manufacturing and maintenance is no longer a problem; it‘s a competitive advantage. These organizations are using CharAT Ergonomics to realize benefits such as: - Shorter design time - Lower development costs - Improved quality - Increased productivity - Enhanced safety

Databases (statistical databases, user databases)

CharAT Ergonomics user database type

World database database Wilson/Ross 1976 database GLOBAL UHP 2005 database DIN EN ISO 3411:2007 continent AMERICA regio_01_Nord_America database nasa std 3000 database Schmidtke regional database Bodyspace USA regio_02_Latin_America_1 database Schmidtke regional regio_03_Latin_America_2 database Schmidtke regional continent EUROPA regio_01_North_Europe database Schmidtke Regional database Bodyspace Sweden

regio_02_Midle_Europe database AA database DIN 33402-2:2005 database Schmidtke Regional database Bodyspace Italy database DIN 33402 Italy regio_03_East_Europe database Smidtke regional database Bodyspace Poland database Bodyspace Rusland regio_04_SouthEastEurope database Smidtke regional database DIN 33402 Yugoslav database DIN 33402 Turkey regio_05_France database Smidtke regional database Bodyspace France regio_06_Iberian_Peninsula database Smidtke regional regio_07_England database Bodyspace BSIPP 7317-DIN 5566 europa UHP database Europe AE Nr.108:1989 continent AFRICA 3 regio_01_North_Africa database Smidtke regional regio_02_West_Africa database Smidtke regional regio_03_SouthEast_Africa database Smidtke regional continent ASIA 4 regio_01_Near_East database Smidtke regional regio_02_North_India database Smidtke regional regio_03_South_India database Smidtke regional regio_04_North_Asia database Smidtke regional regio_05_South_China database Smidtke regional


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database Bodyspace HongKongChinese regio_06_SouthEast_China database Smidtke regional regio_07_Japan database Smidtke regional database Japan old database Japan young continent AUSTRALIA 5 regio_01_Australia database Smidtke regional

Ergonomic competence and DIN-ISO-EN conformity For developing the CharAT Ergonomics besides our own research result we used the following resources: Inverse Biomechanics: Funktionelle Anatomie der Gelenke 1-3 von Ibrahim A. Kapandji von Hippokrates-Verlag (Broschiert - Dezember 2001) Funktionelle Anatomie der Gelenke. Schematisierte und kommentierte Zeichnungen zur menschlichen Biomechanik: Schematisierte und kommentierte ... - Untere Extremit채t - Rumpf und Wirbels채ule von Ibrahim A. Kapandji und J체rgen Koebke von Thieme, Stuttgart Static physical load test: Don B. Chaffin, Gunnar B.J. Anderson, Bernard J. Martin OCCUPATIONAL BIOMECHANICS Third Edition 1999 by John Wiley & Sons Chapter 3 page 65-89 3.1 Measurement of physical properties of body segments 3.1.1 Body-segment link length measure-

ment methods 3.1.2 Body-segment volume and weight 3.1.3 Body-segment locations of center of mass 3.1.4 Body-segment inertial property measurement methods 3.2 Anthropometric data for biomechanical studies in industry 3.2.1 Segment link length data 3.2.2 Segment weight data 3.2.3 Segment mass center location data 3.2.4 Segment moment-of-inertia and radius-of-gyration data NASA STD 3000 Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS) Volume I Revision B July 1995 Page 82108 3.3.4.3 Neutral Body Posture Data Design Requirements Visibility simulation: Harmonized A- and B-Norms (Harmonized standards): DIN EN 614-1:2009-01 DIN EN 614-2:2008-02 DIN EN 894-1:1997-04 DIN EN 894-2:1997-04 DIN EN 842:2009-01 DIN EN 60073:2003-05 DIN EN 981:1997-01 DIN EN ISO 13406-2:2003-06 DIN EN 61310-1:2008-10 Further standards and literature sources: DIN EN 12644-2:2000-08 DIN 1450:1993-07 DIN 15996:2006-02 DIN EN 80416-1:2009-11

CharAT Ergonomics database types

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DIN EN 80416-3:2003-08 DIN EN 80416-2:2002-05 DIN 43790:1991-01 DIN ISO 20282-1:2008-10 DIN Fachbericht 124:2006-07 VDI 2259:1990-06 VDI 3546-3:1988-11 VDI 3546-5:1991-09 VDI 6008:2006-08 BGI 650:2006-08 GUV 50.12:2001-01 DIN 33411-4 DIN 33411-5 Montagespezifischer Kraftatlas (“Installation-specific Force Atlas”) Barz, N., 2008. Europäische Sicherheitsvorschriften für elektrische Betriebsmittel. Abruf 09.03.2009 www.vde-verlag.de/buecher/leseprobe/lese2341.pdf, Cakir, A.,1980. Bildschirmarbeitsplätze. Berlin: Springer Verlag, Schierz, C.,2001-10. Mensch-Computer Interaktion. Sehen und Bildschirm . Zürich, Schierz, C.,2002-10. Physiologie II: Sinnesorgane. Skript zur Vorlesung im Departement Umweltnaturwissenschaften.Zürich, Strasser, H. Ergonomie - Umgebungseinflüsse. Beleuchtung.Siegen 1993, Murrell, K., 1971. Ergonomie-Grundlagen u. Praxis der Gestaltung optimaler Arbeitsverhältnisse.Düsseldorf:Econ Verlag, CharAT Ergonomics graphical representation

Lorenz, D.,2008-08. Arbeitswissenschaft/ Ergonomie.Gestaltung der Informations-

ausgabeschnittstelle.Gießen: FH GießenFriedberg, Krüger;Hessen;Zülch: Bedeutung der Akkommodation für das Sehen am Arbeitsplatz. Z. Arb.wiss.36(8NF)159-163.1982) u. a. m. Other analyzed data sources and further information, see: Kamusella, Christiane: http://www.ergotyping.net/index.php/Ergotyping-Tool:_Sichtanforderungen_für_optische_Anzeigeeinrichtungen.

Human engineering moduls Every user has different expectations from a human simulation system. These expectations define the expected performance that fits the developing workflow of the human model. A company manufactoring matraces has completely different expectations than an airplane manufacturer. Developing a special simulation software for every customer is uneconomic and is not possible either. Our software philosophy principle is that we organize the simulation of human attributes into moduls compatible with each other so that in any combination they get automatically and effectively organized according to the specified task and workflow. The user has nothing to do, just apply the particular features as his needs and organize them according to his own workflow. Every feature of CharAT Ergonomics helps the work of the user with their optimal combination during all phases of development (concept design, detail design, evaluation, customizing, usecase simulation, service and maintenace simulation, etc.).


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A modular structure expert system can only work well if it realizes clear and definite methodical principles. I.e. it clearly defines what program features have to be used, in what order to solve a particular type of work. We developed our user interface structure considering methodical principles (ERGOTYPING), which are invented by the Institute of Material Handling and Industrial Engineering, Professorship of Ergonomics, Dresden University of Technology. We aim to execute the principles and developing goals of this methodology in the future as well. The basic workflow pattern of CharAT Ergonomics organizes the functional moduls into four basic groups:

Control, Monitor, Document, Customize 1. Control: supports the user to easily model tasks related to human models Control modules: 1 Body control (position orientation, inverse biomechanics, contact definitions for inverse kinematics, graphics control) - Bone structure control - Bone animation control - Collision environment control - Choosing human type - Static physical load control - Visibility simulation control - Bodyforce simulation control 2. Monitor: ensures that during the analysis of a situation the user gets every ergonomically relevant information real time. Decisively helps the real time situation optimization.

Monitor moduls - Human body (type data, dimensions, body position, reach analysis) - Bone data displays - Visibility simulation monitor - Documentation user interface - Bodyforce simulation monitor 3. Document: ensures that the user can document the ergonomically relevant information related to the modelled situation.

VR training simulation example

- Human body type information - Body reach analysis - Visibility analysis - Bodyforce analysis - Bones Joint discomfot Values - Bones joint rotation values - UIC body contact positions - Bones positions 4. Customize: ensures that the user can customize the human model and its important features according to the character of the task.

VR training simulation example

Content creator tools To support customizing tasks we created a special toolbar that allows the user to build a model that is appropriate for extremely special tasks too. These are the Content Creator Tools: 1. geometry and material editor that allows any solid geometry to be integrated into a kinematic chain. This tools allows the user to add any kind of gadgets, clothing or geometrical elements to the human model to help the understanding. VR training simulation example

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2. morph editor, that allows to define the deformations of geometries depending on the kinematic chain.

CharAT Mechanics 3dsMAX plugin

CharAT Mechanics NC machine simulation

CharAT Mechanics is not a usual mechanical simulation system but a kinematic modelling plugin that complements the features of CharAT Ergonomics but can be used on its own as well. Its aim is to support creating complex mechanical models - as seat mechanics or complex workplace moving mechanizms - related to CharAT Ergonomics. Serves as a modelling tool of complex kinematic chains

CharAT Mechanics Cruzbike mechanical simulation

The biomechanical simulation of human movements is often accompanied by mechanical movements related to them. These complex mechanics and the biomechanical movements of a human are very difficult to understand and imagine without a suitable tool. CharAT Mechanics is the essential component of dynamic space requirement analysis. Kinematic tools: create Kinematic chain, define inverse kinematics

CharAT Mechanics and CharAT Ergonomics in Cruzbike assembly

CharAT Ergonomics uses kinematic structure elements with different attributes for building kinematic chains. It realized the movement relations of different kinematic element with a so called assignment system. This is a simple tool for defining how two mechanical elements relate to each other. E.g. in case of a cogwheel gear it‘s the reversing of the direction of rotation or

the parametric control of the gear. Mechanical elements that can be used with CharAT Mechanics: wheel gears, inverse kinematics, inverse hydraulic elements, etc. Integration of CAD data and modelling tools: get mesh, smoth skin, morph. After the abstract definition of the kinematic chain CAD data can be very easily linked to the kinematic chain. The finished CharAT Mechanics modells can be animated in the 3dsMAX keyframe event‘s animation system. Cooperation with the ergonomic modul The trackers - or movement control elements - of CharAT Mechanics and CharAT Ergonomics can be easily linked to each other. Depending on the definition, mechanics can define the movements of the human modell and vice versa. In the animation system of 3dsMAX keyframe event the complex CharAT Mechanics - CharAT Ergonomics modells can be animated, movements can be analysed and you can also make a video for documentation.

Cooperation partners For the success of small and medium size companies one of the most important factor is co-operation. The realization of a large scale vision requires lots of resources. We consider co-operation of mutual advantages with other companies and institutions the most important resource. Cooperation with universities (VHE - TU Dresden) Currently the TU Dresden takes part in the


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developing of our products. Their research and development results contribute to the increasing of our spectrum of features a lot. The main field of our cooperation is the developing of applying methods and ergonomic tools for CharAT-Ergonomics. Furthermore, the Professorship of Ergonomics (Institute of Material Handling and Industrial Engineering, TU Dresden) is using programs developed by us for teaching of computer-assisted ergonomics for over one and a half decades. Company co-operation (VHE-NexStep, ICIDO)

CharAT Ergonomics in ICIDO GmbH. VDP immersive stereo virtual reality solution

IIn order to the fast and efficient developing of virtual human engineering technology we are working together with strategic partners of decades of experience. NexStep Consulting has taken part in our mutual development and ensured professional software architecture. ICIDO GmbH. has been using CharAT Ergonomics core system as a modul of a complex virtual reality program system since 2001. ICIDO GmbH. has an extensive user circle in the field of virtual reality. The experience we have gathered from here decisively influences our development strategy. As for hardware technology we recline upon the experience and innovative product of IMSYS GmbH.

CharAT Ergonomics integration in 3dsMAX

Product measurement definition

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Ergotyping tools The primary focus of the development and application of CharAT-Ergonomics is on ergonomic application. Hence the human model computationally implements human attributes that are relevant in order to meet ergonomic requirements in a specific creative context. Using ergonomic tools, CharAT-Ergonomics helps to plan and assess ergonomic problem solutions. In cooperation with Dresden University of Technology, Chair of Labor Sciences, ergonomic tools are currently being developed, emphasizing particularly the integration of normative ergonomic requirements. At present, the main focus of the cooperation extends to: • the development of CharAT-Ergonomics in accordance with the principles of Ergotyping®, developed at Dresden University of Technology (see www.ergotyping. net and Kamusella 2009). Ergotyping® includes methods and digital tools to be used for the analysis, assessment and design of the ergonomic aspects of Digital Prototyping • the development of Ergotypingtools, e.g. visibility requirements for visual display units, see Kamusella 2010a und 2010b; body forces, see Kamusella and Ördögh 2011

CharAT Ergonomics Visibility Simulation Tool

As the ergonomic component of Digital Prototyping, the aim of Ergotyping is to include ergonomic requirements at the earliest stage possible in the process of planning and designing man-machine systems. Using digital ergonomic tools and methods, Ergotyping examines components of a man-machine system with regard to ergo-

nomic aspects of product and production ergonomics, digital factory, as well as cognitive ergonomics. Generally speaking, the ergonomic requirements of product ergonomics can be derived from the state of the art and from generally accepted technological regulations and standards. Is the processing of ergonomic assessment criteria in Ergotyping oriented towards the regulations of product safety, the manufacturer of a given product can be assisted in fulfilling his legal obligations. Manufacturers and distributors of machinery and technical equipment have to comply with a number of regulations in order to obtain marketing approval in Europe. Among these is the observation of Appendix I of the General Machinery Directive (2006/42/EG), which includes the obligation to integrate basic safety and health requirements including ergonomics. The manufacturer of any given kind of machinery is obligated to ensure that the machinery is built in compliance with the respective standards and regulations. Thus reference is made to a number of harmonized standards representing the state of the art. If machinery has been produced in accordance with these harmonized standards published in the Official Journal of the European Union, it is assumed to meet the basic safety and health requirements covered by the respective standard (presumption of conformity). This also means that ergonomic requirements have to be included in the Construction Products Directive, with a structured design process being presupposed. Additionally, documentation of the meeting of ergonomic requirements is required in


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order to ensure the compliance with the aforementioned harmonized standards. The development of Ergotyping tools is done in such a way as to ensure the implementation and processing of ergonomic knowledge from the harmonized standards in an application-oriented manner, while integrating additional knowledge from other fields. This process is complemented by an appropriate report which includes proof of all sources and can thus serve as a basis for the technical documentation. In order to process individual ergonomic insights, a stage model specifically developed to this end is used which encompasses several sources of knowledge. STAGE 1 contains the ergonomically relevant contents of harmonized standards Type A and Type B (basic and product standards) that apply to several kinds of products and represent the state of the art. If no harmonized standards are available, national standards and technical specifications from Section 2 of the list of standards can be used if regarded as relevant and helpful. STAGE 2 is based on ergonomic requirements from further fields of knowledge, such as state regulations, regulations of insurance carriers, confirmed ergonomic findings, specialist literature etc. The previously developed Ergotyping tools, “assessment of visibility” (see Kamusella 2010a and 2010b) and “body forces” (Kamusella and Ördögh 2011), use this stage model for the research and processing of ergonomically relevant information. At the man-machine interface, ergonomical

requirements applicable to the elements of information recording are to be integrated into the design process. This affects for instance optical display units used in machinery facilities, measuring devices, dashboards, control panels and monitoring devices. The Ergotyping tool “assessment of visibility” deals with user- and product-oriented parameters for the performance of analogue and digital displays and provides them with attributes according to Stage 1 and 2. The program module allows for a calculation and a visual display of icons, alphanumeric elements and analogue scales with intervals of one, two, or five. Determined by the man model’s viewing distance from the display area, these figures are generated with optimal and approved parameters. Taking into account the distance and the alignment of the display area and the eye, the age-dependent minimal and the fatigue-proof near point for different users, changes in visual acuity as well as visual angles are determined and assessed. Visual fields can be shown in one scenario. One display area is connected to the eye camera of CharAT Ergonomics and controls eye and head movements simultaneously. Calculation results for the display parameters and further ergonomic assessment are released dynamically and in real time. With regard to the viewing distance, the recommended reference values depend on the accuracy requirements of the respective visual task. Using recommended and approved visual angle values, the size of the figures is displayed quantitatively and graphically depending on the viewing dis-

CharAT Ergonomics Bodyforce Simulation Tool

Deutsche Bundestag Tonregie analysis

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tance. The human eye has the ability to maintain a clear focus on an object even as its distance changes. The program module includes parts of this ability, namely the near accommodation. Interactively placing a viewing surface in front of the CharAT Ergonomics eye, the viewing distance is assessed, using the age-dependent accommodation near point calculated for a certain age in which wearing glasses cannot be considered the rule yet (until the age of fifty). Reducing the minimal viewing distance leads to a defocusing of the object. Increasing defocusing reduces the acuity which is calculated based on existing visual acuity values and then displayed dynamically in the program module. Proof of the ergonomic sources used is documented. When focusing on a viewing object, the visual axes in CharAT are aligned depending on the viewing distance (fusional vergence) by simulating an eye vergence movement that is controlled by the viewing object. This is relevant to the representation of monocular vision and monocular fields of view. In order to direct the gaze to the target objects, the line of sight can be adjusted in such a way as to make a serial eye-headbody-coordination occur within interactively predefined comfort zones. CharAT Ergonomics product design examples

During the machine’s life phases, activities involving the application of force occur. These activities are characterized by different postures, body movements, positions of limbs, and directions of force. The Ergotyping tool “body forces” (s. Kamusella and Ördögh, 2011), which is currently

under development, is used as a basis for the development of a methodology and a tool for the determination and assessment of body forces. The ergonomics tool can be used for both as-is analyses and strategy analyses. It serves to qualitatively estimate and quantitatively determine isometric action forces in the arm-shoulder-system and the wholebody-system. Data from existing force standards has been examined and collected in different databases using a multidimensional indexing system. A people-oriented polar coordinate system was the first choice because it is anthropometrically independent and reproducible. All data already existing in polar coordinates was collected in the databases. Regarding the elevation angle, the azimuth angle and the arm spans, value ranges have been defined, for which the point of force application can be clearly assigned. Force data from the Montagespezifischer Kraftatlas (“Installation-specific Force Atlas”, Wakula a. o. 2009) is available for posture variations. In order to clearly assign these to one of the body positions in CharAT, tolerance ranges have been defined in Cartesian coordinates for the position of the point of force application. The tolerance ranges for different percentile ranks have been differentiated according to gender. In a control dialog, the user can choose between evaluation procedures: • (normative) evaluation procedure, based on the maximum static action forces collected in the national force standards The action forces of various postures are collected in a database.


virtual human engineering

During the planning analysis, the user is first provided with force tendencies in reaching spaces differentiated according to percentile rank and gender and dependent on posture and the specific manner of force application. Levels of force are shown which contain color-coded dots representing the force application. Above these, the force tendencies are displayed. If the user decides on a concrete point of force application and switches to detailed planning, concrete maximum and recommended action forces are calculated, taking into account specific factors relating to the person or activity. These values are displayed in the monitor dialog; additionally, a risk assessment is carried out. • Montagespezifischer Kraftatlas (“Installation-specific Force Atlas”) The user preselects the basic posture (standing, sitting, or kneeling) and defines the direction of force as well as the manner (one-handed or two-handed) and frequency of force application. The height, distance and asymmetry of the body in relation to the point of force application are calculated within the program according to percentile rank, age, and gender, and assigned to an appropriate database entry. If dynamic changes of the point of force application occur, namely in case of hand movement and posture adjustment of CharAT Ergonomics, the resulting maximum and recommended action forces within one basic posture are updated and displayed in real time. The health risk the specific force application carries is evaluated according to a three-zone model (“traffic light” scheme). During its change of position the point of

force application, typified by the hand-target of CharAT, is analyzed in real time for all force directions in the as-is analysis. Taking into account every influencing factor, a recommended force is calculated and a subsequent risk evaluation carried out.

CharAT Ergonomics Collision Environment

CharAT Ergonomics Discomfort Analysis

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CharAT Ergonomics Control GUI

CahrAT Ergonomics software architecture

ensures we will always be support our users by the ever newest devices and knowledge.

CharAT Ergonomics is an intelligent avatar with realistic geometrical, physical, biomechanical, sensorical simulation abilities. CharAT Ergonomics - as many of its virtual work associates - can be integrated into any virtual environment, supports solving engineering problems related to human factors in the fields of design, training and production. It helps understanding problems related to human performance, efficiency and safety.

- CharAT Ergonomics software is developed in a partner network within a portfolio management. Version management is taken care of by our own version server and the SVN repository system.

- CharAT Ergonomics human simulation system is a modular structure software that allows organizing different analysis devices to flexible workflow. - The results stored in ASCII code by CharAT Ergonomics versions integrated to different environments (VIS,VR, Windows, Linux, Unix) are compatible with each other. Eg. Dummies stored by a 3dsMAX plugin CharAT Ergonomics can be used without any restrictions in virtual reality environment. This way the work can be prepared on a laptop but the review meeting can be hold in an immersive VR environment. CharAT Ergonomics Monitor GUI

- The scalability of CharAT Ergonomics human simulation system runs from laptop to VR Cluster. - CharAT Ergonomics combines the extremely high quality rendering of visualization systems with the intuitive realtime user interface of virtual reality systems. - The CharAT Ergonomics developer team

- Quality management includes an automized build and smoke procedure, an automatic GUI test system and an automized program documentary system. - Automatic tests are supplemented by an expert semantic test methodology and usecase collection.

System requirements 3ds Max 2010 / CharAT Ergonomics 32-Bit 3ds Max 2010 or 3ds Max Design 2010 for Windows Operating system: Microsoft® Windows® 7 Professional, Microsoft® Windows Vista® Business (SP2 or higher), or Microsoft® Windows® XP Professional (SP2 or higher) For general animation and rendering (typically fewer than 1,000 objects or 100,000 polygons): * Intel® Pentium® 4 1.4 GHz or equivalent AMD® processor with SSE2 technology* * 2 GB RAM (4 GB recommended) * 2 GB swap space (4 GB recommended)** * 3 GB free hard drive space


virtual human engineering

* Direct3D® 10 technology, Direct3D 9, or OpenGL®-capable graphics card * 256 MB or higher video card memory, 1 GB or higher recommended) * Three-button mouse with mouse driver software * DVD-ROM drive * Microsoft® Internet Explorer® 7.0 or higher or Mozilla® Firefox® 2.0 or higher browser * Internet connection for web downloads and Autodesk® Subscription-aware access 64-Bit 3ds Max 2010 or 3ds Max Design 2010 for Windows Operating system: Microsoft Windows 7 Professional x64, Microsoft Windows Vista Business x64 (SP2 or higher), or Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 (SP2 or higher) For general animation and rendering (typically fewer than 1,000 objects or 100,000 polygons): * Intel 64 or AMD 64 processor with SSE2 technology* * 4 GB RAM (8 GB recommended) * 4 GB swap space (8 GB recommended)** * 3 GB free hard drive space * Direct3D 10, Direct3D 9, or OpenGL-capable graphics card† * 256 MB or higher video card memory, 1 GB recommended * Three-button mouse with mouse driver software * DVD-ROM drive†† * Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 or higher or Mozilla Firefox 2.0 or higher browser * Internet connection for web downloads and Autodesk Subscription-aware access

For large scenes and complex data sets (typically more than 1,000 objects or 100,000 polygons): * Intel® 64 or AMD64 processor with SSE2 technology* * 8 GB RAM * 8 GB swap space** * 3 GB free hard drive space * Direct3D 10, Direct3D 9, or OpenGL-capable graphics card * 1 GB or higher video card memory) * Three-button mouse with mouse driver software * DVD-ROM drive * Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0 or higher or Mozilla Firefox 2.0 or higher browser) * Internet connection for web downloads and Autodesk Subscription-aware access CharAT Ergonomics bodyscan rigging

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Virtual Human Engineering GmbH. Scharrstraße 7. D-70563 Stuttgart Germany Geschäftsführer: Dipl.-Des. Dipl.-Inf.(UNI) László Ördögh Telefon: +49(0)170 576 5194 laszlo.oerdoegh@googlemail.com http://virtualhumanengineering.com Handelsregister Nr: HRB 732948 USt-IdNr.: DE269902333


CharAT Information English  

Virtual Engineering GmbH. 2011 04 04

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