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APPROACHES TO REDEVELOPMENT OF URBAN VILLAGES - MUMBAI Thesis Report.

Submitted By

Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika SPA/HSG 594, 4th Semester, M.P.H

Guided By

Prof. Dr. P.S.N. Rao Director, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi

School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi


Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Declaration I, Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika, hereby declare that the thesis titled, ‘Approaches to redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai’, submitted by me, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for award of degree of Master of Planning (with specialization in Housing), by the School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi, is a record of my own work. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been copied, either in part or in full or submitted to any other institution for the award of any degree or diploma. Wherever data, full or in part, has been borrowed for this thesis, the author/s of the same have been duly acknowledged. I, Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika, take full responsibility for the material embodied in this report and hereby undertake to indemnify the faculty if Department of Housing, School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi, in case of any copyright or any other disputes that may arise at any time whatsoever. New Delhi Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika April 2019 SPA/HSG/594

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Certificate This is to certify that this thesis report titled, ‘Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai’, has been submitted by Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Post Graduate Degree in Planning with specialization in Housing, at Department of Housing, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi in the Month of April 2019. Recommended ____________________________________

Accepted _______________________________________

Prof. Dr. P.S.N. Rao,

Prof. Dr. P.S.N. Rao,

Thesis Guide,

Head,

Department of Housing

Department of Housing

School of Planning and Architecture,

School of Planning and Architecture,

New Delhi

New Delhi

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Acknowledgement As I write this, with the time spent at SPA in the hindsight, I feel overwhelmed with the rewarding and intellectually stimulating experience in my life. I feel privileged to have received learning and stimulating conversations from the remarkable teachers and mentors at SPA. I would like to extend my thanks to all, who have contributed directly or indirectly to the work presented in my thesis. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my thesis guide Prof. Dr. P.S.N Rao, for his valuable guidance, consistent encouragement and motivation through all the stage of this research work. I would also like to thank Asst. Prof. Dr. Ruchita Gupta, Mr. Vinod Sakhle, Prof. Neelima Risbud, and Asst. Prof. Ms. Harshita Deo for their interactive involvement and valuable suggestions in the stimulating thesis reviews and discussions. I am grateful to Mr. Hiren Daftardar (Deputy Chief Planner, MCGM) Ms. Prachi Merchant (Urban Planner, AIILSG), Mr. Hardeep Sachdev (Urban Planner, MCGM), Mr. Hemant Khare (Senior Architect, MHCC, MCGM), Asst.Prof. Ar. Smita Dalvi (PiCA), Mr. Sarvesh Nandgirkar (Principal Architect – Planner, Planoscapes), Ar. Shweta Wagh (Assistant Professor, KRVIA), Ar. Sasmit Acharekar (Professor, PiCA) and Mr. Raju Vanjari (YUVA) for their stimulating conversations and kind help in assimilating the information useful for the study. The acknowledgement remains incomplete without the mention of residents of the Gaothans, Koliwadas and Adivasipadas and the Real Estate Agents who happily participated in my survey discussions. I am thankful to my seniors Jai Dighe, Shriya Puranik and Pranjal Kansara for their help and constant guidance. This thesis would not be complete without my Amma who painstakingly accompanied me throughout, critiqued me and encouraged me at every stage. I thank my Mother in Law for all the encouragement, support and inspiring conversations. You have been my support system through this entire process; inspiring me throughout and leading by example. This thesis is a result of a lot of support from every member of my family. Above all, I owe it all God for granting me the wisdom, health and strength to undertake this task and enabling me to complete it on time.

Poduval Dhanya Pravin Ambika

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Executive Summary The Urban Villages in the city of Mumbai namely the three fabrics; the Gaothan, the Koliwada and the Adivasipada date back to the formation of the city, bringing rich cultural heritage & huge transformations over the years. Once a strong agrarian, fishing and animal herding community, the villages have been engulfed by the city today. This brings a shift in the economic activities and ethnic homogeneity through the period of time. Highly unaffordable housing stock in the city makes the housing sector to turn to these urban villages for want of affordable housing. The inadequacies in the regulations & schemes binding the villages have caused dilapidation in these settlements & formed informal development practices in the due course. Weak land titles and high coercion on infrastructure adds to the lowering of market prices in these prime lands of the city. The blanket approach of provisions for redevelopment & restructuring the villages brings in a threat of loss of livelihood, gentrification & dilapidation of structures. The question is, how to protect the dying livelihoods and bring in holistic development benefitting both the dying village & the ever-increasing city. This thesis aims to understand the morphology, typology and transformation of these villages, review the policies & norms and to identify the problems providing sustainable models for development in these villages. The thesis limits its scope to the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Limits due to its distinct characteristics and the time constraint for research. The unavailability of spatial data on the Adivasipada is a major limiting factor. All the city level data is sourced by the primary survey and case studies conducted in the period from December 2018 – February 2019. The thesis followed quantitative assimilation of city level statistics, market price study, along with qualitative analysis based on the settlement & unit level case studies and the primary survey. The study reinstates that villages already have established markets & networks providing short term savings, affordable accommodation and low property value with major transformation in the ethnic composition, density, use activity, built up areas & house structure. It also exemplifies the economic shift and the infrastructural insufficiency. The problems thus identified are proposed with models on parameters of primary activity, heritage, coastal regulations in different typologies of development in the villages. The three models are on the lines of restructuring and upgrading the villages with an ongoing primary activity involved, conservation of vernacular villages retaining the culture and aesthetic with or without an ongoing primary activity involved and the redevelopment of the villages with no primary activity and heritage value for creation of newer housing stock into the open market. These findings provoke the blanket provisions and open holistic vistas for development of the prime lands of the city.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


साराांश मुंबई शहर में शहरी गाुंव के गठन की तारीख में समद् ृ ध साुंस्कृततक ववरासत और वर्षों में भारी पररवततन लाते हैं। एक समय पर, एक मजबूत कृवर्ष और मछली पकड़ने की गततववधध और पश चराने वाले समदाय, आज शहर के चपेट में आकर गमशदा हो गया है । इससे शहर में अनेक आधथतक गततववधधयों और जातीय समरूपता में बदलाव आया है । इन शहरी गााँवों को चालू करने के ललए आवास क्षेत्र बनाने वाले शहर में अत्यधधक अप्रभावी Housing Stock तनयमों और योजनाओुं में अपयातप्तता के कारण बाध्यकारी और बस्स्तयों में अनौपचाररक ववकास प्रथाओुं का कारण बना है । पनववतकास के ललए प्रावधानों का कुंबल दृस्टटकोण और सुंरचनाओुं के आजीववका, gentrification और जीणतता के खतरे के तहत गाुंवों में रखती है । सवाल यह है कक मरने वाली आजीववका की रक्षा कैसे की जाए और समग्र ववकास ककस प्रकार आये स्जससे गाुंव और शहर दोनों को फायदा हो। इस थीलसस का उद्दे श्य है कक इन गाुंवों में ववकास के ललए स्थायी Model की पहचान हो, और इन Model के ललए ववलभन्न प्रकारों, नीततयों और मानदुं डों की आकृतत ववज्ञान का समझ हो। इस शोध प्रबुंध में शहर के स्तर के आाँकड़ों से मात्रात्मक आत्मसात, बाजार मूल्य अध्ययन, तनपटान और इकाई स्तर का अध्ययन के आधार पर गणात्मक ववश्लेर्षण के साथ प्राथलमक सवेक्षण का पालन ककया। यह अध्ययन बताता है कक गाुंवों ने पहले ही स्थावपत बाजार और नेटवकत स्थावपत ककए हैं, जो अल्पकाललक बचत, ककफायती आवास और कम सुंपवि मूल्य प्रदान करते हैं, जो जातीय सुंरचना, घनत्व, उपयोग गततववधध, तनलमतत क्षेत्रों और घर की सुंरचना में एक बड़े पररवततन के साथ हैं। यह शोध आधथतक बदलाव और अवसुंरचनात्मक अपयातप्तता का भी उदाहरण दे ता है । गाुंवों में ववकास के ववलभन्न प्रकारों में प्राथलमक गततववधध, ववरासत, तटीय तनयमों के मापदुं डों पर इन गाुंवों के ललए Model की कल्पना की गयी है । इन Model शहर स्तर के प्रलेखन, ररकॉर्डिंग, ववकास के ववलभन्न प्रकारों के ललए अलगाव, ग्राम ववकास योजना की तैयारी और Development Matrix की मदद से गाुंवों के कायातन्वयन और ग्राम सधार सामूहहक द्वारा सधार ककया जा सकता है । यह अध्ययन तनटकर्षत कुंबल के प्रावधान कक पाश्वत प्रभाव को दे खने में मजबूर करती है और शहर में ववकास के ललए समग्र अस्स्तत्व को खोलते हैं।

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Contents List of Tables List of Maps List of Figures List of Images Chapter 1. Background Study .......................................................................................... 22 1.1

Need for study....................................................................................................................................... 22

1.2

Objective ................................................................................................................................................. 22

1.3

Scope & Limitations............................................................................................................................ 22

1.4

Methodology .......................................................................................................................................... 23

Chapter 2. Literature Review ........................................................................................... 28 2.1

Articles ..................................................................................................................................................... 28

2.2

Thesis & Research papers ................................................................................................................ 29

Chapter 3. Concept of Urban Village .............................................................................. 34 3.1

Understanding an Urban Village and its Global Perspectives ........................................... 34

3.2

Urban Village in Mumbai .................................................................................................................. 35

3.2.1

Gaothan.............................................................................................................................................................35

3.2.2

Koliwada ..........................................................................................................................................................36

3.2.3

Adivasipada ....................................................................................................................................................37

Chapter 4. City Level Study ............................................................................................... 42 4.1

MMR And the City................................................................................................................................ 42

4.2

Land Area ................................................................................................................................................ 43

4.3

Geographical Character .................................................................................................................... 44

4.4

Climate ..................................................................................................................................................... 45

4.5

Magnitude of Urban Villages in Mumbai.................................................................................... 45

4.6

Location of Urban Villages ............................................................................................................... 47

4.7

Evolution of Urban Villages ............................................................................................................. 49

4.8

Residential Market Price & Urban Village ................................................................................. 52

4.9

Per capita open space & Social Amenities in the City ........................................................... 53

4.10

Classification of Urban Village in Mumbai ................................................................................ 56

Chapter 5. Urban Village - Schemes & Regulations .................................................. 64 5.1

Gaothan Development Scheme ...................................................................................................... 64

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5.2

DCR 1991 ................................................................................................................................................ 66

5.3

DCR 2034 ................................................................................................................................................ 67

5.4

Heritage Norms & Regulations ...................................................................................................... 68

5.5

Coastal Regulatory Zone Norms.................................................................................................... 70

5.6

Tribal Welfare Policies ...................................................................................................................... 72

Chapter 6. Profile of Urban Villages ...............................................................................76 6.1

Indicators for transformation ........................................................................................................ 76

6.1.1

Settlement level ............................................................................................................................................ 76

6.1.2

Unit level .......................................................................................................................................................... 77

6.1.3

Location & details for survey .................................................................................................................. 78

6.2

Gaothans ................................................................................................................................................. 79

6.2.1

Land Use & Use Activity ............................................................................................................................ 79

6.2.2

Socio Economic Character........................................................................................................................ 81

6.2.3

Ownership Character ................................................................................................................................. 83

6.2.4

Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................................ 84

6.3

Koliwadas ............................................................................................................................................... 84

6.3.1

Land Use & Use Activity ............................................................................................................................ 84

6.3.2

Socio Economic Character........................................................................................................................ 86

6.3.3

Ownership Character ................................................................................................................................. 88

6.3.4

Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................................ 88

6.4

Adivasipadas ......................................................................................................................................... 89

6.4.1

Land Use & Use Activity ............................................................................................................................ 89

6.4.2

Socio Economic Character........................................................................................................................ 91

6.4.3

Ownership Character ................................................................................................................................. 93

6.4.4

Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................................ 93

6.5

Comparative Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 94

Chapter 7. Case Studies .................................................................................................... 100 7.1

Case study Selection Criteria ....................................................................................................... 100

7.2

Gaothan - Khotachiwadi ................................................................................................................ 103

7.2.1

Location & Typology ................................................................................................................................ 103

7.2.2

Land Use & Use Activity ......................................................................................................................... 104

7.2.3

Socio economic Character ..................................................................................................................... 104

7.2.4

Housing Market ......................................................................................................................................... 105

7.2.5

Ownership Character .............................................................................................................................. 106

7.2.6

Built Form .................................................................................................................................................... 107


7.2.7

7.3

Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 111

Koliwada - Chuim ............................................................................................................................. 112

7.3.1

Location & Typology ................................................................................................................................ 112

7.3.2

Land Use & Use Activity ......................................................................................................................... 113

7.3.3

Socio Economic Character ..................................................................................................................... 113

7.3.4

Housing Market .......................................................................................................................................... 114

7.3.5

Ownership Character .............................................................................................................................. 115

7.3.6

Built Form ..................................................................................................................................................... 116

7.3.7

Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 119

7.4

Adivasipada - Sai Bangoda............................................................................................................ 120

7.4.1

Location & Typology ................................................................................................................................ 120

7.4.2

Land Use & Use Activity ......................................................................................................................... 121

7.4.3

Socio economic Character ..................................................................................................................... 121

7.4.4

Ownership Character .............................................................................................................................. 121

7.4.5

Housing Market .......................................................................................................................................... 122

7.4.6

Built Form ..................................................................................................................................................... 122

7.4.7

Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 124

7.5

Koliwada - Bhoiwada ...................................................................................................................... 125

7.5.1

Location & Typology ................................................................................................................................ 125

7.5.2

Land Use & Use Activity ......................................................................................................................... 126

7.5.3

Housing Market .......................................................................................................................................... 126

7.5.4

Ownership Character .............................................................................................................................. 127

7.5.5

Built Form ..................................................................................................................................................... 127

7.5.6

Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 129

7.6

Koliwada - Sewri Koliwada .......................................................................................................... 130

7.6.1

Location & Typology ................................................................................................................................ 130

7.6.2

Land Use & Use Activity ......................................................................................................................... 131

7.6.3

Socio economic Character ..................................................................................................................... 131

7.6.4

Housing Market .......................................................................................................................................... 132

7.6.5

Ownership Character .............................................................................................................................. 133

7.6.6

Built Form ..................................................................................................................................................... 133

7.6.7

Infrastructure ............................................................................................................................................. 135

7.7

Case Study Evaluation & Findings ............................................................................................. 136

Chapter 8. Problems, Issues & Potential ................................................................... 142 Chapter 9. Recommendations ....................................................................................... 146

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9.1

City level Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 147

9.2

Regulations Level Recommendations ...................................................................................... 147

9.3

Settlement level Recommendations ......................................................................................... 149

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 152 Annexures 155

List of Tables Table 1: Area Statistics of MMR .......................................................................................................42 Table 2: Administrative Statistics in Mumbai ............................................................................43 Table 3: Administrative Structure of Mumbai City ..................................................................44 Table 4: Number of Urban Villages in the City...........................................................................46 Table 5: Area Distribution of Urban Villages in the City ........................................................46 Table 6: Plot Level Development Practices .................................................................................61 Table 7: Permitted Land Use ............................................................................................................64 Table 8: Permitted Expansion & Premium..................................................................................65 Table 9: Minimum Plot Size ..............................................................................................................65 Table 10: Permissible FSI & Height................................................................................................66 Table 11: Comparison of Regulations ...........................................................................................67 Table 12: Notified & Proposed Heritage Urban Villages ........................................................69 Table 13: Regulations in NDZ ...........................................................................................................70 Table 14: Regulations beyond NDZ ................................................................................................71 Table 15: Required Clearance for Reconstruction ...................................................................71 Table 16: Criteria for Selection of Primary Survey ..................................................................78 Table 17: Housing Market in Village and its Context ..............................................................97 Table 18: Section of Case Studies................................................................................................. 100 Table 19: Housing Market - Khotachiwadi .............................................................................. 106 Table 20: Tenure Pattern - Khotachiwadi (L) Type of Ownership (R).......................... 107 Table 21: Housing Market - Chuim............................................................................................. 114 Table 22: Housing Market - Bhoiwada ...................................................................................... 127 Table 23: Housing Market - Sewri Koliwada ........................................................................... 132 Table 24: Evaluatino of Case Studies .......................................................................................... 136


Table 25: Regulation level Recommendations ....................................................................... 148

List of Maps Map 1: Location of Urban Villages .................................................................................................. 48 Map 2: Evolution of Urban Villages ................................................................................................ 51 Map 3: Open Space in Mumbai ......................................................................................................... 55 Map 4: Locations of Gaothans .......................................................................................................... 80 Map 5: Locations of Koliwadas ........................................................................................................ 85 Map 6: Location of Adivasipadas .................................................................................................... 90 Map 7: Case Study Locations ......................................................................................................... 102 Map 8: Location of Khotachiwadi ................................................................................................ 103 Map 9: Land use Plan 1991(left) and 2019 (right) ............................................................... 104 Map 10: Ethnic Pattern - Khotachiwadi .................................................................................... 105 Map 11: Built Form - Khotachiwadi ............................................................................................ 107 Map 12: Heritage Structures - Khotachiwadi .......................................................................... 108 Map 13: Location of Chuim ............................................................................................................ 112 Map 14: Transformation in Land use & Activity 1991(L), 2019 (R) .............................. 113 Map 15: Built form - Chuim ............................................................................................................ 116 Map 16: Location - Sai Bangoda ................................................................................................... 120 Map 17: Land Use Activity - Sai Bangoda 2019 ...................................................................... 121 Map 18: Built form - Sai Bangoda ................................................................................................ 123 Map 19: Location - Bhoiwada ........................................................................................................ 125 Map 20: Land use Activity 1991 (L) 2019 (R) ........................................................................ 126 Map 21: Built Form - Bhoiwada.................................................................................................... 128 Map 22: Location - Sewri Koliwada ............................................................................................ 130 Map 23: Land Use Activity 1991 (L) 2019 (R) ........................................................................ 131 Map 24: Ethnic Character - Bhoiwada ....................................................................................... 131 Map 25: Built form - Sewri Koliwada ......................................................................................... 134

List of Figures Figure 1: What should a 21st century urban village look like? ........................................... 29 Figure 2: Concept of Urban Village................................................................................................. 35

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Figure 3: Characteristics of Urban Villages .................................................................................35 Figure 4: Chronology of the Aboriginal ........................................................................................49 Figure 5: Household Income by House Type ..............................................................................52 Figure 6: Settlement Level Classification of Urban Villages .................................................56 Figure 7: Plot Level Classification of Urban Villages ...............................................................58 Figure 8: Procedure for CRZ Clearance ........................................................................................72 Figure 9: Thakkar Bappa Integrated Habitation Improvement Programme scheme.73 Figure 10: Indicators of Transformation .....................................................................................76 Figure 11: Ground Floor Plan ........................................................................................................ 110 Figure 12: Typical Floor Plan Image 110

2:

Exterior

-

Building

Figure 13: Typical Floor Plan ........................................................................................................ 118 Figure 14: Typical Floor Plan ........................................................................................................ 119 Figure 15: Ground Floor Plan

Image 7: Interior of Unit .................................................. 123

Figure 16: First Floor Plan .............................................................................................................. 129 Figure 17: Ground Floor Plan (A) First Floor (B)Image 11: Unit Interior (L) Exterior (R) 134 Figure 18: The transformation of Urban Villages in Mumbai ........................................... 137 Figure 19: Concept of the 3 tier Recommendation ............................................................... 146 Figure 20: Plan of Action for Redevelopment of Urban Villages ..................................... 150

List of Maps Chart 1: Origin of Gaothan .................................................................................................................81 Chart 2: House Hold size in Gaothan .............................................................................................81 Chart 3: Ethnicity of Gaothan ...........................................................................................................82 Chart 4: Occupational Structure ......................................................................................................82 Chart 5: Size of DU ................................................................................................................................83 Chart 6: Tenure in the Gaothan .......................................................................................................83 Chart 7: Origin of Koliwada ...............................................................................................................86 Chart 8:House Hold size in Koliwada ............................................................................................87 Chart 9: Occupational Structure in Koliwada .............................................................................87


Chart 10: Size of DU.............................................................................................................................. 88 Chart 11: Origin of Adivasipada ...................................................................................................... 91 Chart 12: House Hold size in Adivasipada .................................................................................. 91 Chart 13: Occupational Structure ................................................................................................... 92 Chart 14: Size of DU.............................................................................................................................. 93 Chart 15: Household Size Variation ............................................................................................... 94 Chart 16: Duration of Stay ................................................................................................................. 94 Chart 17: Ownership............................................................................................................................ 95 Chart 18: Size of DU.............................................................................................................................. 95 Chart 19: Tenure ................................................................................................................................... 96 Chart 20: Housing Market across the Fabrics ............................................................................ 96 Chart 21: Plot Sizes - Khotachiwadi ............................................................................................ 109 Chart 22: Occupational Structure - Chuim ............................................................................... 113 Chart 23: Nature of Occupation - Chuim ................................................................................... 114 Chart 24: Tenure Pattern (L) Ownership Pattern (R) ......................................................... 115 Chart 25: Plot Sizes - Chuim ........................................................................................................... 116 Chart 26: Occupational Structure - Sai Bangoda .................................................................... 122 Chart 27: Plot Sizes - Sai Bangoda ............................................................................................... 122 Chart 28: Plot Sizes - Bhoiwada .................................................................................................. 128

List of Images Image 1: Exterior of the House (L) Renovated Toilet (R) .................................................. 109 Figure 12: Typical Floor Plan Image 110

2:

Exterior

-

Building

Image 3: Kitchen (L) ......................................................................................................................... 117 Image 4: Unit Photographs ............................................................................................................. 118 Image 5: Interior of Unit

Image 6: Common Area - Devoid of Light........................... 119

Figure 15: Ground Floor Plan

Image 7: Interior of Unit .................................................. 123

Image 8: Exterior of Unit Image 9: Unit with no light/ Power ....................................... 124 Image 10: Interiors of the unit ...................................................................................................... 129

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Figure 17: Ground Floor Plan (A) First Floor (B)Image 11: Unit Interior (L) Exterior (R) 134


Chapter 1 Background Study

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 1.

Background Study

1.1 Need for study The villages date back to the Portuguese era in the country bringing in a rich crosscultural heritage over the years. These villages have seen a huge transformation over the last 2 decades with respect to dilapidation, deterioration, redevelopment and gentrification. Today, the urban villages face the pressures of change in the form of new traffic formations, road-widening, the infiltration of infrastructure and the relentless pressure of real estate. These villages are location-rich, inevitably rubbing shoulders either with the more affluent neighbourhoods of the city or the larger slums in the city creating a huge transformation. The State’s hesitance to recognise its diversity, let alone encourage it, and understand it is as much a candidate for sensitive intervention as a slum in the city, prompts this thesis. The villages with once a strong primary activity have come into the city centre as the city has grown. This has bought a shift in the activities and homogeneity of theses villages. Increased land values & property prices have bought in different development practices in these villages. Weak titles in the village, also being tagged as slum. Blanket approach in norms for redevelopment & restructuring the villages. Redevelopment as a cost effect approach for all the stake holders. By redevelopment, availing new stock at the same location with some additional facilities. Redevelopment provides an efficient infrastructure plug in to the fabric thus improving its quality.

1.2 Objective • • • • • •

To understand the evolution of urban villages in Mumbai. To the study the morphology, typologies, and transformation of the villages. To study the housing market in and around the urban villages. To review the legal framework, policies, and regulations regarding the development in urban villages. To understand the role of small developers, rental and ownership accommodation. To identify problems and suggest recommendation on approaches to redevelopment of the subsystem.

1.3 Scope & Limitations • •

The thesis is pertaining to the Mumbai Municipal Corporation Limits due to its distinct characteristics. The thesis looks at the gaps in Development controls, housing market and condition of housing and its interrelationship.

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• •

The thesis assesses the profile of the urban villages majorly on the basis of the primary survey collected and the case studies done. This is majorly due to the lack of availability of city level data and socio-economic data for the same. The period to complete the thesis is limited to one semester hence a sample of a few villages of varied nature would be studied. The unavailability of basic spatial data on the Adivasipada is a major limiting factor. All the data for the fabric sourced is from the tribal welfare board and the collector office of Mumbai Suburban District.

1.4 Methodology


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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 2 Literature Review

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Chapter 2.

Literature Review

2.1 Articles Koliwadas not marked in DP-2034 as govt wants to snatch our land, claims community (Free Press Journal, 2018) The residents of Koliwada claims of not marking them in the Development Plan (DP). The slum areas act does not apply to the gaothans, but it does not clarify the same about Koliwadas. Hence a threat to the communities to be notified as slums.

Mumbai: Here, there is time to stand and stare (The Indian Express, 2016) The Agris and Kolis better known as the Panchkalshis as this community is nicknamed due to their prayer rituals of holding five brass utensils to the Sun god are as native to Mumbai as the first islanders. It is only the name of certain villages that stand the test of time. Majority villages have lost their character and the ones still remaining are hiding the urban context.

Gaothans / Urban Villages and Mumbai’s Development Plan (2014–2034) (Abhiyan, 2015)

All gaothans must be mapped in DP plan, heritage precinct has to be preserved but are tagged as slums; they have secure tenure and have sanads and property cards. As the last prime land available in the city there is a need for residential tag for gaothans & no commercial activities must be permitted. Specific DCR for the villages must be created.

Can urban villages ever be planned? (Ralul Srivastava, 2018) The urban villages have survived as they densified, others have been redeveloped into high-rises leaving no trace of their origins. What most urban villages share is a history of incremental development. They also share other features that are often associated with village life: they are dense but mostly low-rise, accommodating both residential and economic activities. They host a multitude of community spaces and cultural events, and they provide their inhabitants with a strong sense of belonging. They densified gradually over many decades. Their populations increased internally and they also absorbed newcomers who grew roots over time. Residents shaped these habitats, building shrines and schools, shops and homes, subdividing paddy fields into small plots, implementing infrastructure for water and roads. Modern planning methods and the way projects are financed do not seem to allow the kind of incremental growth and user participation necessary for urban villages to come to life. Even in the rare cases where municipal authorities are in control of the planning

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

process, the tendency is for entire neighbourhoods to be delivered and then sold to consumers, who can buy and rent, but will have little say on the physical evolution and social activities of the place where they live. We hope that new ways of producing settlements, which include participation and crowdfunding for instance may change the existing trend. Figure 1: What should a 21st century urban village look like?

Source: (Ralul Srivastava, 2018)

2.2 Thesis & Research papers Redevelopment of Urban Village in Shenzhen The thesis report mentions about the reasons for the evolution of the urban Villages in the country as result of the high-speed economic development and urbanization in


recent three decades. The thesis delves into the social, economic, cultural and architectural transformations happened in these villages during these years. Urban Villages face demolition and redevelopment programs, replacing them with the formal delivery system. This would be devastating got the rural migrants and the city’s economy. As the cities grow, it is the transformation from rural space to urban space that provides enough space for urban development. Due to the loss of farmland, the traditional way of life with agriculture that the local population rely on is abandoned. Extensions are made to existing houses and new houses are built and rented to migrant workers. Thus, the local farmers take advantage of their villages’ prime locations and exploit them via highly profitable room-rental businesses. The Urban Village, Agrarian Transformation, and Rentier Capitalism in Gurgaon, India- Thomas Cowan This paper traces the complex processes of agrarian transformation in Gurgaon. Its paper asserts that the city’s urbanisation has been supported by an uneven process of land acquisition and agrarian transformation. This paper explores Gurgaon’s “urban villages” as the uneven integration of agrarian classes into emerging urban real estate markets. Housing market and transformation in urban villages, Delhi (Soni, 2014) The housing market in the urban villages of Delhi attracts a huge bracket of population for accommodation in the city. They have turned to become major foci for students, newly migrated, single working males and women and labour class. The paper looks at the different transformation taken place in the subsystem ant its impact on the city. It also recommends Poetics of FSI (Mehrotra, 1994) The system of blanket FSI & building byelaws often standardize for the city fail to create coherent form for city. Entire city gets recast in some image, loosing irs character. It also leads to destruction of natural features, terrains & topography. To achieve desirable mix of urban form, the total FSI as per blanket FSI can be calculated and redistributed in the entire city. This could also control the real estate prices. City can be divided into different precincts for redistributing FSI as per infrastructure capacity of them. Redevelopment of Chawls, Mumbai (Nandgirkar, 2003) Chawls are old dilapidated buildings in core area of Mumbai. Cessed buildings were given funds for repairs & reconstruction till 1990. In later stages it became non feasible. In the year 1999 the Government of Maharashtra made changes in Mumbai DCR & included private initiatives of chawl. Alternativesare suggested in this thesis as urban renewal and area level planning of the chawl.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 3 Concept of Urban Village

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 3.

Concept of Urban Village

3.1 Understanding an Urban Village and its Global Perspectives The concept of Urban Villages, formally born in Britain in the late 1980s with the establishment of the Urban Villages Group; is an urban planning and urban design concept. It refers to an urban form typically characterized by: • • •

Medium density development Mixed use zoning The provision of good public transit

Urban Villages are perceived to provide an alternative to the conventional patterns of urban development. This phenomenon is mostly visible in an urban sprawl. They are generally purported to: • • •

Reduce car reliance and promote cycling, walking and transit use Provide a high level of self-containment (people working, recreating and living in the same area) Help facilitate strong community institutions and interaction

An urban village can be defined as a village which has acquired urban characteristics due to reduction in its agricultural base by the process of acquisition of land holdings for public purpose or by its transformation into residential or industrial colonies (Tyagi, 1982).These are the rural settlements engulfed in urban limits during the process of development of large cities. These settlements have been rural in the past and hence, show some distinct rural characteristics but they are also termed urban because of their location in a clearly defined urban area, the influence of which is very strong. Like urban areas, now, in these villages majority of the workforce are engaged in non-primary activities. The Urban Villages have deep rooted cultural and traditional values, but due to large scale urban development and population growth, they are fast eroding to give way to new development and cultures with respect to urban setting. Many of these villages comprise of lost sequences of history, in some exist the traditional village pattern and quite a few still retain the past outlook towards life. These urban villages not only sport vernacular region, community and religious structure; they also exhibit historical structures and their relationship with the city. How the numerous layers of history and human interaction resulted in the physical form of the area.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Figure 2: Concept of Urban Village

Source: (Soni, 2014)

Urban villages (UV) – These settlements existed as rural villages prior to any planning intervention. After rapid urbanization, they fell into urban areas, so they were renamed “urban villages”. These settlements have a higher degree of tenure security, but few urban amenities. The urban village as an entity exists only as a concept. Administratively, it merges with the urban ward as soon it gets notified, but has starkly different characteristics from the rest of the ward. The rural-urban conflicts are strongly manifested here. Figure 3: Characteristics of Urban Villages

Source: (Soni, 2014)

3.2 Urban Village in Mumbai 3.2.1 Gaothan " Gaothan " or " village site" means the land included within the site of a village , town or city as determined by section 122 of the Maharashtra Lad Revenue Code 1966. (Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966) They are the compact settlements either inhabited by people who own small pieces of land or are lower caste landless labourers involved


in primary activity. They are usually residential building sites situated within the sites of a village, town or city, which is a non-urban area. This mentions the limits of sites of villages, towns and cities shall be lawful fixed by the Collector or for a survey officer acting under the general or special orders of the State Government, to ascertain and determine what lands are included within the site of any village, town or city and to fix and from time to time, to vary the limits of the site determined as aforesaid, regard being had to all subsisting rights of landholders. The section 123 further states that no land revenue to be levied in certain cases on lands. within sites of village, town or city. No land revenue shall, in the following cases, be levied on lands situated within the Gaothan areas. Lands which are exempted from the payment of assessment immediately before the commencement of this Code under the provisions of any law in force before such commencement or which are exempted by virtue of any custom, usage grant, Sanad, order or agreement. Mumbai still has some of these compact agrarian villages, but fewer agricultural fields. Gaothan areas are the outcomes of the rapid urban growth triggered by the process of suburbanization. Rapid growth of the metropolitan cities expanded spatially into the peripheral villages in an haphazard manner which resulted into the formation of rural urban fringe and further gets transformed into the Urban Villages or Gaothan areas. (Bhalerao, 2015) Though the population of Gaothan is now a mixed population but the villagers are still consider migrants as outsiders and call them as Bhadotri or tenants. As the family size have increased residents have improved their housing and also increased their floor space by capturing some area around their housing. Because of which roads in the Gaothan are very narrow and space between the houses are very small. The identity of these “villages� are deeply connected to the cultural and caste identity of the community that lives there. The transformation in these gaothans is aptly put across by Lalitha Kamath and Radhika Raj in their paper, City building and Regime Creation for the peripheries of Mumbai, published by TISS, (Lalitha Kamat, 2016) In stark contrast to these are small village-like settlements beyond the chawls surrounded by large trees -- what were earlier gaothans41 -- with colourful bungalows and SUVs, which belong to the locals who sold their lands to the slum builders and built mansions. The absence of clear grids and constantly evolving road with area names that often depend on the local builder or goon makes the space unreadable for the outsider.

3.2.2 Koliwada Koliwada literally means the habitat of the Kolis. The Kolis are often referred to as the original inhabitants of Dharavi and Mumbai. With settlements dating back at least 400 years, the Kolis were the earliest inhabitants of the archipelago now known as Mumbai. They are thought to be members of the Kul tribe, which migrated from the mainland mass of Aparanta at beginning of Christian era or earlier. Kolis occupied the

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

islands in successive waves and engaged in husbandry and fishing. The Kolis are a fishing community that have lived for centuries on the seven islands that make up Mumbai city, as well as in the sea-facing districts beyond its northern and southern frontiers. The written history of the community can be traced to archival records of the Portuguese who arrived here in the sixteenth century. The Kolis were officially classified as a tribal community in colonial records. (Rupali Gupte, 2007) The Kolis of Mumbai are dispersed over seven villages scattered all over the municipal region. Special Gaothan laws are evoked to administer their land use patterns. These recognize their identity as an urban village and consist of a different set of clauses for re-development. The civic authorities did not seriously invest in the villages in terms of improved sewage, or roads or other kinds of infrastructural development. Consequently, many of the Koliwadas were treated like other so-called slum neighbourhoods. In many cases, the availability of affordable rental housing in such villages meant a huge expansion of tenant population and a further infrastructural strain. (Rupali Gupte, 2007)

Most residents of Koliwada speak the local Koli language, which is similar to Marathi and uses the same script. The first huts in Koliwada had walls made of bamboo and roofs of palm tree leaves. Subsequently, these were replaced with huts made of stone, followed by bricks without plaster. This evolved into a brick and plaster construction; today, most homes are made of concrete.

3.2.3 Adivasipada Adivasi pada are the village settlements which are predominantly the Adivasi hamlets. Such hamlets are along the Sanjay Gandhi National Par and the Aarey Colony Area of the City. This megacity also encompasses a national park, which opened in 1983: the Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP), which is home to 1,795 Adivasi families in 43 padas that are scattered mainly along the edge of the Park. (Edelblutte, 2014) The process of urbanization has continued to move northward, thus surrounding lands that are now legally protected in the name of wildlife. The Adivasi were pushed towards forests or mountains by the incursion of conquering agrarian populations, who in turn took over the lowlands. suffer from a distorted idea of their identity, which owes much to the romantic ideal of the noble savage living in harmony with nature. Several tribal groups live in Mumbai. The Warli make up the majority of those living in the SGNP. This tribe is native to Maharashtra and to the Dangs, in Gujarat. The Koli are one of the largest tribal groups in western India. The Dubla are from Gujarat and


display the bio-anthropological features typical of the Australoid tribes of central India. Finally, the Katkari, or Kathodi, are about 175,000 strong in Maharashtra, mainly located in the districts of Raigad and Thane. (Edelblutte, 2014) All of those communities were partially or entirely dependent on the forest and its resources, where they would practice a form of shifting cultivation. This involved spreading green manure on cultivated plots. The rapid expansion of the SGNP in 1967 effectively forced Adivasi residents to be included within its new boundaries, putting them in a position of passive encroachers. As Scheduled Tribes, the Adivasi are protected by legislation that prohibits their expulsion from the National Park without compensation. Several relocation plans on the outer limits of the Park or farther afield are under consideration. So far, there has been no definitive action, but the Park authorities know that they must offer accommodation, sanitation and jobs if people are to be persuaded to move. Until the 1996 Supreme Court Order to remove all human settlements from the Park is fulfilled, tribal communities will continue to live there, but with very few rights: they are not permitted to hunt, fish, raise animals, farm, or cut wood, despite some minor differences depending on the local land status. Illegal settlements are also not entitled to erect permanent constructions, or to connect to power, water, or other utilities. Considered as trespassers on their own land, the tribal communities develop alternative survival strategies.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 4 City Level Study

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 4.

City Level Study

4.1 MMR And the City Mumbai stakes its claim as the biggest metropolitan city in India in terms of population size and economy it generates. Located in the western coast facing the Arabian Sea, the city, which serves as an important seaport and trade hub, is also the financial nerve-centre of the country. This capital city of the state of Maharashtra was once made up of seven small islands, which over the centuries got connected through natural and man-made land reclamations. Today, it is a narrow strip of island that abuts the coastal belt of Konkan. (MCGM, 2011) Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is a metropolitan area in Maharashtra state, consisting of the state capital Mumbai (previously known as 'Bombay') and its satellite towns. Developing over a period of about 20 years, it consists of nine municipal corporations and fifteen smaller municipal councils. The entire area is overseen by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA), a Maharashtra State Government organisation in charge of town planning, development, transportation and housing in the region. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) spread over 4,355 sq. km. consists of 8 Municipal Corporations viz. Greater Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan-Dombivali, Navi Mumbai, Ulhasnagar, Bhiwandi- Nizamapur, Vasai-Virar and Mira-Bhayandar; and 9 Municipal Councils viz. Ambarnath, Kulgaon-Badalapur, Matheran, Karjat, Panvel, Khopoli, Pen, Uran, and Alibaug, along with more than 1,000 villages in Thane and Raigad Districts. MMRDA is responsible for the balanced development of the MMR. (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, 2019) Table 1: Area Statistics of MMR

Geographical Area Greater Mumbai (sq. km.)

458.71

Mumbai Metropolitan Region (sq. km.)

4,354.50

Source: (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, 2019)

Mumbai is located in the western seaboard of India at coordinates 18.96° North 72.82° East. A major part of Mumbai sits on the old island of Salsette which lies at the mouth of Ulhas River. Usually, Mumbai is referred to as three different geographic entities: Mumbai City, Greater Mumbai, and Mumbai Metropolitan Region. Mumbai City is the core of the old port city of Mumbai during the colonial period. Since then, its territory has expanded northward to cover the suburbs and extended suburbs. The Mumbai Island City plus the Mumbai Suburban District comprise what is now called

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

as Greater Mumbai. It is under the political administration of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region was formed to create the urban agglomeration consisting of 7 Municipal Corporations and 13 Municipal Councils. In addition to MCGM, it includes the Municipal Corporations of Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar, Thane, Kalyan-Dombivali, Bhiwandi-Nizamapur and Ulhasnagar. (MCGM, 2011)

4.2 Land Area Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), spans a total area of 458.71 square kilometres. Mumbai Island City located at the southern tip of Mumbai covers 67.79 square kilometres of land territory while the suburban district located north of the Island City covers 369 square kilometres of land. Greater Mumbai accounts for most of Mumbai's territory. Mumbai, as an urban entity however, spans a bigger total area of 603.4 square kilometres including some regions such as Defence lands, Mumbai Port Trust lands, and the Borivali National Park area, which are outside the administrative jurisdiction of MCGM. The bigger Mumbai Metropolitan Region covers an extensive area of about 4,355 square kilometres. (MCGM, Existing Land Use Plan, 2014) Greater Mumbai Metropolitan area or Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) area, is divided in two revenue districts viz Mumbai city District and Mumbai suburban District. Greater Mumbai of Maharashtra is entirely urban. It extends between 18o and 19.20o northern latitude and between 72o and 73.00o eastern longitude. It has an east to west extend of about 12 km. where it is broadest, and a north - south extend of about 40 km. Table 2: Administrative Statistics in Mumbai

Units

Administrative Coverage

Land Area (sq. km)

Mumbai City

(1) Mumbai Island City District 67.71 only

Mumbai Suburbs and Extended (2) Mumbai Suburban District 370.00 Suburbs only Greater MCGM)

Mumbai

(Under

Mumbai Urban Region

(1) + (2)

458.71

(1) + (2) + (3) Mumbai City and 603.40 Mumbai Suburban Districts plus


contiguous areas outside the jurisdiction of MCGM Areas (national parks, defence lands, Mumbai port trust, etc.) Mumbai Region

Metropolitan

(1) + (2) + (3) + (4) + (5) Greater 4,355.00 Mumbai, Urban Region plus (4) Thane District and (5) Raigad District

Source: (MCGM, MCGM Website, 2019)

4.3 Geographical Character Greater Mumbai is an island outside the mainland of Konkan in Maharashtra separated from the mainland by the narrow Thane Creek and a somewhat wider Harbour Bay. At present, it covers the original island group of Mumbai, and most of the island of Salsette, with the former Trombay island appended to it in its Southeast. A small part in the north the Salsette island however, lies in Thane District. The Salsette-Mumbai island creek and the Thane creek together separate it from the mainland. Thus, the area of Greater Mumbai is surrounded on three sides by the seas: by the Arabian Sea to the west and the south, the Harbour Bay and the Thane Creek in the east - but in the north, the district of Thane stretches along its boundary across the northern parts of Salsette. The BMC limit extends up to Mulund, Mankhurd and Dahisar. Many parts of the city lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from 10 meters (33 feet) to 15 meters (49 feet). The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (46 feet). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) has a hilly while the rest of the city is low lying and flat. The highest point in the city is 450 meters (1,476 feet) located in Salsette north of Mumbai in the Powai-Kanheri ranges. (MCGM, 2011) Table 3: Administrative Structure of Mumbai City

Head

Description Mumbai City

Revenue Districts Mumbai Suburban Area of Greater Mumbai

603.4 sq.km

Area of Mumbai City

67.79 sq.km

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Area of Mumbai Suburban

370 sq.km

Administration

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai MCGM

Area under the MCGM expanse

458.71 sq.km

Number of Ward in Greater Mumbai

24

Region

Mumbai Metropolitan Region MMR

Source: (MCGM, MCGM Website, 2019)

4.4 Climate Mumbai has a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification. The city does not experience distinct seasons, but the climate can broadly be classified into two main seasons—the humid season and the dry season. Usually, the period between October to May is relatively dry. The city gets southwest monsoon rains beginning June to end September with peak rains occurring in July. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 millimetres in 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 millimetres on 26 July 2005. The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C and the average annual precipitation is 16.7 centimetres. In the Island City, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C, while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C. In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature ranges from 29.1 °C to 33.3 °C °, while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C to 26.2 °C. The record high is 40.2 °C on 28 March 1982, and the record low is 7.4 °C on 27 January 1962. (MCGM, 2011)

4.5 Magnitude of Urban Villages in Mumbai The traditional settlements in the city villages or gaothans as well as fishing villages or the Koliwada are included in the land use category of Urban Village as per the preparatory study report for the Development Plan of Mumbai 2034. Some of these villages are also under heritage list as the ‘heritage precinct’ The native inhabitants of Mumbai are traditionally located in the areas commonly recognized as Gaothans and Koliwadas. There are 88 Gaothans and 20 Koliwadas and these are marked in the RDDP 2034. Additionally, there are number of Adivasipadas within geographical limit of MCGM. There are 200 Adivasipada in the city which are tribal settlements in the city. The number of Gaothan is the most in the K west ward in and around Bandra along the Western Suburb. The Koliwada are the majority in the P north ward along the western suburb and the Adivasipada are the most in the P south ward near the National Park.


Table 4: Number of Urban Villages in the City

Sr no

Fabric

Number

Ward with number

1

Gaothan

88

K West

5

2

Koliwada

20

P North

6

3

Adivasipada

200

P South

14

308

3 wards /24 wards

25

Total

highest

Number of villages in the ward

Source: (MCGM, Existing Land Use Plan, 2014), (Board)

The estimate of the area occupied by the Gaothan is 138.9 Ha whereas the Koliwada is 179.6 Ha. The two systems sum out to be 0.77% of the total developed Area in the City. The Adivasipada constitute to 320 Ha on an estimate which makes the area under the Urban Villages comprising Gaothans and Koliwadas and Adivasipada that are mainly Residential Areas, constitute 1.5% of the developed Area in the city. Table 5: Area Distribution of Urban Villages in the City

Sr no

Fabric

Area (Ha)

1

Gaothan

138.9

2

Koliwada

179.6

Total 3

318.5 Ha Adivasipada

Total

320 638.5 Ha

4

Area of Mumbai

43455

5

Percentage share of UV area

1.5%

Source: (MCGM, Existing Land Use Plan, 2014)

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

The Koliwadas are commonly identified as a densely populated habitat of the koli community along the coastal areas. There is no land record regarding Koliwadas to identify the exact area and extent of Koliwadas. The demarcation of Koliwada area in revenue records is underway. The Govt. of Maharashtra in Revenue department has constituted a Committee to delineate the Koliwadas boundaries and their extent. On finalization of the same, these would be superimposed on the RDDP. The development of Gaothans and Koliwadas and Adivasipada shall be as per provisions in DCR 33 (16) of RDDP 2034.

4.6 Location of Urban Villages The villages are spread across the city majorly concentrated on the original island of the city. The fishing villages / Koliwada are majorly seen along the coast of the city with an increased number along the western suburbs. And the Adivasipada tribal villages are concentrated along the national park and its periphery in the suburban district. The agriculture Gaothan are majorly found in the city mainland. Due to their presence in the prime land of the land, the Gaothan have drastically changed and adapted over time with no more villages practising the primary activity of agriculture. The fishing villages along the coast are in a struggle to preserve their livelihood against the odds of urbanization and increasing land prices. Here some of the villages still practice fishing whereas majority are only limited to sale of fish. Some villages along the east coast have adapted to its context shifting from the activity of fishing to the industrial ship breaking and scrap segregating activity. The Adivasipada have mostly been infiltrated with huge number of migrant populations squatting in the settlements thus making them examples of slums. Majority of these padas do not practice a homogenous activity or any primary activity. It’s mere 23 villages which are still vernacular in nature with a homogenous primary activity.


Map 1: Location of Urban Villages

Source: (Tribal Development Department, Gov. of Maharashtra, 2011) (MCGM, Existing Land Use Plan, 2014), (Mumbai Tranformation Support Unit, 2015), Author

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

4.7 Evolution of Urban Villages Source: (Da Cunha, 1993) Figure 4: Chronology of the Aboriginal

The present-day city was built on the seven islands of Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island. The Koli fishing community had long inhabited the islands. They were Dravidian in origin and included a large number of scattered tribes along the Vindhya Plateau, Gujarat, and Konkan. In Mumbai, there were three or four of these tribes. Their religious practices could be summed up as animism. Human habitation of Mumbai existed since the Stone Age, the Kolis were the earliest known settlers of the islands. The islands were coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard engineering project in 1784. The islands were incorporated into the Maurya Empire. The empire's patronage made the islands a centre of Buddhist religion and culture. Buddhist monks, scholars, and artists created the artwork, inscriptions, and sculpture of the Kanheri Caves in the mid third century BCE and Mahakali Caves.


The Silhara dynasty of Konkan ruled the region between 810 and 1260. The Walkeshwar Temple was constructed during the 10th century and the Banganga Tank during the 12th century under the patronage of the Silhara rulers. The Pathare Prabhus clan who one of the earliest settlers of the city, were brought to Mahim from Patan and other parts of Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev during his reign. He is also supposed to have brought Palshis, Pachkalshis, Bhandaris, Vadvals, Bhois, Agris and Brahmins to these islands. They formed the major ethnicity in the villages in Mumbai at that time. The islands came under the control of the Muslim rulers of Gujarat in 1348, ending the sovereignty of Hindu rulers over the islands. This increased them Islamic migrants in the city and so is the case with the villages in Mumbai. The Islamic and Jew population increased in the villages of Dongri, Mandvi etc. The Portuguese encouraged intermarriage with the local population, and strongly supported the Roman Catholic Church. In 1560, they started proselytising the local Koli, Kunbi, Kumbhar population in Mahim, Worli, and Bassein. These Christians were referred to by the British as Portuguese Christians, though they were Nestorian Christians who had only recently established ties with the Roman Catholic Church. The Portuguese relations of trade and administration added the east Indian layer of ethnicity and culture in the villages. The areas of Salsette, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession for a long period adding to in migration in the villages and formation of villages like Matherpakadi and Khotachiwadi. The evolution of the villages stated from the edges of the 7 islands. These villages then functioned with their activity respectively with influx of migration from different era. As the land got reclaimed and the islands were merged majority of these villages lost their livelihood. As the city progressed the Panchkalshis and the east Indian became the aboriginal to the city and saw the shifting of livelihood in a way to adapt to the rising urbanization during the British. It was then the mills came up and the east coast flourished as a port and ship breaking yard. As migration increased multi folds the, the settlements were influxed with multi layers of people from other ethnic backgrounds. The villages became denser and congested with high density living and no social and physical amenities for holistic living. They provided cheaper land prices in prime lands of the city. Some of the villages were notified as slums along the timeline. Some villages which preserved their identity and theory culture were notified as heritage precinct and heritage structures. In the period of time the villages have gone through huge transformation.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Map 2: Evolution of Urban Villages

Source: (Census of India, 1901)


4.8 Residential Market Price & Urban Village Mumbai’s real estate is one of the most expensive in the world. The real estate market through demand and supply factors is considerably influenced by regulatory mechanisms and the financial market. Hence it is prone to high speculation and has been deemed a skewed market with the supply constrained by regulations. Speculative activities, supply side constraints coupled with a strong interest group of real estate developers and builders have contributed to soaring real estate prices. This has bought in unaffordability to majority of the users in the city. Residential property prices show clearly the preference of greater Mumbai and the western suburb over the counterparts in the city. These areas experience the highest residential property prices. Advancement of infrastructure is a major force which drives the residential market which is a vicious cycle. Proximity of railway station, accessibility to world class infrastructures, major road networks also experience a higher price. The median household income is only Rs.20000 per month while the lowest price for even a 1 BHK unit stats from Rs.14,00,000 onwards. Given the cost of housing is much higher than the affordable range of4-5 times a family’s annual gross income, it is apparent that nearly half of the population is unable to afford to own a house, even of minimum standards. (SCE Group, 2014) Figure 5: Household Income by House Type

Source: (SCE Group, 2014)

The graph above illustrates the housing market equilibrium in Mumbai. Using house price indicators, affordability estimates based on the income distribution data, and based on estimates of the stock of various types of housing, the distribution of income classes into various types of accommodation is demonstrated, It is to be noted

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

that high proportion of middle class and entire poor populations are living in substandard housing because of the high price of land and highly inadequate supply of housing. The urban villages, in this scenario provides an oasis for the middle income and the lower income population in search of affordable housing tin the prime lands of the city. The housing such areas is lesser in the infrastructure it provides on a settlement and plot level and the unclear land titles in these properties. These properties are still preferred due to its proximity to the major work centres, excellent connectivity in the city and in some cases the status quo of living in a certain locality.

4.9 Per capita open space & Social Amenities in the City Social amenities include cultural, religious and civic amenities such as welfare centres& public halls, cinemas & theatres, temples, mosques and churches, police chowkeys etc whereas public utility include amenities pertaining to provision of security like sulab sauchalays and all other public infrastructure. Some of the uses of the social amenities have slowly decreased in their importance. However, area allocation for important function are required. The open spaces in the city include both, the natural areas and provided open spaces. Natural areas include forest, mangroves, mud flats, hills, creeks, natural water bodies, lakes, tanks, ponds while open space include playgrounds, recreation ground, parks and garden, club & gymkhana, promenade, beach and swimming pool. (SCE Group, 2014)The per capita open space has been computed in 4 different ways: •

Considering only open spaces that are completely public and accessible to all. Per capita open space = 1sqm o Play ground o Recreation ground o Parks & gardens Open spaces in the city = 12.50 sq.km Considering all provided open spaces both publicly accessible and with limited access. Per capita open space = 1. 15sq.m o Play ground o Recreation ground o Parks & gardens o Clubs & gymkhana o Swimming Pool Open spaces in the city = 14.28 sq.km Considering all open space categories in the existing land uses Per capita open space = 1.24 sqm o Play ground o Recreation ground


•

•

o Parks & gardens o Clubs & gymkhana o Swimming Pool o Promenade o Beach Open spaces in the city = 15.37 sq.km Considering all open spaces and Natural Areas Per capita open space = 4.83 sqm o Play ground o Recreation ground o Parks & gardens o Clubs & gymkhana o Swimming Pool o Promenade o Beach o Sanjay Gandhi National Park Open spaces in the city = 60.11 sq.km Considering all open spaces and Natural Areas Per capita open space = 4.83 sqm o Play ground o Recreation ground o Parks & gardens o Clubs & gymkhana o Swimming Pool o Promenade o Beach o Sanjay Gandhi National Park o Mangroves o Mud flats o Hills o Rivers/ Creek o Lakes o Tanks/Ponds Open spaces in the city = 128.41 sq.km

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Map 3: Open Space in Mumbai

Source: (MCGM, Existing Land Use Plan, 2014)


4.10 Classification of Urban Village in Mumbai The villages can be classified in different manners. This study is pertaining to the development process and typology constructed in the process. Settlement level classification Figure 6: Settlement Level Classification of Urban Villages

Source: Author

Villages with majorly Primary Activity are villages which still continue their primary activity such as fishing, cattle herding, log cutting etc. these villages have tried to preserve their livelihoods and culture. These villages have designated area for the

56


Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

activity to be carried out as a community. Such villages are under the threat of loss of livelihood due to the pose of increasing urbanization, migration and shortage in housing provided. Thus, these villages to a great extent have reduced the activities. Villages with majorly Industrial activity are villages majorly on the east coast where the primary activity has shifted to ship breaking & building activities. These are villages with a strong context of an industrial activity as ship breaking and ports. Thus, the migrant population and majority of the aboriginal population have adapted to the newer livelihood where the community is involved in this activity. Some of the activities such as scrap segregating are also done at house hold levels. The villages on the eastern coast are majorly this category. Villages with majorly Mixed-Use Activity are the villages have transformed from predominantly residential land use to commercial and residential mixed-use activity. Majority of the villages today fall in this category. Majority of the villages are today prime land location with much more affordable prices than the area. Hence the mainland villages which were reclaimed to form the city and was involved in agriculture have now given way to mixed use development with a lot of commercial spaces with the residential use activity. Villages with majorly Residential Activity are villages have majorly remained in the same use activity through the years. These are the villages which have shifted from the primary activity have given way to increasing the residential housing stock. These are majorly on the mainland towards the west and the north. Villages marked as Slum Villages recognized as slum in the previous development plans and have development provisions accordingly. Majority of the Adivasipada are notified slums. These padas are highly congested, infrastructure deficient areas. Villages in National Park are villages in the national park and the fringes of the national park. Many of these villages are still vernacular in character with no infrastructure access at all. Villages marked as Heritage Precincts are villages with a heritage character and are notified in the heritage list. These villages have strived to preserve their built form and culture. But die to the lack of incentives and funds for maintenance these precinct s is dilapidating at a fast rate coupled with the real estate builder mafia who flout the heritage norms to redevelop the area with no consideration for the heritage or infrastructure deficiency.


Plot Level Classification Figure 7: Plot Level Classification of Urban Villages

Source: Author, (Rupali Gupte, 2007)

Vernacular Precincts The structure of the villages has mostly remained unchanged. These villages are characterised by a main street with shops on either side. Thin roads lead perpendicular to the main spine, into the settlement. There is generally a religious place within the village – either a temple or a mosque. While most of the houses are single family houses, there are also buildings occupied by multiple families who rent these tenements. Typically, a small shrine with a deity is located somewhere in the middle of this spine. Also strung along the spine are small restaurants, grocery shops, medicine shops and other retail outlets for every day needs. The built form here is densely packed, interspersed at several places with small courts and open spaces. These form important spaces, where the everyday activities of the fishing community spill out – They spaces are used to clean and repair nets, tools, etc. (Rupali Gupte, 2007) A typical house in such a settlement consists of a large multifunctional living space, several small rooms, a tiny kitchen and a toilet partitioned by a mid-height wall. The veranda outside the house becomes a very important element. Small rooms are added to this house after every marriage as the family grows. While older houses are typically ground storied with sloping tiled roofs and wooden columns, newer houses are two to three storied, flat roofed, built in RCC construction. The new houses come up exactly in the places where the old houses had existed, but are taller. In some cases, upper floors of these new houses are rented to outsiders who are not involved in fishing activities. Finances for additions or for reconstruction are mobilised by the family itself through savings or loans from money lenders. Over time these buildings saw several transformations with haphazard additions to accommodate growing families, structural modifications to build internal toilets, in cases where they were outside, and enclosures of semi-private areas for reasons both

58


Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

of security, privacy and accommodating growing families. Today, these villages are seeing significant transformations due to high demand for land with tall buildings coming up in place of these antiquated houses. Small Time Builder Redevelopment The rush for real estate also puts humongous pressure on the old urban villages of the city. Invariably, the plots in these villages are trapped in legal hassles on issues of sharing, sub- tenancy etc. Here the small builders operate. They excel in clearing the tenure issues and manage to get a clear title on a single name. They do it either by paying off the stakeholders or threatening them with muscle power. (Rupali Gupte, 2007) The builder forms a cooperative society with fake members and applies for the land. Top level bureaucrats who evaluate the applications are paid bribes and the land is acquired. Once land is acquired, the building activity begins. These lands are very small plots situated in densely packed low-rise houses. Tall towers are built in these plots. Typically, these buildings have to rehabilitate existing occupants on the land. Hence a separate building is built or lower stories of the new building are allotted to the existing residents. The ground is stilted for parking and residences start from the upper floors. Effort is made here to maximise floor space by including feature that are not included in the FSI calculations like an architectural projection on the window. These features are later encroached upon to increase the area of the house. (Rupali Gupte, 2007)

Semi Pucca and Pucca squatters There are slums that have a concentration of ethnic communities, of work-based communities, and other such associations. There are slums that come up on construction sites and move on to other construction sites after the work gets completed. Houses in a slum are generally very small (about 100 sq. ft.). But there are instances where large houses of about 1000 – 2000 sq. ft could be found. They make houses of tin sheets and bamboo (or sometimes even of brick and concrete). These small houses are then rented to poor people who are in search of housing. There are also houses in the slum that have original squatters. These families also in most cases build an additional room or a floor to accommodate growing families. Sometimes these additional rooms are further rented out bringing about a complex tenure pattern in a slum. A slum settlement is mostly located along a natural drain which takes care of the sewerage. Electricity and water were generally stolen, but the government makes efforts to provide basic facilities. Water supply in slums is mostly in terms of shared community taps. A slum mostly has a toilet block built by the government, but that remains inadequate. Some houses in a slum have toilets within them. Repair Permission Structures The repair permission scheme that came up in the last decade provided certain restrictions and scope of changes permitted in the buildings. This included


introduction a restriction any structural addition be it addition vertically or horizontally on an existing building. The scope was limited to external finishing and painting with no policing powers. Hence this was widely flouted and newer floors came up due to real estate potential and incremental nature of families. These buildings usually did not get any approval for the plot and building and were illegal construction. These additional floors were divided into smaller rooms with no light and ventilation and were rented in the open market with a verbal agreement in place. This generally happens in building which have an abutting road with of lesser than 6 mt. These are not in the interest of the small-time builders and hence are redeveloped or renovated but the owner for higher rental income.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Plot level development practices Table 6: Plot Level Development Practices

Source: Author


Chapter 5 Urban Village – Schemes & Regulations

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai


Chapter 5.

Urban Village - Schemes & Regulations

5.1 Gaothan Development Scheme The Gaothan Expansion Scheme (GES) was initiated in 1986. For the purpose of the scheme, the boundary of the existing Gaothan shall be as shown in the revenue maps as under the provisions of the Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966. In this scheme 10% of the land acquired from a village is to be reserved for development and returned back to the villager. In this 10% reserved land; 50% of land is given to the villagers and rest 50% is used to develop roads, social facilities and open spaces. Land use of different types are permitted where agriculture and allied activities and Agro based, fishing base activities are permitted and the use of home-based economic activities, retail shopping, and personal service establishments are allowed apart from the residential land use. PSP of medical, educational and recreational use, service industries and transport allied activities are also permitted. Table 7: Permitted Land Use

Land Use

Use Activity Agriculture, Plantation& Allied Activities

Agriculture

Agro Based Industries & allied Activities Fishing & Allied Activities

Residential

Residential Home Base economic activities Retail Shopping, Restaurant & Banks

Commercial

Personal Service and Repair Service Establishments Offices of Local Authorities, Government and Public Utility Concerns, and Offices of the Professionals Medical, Educational, Social Religious and Welfare Institutions

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Public & Semi Public

Recreation

Industrial

Service Industries Transportation and allied activities

Public Utility

Public Utilities and Services Public Amenities

Source: (Scheme, 1986)

In case of expansion of Gaothan more than 50 % of the survey number are covered within 200m distance, the expansion is permitted on the payment of a premium of 30% as per the Annual statement of rates and is deposited at the branch office of the Town Planning Department. Table 8: Permitted Expansion & Premium

Permitted Gaothan

Expansion

in

200 mt from existing area on payment of premium

Premium

30% rate as per Annual Statement of Rates

Depository of Premium

Branch office of Town Planning Dept.

Source: (Scheme, 1986)

Developed plots allotted ranged from 25 sq.m for residential to 40 sq.m – 150 sq.m for commercial and 200 sq.m for industrial land use. Landless labourers, salt-pan workers & village artisans whose livelihood depended on the rural activities, were entitled to a minimum of 40 m2 plot under this scheme. Table 9: Minimum Plot Size

Sr. No.

Land use

Type of Development

Minimum Plot area (Sq. m.)

Minimum width Frontage (m)

1

Residential

Row houses

25.0

3.0

of


2

3

Retail

Semidetached

40.0

4.5

Shopping and Restaurant

Detached

150.0

9.0

Industrial

Semidetached

200.0

9.0

Others

Detached

300.0

15.0

Source: (Scheme, 1986)

The permissible FSI and its expansion has a cap of 1 with a height restriction of 24.0 m. The GES benefited small number of beneficiaries and within 4 years, only 27 Ha. land was allotted covering 7 villages. The lands reserved for GES were around the existing gaothans. The GES was closed in 1990. Table 10: Permissible FSI & Height

Sr. No.

Location

1

Gaothan

2

Gaothan Expansion within 200 m from Gaothan boundary

3

FSI Max.

permissible height

1.0

24.0 m

Gaothan Expansion Scheme as declared by the Collector

Source: (Scheme, 1986)

5.2 DCR 1991 The abutting road and approach for a plot in the Gaothan area could be from any street 6 m. and beyond; or where their existing street is not less than 3.6 m. wide and is proposed for widening. In the case any street is less than 3.6 m. and not proposed for widening, then the pot boundary is shifter 2.25m. from the central line of the street. In the case the road is 52m wide or beyond which is specifically mentioned in the development plan to provide direct access with a No Objection Certificate provided

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

by the road authorities, it shall also be considered as an abutting road and approach road for a Gaothan. Plots in the Gaothan smaller than 250 sq.m shall be requested a front set back of 1.5m from the street line. The other uses are not permitted in the Gaothan except for residential land use. In the case of a larger plot the front setback shall be 3.75 m. The FSI permitted in the Gaothan areas is 1. The Gaothan area DCR does not insist the requirement of parking spaces. There is no mention about the tenement density or other regulation of social amenities for the Gaothan.

5.3 DCR 2034 The abutting road and approach for a plot in the Gaothan area could be from any street 6 m. and beyond; or where their existing street is not less than 3.6 m. wide and is proposed for widening. In the case any street is less than 3.6 m. and not proposed for widening, then the pot boundary is shifter 2.25m. from the central line of the street. In the case the road is 52m wide or beyond which is specifically mentioned in the development plan to provide direct access with a No Objection Certificate provided by the road authorities, it shall also be considered as an abutting road and approach road for a Gaothan. Plots in the Gaothan smaller than 250 sq.m shall be requested no setback if the road width is less than 6 m, 1 m. in case of width from 6m to 9m. and 1.5 m if above 9m wide road. The FSI permitted in the Gaothan areas is 1.5 for plots below frontage of 9 m. and 0.5 additional FSI for roads 9 m wide and above in case of a commercial use in the ground floor. The height restriction is 14 mt or 4 storeys in height with a maximum ground coverage of 75%. The Gaothan area DCR does not insist the requirement of parking spaces. There is no mention about the tenement density or other regulation of social amenities for the Gaothan. Table 11: Comparison of Regulations

Gaothan Expansion Scheme

Gaothan DCR 1991

Gaothan DCR 2034

EXTENT OF SCHEME: The developments within the boundary of the existing Gaothan located within the jurisdiction (excluding the Gaothans that are located in the jurisdiction of Municipal Corporations)

ABUTTING ROAD:

ABUTTING ROAD:

6 mt

6 mt

3.6 mt (and additions to shit of boundary by 2.25 mt)

3.6 mt (and additions to shit of boundary by 2.25 mt)

Plots/Buildings abutting or fronting a means of Access


FSI: 1.0

FSI:

FSI:

PERMISSIBLE HEIGHT: 24.0 mt

1

Road with < 9mt = 1.5 Road with > 9mt = 1.5+0.5 (for commercial use) PERMISSIBLE HT 14 mt

=

GROUND COVERAGE= 75% PERMITTED EXPANSION IN GAOTHAN:

TENEMENT DENSITY (GENERAL)

TENEMENT DENSITY (GENERAL)

200 mt from existing area on payment of premium (30% rate as per Annual Statement of Rates)

FSI 1= 200-400 /ha

FSI 1.5= 300-675 /ha

Size of Plot:

Front Setback:

Front Setback:

Residential (Row houses) = 3mt

1.5 mt

Steel <6mt = 0 mt

FSI 2= 400-900 / ha

Retail (Semi Detached) = 4.5mt

Street 6mt â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 9mt = 1 mt

Shopping (Detached)= 9mt

Street> 9 mt = 1.5 mt

Industrial (Semi Detached) = 200sq mt Others (Detached) = 400 sq.mt Parking:

Parking:

Parking:

No mention about the parking

No mention about the parking

No parking provisions required

Source: (DCR, 1991, 2034)

5.4 Heritage Norms & Regulations Close to 300 listed heritage buildings and many more in heritage precincts such as Khotachiwadi, Marine Drive, Matherpakadi etc., are, therefore, at risk of demolition and re-construction, so as to avail of significantly higher FSI.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Table 12: Notified & Proposed Heritage Urban Villages

Name

Type of List

Grade

Ward

Matherpakadi

Precinct with individual Structures (5)

Grade III

E

Khotachiwadi

Precinct With individual Structures (8)

Grade III

D

Chuim Village

Precinct with individually listed structures

Grade III

Bandra Village

Precinct H/W

Sherly Village

Precinct with individually listed structures (proposed)

Khar Village Kevni Village Amboli Village

K/W

Versova Koliwada Erangal Village

Precinct(proposed) P

Marve Koliwada Marol Village K/E Vile Parle Village Chembur Gaothan Source: (MHCC, 2012)

M


All of the villages come under the Grade III heritage and precinct as per the 2012 notification. The grade III heritage comprises building and precincts of importance for cityscape that present architectural, aesthetic & sociological interest. It contributes to the character of the locality and is representative of lifestyle of a particular community. It requires a special protection. Precincts are spaces that require conservation or preservation for historical or architectural or aesthetic or cultural or environmental or ecological purpose. (MHCC, 2012) These heritage grade III structures are allowed extensions or additional buildings in the same plot or compound such that it does not demean the existing heritage building or precincts with respect of height or facade. Reconstruction is permitted only for structurally weak or unsafe structures. It can be also permitted if it required to consume the permissible FSI and no option other than reconstruction is available. Reconstruction or redevelopment within 32 m height shall follow the general procedure of municipal approval and shall not require special permission from the Commissioner, MCGM as in the case of structure beyond 32 m height. Transfer of Development Rights is the only incentive provided to the residential heritage owners. TDR is awarded in the form of FSI. After the avail of the TDR, the heritage structure will be maintained by the Owner with a clause of penalty for breach of conditions. Precincts may be allowed development rights if in compliance with regulations.

5.5 Coastal Regulatory Zone Norms The Koliwada identified in the DP 1991 are declared as CRZ III and any development taking place including construction and reconstruction of dwelling units within these areas to be as per the approval of the DCR. The CRZ III No Development Zone has a population density more than 2161 per square kilometre as per 2011 census base, where it is up to 50 m from the HTL; whereas in areas with population less than 2161 per square kilometre, the area up to 200m from HTL on the landward side is the No Development Zone. Repairs or reconstruction of existing authorized structure and construction or reconstruction of dwelling units of traditional coastal communities including fisher folk is permitted in the No development Zone. Agriculture, horticulture, gardens, dispensaries, schools, public rain shelter, community toilets, bridges, roads and temporary tourism facilities are encouraging in this zone. Table 13: Regulations in NDZ

Provision Repair & Reconstruction

Regulation â&#x20AC;˘

Not exceeding FSI

â&#x20AC;˘

No alternation in Plinth Area

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Amenities for fishing villages

Existing Density

Necessary Disaster Management Provisions

Sanitation arrangements

Source: (Norms, 2019)

The Area beyond 200 up to 500 meters from the HTL on the landward side shall be earmarked beyond the No Development Zone. Construction or reconstruction of dwelling units, preserving the traditional rights and customary uses is permitted in the area. Building permission this construction or reconstruction will be as per the local town and country planning rules, with a permissible height 9 meters maximum and with only two floors. The local communities including fishermen may be permitted to facilitate tourism through ‘home stay’ without changing the plinth area or design or facade of the existing houses. Construction of public rain shelters, community toilets, water supply drainage, sewerage, roads, bridges is permitted in the area. The CRZ clearance shall be considered by the concerned Coastal Zone Management Authority. Table 14: Regulations beyond NDZ

Provision

Regulation

Provision home stay

No alteration in plinth area

Reconstruction & Construction of DU

In harmony with existing fishing villages.

As per MCGM DCR

Height 9mt max

G+1

Source: (Norms, 2019) Table 15: Required Clearance for Reconstruction

Provision Building & Construction Projects

Criteria •

>_20000sqmt to <150000 sq.m BUA

Regulation

EIA


Townships & Area Development

>_15000 BUA

Assessment of composite Environmental & CRZ by Authority based on the CZM

Self DU

<_300 sq.m

Approval by local Authority without recommendation requirement by CZMA

Source: (Norms, 2019)

The CRZ clearance shall be considered by the concerned CZMAs of the area in the case of CRZ III. The CZMA examines the documents & recommends the necessary within a period of 60 days from date of receipt of complete application. which require the provisions of EIA Notification 2006, would be dealt for a composite Environmental and CRZ clearance under EIA Notification 2006 by the concerned approving Authority. In case the built-up area of the construction project is less than the threshold limit stipulated for attracting the provisions of the EIA Notification, then they shall be approved by the concerned local State Planning Authorities. Post the clearance it is mandatory to submit a Half yearly compliance reports for the same which would be published in the public domain and also given in person to the CZMA Figure 8: Procedure for CRZ Clearance

Source: (Norms, 2019)

5.6 Tribal Welfare Policies Thakkar Bappa Integrated Tribal Habitation Improvement Programme Scheme was initiated in the year 2004-05 in order to integrate the development of tribal habitations in the state through community development and family centric activity. This tried to bring in a bottom up approach in the scheme. This program late was expanded to all settlements with more than 50% tribal population by the year of 2007. It was eligible to all the TSP, MADA and mini MADA areas. The programmed looked at provision of community level facilities to tribal majority and looks at takin up works for the benefit of the community and the individual, improving accessibility and thus increase the quality of life. The program is implemented by village specific micro

72


Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

planning with an initiative to bottom up approach. The local gram panchayat shall take care of the implementation of the scheme. Figure 9: Thakkar Bappa Integrated Habitation Improvement Programme scheme.

Provision

Criteria

Agency

Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Start year

2004

Objective

integrated development of tribal habitations

Beneficiary Eligibility

Tribal Sub Plan Outside Tribal Sub Plan Modified Area Development Approach Mini Modified Area Development Approach

Provisions

Task 1: Construction of internal & Connecting Roads& Cross drainage works Task 2: PSP such as gym, samaj mandir cultural halls, funeral grounds, dug wells & bore wells

Source: (Department, 2011)


Chapter 6 Profile of Urban Village

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai


Chapter 6.

Profile of Urban Villages

6.1 Indicators for transformation The transformation of urban villages take place in the city at different levels and are interwoven into each other. In the thesis transformation is studied at 2 levels: â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

Subsystem Profile â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with the help of a primary survey conducted in the period of December 2018 to February 2019 by the author. The survey collected HH samples from 8 different villages of varied nature as described below with 15 respondents from each of them. Settlement / Cluster / Unit Level- with the help of the case study of 5 varied cases and varied unit typologies in each of the settlement.

Thus, for the purpose of evaluation of the villages and the study of transformation at a city level and at the different levels, the below mentioned indicators have been utilized. Figure 10: Indicators of Transformation

Source: Author

6.1.1 Settlement level Origin & Nature of Context The indicator determines the age of the settler, its duration of people staying and helps in analysing the percentage of migration in the settlement. The nature of the context serves as the background for analysis regarding the other indicators. Land Use & Use Activity The land use and use activity determines the extent and nature of non-residential uses in the area and of other use in the areas meant for open space, community facilities etc. Husing Market

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

The housing market is determined in the settlement level to understand the difference sand impacts of the market on the city and vice versa. Socio Economic Character Ethnicity of the determines the change in the culture, homogeneity, need and aspirations in the settlement. Occupational Structure or economic activity involves the shift in the homogenous nature of the community and its impacts on the city and village Proximity to work determines the nature of economic activity if the activity is a home based or a community based or away from the villages explaining the impacts and economic interrelation of the city and the village. House Hold Size The indicator determines the changing family construct in the village and its relation with the ethnicity and homogeneity of the village.

6.1.2 Unit level Typology of Housing The indicator determines the housing typology of the village and its overlaps with the ethnicity. It also shows a transformation in the development nature and supply / delivery systems in the village Tenure ship The tenure ship investigates on the tenure, titles and ownership patterns in the village. Density The indicator looks at the density of dwelling units per hectare to understand the correlation between the built form and the socio-economic segment of residents. Built Form Built form determines the extent of coverage; both vertical and horizontal consolidation, encroachments, condition of structures and the change in the street scape Dwelling Unit Sizes Dwelling Unit Size determines the relation between the built form and the density of the area. Open space area & utilizatuin The indicator looks at the percentage change in the open space and its utilization along with the encroachment on them. Infrastructue


Infrastructure looks at both the physical and social infrastructure evaluating on the insufficiency and pressure of infrastructure on the density and the changes in built form.

6.1.3 Location & details for survey The number villages surveyed is 8 in number with 15 respondents per village totalling to 120 survey samples collected in the Greater Mumbai Area. The criteria for selection are as below: Table 16: Criteria for Selection of Primary Survey

Case

Reason for Selection

Sai Bangoda

Pursuing primary activity.

(Adivasipada)

Vernacular typology

Village in the National Park

Chuim Village

Village with Mixed use

(Koliwada)

Vernacular typology

Small time Builder Redevelopment

Repair Permission Structures

Area with CRZ

Area with highest land price

Bhoiwada

Village marked as slum

(Gaothan)

Vernacular typology

Pucca/semi Pucca Squatter settlement

Sewri Koliwada

Village with majorly industrial activity

(Koliwada)

Pucca / Semi Pucca squatter settlements

Area with CRZ

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

Khotachiwadi

Village with majorly residential activity

(Gaothan)

Village with heritage precinct.

Vernacular

Small time Builder redevelopment

Source: Author

6.2 Gaothans 6.2.1 Land Use & Use Activity Locations for Gaothan The Gaothan have evolved from agriculture and toddy farms to now quaint neighbourhoods with high density midrise and high rise living. The farms have been diminished in process. The villages which were once in all of the islands now exist majorly in the mainland of the city. Many of the villages today exist only by its name whereas some are given heritage status. Majority of the villages have undergone gentrification at both levels; spatial and cultural. Majority of the villages have been sunk in the gentrification and a detail study and documentation is required in order to documents these villages.


Map 4: Locations of Gaothans

Source: Author

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Chart 1: Origin of Gaothan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the residents are aboriginal. There has been relocation of the residents majorly due to marriage/work to nearby village. Not many migrant populations in seen except for a 1% from neighbouring states. Majority of the land used today for residences have been allotted during the Portuguese era. The residential area has given way for mixed use and completely commercial activities

6.2.2 Socio Economic Character Transformation of HH size Chart 2: House Hold size in Gaothan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


Chart 3: Ethnicity of Gaothan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

There has been a decline in the HH size from a highest in 6-10 range to 3-5 present day. The smaller families indicate nuclear and again population in the village. The younger generation is out migrating and newer smaller families are renting out for affordable housing. The graph in the initial HH size increases from size of 2 to a presence in 10+ members in a HH. Today the number of single/ divorcee/ widow/er have increased in the village to create the presence in a 1member HH size. Whereas the 10+ bracket has become obsolete today. Ethnicity Majority of the villages have a Portuguese Christian & Gaon Christians along with the Pathare Prabu, Bhandari and CKP community in Hindu religion. The Agris and the Pathare prabhu came in as aboriginal habitants, whereas the east Indian community had villages in the southern islands. The Sunni and the Gujrat Jain came in later part of the 20th century. Occupational Structure Chart 4: Occupational Structure

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

The major occupation has been business and private sector job with a few professionals along time the student population is less in the areas with a majority in retile or middle-aged residents. There is a decline in the percentage of home makers. There is an increase in the percentage of the retired suggesting a recent increase in the private and government occupation over the years. Size of DU Chart 5: Size of DU

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The larger brackets are exclusively in the ownership sector. They mostly have a Sanad or a 7/12 utara. The smaller brackets are leased. There’s is a huge bracket of 100 – 1000sq ft. The below 100 sq. ft du size is also prominent. Very few villages have plot sizes beyond 1500 sq. ft. The larger plot sizes are majorly found in the east Indian villages.

6.2.3 Ownership Character Chart 6: Tenure in the Gaothan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


The ownership character is dominated by the freehold, inherited and the Sanad holders where they were provided tenure by the British. The next higher in numbers are the lease holders and the rent agreement holders. This brings ahead the scenario of a higher ownership versus rental users in the Gaothan. There are very few who donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a secure tenure in the Gaothan. They are majorly inheritance of Sanad, freehold or 7/12 utara.

6.2.4 Infrastructure Majority of the residents maintain the du in 4 years inclusive of forest & urban premise. The heritage areas prove to higher frequency. Around 50% du have toilets in the du of a low quality. Public toilets are provided but not used and accessed. Majorly garbage bins are provided at different areas in the settlements. Some communities appoint private agency for door - door collection.

6.3 Koliwadas 6.3.1 Land Use & Use Activity Locations for Gaothan The Koliwada have evolved from very active fishing villages to now heterogenous neighbourhoods with high density midrise living. The fishing activity today is limited to just whole sale selling of fishes and very few boats go into the sea for the activity in many villages. The villages have been always situated in the coastline and after the reclamation majority of them lost the coastline forcing the village to shift from its occupation and socio-economic configurations. Majority of the villages were notified slums with a high infiltration of migrants and shift of occupations thus turning them into slum like conditions.

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Map 5: Locations of Koliwadas

Source: Author


Origin & Native Chart 7: Origin of Koliwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the koli are aboriginal. There has been a minor relocation of the residents majorly due to marriage to nearby Koliwada. An increasing trend of migrants from other states seen these areas. These migrants are labourers working in the nearby areas. Use activity & land Use Majority of the land was squatted upon by the koli for their primary activity of fishing. Today majority of the residences have given way to mixed use structures and other amenities. Majority of the Koliwada were notified as slums and are highly congested, insufficient infrastructure living conditions. The use activity of the villages thus is restricted to fishing as was the case before. Today these villages are heterogenous and the activity of fishing has reduced to merely wholesale of the fish in majority of the villages.

6.3.2 Socio Economic Character Transformation of HH size

There has been a steep decline in the HH size in the Koliwada. The trend oh larger HH size is slowly declining today. The graph in the initial HH size shows increase in all the brackets whereas today the number of the 10+ bracket has become obsolete today.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Chart 8:House Hold size in Koliwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Ethnicity Majority of the Koliwada residents are scheduled tribes koli. The migrants belong from Islam, and Hindu from the neighboring states. The Marwari and the Sunni are the greatest in number in the migrants. Occupational Structure Chart 9: Occupational Structure in Koliwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

There has been a decline in the primary activity greatly. Only a few from the older generation continue the activity. The number of privet sector employees & professionals are increasing. There is a decline in the percentage of home makers. There is an increase in the percentage of the Professional and serviced men suggesting


a recent increase in the private and government and self-employment occupation over the years. Size of DU Chart 10: Size of DU

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the DU are between the 100 -500 sq. ft rage with a growing range in 5001000.The latter is mostly seen in the older construction. The smaller bracket is comprised of the resident migrant. The smaller brackets are the newer construction, squatter and migrant residences.

6.3.3 Ownership Character Tenure About 98% of the residents still possess the 7/12 utara as the land rights document whereas a few have a property card - A in the urban premises. Thus, they belong to agricultural land or squatters.

6.3.4 Infrastructure Majority of the residents maintain the du in 4 years inclusive of forest & urban premise. The concept of maintaining the building as a whole is absence of an association. The garbage is throwing the garbage bins provided at specific areas. The lack of drainage worsens the condition in the monsoon. About 95% of the DU have Kitchen in the house. The toilet in the du is semi open in nature. There is public toilet facility in most settlements is accessed by few.

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6.4 Adivasipadas 6.4.1 Land Use & Use Activity Locations for Adivasipadas The Adivasipada have evolved from tribal vernacular villages to and are slowly being engulfed into the city and is turning into slums. The villages once with a very conservative spatial and socio-economic set up is being encroached by the migrant population who come into the city in search of work. The vernacular nature of the society has been diminished in process. The villages which were once secluded parts on the fringes of the national park, are now majorly slums with only a mere 23 villages still retaining their vernacular nature. Many of the villages today exist only by its name and some numbers of the aboriginal members. Majority of the villages have undergone gentrification and have become unrecognizable. Majority of the villages have been sunk in the gentrification and a detail study and documentation is required in order to documents these villages.


Map 6: Location of Adivasipadas

Source: Author

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Origin & Native Chart 11: Origin of Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the Adivasi are aboriginal. There has been a minor relocation of the residents majorly due to marriage to nearby pada. An increasing trend of migrants from other states seen in the pada Use activity & land Use Majority of the land used today for residences in the forest premise are forest land. Majority of the R+C and residential activities in the urban premise pada are in the govt. vacant land

6.4.2 Socio Economic Character Transformation of HH size Chart 12: House Hold size in Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


There has been a steep decline in the HH size in the pada. The trend oh larger HH size is slowly declining today. The graph in the initial HH size shows presence in all the brackets whereas today the number of the 10+ bracket has become obsolete today. Ethnicity Majority of the pada residents are scheduled tribes like the bhois, vanjari, malhar koli etc. The migrants in the urban premises are majorly Marwari like the who come in search of work. Thus, the urban premises have lost its vernacular character. Occupational Structure Chart 13: Occupational Structure

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The major occupation has shifted from primary activity such as sheep rearing, cattle grazing to private sector jobs and business today. There is a slight decline in the percentage of home makers and a major decline in the persons in primary activity. There is an increase in the percentage of the serviced individuals suggesting a recent increase in the private occupation over the years. Size of DU Majority of the DU are between the >100 sq. ft rage with a growing range in 100-500. The latter is mostly seen in the forest premise Adivasipada. The larger brackets are exclusively in the forest premises. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s is a huge bracket of >100 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 500 sq. ft. The 500-1000 sq. ft du size is also prominent. Very few villages have plot sizes beyond 1500 sq. ft. The larger plot sizes are majorly found in the vernacular forest villages.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Chart 14: Size of DU

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

6.4.3 Ownership Character Tenure About 98% of the residents still possess the 7/12 utara as the land rights document whereas a few have a property card - A in the urban premises. Thus, they belong to agricultural land or squatters.

6.4.4 Infrastructure Majority of the residents maintain the du in 4 years inclusive of forest & urban premise. The heritage areas prove to higher frequency. Around 50% du have toilets in the du of a low quality. Public toilets are provided but not used and accessed. Majorly garbage bins are provided at different areas in the settlements. Some communities appoint private agency for door - door collection.


6.5 Comparative Analysis Household Size Chart 15: Household Size Variation

15 10 5 0 1

2 Gaothan

3_5

6_10

Koliwada

Adivasipada

10+

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The household sizes are 4 on an average in all the three fabrics. There is a steep decline in the numbers there after. The Koliwada has larger house hold sizes than the other two in comparison. The 10+ is almost obsolete in all the three fabrics. Gaothan is majorly where there are retired and senior citizen living in comparison to the younger generation. whereas in the Koliwada there is a strong migrant community presence increasing single living percentage in the fabric. The Adivasipada have lower number of single members house hold. Duration of Stay The average age of the residents in the fabric is from 60 to 100 years where the Gaothan has a strong presence in the duration after that too. There is a stronger presence in he the less than 10 years duration in the Gaothan because of the new redevelopment by small-time builders coming up in different gaothans opening other domains of the society to reside. Chart 16: Duration of Stay

60 40 20 0 <10 yr

10-20 yr

20-30 yr

Gaothan

30-50 yr 50-100 yr 100-200 yr Koliwada

200+

Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

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Ownership Chart 17: Ownership

80 60 40 20 0 Tenanted

Owned

Gaothan

Koliwada

Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The owned percentages are on the higher side for all the fabrics. This signifies the affordability of the buyer and the emotional attachment and rate of return with inherited owner. Apartments on rent is much more in the gaothans than the other fabrics. In the Adivasipadas very few are rented e=where the vernacular padas have a 100% ownership rate. Size of Du Chart 18: Size of DU

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 >100

100-500

500-1000 1000-2000 2000-3000 3000-4000

Gaothan

Koliwada

4000+

Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The average DU size is 100 sq. ft to 500 sq.ft. Thus, decreases as the size increases. The less than 100 sq. ft is highest in the Adivasipada owning to the grave number of the padas in the urban context losing its vernacular nature to function like a slum.


There is a strong presence of the gaothans in all the brackets after the mean bracket suggesting the formal or near formal delivery system in the fabric Tenure Chart 19: Tenure

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Freehold

Inherited Gaothan

Original Allotee

Lease

Koliwada

7/12 Utara

No Tenure Security

Adivasipada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the fabrics have the 7/12 utara which is for agricultural land, some have inherited ad original Sanad; which was published by the British as a tenure. These Sanadâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have properties under disputes a lot of unclear titles. This is then redeveloped as an apartment and with a bogus CHS and it is made freehold for the newer stock generated. Housing Market Chart 20: Housing Market across the Fabrics

50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

Area

Context

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

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Table 17: Housing Market in Village and its Context

Locality

Price/sq. ft

Context price/sq.

Khotachiwadi

23000

36000

Bhoiwada

15000

26644

Chembur Gaothan

10000

18560

Chuim Village

22000

42962

Worli Koliwada

10000

37596

Versova Koliwada

9000

23500

Paspoli

5000

18864

Sai Bangoda

0

15000

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The housing market present a huge difference between the village and its context making it very affordable in these prime locations. This is due to its unclear land titles, insecure tenure, highly insufficient infrastructure. The prices of the Gaothan are the highest on an average whereas the Adivasipadas majorly have very poor market value because of being in the pushed off parcel of the city, being notified as slums and some where there is no market involves such as the forest lands. Inference The average HH size in Gaothan/Koliwada/Adivasipada is 4. Majority of the villages exist from 30-100+ years. The ownership if property is dominantly exiting. Majority of the villages have a 7/12 utara and a Property card with the demarcation A on it. The average size of unit is in the range from 500-1000 sq. ft. There is more than half the price drop between the locality price of real estate to the urban villages. This is majorly due to the quasi legal and insecure tenure. The noncompliance of DCR also affects in the reduction of the rate.


Chapter 7 Case Studies

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai


Chapter 7.

Case Studies

7.1 Case study Selection Criteria Location of Case study The case study and the primary survey criteria was selected on the base sis of the following: 1. Classification by Development a. Villages still pursuing a primary activity. b. Villages with a majorly Industrial Activity. c. Villages with a Mixed-use Activity. d. Villages with a residential Activity e. Villages in National Park f. Villages marked as Slum. g. Villages marked as heritage precinct. 2. Typology of existing development a. Vernacular Typology b. Small time Builder – Redevelopment c. Pucca / Semi Pucca Squatter Settlement d. Settlements with Repair Permission structures 3. Location a. Along the coast with CRZ III b. Area in ward H/W with the highest land price 4. Type of Primary Activity a. Koliwada b. Gaothan c. Adivasipada Table 18: Section of Case Studies

Case

Reason for Selection

Sai Bangoda

Pursuing primary activity.

(Adivasipada)

Vernacular typology

Village in the National Park

Chuim Village

Village with Mixed use

(Koliwada)

Vernacular typology

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Small time Builder Redevelopment

Repair Permission Structures

Area with CRZ

Area with highest land price

Bhoiwada

Village marked as slum

(Gaothan)

Vernacular typology

Pucca/semi Pucca Squatter settlement

Village with majorly industrial activity

Pucca / Semi Pucca squatter settlements

(Koliwada)

Area with CRZ

Khotachiwadi

Village with majorly residential activity

(Gaothan)

Village with heritage precinct.

Vernacular

Small time Builder redevelopment

Sewri Koliwada

Source: Author

The selected case is Sai Bangoda which is an Adivasipada with an active primary occupation and vernacular culture intact. this village is in the SGNP area and is a national park. Chuim Villages is a Koliwada with a mixed-use character in the settlement level and housing typologies of vernacular, builder development and repair permission structure s as the plot level cases. This village falls in the CRZ area and is the area with the highest land price. Bhoiwada is Gaothan which was a notified slum with a vernacular typology and the presence of squatters in the village. Sewri Koliwada is a Koliwada with a shift of activity from fishing to adapt to the industrial nature of the port. It showcases a semi pucca housing nature with in the CRZ limits, Khotachiwadi is a heritage Gaothan which is majorly residential in nature and has the precinct still preserving the vernacular nature and sprouting developer apartments. Thus, the cases present varied scenarios in regulations, locations, ethnicity, housing and development character.


Map 7: Case Study Locations

Source: Author

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7.2 Gaothan - Khotachiwadi 7.2.1 Location & Typology Map 8: Location of Khotachiwadi

Source: Author

Khotachiwadi in Girgaon has an approach road of 9mt. The nearest railway station is Charni Road. The typology is Village with Heritage status and Village with residential Activity whereas on plot level is Vernacular Typology and Small-time builder Redevelopment. The ethnicity is East Indian Koli and the Chitpavan Brahmin. Evolution The area belonged to the family of the Khots. Later in the 1800 on the Portuguese arrival, the land was subdividing by the farmer and hence the east Indians settled in this area. The Agri sect of the Marathi Hindu settled soon later. The mercantile community of Marathi & Gujrat settled in the area post-independence.


7.2.2 Land Use & Use Activity The major land use in the area in 2019 was residential with a growing mixed use and commercial activity. The amenities area remained almost the same as 1991. The major reasons for the leasers to choose the area is affordability and the distance to place of work. The owners were inherited and the neighbourhood quality kept them bound in neighbourhood. Space availability is the least important reason to shift to the area. Map 9: Land use Plan 1991(left) and 2019 (right)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.2.3 Socio economic Character The east Indians are settled in the core area. There have been Gujrat migrants who have purchased the resold properties in the area. The Marathi CKP, mercantile sect resides in most of the chawls in and around the core area. A mix of population especial Marathi and Gujrat are visible in newer constructed apartments. 50 40 30 20 10 0

Present Occupation

Initial Occupation

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The most growing occupation is the business with the similar trend initially too. The population of youth has reduced over the time in these areas. There is an increasing trend in the home-based activity with a lowering range in the homemaking sect. this shows the presence of business activities at home & plot. Majority of the private sector travel till 5 km radius. Map 10: Ethnic Pattern - Khotachiwadi

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.2.4 Housing Market The average price in the village is 23000/sq. ft with the major product being the 2 & 3 BHK. Majority of the products are on ownership basis where as some are on a perpetual lease period. Such products are found to be cheaper than the former due to the tenure rights in the product. As the major form of rental is the lease of 99 years the rents are highly controlled under the Rent Control Act. They amount to a miniscule Rs. 100 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Rs 500 per month for a 2- 3 BHK product. Hence, either the structures are highly dilapidated and need urgent repairs or they are means of gentrification due to unthoughtful redevelopment. The new products are bought in by the Upper-class


families with high affordability due to the soaring land coast in the area. The reasons for the demand fluctuate with the heritage status of the structure, the high proximity to place of work and the amenities provided in the plot. Table 19: Housing Market - Khotachiwadi

Fabric

Description

Avg Price

23000/sq. ft

Majority Product

2,3 BHK

Type of Market Active

Ownership

Rental Rate

100-500

Typology of New Construction

Apartment (Redevelopment)

Type of Tenancy

Lease

Target Group of Rental

Old tenants

Target Group of Ownership

High-end middle-aged family

Reasons for Rental Demand

Heritage status, Place of Work, High end amenities

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.2.5 Ownership Character There is a slight majority in the owned du in the area. The majority of the owners are east Indians, mercantile Marathi and Gujrat sect. There is a majority in leasehold that rental in the area with a total 43%. Majority of the residents are inherited the property rights from Sanad holding / original allotee. Lease is the other type of tenure.

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Table 20: Tenure Pattern - Khotachiwadi (L) Type of Ownership (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.2.6 Built Form Map 11: Built Form - Khotachiwadi

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


Around 75% was built and there was an increase in the 5%of the built up. The recreational ground prescribed in the dp2035 also is used as a residential activity. The plot sizes have a huge range with the 2000-4000 bracket exclusively in the owned villa segment and the 1000-2000, the majority with both ownership and leasehold villa. There are smaller brackets with a few villas but majority of apartments and chawls in 500-1000. The lowest plots sizes are chawl and apartment construction exclusively. Map 12: Heritage Structures - Khotachiwadi

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority of the villas date back to 200 + years with some chawls in the bracket. The majority of the chawls and apartments come in the broad range of 50-150 years with newer redeveloped apartments growing. Villas are grade 3 heritage listed structures as per 2012 notification by the Heritage committee.

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Chart 21: Plot Sizes - Khotachiwadi

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Unit Type – Vernacular Structure Image 1: Exterior of the House (L) Renovated Toilet (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


Figure 11: Ground Floor Plan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The use activity is Residential + Commercial with an inherited tenure of Sanad. The unit is a Grade 3 heritage structure which is maintained every 5-6 years. The unit area is 3000 sq. ft and is G+1 in nature. There is one Household in the entire du with a size of 6 members. The material for construction and aesthetic of the function makes it a vernacular in nature. The wall is a construction of timber and brick with meticulous details whereas the roof is a Mangalore tiled sloping roof. Unit Type â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Small Time Builder Structure Figure 12: Typical Floor Plan

Image 2: Exterior - Building

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The use activity is Residential with a freehold tenure of after redevelopment. The unit is maintained every 4-5 years. The unit area per du is 450 sq. ft and is G+9 in nature. There are 36 Household in the entire du with a size of 4 members on an average. The construction is RCC framed structure with parapet and terrace. The ground areas are utility the lobby area and few office spaces.

7.2.7 Infrastructure Majority of the private houses have a toilet provision in the du of a certain quality which is semi open. The chawls do not possess a private toilet and access the community toilet made. The trust or institution or owner owning the chawls do make attempts to maintain the toilets every 7-8 years. The quaternary streets in the area are less than 2 m wide & are only accessible by a pedestrian and the tertiary streets with 3-6 mt with the road encroached for parking one side. The garbage is collected by a pvt. agency to a garbage bin provided by the municipality. The lack of an efficient sewage and drainage network creates a lot of backflow.


7.3 Koliwada - Chuim 7.3.1 Location & Typology Map 13: Location of Chuim

Source: Author

Chuim in Bandra has an approach road of 9mt. The nearest railway station is Bandra. The typology is Majorly Mixed Use, Village in CRZ and Area with high land price whereas on plot level is Vernacular Typology are Small Time Builder Redevelopment, Repair Permission Structures. The ethnicity is East Indian Koli and Sunni Islamic. The area was originally a collection of 24 villages, inhabited mainly by Koli fishermen and farmers. During Portuguese rule, many of its inhabitants converted to Catholicism called the East Indians. The area today is also a habitat to Sunni Islamic residents.

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7.3.2 Land Use & Use Activity Map 14: Transformation in Land use & Activity 1991(L), 2019 (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The major land use has shifted from purely residential to now being a mixed-use settlement with emerging cafes, boutiques and design stores. There are very few smaller communities open space available in the area. The area thrives due to the comparatively lower prices it offers in comparison with the locality and the neighbourhood quality. The few vernacular structures date back to the 200+ years whereas the majority of the repair permission structures are 50+ years old and the redevelopment residents are majorly newer residents.

7.3.3 Socio Economic Character Chart 22: Occupational Structure - Chuim

25 20 15 10 5 0 Home Maker

Student

Service

Present Occupation

Buisiness Professional Initial Occupation

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Retired


Chart 23: Nature of Occupation - Chuim

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Home & Plot

In the Settlement Present Occupation

5 Km Radius

City

Initial Occupation

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The increased trend of serviced professionals has rapidly increased the travel distance of the residents. There is an increase in the number of the Retired individuals. The student number have decreased - out migration

7.3.4 Housing Market The average price in the village is 22000/sq. ft with the major product being the 1 & 2 BHK. Majority of the products are on rental basis where as some are sold. Such products are found to be cheaper than the former due to the tenure rights in the product as they are small time builder redevelopment which have some tenurial rights or have bogus CHS. As the Rent Control Act does not extend to the suburban Mumbai, the rental prices are soaring high but lesser in comparison with the vicinity. They amount to Rs 20000-70000 per month for a 1- 2 BHK product. Hence, the structures are well kept majorly but with poor infrastructure and roads along with weak titles. The new products are bought in by the Upper Middle-Income bachelor and small family who have the aspiration to stay in the prima area of Bandra in account of the status of the area and its lifestyle but do not have the affordability to pay in the formal delivery system. Table 21: Housing Market - Chuim

Fabric

Description

Avg Price

22000/sq. ft

Majority Product

2 BHK, 1 BHK

Type of Market Active

Rental

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Rental Rate Typology Construction

20000-70000 of

New

Apartment (Redevelopment)

Type of Tenancy

Rental

Target Group of Rental

Young Bachelor, Small family

Target Group of Ownership

Aboriginal Family, Older Families, 2-3 Generation Family

Reasons for Rental Demand

Neighbourhood quality & status, Place of Work, Affordability in the area

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.3.5 Ownership Character There is a majority in the owned du in the area. The majority of the owners are east Indians, Sunni Islamic and Marathi sect. Presently the sale market is taken over by the rental market in the area. Chart 24: Tenure Pattern (L) Ownership Pattern (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Majority residents have a freehold tenure because of the redevelopment and repair permission structures in the area. The system of lease or pagdi is not prevalent in the area even though rental market is thriving.


7.3.6 Built Form Chart 25: Plot Sizes - Chuim

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019) Map 15: Built form - Chuim

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

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The majority of the structures in the area range from 500-100 sq. ft which are repair permission structures and redevelopment structures. The larger plot sizes belong to the vernacular structures and the redevelopment structures. The few vernacular structures date back to the 200+ years whereas the majority of the repair permission structures are 50+ years old and the redevelopment residents are majorly newer residents. Unit Type – Vernacular Structure Image 3: Kitchen (L)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The use activity is Residential with an inherited tenure of Sanad. The is maintained every 4-5 years. The unit area is 2000 sq. ft and is G+1 in nature. There is 2 Household in the entire du with a size of 4 members. The material for construction and aesthetic of the function makes it a vernacular in nature. The wall is a construction of timber and brick with meticulous details whereas the roof is a Mangalore tiled sloping roof. Unit Type – Small Time Builder Redevlopment The use activity is Residential with a freehold tenure after redevelopment. The unit area is 3000 sq. ft and is G+7 in nature. There are 18 Household in the entire du with a size of 4 members. The construction is of RCC framed structure with stilt parking.


Image 4: Unit Photographs

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019) Figure 13: Typical Floor Plan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Unit Type â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Repair Permissions Building The use activity is Residential with an insecure tenure of attorney and verbal agreement. The unit is not maintained frequently and require external and internal repairs. The unit area is 270 sq. ft and is G+4 in nature. There are 36 Household in the entire du with a size of 5 members. The structure is devoid of any light and ventilation and is on the verge of dilapidation. The plot lacks vehicular or fire access. The construction is the Steel and RCC construction with streel deck or ladi flooring. This has now rusted to almost give way.

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

Image 5: Interior of Unit

Image 6: Common Area - Devoid of Light

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Figure 14: Typical Floor Plan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.3.7 Infrastructure Majority of the DU have toilet and kitchen facilities in the house itself. The pedestrian quaternary streets are less than 2 m wide and the tertiary streets with 3-6 mt with parking encroachments. Garbage is collected by a garbage bin provided


7.4 Adivasipada - Sai Bangoda 7.4.1 Location & Typology Map 16: Location - Sai Bangoda

Source: Author

Sai Bangoda in Powai has an approach road of 9mt. The nearest railway station is Kanjurmarg. The typology is Majorly Residential, Village with Primary Activity whereas on plot level is Vernacular Typology and belong to Adivasi (Cattle herding, Animal Husbandry, Log Cutting). The ethnicity is Warli.

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7.4.2 Land Use & Use Activity Map 17: Land Use Activity - Sai Bangoda 2019

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The major land use in the area is residential. The area in the forest was squatted upon by the Warli tribes of south Gujrat about 200+ years before. There was no electrification in this village till the year 2013, after which some of the houses were electrified. The danger of wild beasts into the settlement is a major threat to the village.

7.4.3 Socio economic Character The involvement of people in primary activity such as cattle herding and animal husbandry has reduced. The number of serviced persons and students are on an increase. Majority of the dwellers work in the nearby forest whereas the serviced individuals work in proximity of 1-2 km.

7.4.4 Ownership Character All of the residents have a 7/12 utara issued with them. The land belongs to the SGNP authority. There is no major housing market in the settlement. Majority of the Houses are owned and inherited. The involvement of people in primary activity such as cattle


herding and animal husbandry has reduced. The number of serviced persons and students are on an increase. Chart 26: Occupational Structure - Sai Bangoda

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.4.5 Housing Market The pada is devoid of an active housing market. Majority of the residents are the owners of the area. Majority of the DU are mud walled â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mangalore tiled structures with internal partitions as rooms & multifunctional spaces. There is no rental market active in the area. The settlement stands isolated from the market dynamics and large land resource.

7.4.6 Built Form The plot sizes belong to the larger segment due to the ample availability of land resource. More than 60 % houses are larger than 1000 sq. ft to a break of 3000 sq.ft. Majority of the houses seen irrespective of the plot sizes are independent houses in nature with vernacular construction of mud and brick. Chart 27: Plot Sizes - Sai Bangoda

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

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Map 18: Built form - Sai Bangoda

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019) Figure 15: Ground Floor Plan

Image 7: Interior of Unit

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


Image 8: Exterior of Unit

Image 9: Unit with no light/ Power

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The use activity is Residential with an inherited 7/12 utara tenure. is maintained every year. The unit area is 1500 sq. ft and is G in nature. There is one Household in the entire du with a size of 2 members. The material for construction and aesthetic of the function makes it a vernacular in nature. The wall is a construction of brick and cow dung plaster whereas the roof is a Mangalore tiled sloping roof.

7.4.7 Infrastructure Majority of the private houses have a toilet provision outside the du The houses do not possess a private toilet and access the community toilet made. The community toilets are maintained and have good working condition. The quaternary streets in the area are less than 3-4 m wide & are paved to park two where on a side. The garbage is thrown out to the outside of the village or is dumped at different points in the village which is then burnt away. The lack of a sewage and drainage network becomes the reason for the majority of the provisions. The village is outside the electric grid and does not have street lights.

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7.5 Koliwada - Bhoiwada 7.5.1 Location & Typology Map 19: Location - Bhoiwada

Source: Author

Bhoiwada in Parel has an approach road of 6mt. The nearest railway station is Sewri. The typology is Village with slum status, Village with residential Activity whereas on plot level is Vernacular Typology, Pucca/semi pucca Settlement and belong to East Indian Koli and Maratha SC.


7.5.2 Land Use & Use Activity Map 20: Land use Activity 1991 (L) 2019 (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

There has been a reduction in the in the residential area due to the construction of the Bhoiwada Redevelopment project which stats stalled today. The area was originally a to a group of east Indian residents. Later the Maratha sect migrated and squatted here. They are involved in various private sector activities today. Few vernacular structures date back to the 200+ years whereas the majority of the squatter came later.

7.5.3 Housing Market The average price in the village is 9000/sq. ft with the major product being the 1 RK & 1 BHK. There is no major market involved as the settlement has the land in litigation. Some of the products are rented out. Such products are found to be cheaper than the former due to the litigation and the tenure rights in the product as they are 7/12 Utara plots. The rental prices are soaring high with respect to its status of being a notified slum and its high land cost but lesser in comparison with the vicinity. They amount to Rs 7000-15000 per month for a 1 RK & 1 BHK product. The new products are only in the form of renovation and hence no new stock is being created in the area. There are rented out by aboriginal family who have increased in size and older migrant families who aspire to stay in the main land and do not have ability to pay in the formal delivery system.

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Table 22: Housing Market - Bhoiwada

Fabric

Description

Avg Price

9000/sq. ft

Majority Product

1RK, 1 BHK

Type of Market Active

Not active market

Rental Rate

7000-15000

Typology of Construction

New

Renovation of dilapidated house

Type of Tenancy

Rental

Target Group of Rental

Migrant labor, serviced individual & family

Target Group Ownership Reasons Demand

for

of

Rental

Aboriginal Family, Older Families, 2-3 Generation Migrant Family

High land price

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.5.4 Ownership Character There is a majority in the owned du in the area. The majority of the owners are east Indians and Marathi sect. The east Indian families are the inherited families of the settlement. Presently both tenure ship has a 7/12 utara and the PR card A.

7.5.5 Built Form The majority of the structures in the area range from 100-5100 sq.ft. The larger plot sizes belong to the vernacular structures.


Map 21: Built Form - Bhoiwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019) Chart 28: Plot Sizes - Bhoiwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Unit Type â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Vernacular Structures The use activity is Residential with an inherited tenure of Sanad which was turned to a 7/12 utara. The unit is maintained every 5-6 years. The unit area is 4500 sq. ft and is G+1 in nature. There are 2 Household in the entire du with a size of 8 members. The material for construction and aesthetic of the function makes it a vernacular in nature but with the transformation and the renovations made they turn to semi pucca houses. The wall is a construction of timber and brick with whereas the roof is a Mangalore tiled sloping roof.

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Image 10: Interiors of the unit

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019) Figure 16: First Floor Plan

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.5.6 Infrastructure Majority of the DU have kitchen facilities in the house itself. The toilet facilities are provided in the community toilets constructed. The quaternary streets in the area are less than 1 m wide and the tertiary streets with 6 mt are encroached.


7.6 Koliwada - Sewri Koliwada 7.6.1 Location & Typology Map 22: Location - Sewri Koliwada

Source: Author

Sewri Koliwada in Sewri has an approach road of 9mt. The nearest railway station is Sewri. The typology is Village with Village with Industrial Activity whereas on plot level Semi pucca squatter and belong to Marathi Koli, Sunni, Yadav.

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7.6.2 Land Use & Use Activity Map 23: Land Use Activity 1991 (L) 2019 (R)

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The major land use in the area in 1991 was residential with a few scrap segregating works in the ground floor of houses and industrial sale units at the edge. The entire area is squatted on the recreation open space, commercial & Institutional land use. The major land use in the area presently is mixed use with scrap segregation and in the ground floor of houses and growing industrial sale units at the edge. The entire area is squatted on the recreation area, education & social amenity land use.

7.6.3 Socio economic Character Map 24: Ethnic Character - Bhoiwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)


Increasing trend in the home-based activity shows the presence of business activities at home & plot. Majority of the labourerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s travel till 5 km radius. The aboriginal Marathi koli have now been in one smaller edge of the fabric. The newer labourer migrants i.e. the Sunni and the Yadav have now taken up the majority of land area in the settlement. The most growing occupation is the labourer service sector with the change from fishing business. The population of youth have increased over the time in these areas. The major reasons for the residents to choose the area is affordability and the distance to place of work. The ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s area inherited.

7.6.4 Housing Market The average price in the village is 10000/sq. ft with the major product being the 1 RK. Majority of the products are on ownership basis where as some are on rent. Owning to the semi pucca nature and the slum like condition of the settlement prices of the rental and the target groups is for the low-income migrant labourers in the city. They are also landless farmers who come in search of work in the industries nearby. The entire market is functioned by the informal economy and functions on the power of attorney and verbal agreement. Table 23: Housing Market - Sewri Koliwada

Fabric

Description

Avg Price

10000/sq. ft

Majority Product

1RK

Type of Market Active

Ownership

Rental Rate

100-500

Typology Construction

of

New

Semi pucca structures

Type of Tenancy

Rental/ Owned (Informal Power of Attorney) sale

Target Group of Rental

Laborer

Target Group of Ownership

Koli families

Reasons for Rental Demand

High Affordability, Place of Work

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Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

7.6.5 Ownership Character There is a majority in the rental du in the area. The majority of the owners are koli and the rental is from the Yadav and few Sunni. Maintenances does not happen regularly. They are majorly painting & leakage proof done every 2-4 years.

7.6.6 Built Form

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

Around 90% is the built up in the area presently with no road access, RG ground or neighbourhood park; with just alleys. The area comprised of distributed foci in the circulation. Around 10% were the space for by lanes. The plot sizes are limited from 100 to 500 which is both rented and ownership. The lower of the brackets are majorly the migrant population and are majorly rented. The higher of the bracket is the koli houses and are inherited properties. Majority of the settlement dates back to the 150 years. The newer structures are mostly Yadav migrants. The major typology seen is the semi pucca squatter settlements which are usually G+1 in height and generally have a mixed-use activity of scrap segregating in the ground floor. These houses do not have any sanitation or water supply facilities and are reliant on the community facility for the same.


Map 25: Built form - Sewri Koliwada

Source: (Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai, 2019)

The use activity is Residential + Industrial with an insecure tenure. The unit is not much maintained. The unit area is 100 sq. ft and is G+1 in nature. There 2 Household in the entire du with a size of 6 members. The construction is semi pucca in nature with asbestos sheet as roofing and the brick and mortar as the walls. Figure 17: Ground Floor Plan (A) First Floor (B)

Image 11: Unit Interior (L) Exterior (R)

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7.6.7 Infrastructure Majority of the private houses do not have toilet provision in the du. The community toilets are not well maintained and have stench in the surrounding areas. The pedestrian alley ways are less than 2 m wide & the tertiary streets are encroached for living & parking. The garbage is dumped on the edges of the settlement.


7.7 Case Study Evaluation & Findings The case is evaluated on the basis of indicators for transformation as discussed earlier. The indicators discussed for evaluation development, built form & open space, socio economic character, infrastructure & maintenance & the housing market. Table 24: Evaluation of Case Studies

Source: Author

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Figure 18: The transformation of Urban Villages in Mumbai

Source: Author

The transition of the villages from the 18th century to the present day was marked by few characteristics. In the beginning they were The Village with an active primary activity Low density Villages with traditional houses and a Strong Primary Activity usually homogenous nature. They were also homogenous community with a particular sect living and working together and had a specific Community based culture. During the transition, the city stated growing its water edge, its mainland was reclaimed, and farmlands were urbanized. The villages then Urban fabrics encompass the village became medium density villages with incremental growth in Village. It is now that there was an onset of migration into the city and the village. But the village was not particularly affect spatially doing this period. Nonetheless, there was a reduction in Primary Activity even though homogeneity was tried to maintain in the community. The villages aspired for Urban culture and the urban aesthetics. This saw a transition of the aesthetics and streetscape in these villages. The present day makes the decade and half prior to it. This period has seen huge congestion in the villages. Its has changes drastically. Migration to the villages increased multifold and with it came in higher density in village. Today, the village serves as an affordable housing solution to city owing to its unclear land titles, lack of land records, insecure land tenure and the increasing pressure on infrastructure. Thus, very few villages remain in the city where the primary activity is still practiced as a community. Many of the villages have shifted the community activity from fishing or agriculture or herding to that of industrial or an in an act to adapt to the changing contextual dynamic. Some villages have become mixed use owning to the high land prices. Hence turning towards a heterogeneous community losing its culture and character. Thus, the urban village in Mumbai can be characterized by its heritage value and rich history it carries ahead. These villages have already established networks and markets. This is the same for its construction market. The villages present a more short-term savings and affordable accommodation in the maximum city. Some villages still are a source of primary activity which the city bears fruits of. The villages lack a stern regulatory mechanism at both the planning level and its implementation


levels. All of the factors contribute to the low property value in these areas which give away the piece of prime land for peanuts. The transpfromation in te villages can be segregated unthe the foollowing: Demographic changes •

Sharp rise in population and density.

Increase in population is due to migration & steep housing demand in city.

Heterogenous community.

Physical changes Change in Land Use •

Increased Residential and reduced open and green spaces in the settlement.

Mixed land use has come up along the major streets and roads of the village.

Reduction of Primary activity, shift of activity and heterogenous activities.

Built Up area of Houses •

90% of houses have 100% Ground coverage

Changes in House Structure •

Shift of traditional housing.

Dilapidation of houses

Incremental addition

Amalgamation of plots to form CHS.

Non compliance of land use and activity. High pressure on infrastructure Affordable housing in prime land & connectivity Economic Changes Occupational Structure •

Shift from primary to tertiary and Self employed.

Redevelopment & rental properties a major income

Land Values •

Increase in land prices.

Deliver cheaper accommodation due to low infrastructure & tenure.

Shifting of occupation. Heterogenous occupational structure Infrastructural Changes

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages – Mumbai

The infrastructural facilities have deteriorated with time due to high density living & no planning

The alley ways are still pedestrian paths

Some Adivasipada still don't have electrification

There's a dearth in open space

High gap of social & physical infrastructure

Dilapidation

Administrative Changes •

Different conditions & lack of documentation of the villages led to village to be slums & heritage precincts.

Hence Multiple organizations involved

Loss of data

No firm planning for the fabric


Chapter 8 Problems, Issues & Potentials

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai


Chapter 8.

Problems, Issues & Potential

The issues were identified on the basis of city and settlement level along with e regulation level issue identification. Lack of Efficient demarcation, documentation & Administration There are no accurately demarcated statutory boundaries defining the urban villages. The lack of documentation of tenure rights adds to misuse and illegal sale and construction. No documentation of the housing stock provided by the areas prevents strategic planning of any village. Multiplicity of planning bodies creates a chaos in the scenario. The planning authority does not deal with Adivasipada due to nonavailability of spatial data and mapping. DCR There is no continuous expansion of approach road. The maximum approach road effectively only of 8 mt in case of shifting the plot boundary. Congestion & Bottlenecks are present due to low width road and mixed use in the area and irregular shifting of plots. The FSI provision of 1.5 with density of 300-675 DU/Ha reduces the height to 14 mt height not able to tap the land resource optimally in some areas. This same height provision of 14 mt removes the cultural and heritages character of the area in heritage precincts. There is no mention for development & reconstruction in case of amalgamation of plots and in case of using zonal FSI of the area. A ground coverage of 75% of the plot with no parking provisions mentioned puts a high stress on the street parking and infrastructure. This also tends to keep low rise to mid rise structures. There is no mention for regulations of reconstruction for villages with/without an active primary activity and industrial, mixed use activity. This generic provision does not cater to specific characters of development in these areas thus either not using the optimum development potential or destroying the cultural significance. Settlement level The transformation of the primary activity to industrial and commercial mixed-use reasons out for a sensitive approach of development. The transformed activity has been opening randomly changing the entire land use of the area. Due to cheaper and much more affordable housing available in the village, the villages are overcrowded with highly congested circulation and built fabric. This also put a vey high pressure on the social & physical infrastructure. The tenure and property ownership card have been flouted in many ways to bring about sale by power of attorney, creation of fake CHS, and added to land and builder mafia. There are no setbacks on plot with 100% ground coverage so very few houses have plot level open spaces. The settlement has organically grown so there are no recreational and open spaces at settlement level too. Smaller HH sizes, out migration

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and increase in the lack of maintenance add to fights for ownership due to high property value and ways for redevelopment. No incentive provided for repairs and maintenance of structures and taxes for locked houses. Heritage Building & Heritage Precincts There is a huge lack of funding for Grade III private/residential historic stock. Lack of requirement of approval for repairs & alteration by the MHCC. Loosely mentioned scope of changes prompts the demolition and redevelopment of the structures. There is no mention of regulation for Heritages precinct provided. Thus, leaving the precinct to deteriorate. Provision for reconstruction & redevelopment provided without approvals from the MHCC ill 11 floors thus prompting ad hoc redevelopment of heritage structures. Review of proposed heritage structures & precincts and denotification of irrelevant precincts. Coastal Regulatory Zone There are many missing Koliwadas in the CZMP. There is a huge threat to sensitive areas in the NDZ due to lose regulation of infrastructure & development provisions of reconstruction & redevelopment. The SRA provisions are allowed in the CRZ III premises thus prompting the SRA redevelopment of unmarked Koliwada & Adivasipada. Construction, Reclamation & Redevelopment permitted along the CRZ areas thus threatening the primary activity. Repair Permissions Scheme There are Loopholes in the implementation of the programme led to addition and complete alteration of structures and also demolition in some cases. The permissions programme does not consider infrastructure constraints/enhancement at settlement level. It does not consider structural dilapidation and housing demand. Tribal Welfare Programs & Schemes There is no city level documentation or spatial, socio economic data for the fabric in city. As majority of the Adivasipada are notified slums there is no coverage in such areas. The percentage of Adivasipada in the state is least in the city hence the coverage of the schemes is very poor.


Chapter 9 Recommendations

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Chapter 9.

Recommendations

Figure 19: Concept of the 3 tier Recommendation

Source: Author

The recommendation is looked in three levels; the city level which includes city level documentation, taxation and administration; the regulation level which looks at different approached based on development and housing typology and the settlement condition of heritage, CRZ and repair permission. The settlement level

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Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mumbai

recommendation looks at the implementation vehicle and the local area planning for the same

9.1 City level Recommendations Documentation Thorough identification of the villages must be carried out. The villages identified spatially, must be demarcated in a detailed manner. Documentation must be done taking into consideration the completely transformed villages and the slums too. They can be later segregated a planned for in the later stages. Updating of records must be adhered up on and must be available to the residents in a transparent manner. Administration Multiple organization and multiple clearances pose as the major obstacle for formal development and clear land titles. A cell be developed under the MCGM planning department for the planning and upkeep of the villages. All clearances and updates of land records and titles be through this sing window clearance in the cell. Planning & Development Strategy Advanced Physical & socioeconomic survey of the villages should be carried and their use activity should be marked and segregated. Based on the survey villages must be segregated on basis of development and primary activity. Present & Future housing & Infrastructure demand should be assessed & controlled natural growth must be allowed. Undeveloped land in the proposed boundary should be planned immediately and approved from competent authority. Land Records, Demarcation & Development Priorities There is a need for fast track revision of land records. Every property must be provided a property card and registered. Actual owners of plot also must be documented with photograph. Once the land records are finalized the development priority can be fixed by the help of the village improvement collective on the village level. Taxation There should be strict and prompt collection of property tax from the villages for the maintenance of the villages. Road plots with frontage or are mixed use in nature must be collected development charges. External development charges must be collected by the collective.

9.2 Regulations Level Recommendations


Table 25: Regulation level Recommendations

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Source: Author

9.3 Settlement level Recommendations Village Improvement Collective It is a non-profit collective by landowners & community members with representation of design and planning, built up and maintenance consultants along with investing bodes in the public and private sector. The collective must provide suggestions, mediate the process of Restructure/redevelopment/conservation along with maintaining the space, provide security, and address official documentation for tenants. It must act to negotiate the buy-out when a developer proposed redeveloping an urban village. Collaborate with external agencies for the benefit of the village Heritage walks Village Development Plan Village development plans on the line of local area plans must be prepared by the collaboration of both, the officials and the residents. This shall be mediated by the collective. For holistic development of housing & infrastructure it is important that the VDP is prepared each settlement level. This Plan would further discourage the encroachments and further fluting of regulations. Sewerage, Waste management, drainage along with other must be planned for. Open space & recreation must be planned, preserving the existing trees and open spaces in the village.


Figure 20: Plan of Action for Redevelopment of Urban Villages

Source: Author

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Bibliography Abhiyan, H. S. (2015, April 26). Hamara Shehar Mumbai Abhiyan. Retrieved from Hamara Shehar Mumbai Abhiyan: https://hamarasheharmumbai.org/2015/04/20/gaothans-urban-villagesand-mumbais-development-plan-2014-2034/ Bhalerao, A. J. (2015). Gaothan Concepts & its Regulations. In A. J. Bhalerao. Kalyan Dombivli: TISS. Board, T. D. (n.d.). Appendix 4. Adivasipada List. Census of India. (1901). Census Report - Mumbai. Mumbai: Census of India. Da Cunha, J. (1993). Origin of Bombay. Mumbai: Asian Educational Services. DCR. (1991, 2034). Department, M. T. (2011). Thakkar Bappa Intergrated Tribal Habitation Improvement Programme Scheme. In Information Booklet. Edelblutte, É. (2014). The Tribal Populations of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai (India): A Brief Political Ecology. L’Espace géographique. Free Press Journal. (2018, May 6). Free Press Journal. Retrieved from Free Press Journal: https://www.freepressjournal.in/mumbai/koliwadas-not-markedin-dp-2034-as-govt-wants-to-snatch-our-land-claims-community/1271387 Lalitha Kamat, R. R. (2016). City Building & Regime Creation for the peripheries of Mumbai. Mumbai: TISS. Magicbricks. (2015, January 2). Magicbricks. Retrieved from Magicbricks: https://content.magicbricks.com/property-news/mumbai-real-estate-newsindustry-news/tips-for-investing-in-gaothan-properties/79904.html Maharashtra Land Revenue Code. (1966). Maharashtra Land Revenue Code. Maharashtra: Land Revenue Dept. MCGM. (2011). Mumbai DRMMP. Mumbai: MCGM. MCGM. (2014). Existing Land Use Plan. Mumbai: MCGM. MCGM. (2014). Existing Land Use Plan. Mumbai: MCGM. MCGM. (2019, January 16). Retrieved from MCGM Website: https://mcgm.gov.in Mehrotra, A. R. (1994). Poetics of FSI. MHCC. (2012). Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. (2019, April 1). Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority. Retrieved from Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority: https://mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in/about-mmr

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Mumbai Tranformation Support Unit. (2015). Impact of Land Reclamation on the Social Economic Conditions of Mumbai Koliwada. Mumbai: MASHAL. Nandgirkar, S. (2003). Redevelopment of Chawls, Mumbai. Norms, C. R. (2019). (2019, January). Primary Survey - Urban VIllages in Mumbai. (P. D. Pravin, Interviewer) Ralul Srivastava, M. E. (2018, Fenrurary 17). Urbz. Retrieved from Urbz: http://www.urbz.net/articles/can-urban-villages-ever-be-planned Rupali Gupte, P. S. (2007). Housing Typologies in Mumbai. Mumbai: CRIT. SCE Group. (2014). Preparatory Studies Report. Mumbai: MCGM. Scheme, G. E. (1986). Sjahradh. (1956). jndkfdk. Mum: SPA. Soni, A. K. (2014). Housing market and transformation in urban villages, Delhi. Delhi: Unpublished. The Indian Express. (2016, March 31). The Indian Express. Retrieved from The Indian Express: https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/mumbai-herethere-is-time-to-stand-and-stare/ Tribal Development Department, Gov. of Maharashtra. (2011). Appendix 4. Mumbai: Tribal Development Department, Gov. of Maharashtra. Tyagi. (1982).


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Annexures


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Profile for Dhanya Pravin

Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages, Mumbai  

Graduate thesis project report on the Urban Villages in Mumbai

Approaches to Redevelopment of Urban Villages, Mumbai  

Graduate thesis project report on the Urban Villages in Mumbai

Profile for dhanyap
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