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MAY 2017 VOL .19 – NO.1

Economic diplomacy and development


Cover: ‘Folded Worlds’ Litho 2016 by Peeter Burgeik (www.peeter.nl). Economic diplomacy, like art, brings countries in unexpected ways together.

References Bergeijk, PAG van and SJV Moons (eds) Handbook of economic diplomacy research, Edward Elgar (2017) Moons, Selwyn JV. ‘What are the effects of economic diplomacy on the margins of trade?’ International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy 1.2 (2012): 147-162.

From the Guest Editor Economic diplomacy and development For long, scientists and diplomats did not pay attention to state activities aimed at supporting private firms via the network of embassies and consulates and via so-called economic missions (diplomatic visits facilitating business meetings). Since the turn of the millennium this has changed and scientists in International Political Economy and International Economics are now engaged in a debate on the merits and costs of economic diplomacy. In the diplomatic arena, ambassadors have moved away from the proverbial Le diplomate ne parle pas fromage (‘diplomats do not talk about cheese’; meaning that diplomats should not be involved in the low politics of commercial activities abroad). One of the driving forces behind this perspective is the increasing pace of globalization since the 1990s, in particular the catch-up of emerging markets including China. Economic diplomacy may, moreover, also become an essential tool to combat recent upsurges of protectionism and economic nationalism in the UK and US.

Moons, Selwyn JV, and Peter AG Bergeijk. ‘Does Economic Diplomacy Work? A Meta-analysis of Its Impact on Trade and Investment.’ The World Economy (2016). doi:10.1111/twec.12392

Colophon DevISSues is published twice a year by the International Institute of Social Studies, PO Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, the Netherlands Tel +31 (0)70 4260 443 or +31 (0)70 4260 419 Fax + 31 (0)70 4260 799 www.iss.nl

Economic diplomacy has gained ground as a concept in international economics and international relations not only as a qualitative notion but also in empirical research on the effectiveness of its tools (Moons 2012; Moons and van Bergeijk 2016). This DevISSues illustrates that this is also the case at the Institute of Social Studies. Economic diplomacy has an important place in the ISS research agenda, not only for academic staff, but also and especially for students at both the MA and PhD level. Professor Peter van Bergeijk explains that this is not simply because the topic is in vogue, but because economic diplomacy is especially relevant for developing countries and emerging markets. The impact and potential of the trade capital that is being built by economic diplomats has a stronger and more significant impact on South-South trade and South-North trade than on the trade between OECD countries. This is also reflected by the increasing numbers and share of scientific publications that analyse economic diplomacy in the context of developing countries and emerging markets. Prahastuti Maharani, a former MA Double Degree student, studies the Indonesian network for economic diplomacy both from a quantitative and a qualitative angle*. She argues that economic diplomacy is important for building a good country image and to promote an emerging market like Indonesia as a reliable trading partner with high quality export products. Economic diplomacy, however, is not a panacea, as Prahastuti clarifies while discussing challenges such as lacking exporter preparedness, substandard logistic infrastructure and budgets that remain below those of Thailand and Malaysia.

DevISSues@iss.nl Editor Jane Pocock Editorial Board Lee Pegler, Sunil Tankha, Sandra Nijhof Design Ontwerpwerk, The Hague Production De Bondt Grafimedia Circulation 6,500 The text material from DevISSues may be reproduced or adapted

Dr Sylvanus Kwaku Afesorgbor, a former ISS student, focuses specifically on South-South trade by comparing the impacts of (bilateral) diplomatic representations and (multilateral) regional integration on African trade*. His results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states compared to regional integration. This could mean that a trade-off exists between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy.

without permission, provided it is not distributed for profit and is attributed to the original author or authors, DevISSues and the International Institute of

This issue also presents some highlights of other ISS activities related to economic diplomacy, including the ISS Rector’s participation in the economic mission to Indonesia as well as ongoing PhD work by Renata Cavalcanti Muniz and Selwyn Moons.

Social Studies. ISSN 1566-4821. DevISSues is printed on FSC certified paper

* This article is based on a forthcoming chapter in Bergeijk and Moons 2017


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Rector’s Blog ISS: 65 years young 2017 is a year of celebrations for ISS: we are 65 years young! As I write this, at the beginning of April, the city of The Hague is full of blossoming spring flowers and budding trees. Clearly spring is in the air: we can smell the blossom and the sun is becoming warm again. People are coming out of their houses, their faces still pinched with winter cold. The city is coming to life again after a long winter period, and, while feeling relieved at the outcome of our election on 15 March and carefully awaiting the final constellation of a new government and its consequences, …. ….. ISS is gradually getting into the mood to celebrate its wonderful, blooming birthday year. ISS was founded in 1952 by the Dutch universities, in the post-colonial period, as one of the international higher education institutes offering higher education to administrative cadre from the then so-called ‘third world’. Nowadays, our focus is on our MA in Development Studies and our research and PhD programme on Global Development and Social Justice, for students from all over the world. We will celebrate our birthday in various ways. For example, we will have a ‘wall-of-fame’: from May to the end of the year, the upper-windows of the first floor will depict ISS inhabitants: photographs of staff, PhD researchers and students will look, from the inside-out, into the city of The Hague. The photographs will be framed by the colours of Mondriaan, as The Hague celebrates the 100th birthday of the famous art-form, De Stijl. ISS has always been an integral part of The Hague. Originally housed in the Noordeinde Palace, now King Alexander’s working palace, we still have wonderful pictures of our students playing table tennis in the palace corridors, while the palace cellar was

Inge Hutter Rector ISS

apparently famous for its Saturday night parties. Later, ISS moved to the Wittebrug Hotel and, in 1993, into our present building, the former post office headquarters on the Kortenaerkade. With the recent renovation of our building, we now have a beautiful lobby on the ground floor, with a very open view to the city centre making us even more a part of the city. The lobby is almost always filled with our working, talking, discussing, laughing students from Africa, Latin America, Asia and Europe. As part of Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), I often say that ISS is The Hague campus of EUR, closely situated next to the Dutch government and ministries, international organizations, embassies and NGOs. Erasmus himself was a world famous humanist scholar and philosopher, born in Rotterdam in 1466 (he died in 1536). There are many quotes ascribed to him, some of which fit ISS very well: I am a citizen of the world …….. There are some people who live in a dream world, and there are some who face reality; and then there are those who turn one into the other. And one that appeals to me very much, as I feel it is so true: A speech comes alive only if it rises from the heart, not if it floats on the lips. So ISS as The Hague campus of Erasmus, or, as I sometimes say: ‘Erasmus by the sea’. While we celebrate our birthday here in The Hague, there is ample space for stories from our alumni from all over the world: about your experiences at ISS and - above all - how education at ISS helped you become a world citizen. Please join us in our celebrations!

Contents

4 (Why) is economic

diplomacy a development issue?

7 The Indonesian

Network for Economic Diplomacy

14

ISS news

20

Focus on ISS

10 ISS Alumni: Where are they now?

19 ISS publications - staff & PhD

11 Economic diplomacy in Africa

22 ISS publications - WP/ D&C

17 Staff-student discussion

23 Student life


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(Why) is economic diplomacy a development issue? For long, the role of the state and the importance of foreign trade for the wealth of nations were clear building blocks in political economy. The trade function of the government was so clear to all, that no separate terminology was needed in discussions on the state’s involvement in export, import and foreign investment. Peter van Bergeijk Professor of International Economics and Macroeconomics and ISS

Figure 1. Number of scientific references addressing economic diplomacy (annual averages 1950-2016)*

N

To many, economic diplomacy is mainly seen as a buzz word, useful for framing the stronger involvement of the public sector in commercial trade and investment. There may be some truth in this appraisal. Economic diplomacy is clearly a modern concept that only gained a foothold in the last decade. Economic diplomacy as a term only appears to have been used significantly since the turn of the millennium as illustrated in Figure 1; whereas the concept was hardly ever used in the 1960s to 1980s, nowadays almost a thousand scientific references per year deal with economic diplomacy. Importantly, an even stronger increase in the number of references that deal with this issue in the context of developing countries can be observed. As a result, the share of references to economic diplomacy in the context of exports and imports in developing countries can be expected to reach 50 per cent in the near future (see Figure 2). Of course, these are rough indicators of academic output only, but the developments over time are striking and clearly show that the topic of economic diplomacy has emerged in a relatively

1000 900 Number of google result (annual average)

eoclassical trade economics, however, opposed government intervention in international trade and investment and sought to reduce explicit and implicit subsidies, the latter including what we today label as ’economic diplomacy’.

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1950s

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Of which Developing countries

* Source: Google scholar, accessed January 2017 Note: reported number of hits for ‘economic diplomacy’ and (‘economic diplomacy’ + ‘developing countries’)

short period of time and that the relationship with development is increasingly being recognized.

Drivers behind the rise of economic diplomacy It is no coincidence that the growth in economic diplomacy studies took off in the 1990s. This is the period in which a sharp increase in globalization occurred, due to two factors: the break-down of the Soviet Union increased openness globally by some 2.7 percentage points (van Bergeijk, 2015) and at the same time

the Global South, in particular due to the rise of China, captured an important share of global trade and investment flows (Murshed et al., 2011). The new wave of globalization broadened the informal and formal networks of all actors (states, private firms, nongovernmental organizations and households). Paradoxically, this has made all actors both more influential and more vulnerable with regard to behaviour in other jurisdictions. Even actors with geographically limited direct networks and activities (so remaining in the purely


Themed article

intra-OECD trade flows (Lejour, 2017). The increasing attention to the role of economic diplomacy regarding the exports and imports of non-OECD markets can also be understood from this perspective.

Share in percentage (period average)

Figure 2. Share of references that deal with developing countries in the field of economic diplomacy (1950-2016, annual averages)* 50%

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0% 1950s

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* Source: calculations based on data reported in Figure 1

domestic or national realms) have increasingly become linked across borders through upstream or downstream activities in their formal and informal networks and through the internationalization of the activities of other nearby actors. The increasing importance of activities that go beyond borders (that is beyond the geographic location of the state) has substantial implications for the state: the stakeholders of such activities become fragmented across jurisdictions. A firm sells in many markets so its consumer base no longer reflects state borders. Traditionally, the state only had to deal with its own citizens as they constituted the franchise, but due to the increasing numbers of cross border linkages, non-state actors in other jurisdictions can influence the state and its interactions with other states and thus need further consideration. The new and emerging players in the global production networks participated in the multilateral trade system but their markets remained quite distinct from OECD markets for cultural, historical and institutional reasons. Since such invisible barriers to trade obviously are not covered by the rules and regulations of the World Trade Organization, bridging this gap and enabling trade with developing economies and emerging markets became a major task for economic diplomats. Empirically, embassies and other trade promoting institutions are not associated with larger

Table 1.

In the Global North, this shift becomes apparent with the integration of trade policy and development cooperation into one ministry and sometimes even under the leadership of one minister as is the case in Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the Netherlands (see Table 1). This integration implies that policy-makers increasingly combine insights from development studies and international economics in their strategies. Development cooperation and international trade and investment policies are seen as building blocks for

Division of development cooperation and trade policy responsibilities

Trade and development cooperation in 1 ministry (but separate ministers) Australia

1 minister for trade and development cooperation

×

Austria Belgium Canada

×

Czech Republic

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Denmark

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Finland

×

×

France Germany Greece

×

Iceland

×

Ireland

×

Italy

×

×

Japan Korea Luxembourg New Zealand

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Netherlands

×

×

Norway

×

×

Portugal Spain Sweden

×

Switzerland United Kingdom

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United States

*

5

*

* Formal situation. Practice is different (size and independence of USAID) Source: Moons (2015)


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Diagram 1. Economic diplomacy, development cooperation and trade and investment policies

Policy-makers

Economic Diplomacy

Development cooperation

Trade and investment policy

Evidence base and reseach

economic diplomacy. This integration is a political reality in the Netherlands and it requires a strategic repositioning of Development Studies (Diagram 1). Funding will only be available for research that extends beyond traditional frontiers and provides guidance on effective private sector participation, in particular from the Netherlands. Countries that develop should not be left in the cold once they graduate to higher income classes but should be supported by appropriate trade and investment policies.

Economic diplomacy in the context of deglobalization The geo-economic shifts since the 1990s have fuelled nationalist sentiments among broad segments of the populations of the Global North which resulted in a majority in the vote for Brexit (an unprecedented withdrawal from a supranational regional integration framework) and the election of US President Trump leading to significant protectionism and uncertainty. The ensuing move towards isolationism and deglobalization had its roots in the financial and economic crisis of 2008/9. This clearly threatens the multilateral system, in a slower but similar sense repeating the policy errors of the 1930s that ultimately had a very negative impact on the periphery of the nonindustrialized world. Soon developing countries and emerging economies will encounter many more difficulties in entering the markets of the Global North.

Development cooperation will become more tied to national (economic) interests. Also from this perspective, support by the state using all its instruments of economic diplomacy will be important for the Global South.

Conclusions Economic diplomacy is relevant for developing countries and emerging economies and this is recognized by Development Studies. Empirical research shows that economic diplomacy is especially germane for developing countries and emerging markets (see also the next article by Prahastuti Maharani). Studying economic diplomacy, its motivation and its impact may also lead to better evidence-based policies as it enables a better understanding of the interaction of the state, the private sector and (inclusive) development. Better understanding cannot be based on a monodisciplinary approach and will require multimethod research since the impacts and actors in this field of study are very heterogeneous. Development Studies is therefore also well-positioned to add value to the analysis of and policy advice on economic diplomacy.

ISS participates in economic mission to Indonesia In November 2016, ISS Rector Inge Hutter participated on behalf of the Executive Board of Erasmus University in a three day economic mission headed by Prime Minister Mark Rutte and (then) Ministers Lilianne Ploumen (International Trade and Development Cooperation) and Melany Schultz van Haegen (Infrastructure and Environment). The mission, consisting of more than a hundred firms and knowledge institutes, focussed on more than just business deals. Inge Hutter participated in order to investigate the potential contributions of Erasmus University and ISS in particular to research and education in Indonesia. ISS may also be important for the private sector. Inge Hutter: ‘The Dutch so-called spearhead sectors acknowledge the importance of societal stakeholders. Development studies can help Dutch firms to ascertain how their operations influence issues like gender or smallholder farming’. One of the important assets that ISS has in this context is its broad network of alumni.

References van Bergeijk, Peter AG. (2010) On the Brink of Deglobalization, Edward Elgar van Bergeijk, Peter AG. "Visible and invisible walls: World trade patterns and the end of the Cold War." Acta Oeconomica 65.2 (2015): 231-247. Lejour, Arjan, (2017) “Passing export hurdles with a little help of my friends”, Chapter 11 in: P.A.G. van Bergeijk and S. Moons (eds) Handbook of Economic Diplomacy Research, Edward Elgar Moons, S. (2015) “Aid and Trade, Changes and Challenges for Development: A Case Study of The Netherlands”, Human Welfare, Vol. 4, pp. 34-48. Murshed, M., Goulart, and LA Serino (eds) (2011) South-South Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities for Development, Routledge


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7

The Indonesian Network for Economic Diplomacy

Prahastuti Maharani Public Relations Officer of the Directorate General of National Export Development (DGNED), Ministry of Trade of Indonesia in Jakarta

In 2014, the government of Indonesia released its Strategy to Triple Non-oil Exports in the Period 2015-2019, aiming to increase the share of non-oil exports to GDP from 20 per cent in 2015 to 30 per cent in 2019. The strategy introduces numerous instruments and government policies to enhance export performance, including competition policy, taxation, education and technological policies. Moreover, building a good country image is very important. Promoting a country as a reliable trading partner with high quality export products is key to meeting the Strategy’s targets. Therefore economic diplomacy plays an important role.

I

n my MA Research Paper I studied Indonesian economic diplomacy using a mixed methods methodology comprised of document analysis, semi-structured interviews and econometric analysis. In this article I first discuss Indonesian economic diplomacy (also in comparison to Thailand and Malaysia). I then present the key econometric findings. Next I discuss internal and external challenges and finally I draw some policy conclusions.

Organization of economic diplomacy Indonesia assigned the responsibility for economic diplomatic activities abroad to two different institutions (the overall responsibility rests with the Ministry of Trade): the Indonesian Trade Attachés and the ITPCs (International Trade Promotion

Centers). These two institutions have the same objective, namely to stimulate business-to-business links and to support and stimulate Indonesian exports. However, an International Trade Attaché is attached to an embassy and thus also involved in other (cultural, political, dispute settling) diplomatic activities. It is a demanding and complex context since an International Trade Attaché acts as the representative of the Minister of Trade abroad and at the same time as a staff member of the Ambassador. In the organizational structure of the Indonesian Ministry of Trade, the International Trade Attaché reports to the Secretariat-General of the Ministry of Trade, while an ITPC is under the supervision of the Directorate General of National Export Development (DGNED). Moreover, an International Trade Attaché is a trade representative

with diplomatic status, while the ITPC’s head officer is not a diplomat. ITPCs can therefore act more independently, thus enabling them to concentrate on export facilitation. They are mostly located in trading cities as well as in embassies or consulates. Both the Trade Attaché and the head of the ITPC are government officials from the Ministry of Trade. In their duties, Trade Attachés focus on legal and regulatory issues while the ITPCs specialize in business promotion activities. The use of ITPCs increased significantly from the early 2000s, when six centres started operation. Presently, 19 centres are located in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, United Arab Emirates and USA (two offices).


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"The gap between Indonesian economic diplomacy and that of its competitors"

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Number of trade offices abroad

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During my background interviews with the Indonesian Trade Attachés and ITPC officers, the gap between Indonesian economic diplomacy and that of its competitors was underlined. For example, in Australia, MATRADE and THAITRADE provide dozens of free booths at trade fairs while Indonesia, due to the limited availability of funding for promotional purposes, provides at most three booths for Indonesian small and medium sized exporting firms.

Economic diplomacy and the gravity of trade The econometric analysis uses a panel gravity model of Indonesian non-oil exports to 62 importer countries from 1996 to 2014. In the regressions, the presence of an ITPC is consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in Indonesian exports. The impact of an IPTC is stronger than that of Trade Attachés; this may be a reflection of its more independent budget and promotion activities (vis-à-vis embassies and consulates) or the stronger focus on export promotion (Trade Attachés also have to deal with regulation and policy issues and are involved in other noneconomic embassy activities). Also important is the finding that the size of the impact of the Indonesian instruments for commercial and economic diplomacy is small in comparison to other countries. From the perspective of the small size

2013

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By early 2016, the Indonesian network for economic diplomacy consisted of 23 Trade Attachés and 19 ITPCs posted in 30 countries. The Indonesian economic diplomacy institutions are mostly located in advanced countries. The reason for this focus is that Indonesian exports are susceptible to formal and non-formal trade barriers in these countries. Trade Attachés and ITPCs help business communities to face the formal and informal barriers to trade and provide market knowledge as well as other relevant information for their exporters. The Indonesian efforts need to be compared with the investments of competitors. From this perspective it is noteworthy that the Malaysia External Trade Development Corporation (MATRADE, which acts under the responsibility of Malaysian Ministry of International Trade and Industry) has 38 offices abroad while Thailand’s THAITRADE (a state owned company) manages 56 offices around the world. MATRADE conducts overseas trade fairs, trade and investment missions, specialized marketing missions, in-store promotion, information booths, exhibitions and promotion services. By providing market intelligence and relevant advice, MATRADE assists Malaysian exporters to better position their products and services in highly competitive global markets. THAITRADE focuses on helping international trade promotion through trade fairs and in-store promotion.

Total Export value in million US$

Figure 1. Indonesian exports and trade offices (1996-2014)

Number of CDC offices abroad

effect, it is relevant that my analysis shows that ITPCs appear to strengthen the impact of Trade Attachés, implying that the presence and cooperation of both institutions in one country could strengthen export performance. In contrast, the trade impact of embassies and consulates is likely to be reduced when an ITPC is introduced. In this sense, ITPCs ‘compete’ with embassies and consulates without Trade Attachés but ‘build synergy’ with embassies and consulates that employ Trade Attachés. Indonesian embassies and consulates that always have an economic function in their organization structure do not improve Indonesian export performance unless the task is explicitly assigned to an attaché.

External and internal challenges An important issue is the lack of exporter preparedness. Potential export demand can be identified by economic diplomats but the required supply response is often not provided. For example, the demand for Arabica coffee in Australia is very high, however the supply by the coffee industry in Indonesia which meets buyer requirements remains low. Likewise, it is important for exporters to the Netherlands to meet quality demands with the improvement of the certification system, labelling, packaging, and good manufacturing. Indeed, to enter the export market, ‘client preparedness’ is


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"Important internal factors such as limited budget, lack of staff, and coordination problems."

for small and medium sized exporters. Relatedly, the lack of staff hinders the achievement of full effectiveness of economic diplomatic activities. For example, only two local staff members who share responsibilities are employed in the Netherlands. One staff member focuses on administrative matters whilst the other one helps the Trade AttachĂŠ with networking, report writing, creating promotional events, and producing market information materials.

Policy implications essential, especially for small and medium-sized exporters from developing economies such as Indonesia (Zuiderma and Ruel, 2012:7). In order to increase Indonesia’s market share in the world, the government should encourage the export of manufactured products and high value added goods as well as the improvement of standards to meet international market requirements. The distribution channel in Indonesia hampers export performance. Many firms complain about the logistic infrastructure which is not up to standard, thus undermining Indonesian competitiveness in relation to other countries. The logistical problems are multi-fold and include storage, the road and transport fleet, terminal handling, shipping, as well as informal distribution costs and the licensing procedures of local and central authorities. Typically, opportunities exist to avoid middlemen and intermediating firms in Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. A well-functioning own distribution channel will increase export value. My qualitative research also points out important internal factors such as limited budget, lack of staff, and coordination problems. The six-fold increase of the ITPC budget from 2004-2014 would seem to be encouraging from this perspective. However, this needs some qualification as about two thirds of the budget is spent on salaries and office space. The background interviews highlighted that it is still difficult to produce market intelligence and market briefs, to organize business meetings, and to subsidize trade fair participation

The outcome in this study may encourage some policy initiatives. The first initiative relates to the internal problem of economic diplomacy which will become more effective when equipped with sufficient budget and competent staff. Moreover, the government should reduce its bureaucracy and become more active in supporting exporters. Success in export promotion demands strong commitment from all stakeholders. Improving the coordination of all institutions is a major issue. Formulating a national export promotion strategy to help firms overcome barriers to exporting as well as to encourage more businesses to get involved in exports may be a way of doing this. In addition, economic diplomacy should create a more sound export promotion programme and better client-oriented institutions since business people need more practical support and easy access to foreign markets. Making export targets a national commitment and complementing these with a consistent policy is a major requirement to improve the impact of Indonesia’s economic diplomacy.

The heterogeneous effects of economic diplomacy Selwyn Moons is an ISS PhD researcher working at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as Deputy Director for the Sustainable Economic Development Department of the Directorate General for International Cooperation. Selwyn holds a Master degree in economics from Erasmus University Rotterdam. The topic of his PhD thesis is the heterogeneous effects of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade and investment flows. He establishes that the average effect of economic diplomacy literature is positive and significant but strongly depends on research design (sample used, sort of diplomatic intervention, econometric method used, etc.). Additionally, his thesis shows that the effect of economic diplomacy depends on the good that is traded and the level of economic development of both the exporting and important country. For Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) he tests and confirms that the effect of diplomacy is concentrated on FDI flows between continents. Furthermore, the effect of economic diplomats is established for both incoming and outgoing FDI. Several parts of his thesis have been published, the most recent in The World Economy (2016).

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10

ISS Alumni

Where are they now?

Dr Holly A Ritchie Study PhD, 2009-2013 Country of origin UK Current occupation Research Affiliate ISS, Independent consultant and aspiring social entrepreneur with a focus on gender, economic development and social change (based in Kenya). What made your time at ISS special? I was extraordinarily lucky on two fronts: to have had a superb supervisory team (Prof. Bert Helmsing and Prof. Peter Knorringa), and to have had such a great group of PhD colleagues that really lived and breathed the amazing PhD journey with me. Your most memorable moment? It is difficult to highlight just one moment because the PhD process was memorable throughout: from my very first meeting long before my PhD with Peter Knorringa in 2008, to my Thesis Design Seminar in 2010, Post Fieldwork Seminar in 2012, and finally to my PhD defence in 2013: achieving my dream of a cum laude. What does ISS mean to you now? ISS is still my academic home, and my colleagues are really my academic family!

Syed Irtiqa Ahmed Zaidi Study MA, Agricultural and Rural Development 1983-84 Country of origin Pakistan Current occupation Retired Joint Secretary Ministry of Commerce in Pakistan. After retirement I worked as a UNDP, World Bank and Asian Development Bank consultant.

What made your time at ISS special? I took part in many extra-curricular activities at ISS. I was elected class representative and I wrote and staged a sarcastic and witty play, ‘Love Marriage and the Bureaucracy’, which was very much liked by ISS participants and faculty. Your most memorable moment? My research paper supervisor, Professor van de Laar approved my Research Paper, saying ‘the Paper is excellent, no correction is required, get it printed as it is’. What does ISS mean to you now? I still cherish the good days I spent in ISS. I am in contact with many ISS alumni on Facebook. I was the founder member and Vice President of the Netherlands Alumni Association of Pakistan (NAAP). I have written an autobiography which contains two chapters on ISS. Unfortunately my heath is not good but my family, friends and ISS alumni are constant sources of inspiration.

Md. Tareq Jubayer

Mare Fort

Study Women, Gender and Development, 2006-07 Country of origin Bangladesh Current occupation Platoon Commander (Additional Superintendent of Police) working with the United Nations Mission in Darfur, Sudan

Study Politics of Alternative Development Studies, 1994 Country of origin Peru Current occupation CARE Vice President, People and Culture

What made your time at ISS special? The incredible global atmosphere. I learnt not only academically but also, and probably mainly, from the What made your time at diverse experience of my ISS ISS special? The multicultural environment and the alternative colleagues. I learnt about different cultures, different thoughts of the participants. opinions and positions, living styles, genders etc. It was also Your most memorable very special to live in the moment? International Day is the most memorable day for me Netherlands and learn about its culture, its people, its history. Its because I participated with my politics! I learnt about how the compatriot exhibiting Bangladeshi food, clothes, fruits concept of ‘time’ can be culturally sensitive and what and other traditional things. I tolerance really means. also visited other countries’ stalls and tasted their cuisine. It was really great fun to exchange Your most memorable global culture. moment? The most memorable moment was International Day. The Latino group decided to What does ISS mean to you make a potpourri of songs from now? ISS is a mini United different parts of our region and Nations because each invite everyone to dance with us. participant from each country represents their own country. Everyone can share their ideas What does ISS mean to you and thoughts with each other in now? A reference and a a global forum. They can even network. Most of our class debate with each other and can discussions are still relevant introduce alternative thoughts today and I maintain contact about global development. with my colleagues and exchange ideas, job opportunities, social and personal moments. We are a big global family and we have a special bond, a special identity this is the wonderful potential of a global organization such as ISS.


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Economic diplomacy in Africa: The impact of regional integration versus bilateral diplomacy on bilateral trade

Sylvanus Kwaku Afesorgbor Postdoctoral researcher at the Tuborg Research Centre for Globalization and Firms of Aarhus University, Denmark

Recently, the influence of politics on international trade has gained acceptance in economics. Many studies have emphasized the relevance of political or diplomatic relations in facilitating trade. They argue that diplomatic relationships between states taking the form of state visits and the opening of trade missions, consulates and embassies are significant determinants of bilateral trade between countries.


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A

lthough many studies have confirmed the relevance of these various forms of diplomatic representations among developed countries, there is limited information on how they influence or facilitate trade among developing countries. This study focuses specifically on South-South trade by comparing the impacts of diplomatic representations and regional integration on African trade. More importantly, it examines whether there is any interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy in the case of African countries. Africa offers an interesting perspective for comparison of these two instruments for two main reasons. First, diplomatic exchange among African states geared at promoting South-South trade has not yet been investigated at a sufficient level of detail. The focus on only African states is very important because, apart from the insufficient number of studies that have analysed the effect of economic diplomacy on South-South trade, the studies also only include a small number of African countries in their samples. For example, studies such as those by Yakop and van Bergeijk (2011) and van Veenstra et al. (2011) include less than 10 African countries in their samples. In addition, these studies used only cross-section data which also poses a number of econometric challenges. Thus, this study provides the first detailed cross-country empirical study for a large number of African states using panel data. Second, spiralling regional economic integration activities or extreme multimembership of regional blocs on the continent may have either a positive or negative effect on direct state-to-state diplomatic ties (such as state visits, embassies, consulates, etc.) among members that are involved in similar regional blocs. A positive effect would be if regional integration helped member countries to establish or reinforce bilateral diplomatic ties. In theory, countries that share membership in regional blocs are more likely to establish

Percentages

The percentage of African countries involved in bilateral diplomacy compared regional integration 70%

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Regional Integration

"Membership of a regional bloc may require some national autonomy to be renounced." deeper diplomatic ties compared to those which do not. Thus, regional integration activities can complement commercial diplomatic activities. This is mainly because regional economic activities can provide the platform for member states to dialogue and strengthen economic and political cooperation. A negative effect can take place if regional integration activities crowd out bilateral diplomatic activities among the members of the regional bloc. Van Bergeijk (2011) argues that regional integration can restrict the policy space available to member states to use other instruments of economic diplomacy. He therefore points to a subtle trade-off that may exist between regional integration and bilateral negotiations, as membership of a regional bloc may

require some national autonomy to be renounced. This may be largely due to the fact that both activities fall within the same spectrum of foreign policy and that they come with huge financial burdens. Since the budgets for both regional integration and commercial diplomatic activities may be mainly financed from the Ministry for Foreign Affairs budget allocation, the activities are likely to compete for financial and human resources. This may contribute to relatively fewer commercial diplomatic activities among African countries in the same regional bloc. In this way, any positive impact of commercial policies on bilateral trade is likely to be lower among African countries already involved in regional trade agreements (RTAs). A first-hand relationship between these two instruments of economic diplomacy indicates the possibility of a trade-off as


Themed article

"A trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy" the percentage of country-pairs engaged in bilateral diplomacy in Africa dwindled drastically in the period when regional integration activities were intensified on the continent. To examine the impact of these two main instruments of economic diplomacy — regional integration and commercial diplomacy - on export flows among African states, we test whether there is any evidence of a trade-off or complementary interaction between these two instruments in trade facilitation. We compare the effects of these two instruments of economic diplomacy on bilateral trade by employing the international trade workhorse empirical tool, the gravity model, for 45 African states over the period 1980-2005. The econometric approach adopted here controls for a number of econometric concerns such as zero flows in trade data, reverse causality and multilateral resistance terms.

state-sponsored bilateral diplomatic activities. We also find a nuanced interaction between these two instruments of economic diplomacy: the trade–stimulating effect of diplomatic exchange is less pronounced among African countries that share membership of the same regional bloc. Generally, this could mean that there is a trade-off between regional integration and commercial diplomacy in facilitating exports or a lack of complementarity between these two instruments of economic diplomacy. The main policy implication from this paper is that governments and regional blocs must realize that regional integration activities cannot substitute for bilateral commercial diplomacy. Diplomatic missions are in a better position to correct the information asymmetry that international firms face in foreign markets. Thus, regional integration can create market access opportunities that can be effectively utilized by complementing them with bilateral diplomatic activities.

References:

The results show that bilateral diplomatic exchange is a relatively more significant determinant of bilateral exports among African states compared to regional integration. This result is plausible, as non-trade barriers can be more effectively eliminated through bilateral negotiations or direct state-to-state diplomacy. More importantly, some of these barriers may be peculiar to a particular state; hence a bilateral rather than a regional negotiation in eliminating them would be more effective. Thus, it is possible that economic integration could create foreign market access opportunities that could only be utilized effectively if market access is complemented with

Bergeijk, Peter A.G., Maaike Okano-Heijmans, and Jan Melissen, eds (2011) Economic diplomacy: economic and political perspectives. 2011 Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. Van Veenstra, M. L., M. Yakop and Peter A.G Bergeijk (2011) The Geography of Trade and the Network Effects of Economic Diplomacy in the South. In Murshed, M., Goulart, and LA Serino (eds) South-South Globalization: Challenges and Opportunities for Development, Routledge 90:172. Yakop, M., and Peter A.G. van Bergeijk (2011) Economic diplomacy, trade and developing countries. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 4 (2): 253-267.

Economic Diplomacy as a tool for development: A comparative analysis between Brazil and the Netherlands Renata Cavalcanti Muniz (1982) is a PhD researcher at ISS fully funded by the Brazilian government via the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPQ-Brazil). Renata holds a Master degree in International Relations from the Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations. Currently at ISS, she is in the second year of her PhD and is part of two research programmes, Economics of Development and Emerging Markets (EDEM) and Civic Innovation Research Initiative (CIRI). Her thesis (supervised by Lee Pegler and Peter van Bergeijk) compares the use of Economic Diplomacy in different strategies to integrate the Global Production Networks used by Brazil and the Netherlands with a focus on the ports sector, and analyses the influence of the interaction of these strategies to Brazilian development. Recently, a chapter from her thesis was approved for publication in Edward Elgar’s Handbook of Economic Diplomacy Research.

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14

ISS news

ISS news alumni awards EUR events PhD projects research staff students

ISS as polling station for Dutch national elections students

ISS students took the opportunity to discuss different forms of electoral practice and see ‘democracy in practice’ Dutch style. The most noteworthy thing they learnt? The high level of trust between Dutch voters and the electoral organization.

Best article award for PhD graduate Natalia Mamonova alumni

ISS at 65 events

Natalia won the Graduate School Award for PhD Excellence for her article 'Naive Monarchism and Rural Resistance in Contemporary Russia' published in Rural Sociology. The jury considered the article to be an insightful combination of history, political science and sociology, examining present-day rural Russian politics.

This year ISS celebrates its 65th anniversary. The anniversary celebrations, most of which will take place during the Dies Natalis in October, will focus on the theme of Global Development and Social Justice.

'All eyes on the Amazon' wins research grant from Dutch postcode lottery project ISS is part of a coalition to be awarded a grant of € 14.8 million by the Dutch National Postcode Lottery. The project will combine modern technologies such as satellites, drones and tablets, with the centuries old knowledge of the indigenous inhabitants of the Amazon in an attempt to halt deforestation.


ISS news

ISS wins grant to conduct study on Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Relationships project Kristen Cheney and Auma Okwany have won a US$ 450,000 grant from the Oak Foundation to conduct a two-year study on ‘Adolescents’ Perceptions of Healthy Relationships in eastern Africa and Eastern Europe’. The project will be carried out in partnership with International Child Development Initiatives. The Foundation chose the proposal because it valued the researchers’ experience in youth participatory action research in the project areas, as well as its emphasis on 'local ownership, advocacy as a continuous process, and commitment to safeguarding children.'

Karin Arts joins Supervisory Board UNICEF Netherlands staff Karin Arts joined the Board in January 2017. Her appointment is directly connected with her academic work on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, child rights-based approaches to development, and children's rights and climate change.

ISS signs Stop Orphan Trips pledge events

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ISS refresher course in Tanzania alumni

ISS is the first academic institution in the Netherlands to sign an Institute Pledge to Stop Orphanage Volunteering. By signing the pledge, ISS states that it does not support volunteering at orphanages, that it will not advertise volunteering trips among students and that it endeavours to ensure that such opportunities are neither facilitated nor promoted within ISS. In September 2017, Leo de Haan, will hold a refresher course in Dodoma, Tanzania. The 2-week course on ‘The role of the Local Government Planner ensuring Local Economic Development towards Food Security’ has been developed in partnership with the Institute of Rural Development Planning.

Launch of the International Development Law Clinic events The Clinic provides advice to governments, inter-governmental organizations, lawyers, non-governmental organizations and others on economic, cultural, political and socio-legal questions concerning pressing legal, human rights and development issues, both in the Netherlands and abroad.

ISS alumnus named Chief Justice in Sri Lanka alumni

EUR moving up the global university rankings eur The recently released QS World University Rankings by subject shows that in the area of Development Studies EUR is now placed in 30th position globally. Other ranking systems also show EUR moving up the table, both in the European context and globally.

The Constitutional Council in Sri Lanka has appointed ISS alumnus Priyasad Dep as the new Chief Justice. We wish him all the best in his new position.


16

ISS news

In Memoriam Professor Ken Post Emeritus Professor Ken Post died on 12 March 2017 at the age of 82. He had been sick for some time. Ken Post joined ISS in 1969 and worked here as Professor of Political Science until his retirement in 1990. His research focussed on Marxist theory and the history of the international Communist movement. Ken Post will be sorely missed by ISS. Our thoughts are with his family and friends.

Gebru Mersha ISS alumnus. Gebru Mersha passed away at the beginning of this year. Gebru received all the degrees of the institution, starting with a Diploma course, followed by an MA and finally a PhD in 1995. He was highly respected by his peers and students as a Professor of Political Science at Addis Abeba University, and a caring person. Our thoughts are with his family and friends.

PhD defences PhD

Ben McKay (21 April 2017) The Politics of Control: New Dynamics of Agrarian Change in Bolivia's Soy Complex

Michela Marcatelli (3 March 2017) Legitimizing Inequality - A Political Ecology of Water in the Waterberg, South Africa

Mary Rutenge (20 December 2016) Gold-mining Multinationals and Community Interaction in Tanzania

Sara Salem (19 December 2016) The Old is Dying and the New is Not Yet Born

Jan Fransen (15 December 2016) Crafting Innovations: The Evolving Institutional Regimes of Handicraft Exporters in Emerging Economies

Natalia Mamonova (23 November 2016) Rethinking Rural Politics in Post-Socialist Settings: Rural Communities, Land Grabbing and Agrarian Change in Russia and Ukraine

Koen Voorend (21 November 2016) A Welfare Magnet in the South? The Interplay between Migration and Social Policy in Costa Rica

Tsegaye Shegro (18 November 2016) The Political Economy of the Land-Livelihoods Nexus in an Era of Ecological Change and the Global Land Rush Access to Land, Land Conflict and Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ethiopia


Staff-student dialogue

17

Global implications of the Trump presidency - conversation between senior lecturer Jeff Handmaker and MA student Molefi Ndlovu Jeff (J): The decision in the US to exclude Muslims and refugees have led to many reactions globally. There have been protests in The Hague against these measures and massive demonstrations in Barcelona expressing solidarity with refugees. Molefi, what did you think when you first heard of Trump’s decision to exclude? Molefi (M): My first instinct was that Trump’s actions were a continuation of the previous US administrations’ ‘Global War on Terror’ policies. The Bush and Obama administrations had bombed

the places that directly led to people seeking refuge in the US. Now Trump is banning them entry. I saw it as an intensification of US policy and its global war on terror. Those in power appear overwhelmed by the prospect of the US losing its position as the global hegemon. Trump uses the instrument of banning to continue the war on people by other means, to reinforce populist perceptions and especially to appeal to white, neo-conservative voters.


18

Staff-student dialogue

J: I’d like to understand more about how you regard Trump’s policies as truly an extension of Obama’s. Certainly, Obama was involved in bombing places like Yemen and Syria, but he also left the door open to people who were fleeing these regions and asking for protection in the US. Trump just shut the door.

"The Trump administration is going in quite a new, radical and unpredictable direction."

M: He did. The Obama administration was perceived as having a humanist agenda, using the language of human rights and respect for humanity, while employing sophisticated technological warfare to render the continuing wars invisible to the public domain. The Trump administration has rejected this humanist mask and uses very crass and intolerant language and practices in a way that appeals to the people that put it in power. It would be a mistake to just regard Trump in isolation of the previous administrations, because I believe we need to look at Trump in the whole trajectory of US policy since the first Iraq war. J: Certainly Obama was on the same trajectory as the Bush and Clinton administrations, but I feel the Trump administration is going in quite a new, radical and unpredictable direction. M: While I agree with you, it is important to be cautious of completely isolating Trump’s administration as an arbitrary anomaly; we need to situate it within the recent history of US foreign policy. It is true that there are radical and very anti-humanist implications to Trump’s actions, but at the same time it

is interesting to look at his other motivations. My own sense is that it might have a lot more to do with the realignment of global power relations and the shifting of the centrality of the US as a hegemon. J: I see your point in relation to the US’ shrinking status, but being replaced by whom? Russia? China? India? BRICS? M: Well, at the moment it’s not that clear. President Xi Jinping of China at the World Economic Forum 2017 said that China is prepared to take over the lead in ensuring that the global system works when the US is calling for ‘America First’. There is also the BRICS group, which has asserted a need to find an alternative to American dominance over the global economy. The recent statement by the Chairperson of the African Union noted that the American president does not represent all of humanity. All these events suggest that there is a realignment of the global status quo. J: And yet, the recent decision by African states to step out of the ICC is consistent with the US government’s long-held position: the US has never been enthusiastic about the ICC project. Africa as a block pulling out would, to me, be serving America’s interests, not departing from it. Are African states also part of this new conservative world view? M: Politically there seems to be a contraction of the global consensus and a commitment to human rights and ensuring the human dignity of all, towards a more inward-looking, interest-driven politics. J: Bringing the discussion back to Trump and immigration and to other related issues that we have been speaking about, there is a lot of outrage in the world that he appears to be targeting Muslims. Do you think that this is at the core of these measures? M: Yes, I know people personally who are affected. A good friend of mine, a green card holder, was recently taken

"I think that political decisions are influenced by economic considerations rather than the other way around."

aside on her return to the US and asked if she had any connections to terrorist groups. She has been living in the US for years and for all practical reasons considers herself to be an American citizen. Trump’s measure is literally tearing communities apart. J: The Trump administration’s stated justification for the measure to exclude people from seven countries was to protect the USA from terrorism. It was later observed that Egypt and Saudi Arabia, from where the 9-11 terrorists allegedly came, were exempted from the ban. These are countries with which Trump has had strong business interests, which lends a lot of credence to your argument that this is about a reordering of geopolitics. This all seems much more than just about Muslims, or Africans or race; but about deciding who are the global winners and who are the losers. M: I think that political decisions are influenced by economic considerations rather than the other way around. It is difficult to see why someone would make political decisions like the ones Trump has made if they do not make sense economically. J: I agree with you. Whatever happens in the coming years, I think we need to look beyond our very understandable revulsion at what is happening from a human rights, humanistic standpoint and try to understand the economics behind this. M: It will be an interesting few years.


ISS publications

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Some recent publications by ISS staff and PhD researchers

Crying for our Elders Kristen Cheney argues that the global humanitarian focus on orphanhood often omits the social and political circumstances that actually present the greatest adversity to vulnerable children, thereby affecting children’s lives as irrevocably as HIV/ AIDS itself.

Urban Poverty, Local Governance and Everyday Politics in Mumbai Joop de Wit explores the informal patronage relations between the urban poor and service delivery organizations in Mumbai, India. It examines the conditions of people in slums and traces the extent to which these people are subject to social and political exclusion.

The Creation of the ICTR In her contribution to this reference resource on this tribunal which closed its doors on 31 December 2015, Helen Hintjens argues that the urgency of establishing the ICTR was prompted by the absence, in 1994, of any international court that was able to hold individuals accountable for war crimes, genocide and other crimes against humanity.

Babies for Sale? Transnational Surrogacy, Human Rights and the Politics of Reproduction This edited volume by Miranda Davis offers an international study of transnational surrogacy. The book is partly the result of the International Forum on Intercountry Adoption and Global Surrogacy which was held at ISS in August 2014.

Generationing Development: A Relational Approach to Children, Youth and Development

Changing Social Norms to Universalize Girls’ Education in East Africa: Lessons from a Pilot Project

Edited by ISS senior lecturer Roy Huijsmans, this book debunks the idea of childhood and youth as self-evident social categories. The authors unravel how these generational constructs are (re)constituted and experienced in relational terms in development contexts.

Co-edited by Auma Okwany and Rehka Wazir, the book is an output of the three-year pilot-project South-South collaboration and capacity building for universalizing secondary education for girls in Africa.

The Politics of Food Sovereignty: Concept, Practice and Social Movements

Institutional Innovation and Change in Value Chain Development: Negotiating Tradition, Power and Fragility in Afghanistan

This volume is co-edited by ISS PhD researcher, Christina Schiavoni, Annie Shattuck and Zoe VanGelder. It examines what food sovereignty might mean, how it might be variously construed, and what policies it implies.

Drawing on in-depth qualitative research in Afghanistan, Holly Ritchie investigates the transformation of the women’s norm of purdah, and the subsequent development of new market institutions in three women’s enterprises.


20

Focus on ISS

Strengthening Education and Training Capacity in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights programmes in Uganda (SET-SRHR) project

Auma Okwany

SET-SRHR is a € 3.7 million project over 4-years (2016-2020) funded by the Netherlands Universities’ Foundation for International Cooperation' (EP-Nuffic) under the Netherlands Initiative for Capacity development in Higher Education programme (NICHE). The project, which aims to strengthen the SRHR education and training capacity in Uganda, is being co-implemented by a consortium led by ISS in collaboration with Rutgers in the Netherlands, and Makerere University School of Public Health (MakSPH) and Nsamizi Training Institute for Social Development (NTISD) in Uganda.

Context The project is set within the context of Uganda’s challenging demographics. Despite the drop in the fertility rate from 6.8 to 6, the country has one of the highest fertility rates and the second youngest population in the world, with 78 per cent below 30 years of age and 52 per cent below 15 years. Such a population structure creates a high dependency on the small active labour force. Additionally, high (youth) unemployment intersects with significant sexual and reproductive health challenges. Over 62 per cent of young women and 48 per cent of young men have had their first sexual encounter by the age of 18 and, according to the Uganda Demographic Health Survey (2011), compared to other age groups, adolescents are the only group with rising HIV/AIDS infection rates. The high growth in population is driven by high rates of unwanted births, currently at 52 per cent, with teenage pregnancies accounting for 25 per cent of over one million pregnancies recorded annually. These challenging demographic features underscore the importance of SRH policy and programmes which secure rights to inclusive, accessible, quality information and services including ample sexuality education and freedom from violence and disease.

The SET-SRHR project proposes a coordinated, standardized, and accredited sustainable pre- and in-service gender and age-sensitive education and training programme supported by a research community of practice.

Outcomes The project has a broad overall outcome of increasing access to and improving quality of SRHR services that contribute to sustainable demographic and human capital development and inclusive economic growth. The project has two specific interlinked project level outcomes. The first outcome is to coordinate and collaborate in the development, maintenance and implementation of a gender and age sensitive pre- and in-service SRHR education and training programme. The second outcome is to organize and sustain a national SRHR training, outreach and research community practice network - Utafiti na Kutenda (Research and Action) - to facilitate collaboration between diverse SRHR stakeholders and enable translation of research evidence into policy and practice action through a variety of in-reach and outreach programmes.

Implementation strategies Project outcomes and outputs are tracked around five key thematic strategies: 1. Organizational capacity enhancement This involves strengthening the institutional capacity of MakSPH and NTISD to deliver evidence-based and innovative SRHR education and training. This will be achieved through: • Leadership and management support and training to enhance the organizational and financial management skills of project staff; • Strengthening human resource capacity including training six staff members to receive a SRHR-focused Master’s degree and five PhDs; • Infrastructural support in terms of upgrading and renovation of facilities for education, training, research and outreach including library and ICT improvement and support. 2. Curriculum revision and development Curriculum review and development will start with a training needs assessment (TNA) to identify the needs and competencies of service providers. The TNA will also draw on


Focus on ISS

21

training to a total of 400 diverse SRHR professionals who will in turn cascade training and services through their institutions and networks. existing SRHR education training curricula and packages from educational institutions and civil society organizations. A curriculum framework will then be developed with quality checks via a series of validation workshops and peer review. This framework will guide the review and development of modules for the gender and age sensitive education and training curricula. The education and training programme has two major tracks: (i) a professional track and (ii) an academic track targeting diverse pre- and in-service frontline SRHR professionals at various levels. The professional track aims to increase the availability of skilled SRHR service providers and improve practice through a professional certificate trainer of trainers course offered and awarded jointly by MakSPH and NTISD to 400 SRHR service providers. The training programme will take a practical approach in recognizing that promoting SRHR will be more effective when linked with livelihood support. The academic track is structured around the institutional strengthening of MakSPH and NTISD activities and will involve: • Reviewing the Master’s curriculum at the MakSPH and integrating two gender and age-sensitive SRHR modules; • Reviewing the BA in Social Development curriculum at NTISD and integrating five gender and age-sensitive SRHR modules; • Integrating two core SRHR modules in four select diploma courses at NTISD; • Developing a new pre-service SRHR certificate-level course at NTISD targeting high school graduates. 3. Delivery of training and education programmes The proposed twin-track education and training systems are mutually reinforcing as both are designed to strengthen SRHR capacity gaps by providing standardized, accredited flexible pre- and in-service training and higher education opportunities. The professional training programme will start with a tailor-made course for 35 master trainers. By the end of the four-years, these master trainers will cascade

4. Research and documentation The project will pursue high-quality academic and policy relevant research. Academic research will lead to an award of a joint PhD by ISS and Makerere University. The shortterm policy-relevant studies will be problem-oriented with the sole purpose of providing quick data and information that will be used for the policy advocacy work of the SRHR Community of Practice. Two rounds of research on SRHR issues will be undertaken and findings will be disseminated in the form of two edited books (2018 and 2020) and a total of five journal articles in internationally peer-reviewed journals. Research findings will also be disseminated via non-academic avenues including newspaper articles, policy briefs and alerts; audio visual materials; campaigns (theatre for development, flash mobs, etc.); social media platforms including the SET-SRHR blog, Facebook and Twitter. 5. A sustainable SRHR research Community of Practice – Utafiti na Kutenda The project will facilitate the Utafiti na Kutenda (research Community of Practice) that is broad-based and will provide a platform for diverse stakeholders to network and engage in contributing towards evidence-based SRHR policy and programme discourse and action. Utafiti na Kutenda will also inform curriculum review and teaching/training. The Centre for Social Justice at NTISD will host Utafiti na Kutenda to provide the space for exchanging ideas, sharing experiences and discussing topical SRHR issues in Uganda.

Project management team Dr Auma Okwany (ISS-EUR) – Overall Project Director Dr Veronika Goussatchenko (ISS-EUR) - Project Manager Ms Linette Belo (Rutgers) – Project Manager Prof. C.Garimoi Orach (MakSPH) – Project Director Uganda Dr Elizabeth Nabiwemba (MakSPH) – Project Manager Mr Charles Otim (NTISD) – Project Manager

ISS project staff Dr Wendy Harcourt, Dr Kristen Cheney, Dr Rosalba Icaza, Dr Silke Heuman, Dr Nicholas Awortwi, Dr Helen Hintjens


22

ISS publications

Development and Change

Working Papers

Development and Change is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the critical analysis and discussion of current issues of development. It was established by the ISS in 1969, in response to the perceived need for a multidisciplinary journal dealing with all aspects of development studies. www.iss.nl/publications/development_and_change

The ISS Working Paper series provides a forum for work in progress which seeks to elicit comments and generate discussion. The series includes academic research by staff, PhD participants and visiting fellows, and awardwinning research papers by graduate students.

Volume 48, Number 2, March 2017 Original articles Paulo L. dos Santos and Ingrid Harvold Kvangraven Better Than Cash, But Beware the Costs: Electronic Payments Systems and Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries Maira Emy Reimao and Emcet O. Tas Gender Education Gaps among Indigenous and Nonindigenous Groups in Bolivia Rebecca Tapscott The Government Has Long Hands: Institutionalized Arbitrariness and Local Security Initiatives in Gulu, Northern Uganda Anna Macdonald Transitional Justice and Political Economies of Survival in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda Nicholas Nisbett A Narrative Analysis of the Political Economy Shaping Policy on Child Undernutrition in India Rajiv Verma, Saurabh Gupta and Regina Birner Can Grassroots Mobilisation of the Poorest Reduce Corruption? A Tale of Governance Reforms and Struggle against Petty Corruption in Bihar, India J. Devika Surviving in Contemporary Kerala India: Reflections from Recent Research in a Fisher Village Review essays Arif Dirlik Neoliberal Socialism/Global Capitalism: Boom and Gloom in China Watching Sian Sullivan On ‘Natural Capital’, ‘Fairy Tales’ and Ideology

Do natural disasters stimulate international trade? Li, C, & van Bergeijk, P.A.G. ISS Working Paper Series / General Series Vol. 622, pp. 1–26 Nascent markets: Understanding the success and failure of new stock markets Albuquerque de Sousa, J.A, Beck, T, van Bergeijk, P.A.G, & van Dijk, M.A., ISS Working Paper Series / General Series, Vol. 623, pp. 1–67 On President Putin’s popularity: Evidence from survey experiment on the streets of Moscow Mecheva, M (Margarita)., ISS Working Paper Series / General Series, Volume 624 pp. 1- 65 Ambiguous positionalities: Bangladeshi migrant men in The Hague M.I. Khalad, ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 625 pp. 1- 52 Poverty, employment and inequality in the SDGs: Heterodox discourse, orthodox policies? M. Luebker, ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 626 pp. 1- 30 The accidental Trojan horse: Plea bargaining as an anticorruption tool in Brazil F. Ribeiro, ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 627 pp. 1- 57 One is not enough! An economic history perspective on world trade collapses and deglobalization P.A.G. van Bergeijk, ISS Working Paper Series / General Series, Vol. 628, pp. 1–23


Student life

23

STUDENT LIFE ‘Living in The Hague means opening yourself to new horizons – getting to know lots of people from all over the world, tasting new cuisines and pursuing intellectual paths through learning at ISS or working for peace and justice issues in various NGOs, or simply seeing the tulips bloom during the spring and walking in Scheveningen on a sunny afternoon.’ Storytelling at ISS

Winning ISS sports team!

ISS students collect clothes to donate to Vincentius society, a local Hague-based charity

3-day study trip for SJP students to Gent, Paris, Bonn and Nijmegen

Thanks to the photographers: Ridiona Stana, Martin Blok, Rebecca Cudjoe, Icai Enriquez, Lucia Chimi and Nashat Hayatullah

Support for the right to self-determination of peoples and the right for citizens to decide on the model of development they want for their municipality


ISS at 65 1952 – 2017 In 2017 ISS celebrates its 65th anniversary - 65 years of development teaching and research!

On our anniversary web page you can find out about: • anniversary events • alumni, staff and student memories • where we have been housed And much much more…….  www.iss.nl/lustrum2017  lustrum@iss.nl

International Institute of Social Studies Kortenaerkade 12 2518 AX The Hague P.O. Box 29776 2502 LT The Hague The Netherlands (+31) 70 426 0460 info@iss.nl www.iss.nl  www.facebook.com/iss.nl  www.linkedin.com/edu/school?id=42258  www.youtube.com/user/issmedia  www.Flickr.com/photos/issthehague/  www.instagram.com/iss_erasmus

DevISSues volume 19, number 1, May 2017  

Economic Diplomacy and Development

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