DevISSues volume 17, number 2, December 2015

Page 1

DECEMBER 2015 VOL .17 – NO. 2

Refugees and Human Security Interview with ISS Rector, Professor Inge Hutter Focus on ISS

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From the Editorial Board

ISS and the DevISSues editorial board are very proud to present you with the first issue of our completely restyled journal. The DevISSues you have in front of you is the culmination of months of work to create a publication that reflects the aims of our magazine: a showcase for ISS research and learning. As a magazine of the entire ISS community, it highlights ISS research and teaching, events, student experiences and alumni activities. The style is based on the new ISS house style. The emphasis is on the colourfulness of ISS, expressed through vibrant, ISS-specific photography. In terms of content, we have introduced a set of recurring features which will enable us to highlight ISS teaching, research and publications, to focus on our students and alumni and to expand on development themes. The choice of features is partly based on the results of the questionnaire which we sent out to our readership asking for their input – what do they like about DevISSues, what could be better and what would they like to see in it that isn’t there now? With their answers, our own ideas and discussions within ISS, we came up with a set of features which we believe will make DevISSues a journal that is well-worth reading for anyone interested in development and ISS. Each issue will include a discussion between an ISS academic and current student, and four profiles of alumni who share with us their story in ‘Where are they now?’ Another feature is a focus article looking at a specific teaching, research or valorization project. The ISS rector will write a short blog expressing her thoughts on ISS, and our students will provide photographs of their impressions of ISS and The Hague. We also include themed articles: three short opinion pieces focussing on a topical development theme. And of course we share relevant ISS and alumni news and a list of recent ISS publications.

Colophon DevISSues is published twice a year by the International Institute of Social Studies, PO Box 29776, 2502 LT The Hague, the Netherlands Tel +31 (0)70 4260 443 or +31 (0)70 4260 419 Fax + 31 (0)70 4260 799 Editor Jane Pocock Editorial Board Lee Pegler, Sunil Tankha, Sandra Nijhof Design Ontwerpwerk, The Hague Production Opmeer Drukkerij Circulation 6,500 The text material from DevISSues may be reproduced or adapted without permission, provided it is not distributed for profit and is attributed to the original author or authors, DevISSues and

For the current issue, our themed articles look at the questions of refugees and human security. Two of these articles take a closer look at the European response to the current influx of refugees and find it wanting. In the first of these articles, Jeff Handmaker and Friederycke Haijer argue that the EU should use its legal extraterritorial powers to address some of the underlying causes of war and poverty that cause people to leave their homes in search of security elsewhere. In the second article, Helen Hintjens and Ahmed Pouri argue that the EU’s restrictionist refugee policies are more to blame for the tragic deaths of refugees trying to reach Europe by boat and in lorries than the human traffickers and smugglers who provide these means of transport. And finally, Nilima Rai takes the refugee question out of the European perspective and looks at the challenges faced by Bhutanese refugees in Nepal and considers how existing laws affect the process of resettlement. In August of this year, ISS was pleased to welcome its new rector, Professor Inge Hutter, who has already shown herself keen to collaborate on DevISSues. Not only has she written the first Rector’s Blog, she also met with two of our current MA students, to talk about her first impressions of ISS. For our ‘Focus on ISS’, feature we take a closer look at a new publication by the Civic Innovation Research Initiative (CIRI): Exploring Civic Innovation for Social and Economic Transformation, edited by ISS researchers Kees Biekart, Wendy Harcourt and Peter Knorringa. The book examines the globally rising phenomenon of civic innovation and was compiled using participatory methodologies, intergenerational dialogues and jointly written chapters, thus highlighting the multi-disciplinary approach to teaching and research at ISS. You can also find out more about the ISS Development Research Seminar spring cycle with its series on ‘Dialogues on Civic Innovation Research’. We hope you enjoy this new DevISSues. We believe we have produced a well-written journal that highlights ISS, what we do and how we do it. We look forward to receiving your reactions (

the International Institute of Social Studies. ISSN 1566-4821. DevISSues is

The DevISSues editorial board: Lee Pegler, Sunil Tankha, Sandra Nijhof and Jane Pocock.

printed on FSC certified paper

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Rector’s Blog My first 100 days as rector of ISS

Inge Hutter Rector ISS

On Monday 16 November I presented my impressions of my first 100 days as rector at ISS. The Atrium was full – I was very happy to see that many members of the ISS community were present.

specifically those that are situated in the South itself? How do we link our research and teaching programmes to each other? It is this profiling, with many more relevant questions, which we will be working on in the coming period.

Being a cultural anthropologist by training, it felt like presenting the first results of my fieldwork, with participant observation and all. For sure, the two week introduction period before the summer (so before my appointment as per 1 August) were essential in providing me with a first glimpse of life at ISS. Leo de Haan still being rector, those two weeks provided me with some space to observe, discuss and get to know ISS. The 30-minute-getting-acquainted meetings with all ISS community members, from September onwards, have proven to be most stimulating and interesting. The meetings give me a great idea of the passion and dedication of all of us, for our work and for the Institute. I feel that I am a lucky person. After the last few years, which included the reorganization of ISS, we can build again. Looking forward, towards new horizons, and putting a point on that horizon: what will ISS look like in 2020-2025? Given the many challenges in the outside world, how can ISS profile itself better, become more visible? What is this profile exactly, especially in relation to research and education? How will ISS compare to other institutes in development studies,

ISS has an immense network all over the world. ISS is known all over the world. An important challenge is to see how we can enhance ‘the global’ and at the same time also bring ‘the global into the local’. Being part of the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), how can we contribute our knowledge on global issues, on intercultural and international teaching, to EUR? How can we contribute our knowledge and situate ourselves in The Hague, the international city of peace and justice, with its many international institutes, embassies and the ministries? Based on my first 100 days, I can say that I am very happy to be the rector of ISS, of Erasmus University. I am also especially proud of ISS as an institute with students from so many different nationalities, who form – as ISS is sometimes called – a kind of mini-United Nations in the Netherlands. I truly believe that we teach and facilitate our students to be and become the future generation of global citizens. On a personal level, I can say that I am looking forward to the next 100 days, and the next, and the next …etc.


4 Interview with 7 Root causes

ISS Rector

of Europe’s immigration crisis

10 ISS news

20 Focus on ISS

6 Where are they now?

16 ISS publications staff & PhD

22 ISS publications WP/ D&C

13 Proxy war on refugees

17 Bhutanese refugees in Nepal

23 Student life

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Staff-student dialogue

Interview with ISS Rector, Professor Inge Hutter by MA students Suchismita Goswami (India) and Hojatullah Fazly (Afghanistan) Suchismita and Hojatullah (S&H): Tell us a little bit about yourself, past career and your current position as ISS Rector. Inge (IH): I trained as a non-western demographer and a cultural anthropologist. My BA was in geography but I liked demography for its non-western approach. My MA thesis was in both demography and cultural anthropology – I see myself as an anthropologist within demography. My PhD thesis was on the care for pregnant women in Karnataka, India. I followed 200 women during pregnancy until the child was 1 month old. This was a good example

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of the combination of demography and anthropology and looking at the cultural aspects of health, pregnancy, children and delivery. Later I started coordinating research programmes and guiding PhD researchers on reproductive health projects, both in Asia and Africa. More recently I have been carrying out research in the Netherlands on healthy ageing. Here also I applied the principles of participation and community-based health issues when approaching communities.

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Staff-student dialogue

S&H: Why did you decide to take on the job of ISS Rector? IH: I was looking forward to another job and wanted to make some changes. Specifically, I wanted to work more with people from other cultures, in a combination of teaching, research and management. The combination of research and practice is particularly important as I believe that research cannot only be carried out in a small office but must be embedded within society. And I believe that you cannot be in management if you do not know the context in which it operates. My research approach is participatory and that is also my management style. I like working in organizations in which we all work together.

S&H: We have already been privileged to have you inside our classroom – how much more often will you be teaching us? IH: I can’t say how many times, but I am aiming for more. I want to interact more with students as I love teaching. I hope I can do something in the participatory and qualitative research courses but will have to discuss this with the course teachers.

S&H: What is your plan for promoting education quality and student welfare at ISS? IH: It is important to also discuss these issues with Freek Schiphorst (Deputy Rector for Education Affairs) who is responsible for this along with convenors and teachers. Like other universities, we are working on a flagship course with new teaching methods. The previous form of classroom teaching is being complemented with methods that touch the potential of everyone. We are using methods like flip the classroom and blended learning to introduce a participatory learning environment. It is thus a combination of knowledgesharing and the co-creation of knowledge.

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In terms of welfare, the quality of student housing should be good so that students can focus on their studies. I believe student involvement makes our policymaking process much better. S&H: What sets ISS apart from other development studies institutions? IH: I think students are in the best position to say why one should choose ISS. The international approach at ISS and the international environment means that students can learn from each other. ISS also has an interdisciplinary character; something I don’t think you can get at many other institutions in the Netherlands or Europe. The quality of research and teaching at ISS is very good and the staff have a great passion for students, teaching and other cultures.

S&H: How do you handle working with people from diverse cultures and backgrounds? IH: It is very interesting to have students, teachers and staff from such diverse backgrounds and we need to keep an open mind to listen to each other. This can be complicated. Very often, I feel, it is not so much different cultures which are being reflected but different personalities. To deal with this you need empathy and an open mind. My style of leadership is to connect people and to understand their cultural and personality background. It is important to be interested in each other.

S&H: What do you see as the most important future trends in development issues in the Global South? IH: From my background in health I would say that the high maternal death rate should be addressed. It is a concern that women still cannot deliver safely. Although your question focuses on development in the Global South, it is also important to look into issues of development in the North. I would say that community involvement is important as people know their own concerns and might have ideas about what are good solutions for them. The North can learn here from the South.


It is not so much different cultures which are being reflected but different personalities.

S&H: What has been your most difficult decision since taking office and why? IH: The decision on the outsourcing of student housing was difficult. We want to enhance the quality of the housing, but the decision to outsource also means that three of our colleagues will have to find another job. We are doing what we can to help them with this.

S&H: What five things should international students like us do for an authentic Dutch experience? IH: You should make Dutch friends so that you learn about their culture. Do voluntary work and learn some Dutch. Try some typical Dutch food like stamppot (mashed potatoes and vegetables). Try ice-skating during the winter. And on 27TH of April you have to see Kings Day – the Dutch go a bit crazy! You should also visit The Hague market to explore the different nationalities there.

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ISS Alumni

Where are they now?

Altaf Bawany

Jamal Sebnat

Lukwesa Kaemba

Maritza Burgos

Study Diploma in Planning Techniques (DPT) with Computer Applications, 1995 Country of origin Pakistan Current occupation Director General, National Accountability Bureau (NAB) Sukkur

Study Social Policy for Development, 2014 Country of origin Sweden (second, and current country of citizenship and residency: Morocco) Current occupation Working at American non-profit organization – the High Atlas Foundation

Study Labour and Development, 1991 Country of origin Zambia Current occupation Economic Policy Analyst – self employed

Study Women and Development, 1988 Country of origin Dominican Republic. Now living in New Jersey, USA. Current occupation Graphic designer/traveller/ artist

What made your time at ISS special? It was for the first time that I was out of my home, living hostel life; cooking for myself is one memorable experience. Meeting with so many other fellow students with diverse cultures was another good experience. Learning from high quality faculty like Jan van Heemst, Peter de Valk and many others was a treat. Overall the stay at ISS has broadened my horizon, taught me to respect diverse views. Your most memorable moment? There are many, I mention the following few: 1 I was chosen as class rep and represented my class in “SCHOLAS”. 2 Class visit to Rome, Italy. 3 During the holidays a few of us went to Paris by road, passing through Belgium and rural France. What does ISS mean to you now? Free speech and a learning centre of excellence. I wish I could come again to complete my PhD on the issue of “Corruption & its effects on Sustainable Economic Development in LDCs.”

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What made your time at ISS special? The critical perspective – now when working for civil society in Morocco, I know not only the terms used but also the critics of them. Your most memorable moment? My father, mother, and brother Erik coming to the graduation day. What does ISS mean to you now? Most especially a deep understanding of work and employment issues. Further being able to work in development, but simultaneously being able to understand the critical perspective of development from an academic point of view.

What made your time at ISS special? The modular type of training was very exciting to me as it kept me doing research all the time. Your most memorable moment? Chairing meetings of Scholas, as Vice President. What does ISS mean to you now? ISS is my intellectual backbone. My study programme was a bridge into vast areas of social sciences and it makes me versatile in my professional analysis. Studying at ISS turned me into a robust socio-economic analyst and team-player in work assignments. By interacting with so many scholars from different parts of the world, I took with me from ISS a sense of humility and empathy for development issues around the world, and, more importantly, a knowledge of how to resolve issues within my society.

What made your time at ISS special? The ISS became a very special part in my life. It opened the door to seeing the whole world as part of myself, not only at a professional level but at a personal one too. Your most memorable moment? During my time in the old building we formed a family unit; a family exploring, sharing, learning from each other and building a future. What does ISS mean to you now? The ISS is an experience that I will never forget. I try to visit whenever I have the opportunity... I have been there many times since then. The new building is different.

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Addressing root causes of Europe’s immigration crisis through extra-territorial measures

Friederycke Haijer is a PhD candidate in international law at Utrecht University. Her research concerns foreign corruption.

Jeff Handmaker is Senior Lecturer in Law, Human Rights and Development

Throughout the course of 2015, an unprecedentedly large number of persons have been fleeing war and escaping poverty, trying to reach sanctuary in Europe. It has been said that these recent flows of refugees and migrants are the largest experienced in Europe since WWII. Official responses have generally been guided by a highly unproductive, yet remarkably enduring policy mantra of ‘combating irregular migration’ (Handmaker/Mora, 2014). The resulting unpreparedness of states in responding to this migration and refugee crisis has led to shockingly poor standards of treatment, particularly in states on the borders of the European Union (EU).

at ISS and conducts research in legal mobilization.

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nternational law obliges states to guarantee minimum standards of treatment to people who reach European territory, regardless of their reasons for migrating. This does not necessarily mean a welcome reception. It does, however, mean that persons are entitled to dignified treatment and a minimum standard of care, including basic shelter and health care, at least until their residential status has been assessed by a country’s immigration authorities. In order to avoid dealing with rising xenophobia and tough political choices about where emergency shelters will be set up and who will pay for the immediate costs of reception, the European strategy has primarily been geared towards preventing people from setting foot on European soil in the first place. Accordingly, EU member states and states on the periphery selectively apply extraterritorial powers to interdict persons and prevent their arrival in Europe. These powers not only exceed the limits of what international law on jurisdiction allows; they frequently violate the human rights protections that should accompany such exercise of power and ignore other, more productive strategies, that attack the root causes of such large-scale movements. In this article, we suggest that, rather than spending vast resources in seeking to stem so-called irregular migration on an extra-territorial basis or reacting to a situation when displaced people are already at the EU’s doorstep, the EU should use its extraterritorial powers to address some of the underlying causes of war and poverty.

Extra-territorial jurisdiction over immigration International law permits extraterritorial action in certain fields, on the basis of multilateral and bilateral agreements. These fields include anti-corruption measures and prosecuting international crimes. Efforts by the EU in these fields have been very modest in comparison to the EU’s exercise of extraterritorial jurisdiction on immigration at the

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margins of Europe, which have been far-reaching. For example, in order to combat irregular migration, the EU has financed immigration detention centres in Libya. Through the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (FRONTEX), border police and immigration officers in Eastern European countries aspiring to EU membership have been trained and equipped with the latest technology designed to interdict migrants. Immigration Liaison Officers have been posted in most continents, at airports around the world.

In a globalized economy, it is safe to assume that some of the companies paying the highest bribes were based in the EU and other wealthy countries.

Taking these measures further, in November 2015 it emerged that the EU brokered a deal in which Turkey was promised funds as well as the easing of visa restrictions for Turkish citizens travelling to the EU and an unfreezing of Turkey’s bid for EU membership, all in return for Turkey’s help to block off migrant routes to the EU. All of these costly and what many regard as morally questionable efforts to combat irregular migration have not only failed to cease the flow of persons seeking to enter Europe. They have also been accompanied by a massively profitable, global industry in human smuggling, involving corrupt officials and dangerous means of transport. After paying large sums of money, migrants have been forced into over-full dinghies that often sink in the Mediterranean sea. They have been stuffed into airtight transport containers where they have suffocated. European countries not only appear unwilling to learn from the failed policies of tackling irregular migration, they also appear to be much more hesitant to apply their powers extraterritorially in order to tackle the underlying causes of the immigration crisis. Corruption and international crimes are two of these important underlying causes.

Extra-territorial jurisdiction over corruption In corrupt societies, politicians and other people in powerful positions tend to serve their own interests and neglect public services. Starting a business or finding a job can be impossible under these circumstances and people are compelled to migrate elsewhere to earn a living. There is also a correlation with refugee flows; countries from where some of the largest numbers of refugees have originated are generally perceived to be corrupt: Somalia, Iraq, Syria, Eritrea and Afghanistan are ranked 174, 170, 159, 166 and 172 respectively of 175 countries that were ranked in Transparency International’s (TI) 2014 Corruption Perception Index.

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Pixabay – CC0 Public Domain.

TI’s corruption perception relates to corrupt officials, the people who accept bribes; regarded as the demand side of corruption. However, every corrupt payment has a supply side; the company that pays the bribe. In a globalized economy, it is safe to assume that some of the companies paying the highest bribes were based in the EU and other wealthy countries. In addition, corrupt politicians use banks and corporate services all around the world (Ali, 2015). Without these dimensions, corruption would not be possible on its current scale. Anti-corruption legislation in all EU member states includes far-reaching jurisdictional provisions for bribery. Yet, according to the OECD and TI, with the exception of modest efforts in Germany, the UK and Switzerland, no European country has actively been enforcing their foreign corruption legislation. If European based companies significantly contribute to corruption abroad, this should be a priority for authorities in all European member states.

Extra-territorial jurisdiction over international crimes Refugee flows are also accompanied by international crimes. Many countries’ domestic legal systems allow for the prosecution of war crimes, crimes

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against humanity, disappearances, genocide and torture, even if those crimes took place abroad. Such prosecutions are very rare. Even if prosecutions take place, the suspects of these crimes tend only to be prosecuted many years after they lose power. The Netherlands has prosecuted some high-ranking Afghan officials for crimes that took place under Taliban rule. There have also been prosecutions of Rwandans and Tamils from Sri Lanka. However, all of these prosecutions took place long after the regime change. There have been some prosecutions of Dutch businesses that have contributed to international crimes abroad (Van Anraat, Kouwenhoven and Riwal), but these appear to be exceptions to the rule. One should not have the illusion that prosecutions in European countries will necessarily bring peace or liberate foreign peoples from their dictators. However, Barnhizer (2001) has suggested that more individual accountability for mass crimes may serve as a form of deterrence, resulting in greater security for civilians and fewer refugees. Intensifying investigations and prosecutions for these crimes will also be important to reassure European citizens, some of whom fear that there are war criminals among the refugees that are currently coming to Europe. These concerned citizens should be reassured that Europe will not become a safe haven for perpetrators of international crimes.

Conclusion The EU’s policies, as well as individual European countries’ own immigration policies, together amount to a manifest failure to stem the European immigration crisis, or even learn from such obvious policy failures. Migration policies have been principally led by a mantra of seeking to eliminate irregular migration by interdicting people before they arrive in Europe, a policy mantra that by now should be roundly discredited. Meanwhile, Europe’s failure to address two of the most significant root causes of the immigration crisis has resulted in a tragic continuation of these significant drivers of (forced) migration.


As Knio and Jessop (2015) have noted in relation to crisis management, there are ‘different kinds of learning and ways of transferring and translating lessons and policy conclusions’. The policy conclusions highlighted in this article would go a long way towards addressing the immigration crisis in Europe. It is hoped that EU countries and the Brussels-based institutions will finally begin to learn from these failures in tackling future immigration crises, and apply extra-territorial solutions towards a more ‘migrant-centred’ approach (Truong et al., 2014). Such approaches would more productively address the causes of migration flows, rather than simplistically (and expensively) trying to limit their consequences.

References Ali, N. (2015) Dynamism and the Erosion of Procedural Safeguards in International Governance of Terrorism, PhD Dissertation, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Barnhizer, D. (2001) Effective Strategies for Protecting Human Rights: Economic Sanctions, Use of National Courts and International Fora, and Coercive Power, Ashgate Publishing: Aldershot. Handmaker, J.D. & Mora, C. (2014) ‘”Experts”: the mantra of irregular migration and the reproduction of hierarchies’ in M. Ambrus, K. Arts, E. Hey & H. Raulus (Eds.), The Role of ‘Experts’ in International and European Decision-Making Processes: Advisors, Decision Makers or Irrelevant Actors? (pp. 263-287) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Knio, K. and Jessop, B. (2015) The Pedagogy of Crisis: From Using Past Lessons in the Present to Learning from the Present for the Future, Project Document, Den Haag: ISS. Truong, T., Gasper, D., Handmaker, J.D. & Bergh, S. (Eds.) (2014) Migration, Gender and Social Justice: Perspectives on Human Insecurity, Heidelberg: Springer.

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ISS news

ISS news alumni awards EUR events PhD projects research staff students

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Two ISS students receive scholarship from the Wim Deetman Study Fund awards Suchismita Goswami from India and Rajin Alqallih from Syria received the scholarship from Wim Deetman (former Mayor of The Hague) during a ceremony on 27 October. The Study Fund was a present to Mr. Deetman when he stepped down as Mayor. He played a major role in the growth of The Hague as International City of Peace and Justice.

Karen Gabriel joins ISS as Marie Curie International Incoming Fellow staff Karen Gabriel is Associate Professor and Head of the English Department at St. Stephen’s College, University of Delhi. At ISS she will carry out a comparative study of the pornographic industries in India and the Netherlands, examining the category ‘pornography’ itself, the industrial-commercial bases of it, the policies and laws pertaining to it, its many sexual economies and its multi-sectoral linkages. Karen Gabriel completed her PhD at ISS in 2001.

ISS Assistant Professor Matthias Rieger receives grant from Gates Foundation reseach Matthias Rieger will use the grant to undertake a research project entitled ‘Causal Factors of Child Growth: Evidence from Aggregated Survey Data’. The project aims to inform nutrition-related interventions and clinical trials, as well as identify investment priorities for the Gates Foundation.

Extension to funding for ISS project on labour rights and human security projects The Dutch and Brazilian governments have extended their support to the Governance of Labour and Logistics for Sustainability (GOLLS) project for an extra two years. The objective of the GOLLS project is to promote labour rights and human security along and within global value chains linking Brazil and Holland. GOLLS falls under the CIRI research programme.

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ISS news

ISS PhD researchers join editorial advisory board of Journal of Peasant Studies PhD Christina Schiavoni and Martha Jane Robbins were selected by the journal’s Editorial Collective to the very prestigious community of leading scholars on the JPS advisory board.

Launch of KidsRights Index 2015 research 19 October saw the launch of the KidsRights Index 2015 – the annual global index which ranks how countries adhere to and are equipped to improve children’s rights. ISS Professor Karin Arts and research assistant Mieke van Eijsden were in charge of producing and analysing the data on the ‘enabling environment for child rights’ domain.


Valedictory lecture Rolph van der Hoeven events During the ISS 63rd Dies Natalis, Professor Rolph van der Hoeven delivered his valedictory lecture entitled ‘Can the Sustainable Development Goals stem rising income inequality in the world?’ He considered the opportunities for a renewed political coalition to once more make employment creation and fair income distribution major objectives for economic policy-making.

Thea Hilhorst joins ISS as professor of humanitarian aid and reconstruction staff Thea Hilhorst was the recipient of one of the 36 highly prestigious VICI grants that were awarded by the National Science Foundation (NWO) earlier this year. During her time at ISS, Thea Hilhorst will work on the project ‘When disasters meet conflict: Disaster response of humanitarian aid and local state and non-state institutions in different conflict scenarios’.

1ST prize for ISS PhD researcher at New Voices in Social Science conference awards The prize was won by Christina Sathyamala for her presentation entitled ‘Watching others – Watching self’. The New Voices in Social Science event provides PhD researchers the opportunity to present their research to a broad academic and non-academic audience.

Erasmus Trust Fund establishes new endowment fund EUR The aim of the fund is to create a significant and independent source of income for research and education at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. The ISS Alumni Fund, where money is raised for future ISS students, is embedded within the Erasmus Trust Fund.

ISS researchers win EU grant under its Erasmus+ Programme projects ISS researchers debate the hidden reality of food production research

Leo de Haan, Wil Hout, Murat Arsel and Rachel Kurian were awarded a research grant for a project entitled ‘Enhancing Postgraduate Environments’. The project builds on current collaboration between some of the consortium members in South Africa that is funded by NUFFIC-Niche.

During the Rotterdam Science Festival, PhD researcher Christina Schiavoni and Senior Lecturer Karin Astrid Siegmann argued that there can be no sustainable food production without decent work for farm workers. They highlighted that working conditions in the fields can improve significantly if workers themselves are empowered to design labour standards, monitor their implementation and forward grievances.

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ISS news

ISS alumna new Director Central Bank of the Philippines alumni

Dr. Saradindu Bhaduri new Prince Claus Chair holder research

ISS alumna Veronica Bayangos was recently appointed Director of the Central Bank of the Philippines. She completed her PhD at ISS in 2007 on ‘Exchange Rate Uncertainty and Inflation Targeting in an Open Dynamic macro-Economy of the Philippines’.

Dr. Saradindu Bhaduri from India will hold the new Prince Claus Chair (PCC) for a period of two years. He will focus on ‘Frugal Innovation for Development and Equity’. The Prince Claus Chair continues the work of Prince Claus (1926-2002) in development and equity. Utrecht University and ISS alternately appoint an outstanding young academic from a developing region to the Prince Claus Chair.

In Memoriam alumni/staff

Lorenzo Pellegrini wins 2 research grants projects

Harry Wagenbuur passed away on 30 October at the age of 79. Harry Wagenbuur worked at ISS from the late 1970s to the late 1990s as programme convenor and later as Academic Registrar.

The grants are granted by 3ie -International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, Transparency and Accountability in the Extractive Industries programme. The first grant is awarded for an impact evaluation of a high tech socioenvironmental monitoring package for indigenous and local communities living within oil blocks in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon. The second grant is aimed at an impact evaluation of a method for carrying out a rapid appraisal of water quality in communities in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Amazon whose water sources are contaminated by the oil industry.

Dr Vasant Moharir passed away on 6 September in Houston, Texas, at the age of 81. From 1970 to 1999 Dr Vasant Moharir worked at ISS where he taught Public Administration and Public Policy. Fernando Pena Guzman (68) did not survive a terrible accident in The Hague. He studied at ISS in 1974. Tamuna (Tamar) Melkadze (43) from the MA programme 2012/2013 passed away in her home town in Georgia.

DevISSues 17/2 corrigendum In DevISSues 17/1, the title of the article by Brenda Rodríguez Cortés was misspelt. The correct title is ‘Salir Adelante: The Diverse Experience of Teenage Pregnancy Monterrey, Mexico’. Our apologies to both author and readers.

PhD graduations PhD

Ward Warmedam (9 Nov 2015) Having, Giving, Taking: Understanding China’s Development Cooperation in Africa

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Martua Thomas Sirait (2 Nov 2015) Inclusion, Exclusion and Agrarian Change: Experiences of Forest Land Redistribution in Indonesia

Kanokkarn Tevapitak (1 Oct 2015) Environmental Responsibility of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES) and Stakeholder Influences: the Case Study of Water Pollution in Thailand

Djalita Nadine Fialho de Oliveira Ramos (19 June 2015) Slicing up the developing world: Differentiation in the special treatment of developing countries

Anagaw Derseh Mebratie (10 June 2015) Essays on evaluating a community based health insurance scheme in rural Ethiopia

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Ending the EU proxy war on refugees Helen Hintjens is Assistant Professor at ISS. Her research focuses on the post-genocide politics of the African Great Lakes region and asylum and social justice advocacy in Western Europe.

The rise in the numbers of people on the move worldwide since 2014 is unambiguous. In the first half of 2015, it was estimated that around 140,000 people made the sea crossings in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean, with relatively few (just 1200) making the crossing to Spain from Northern Morocco and Ceuta and Mellila.

Ahmed Pouri works with the non-profit organization Participating Refugees in Multicultural Europe.

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and conditions remain seriously inadequate.

community at large need to do better at

While conditions of reception in Italy vary a

preventing and resolving conflicts. Transit

great deal, serious systemic gaps remain in

countries need to develop their asylum

Greece. The former Yugoslav Republic of

systems, including reception arrangements and

Macedonia and Serbia collectively offer fewer

identification processes.


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than 3,000 places of reception, significantly

Blaming refugee flight on ‘people smugglers’

legal travel to the EU for most refugees worldwide. This is what we call the EU’s proxy war on refugees.

Unfortunately, this militarized response follows in a firm tradition of this proxy war on refugees, which has been waged by EU member states and the EU institutions for some time now. The Asylum Procedures Directive seems to have been abandoned for security reasons and military action proposed instead. In April 2015, Matteo Renzi, Italian Prime Minister, said the EU was ‘at war’ with traffickers and smugglers, whom he blamed for the estimated 10,000 deaths in the Central Mediterranean to that point in 2015.3 He implied that by destroying smugglers’ boats or arresting traffickers, the EU 3 is protecting the rights of refugees and avoiding future deaths. EU governments were in effect trying to control the representation of the problem in such a way as to minimize their own responsibility.

An EU humanitarian tradition?

A fake crisis of security

EU member states are collectively proud of their record of humanitarian protection. The European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Office aims to mitigate the impact of human-generated violence, coercion, deprivation and abuse of vulnerable individuals or groups in the context of humanitarian crises. Furthermore, 2009 EU Guidelines governing the funding of humanitarian protection, specify that states bear the primary responsibility to protect the people under their jurisdiction. Yet despite all this, as the numbers of refugee arrivals by boat rose rapidly in the first months of 2015, instead of sticking to these principles, EU member states rushed to beat one another to propose military action against ‘smugglers’ and ‘traffickers’, blaming them for the rise in refugee numbers. It was suggested, for example, that boats carrying refugees or migrants should be destroyed at the ports of departure as this would prevent mass arrival on the Southern shores of the EU, since refugees and migrants would not be able to embark on vessels that were destroyed by military action.

What took place in 2015 was not a sudden crisis, but the culmination of false military solutions to political problems for years, if not decades. The manifestation of deeper problems, refugees fleeing war found themselves for a long time on the receiving end of this ‘proxy war’. This form of violent containment of political problems has continued over many years and has reinforced refugee hopelessness and added to the pressure to flee. For millions of Syrians, for example, desperation and confinement in camps, and not being allowed to work or learn, led to a mass movement to reach Europe – especially Germany. For more than two decades, this proxy war has been documented by refugee and human rights NGOs and by some humanitarian agencies. More and more people have died each year trying to flee war and persecution and trying to reach some kind of safety in Europe. The proxy war that has been fought across North Africa, the Sahel, much of the Middle East, in Sinai and Gaza and in Ukraine, Turkey and Egypt, uses these proxy states to deny entry, deter, or ‘discourage’ refugees.

Refugee numbers crossing into Europe by sea in the first six months of 2015 1


y the end of 2015, it is estimated that up to 60,000 people may have drowned in the Mediterranean alone, and most will remain forever ‘undocumented’. We suggest these deaths are the outcome of a global regime of deterrence, a sort of proxy war on refugees, that enables: ‘developed countries to design restrictionist refugee regimes in which …measures serve to protect sovereign territories from the [so-called] invasion of [what are termed] “bogus, opportunistic aliens”’.2 Far from relaxing the borders, or reversing the tendency to use harsh measures as deterrence for future migrants and even refugees, from 2012 onwards, the EU watched as military campaigns in Syria, civil violence in Iraq, compulsory military service in Eritrea and war in Southern Sudan and in Darfur, continued violence in Afghanistan and Somalia, and the near-collapse and extreme ethnic and religious persecution in Burma and in Iran and Pakistan continued unabated. The result was a rapid rise in refugee numbers, as people flee in fear of being murdered or injured. Although the EU’s own frontier security agency agrees that there is a refugee crisis worldwide, the EU response is to continue with policies based on deterrence, and to retain the use of expulsions, detentions and draconian visa restrictions in an effort to prevent

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Themed article

Human smugglers did not create illegal immigration at all, but only responded to restrictions on legal migration imposed by Western European governments.

The proxy war as the real cause of refugee flight Hein de Haas, migration expert at both Oxford and Maastricht universities, has tried to explain that human smugglers did not create illegal migration at all, but only responded to restrictions on legal migration imposed mainly by, or at the behest of, Western European governments. De Haas argues that when circular patterns of migration are broken, problems result. Interviewed by the media, he argues that: ‘The real crisis is European impotence to respond, and it would be outrageous if Europe can’t cope with that when the vast majority of refugees are in much poorer countries like Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey’.4 The tight visa restrictions and external border controls that seek to prevent migratory movement also reduce legal departures and arrivals, creating a more lucrative market for smugglers and traffickers. Indeed, scholars in migration and human settlement have proven highly sceptical of the ‘trafficking’ argument as proffered by EU governments. In May 2015, the Italian Prime Minister, Matteo Renzi, reiterated the view that traffickers were involved in a ‘new slave trade’. In response to this opinion, and more than 300 migration, criminology, and human rights lawyers and other scholars signed a letter condemning Renzi for advocating military force. They challenged Renzi’s claim that human traffickers are the slave traders of the 21st century and should be brought to justice. They argued that it is European restrictions which are preventing refugees from taking safe routes to Europe.


Conclusion In the longer-term, it would be more sensible and cost-effective to anticipate refugee movements to the EU by illegal means and to legalize such movements a priori. A radical overhaul of EU asylum and visa policies is needed and the logic of deterrence should be ended, since it is both grossly unjust and unworkable. The damage already done by the EU’s proxy war on refugees should now be acknowledged and, if possible, be rectified through reforms. Once the proxy war comes to an end, some constructive thinking and planning can take place among EU member states concerning their future responses to the refugees who are almost certain to keep arriving, however circuitous and dangerous a journey the EU forces them to make.

References 1 UNHCR (2015) The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees, 1 July 2015, p. 3, available at: tx_news/2015-JUL-The-Sea-Route-to-Europe. pdf [accessed 29 July 2015]. 2 Paz, Yonathon (2011) ‘Ordered disorder: African asylum seekers in Israel and discursive challenges to an Emerging refugee regime’, UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Service, Research Paper 205, March, at: 3 Nick Squires, Catania and Barney Henderson

This results in a situation where EU member states simply try to shift the responsibility for exclusion onto fellow member states, hiding behind the Dublin rule that states that normally an asylum claim should be lodged in the first EU country the individual enters. Contracted out to do the EU’s dirty work, Southern European countries have complained for years about carrying too heavy a financial and humanitarian burden.

Legally too, there are interesting possibilities for recognition of the EU proxy war on refugees. In the future, it is possible that EU ministers could be held responsible for at least some of the avoidable deaths at sea and on land. For example, not only were EU member states warned of the consequence of ending search and rescue operations in the Mediterranean, but even once deaths and suffering became visible, some governments refused to accept refugees into their countries.

(2015) ‘EU Leaders to consider Military Intervention against Migrant Traffickers’, 22 April 2015, The Telegraph at: africaandindianocean/libya/11556561/ EU-leaders-to-consider-military-interventionagainst-Libyan-migrant-traffickers.html 4 Robins-Early (2015) Interview with Hein de Haas ‘Why the Debate Over Europe’s Migration Crisis is Full of Myths’, Huffington Post, 29 August 2015, at: entry/europe-migrant-crisis-mythsfacts_55df64e5e4b08dc09486d510

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Themed ISS publications articles

Some recent publications by ISS staff and PhD researchers

‘Enrollment in Ethiopia’s Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme’ Article by Anagaw Mebratie et al. in World Development (2015) 74: 58-76. The authors examine the uptake of a community-based health insurance scheme launched by the Ethiopian government in June 2011.

‘Introduction: Money and Development’ Georgina Gomez writes the editorial to this special issue of the International Journal of Community Currency Research (2015) 19: 1-5. This special issue includes 15 papers presented at the 2nd International Conference on Complementary and Community Currency Systems held at ISS in June 2013. The journal includes articles by several ISS PhD researchers.

‘Land Tenure (In)Security and Crop-Tree Intercropping in Rural Xinjiang’ Article by Fangping Rao, Max Spoor, Xianlei Ma and Xiaoping Shi in Land Use Policy (2016), 50: 102-114. The authors examine the role of land tenure security in farmers’ crop-tree intercropping decisions in rural Xinjiang, China.

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‘Does Civil War Hamper Financial Development?’ Article by ISS alumnus M. Rashel Hasan and Syed Mansoob Murshed in Defence and Peace Economics in which they examine how armed conflict affects financial development.

‘The Permanent People’s Tribunals and Indigenous People’s Struggles in Mexico: Between Coloniality and Epistemic Justice?’ Article of the month in Palgrave Communications written by Rosalba Icaza. In the article she investigates the role of the People’s Permanent Tribunal in delivering justice in Mexico by focusing on the long-term struggle of indigenous peoples for legal pluralism and autonomy.

‘Denmark’s Policy on Artificial Trans Fat and Cardiovascular Disease’ Published in American Journal of Preventive Medicine, in this article Matthias Rieger and Brandon Restrepo estimate the impact of Denmark’s policy of eliminating artificial trans fat from its national food supply.

Shell-Shocked: On the Ground under Israel’s Gaza Assault Publication by ISS PhD researcher Mohammed Omer in which he provides a chronicle of life on the Gaza Strip during Operation Protective Edge in 2014.

Social Research and Policy in the Development Arena; Critical Encounters Book by emeritus professor Martin Doornbos. Published by PalgraveMacmillan, the book analyzes the researchpolicy nexus in development studies, highlighting reciprocal orientations and interactions between the domains of social research and of policy and politics.

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Themed article


The resettlement challenges of Bhutanese refugees in Nepal

Nilima Ria is from Nepal She is currently completing her MA at ISS in the Social Policy for Development Major.

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According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Nepal in 1991, an estimated 105,000 Lhotshampas (persons of Nepali origin with Bhutanese nationality) fled to Nepal via India due to fear of persecution and arbitrary detention. Since then, Bhutanese refugees have languished in a protracted situation, residing in seven refugee camps in Nepal for more than 15 years, without any prospects of a durable solution, despite many refugees’ desire for resettlement.

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Themed article


uman Rights Watch reported that in 2006, the US was one of the first to express its interest to resettle 60,000 refugees. This was followed by Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK. The resettlement process has raised hopes of future prospects, but at the same time it has bred tensions and dilemmas for the Bhutanese refugees inside the camps. Inconsistencies among the laws in the refugees’ country of asylum, Nepal and of their resettlement country have further complicated the process of resettlement. Due to this, Bhutanese refugees are suffering from increased divorce rates, disputes and family disintegration. In this article, I explore the experiences of Bhutanese refugees falling under the process of resettlement, using a socio-legal research approach of legal consciousness. Furthermore, I will explain how the existing laws are affecting the process of resettlement and the day-to-day lives of the Bhutanese refugees and how the refugees position themselves in relation to those laws. According to the June 2015 statistics of UNHCR, a total of 97,197 refugees have left Nepal for resettlement and out of this, a total of 82,197 have travelled to the US. The remainder has been resettled in Australia (5,488), Canada (6,305), Denmark (874), the Netherlands (327), Norway (566) and the UK (358). There are approximately 21,000 refugees who remain inside the camps, of which 13,000 have expressed their interest in resettlement. The remaining 7-8000 refugees are considered ‘residual’ refugee populations, comprised of either those who wish to repatriate back or those who are ineligible for resettlement. The Bhutanese refugees facing resettlement are compelled to comply with existing laws of either the domestic legislation of Nepal, the rules and regulations of UNHCR, or the foreign immigration laws of the resettlement country. Although the Nepalese domestic laws can be understood through ‘laws in the books’, Dutch researcher Ilse Griek (2014)has noted that internal documents such as Standard Operating Procedures (SOP)

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Refugees in camps are subject to the laws of the country of asylum but are also governed by the rules of UNHCR and the foreign immigration laws of resettlement countries.

for resettlement and documents that reflect the laws and regulations of resettlement countries are not shared with Bhutanese refugees. According to Griek, the reasons for a rejection of their resettlement application are rarely provided by the resettlement country.

Analyzing resettlement process of Bhutanese refugees through a legal consciousness approach According to Nielson (2000), an approach that analyzes the legal consciousness of people is concerned with how they think about laws and how their general understanding of existing legal institutions and laws can affect their lives. This article will discuss the findings of my research through Roscoe Pound’s idea on American Legal Consciousness as interpreted by Hertogh (2004), namely ‘how do Bhutanese refugees experience formal or official law’ as it is static, which means that the subject has no influence over the content of existing laws. A brief note on my research methods: in addition to existing literature, my study has been largely based on 22 semistructured interviews held in July 2015 at the Bhutanese Refugee Camp of Beldangi-II and at its extension in Jhapa, Nepal, with 17 Bhutanese refugees. All refugees, whose names were changed to protect their privacy, are in the process of resettlement and two Bhutanese refugees had expressed a wish for voluntary repatriation to Bhutan. In addition, I held interviews with UNHCR in Jhapa, with a camp supervisor who is an official with the Government of Nepal, and the President of the International Institute of Human Rights, Environment and Development (INHURED). Conducting research on the resettlement experiences within Bhutanese refugee camps provided me with insights on how refugees experience the laws related to resettlement and how these laws specifically affect their resettlement process and other aspects of their day-to-day lives. Refugees inside a camp are always subject to the domestic and criminal laws of the country of asylum (in the case of Bhutanese refugees, this is clearly the laws of Nepal) and are further governed by the rules and regulations of UNHCR. Nevertheless, refugees also have to comply with resettlement protocols and are thus also obliged to follow the foreign immigration laws of resettlement countries.

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Mixed marriage and polygamy and laws relevant to resettlement ‘Kumari’ expressed her wish for third country resettlement. She was considered ineligible based on the resettlement criterion as she was married to a man outside the refugee camp. For her, third country resettlement is not a viable durable solution anymore; she can, however, acquire citizenship from her husband on the basis of the Nepalese Citizenship Act 2006. However, she would qualify for resettlement if she divorced her husband and gained custody of the children. If a refugee family, which expressed its interest in resettlement, falls under the category of ‘Mixed Marriage’ (i.e. a refugee woman married to a man other than a refugee outside the camp), the family is not eligible for resettlement. However, this is not the case if a refugee man is married to a Nepalese woman outside the camp. He, including his family members, will all be eligible for resettlement according to the resettlement criterion. By the same token, according to article (5) and sub-section (1) & (2) of the Nepalese Citizenship Act 2006, a foreign man who marries a Nepalese woman cannot acquire Nepalese citizenship. Therefore, for a refugee man, third country resettlement is the only durable solution available. Such unequal provisions, which stem from the provisions of the Nepalese Citizenship Act 2006, have been affecting the resettlement process of Bhutanese refugees. ‘Bikash’ and his family have been waiting for resettlement for more than five years. The resettlement process for his family members was not possible due to polygamy within his family (his father had two wives). His family became eligible for resettlement only after Bikash’s father divorced his first wife (Bikash’s mother) and was to be resettled with his second wife. Bikash and his father were to be resettled in two different countries. Due to these complications, disputes between family members occurred.

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Although the practice of polygamy is criminalized in Nepal in accordance with Article 9 of the Nepalese Legal Code 1963, a man may take an additional wife if certain conditions are met (e.g. if a wife suffers from a venereal disease, is unable to give birth, is paralyzed or if she is established to be insane). In the resettlement countries, domestic legislation strictly prohibits the practice of polygamy. For example, as Griek has observed, in the US, where larger numbers of refugees have been resettled, polygamy is banned in all 50 states through a provision prohibiting polygamy in US immigration law. Such inconsistencies of laws between the country of origin, asylum country and country of resettlement have generated tensions between family members and led to family disintegration. It is clear from the above discussion, that the unequal provisions related to citizenship in asylum countries have affected the resettlement process. A female refugee falling under the category of mixed marriage is not eligible unless she divorces her husband. Similarly, a polygamous refugee family will not be eligible unless a man decides to resettle with one wife and divorce the other because the practice of polygamy is restricted in the resettlement country. This has resulted in several social problems such as increased divorce rates among the Bhutanese refugees, family disputes and family disintegration. From a legal consciousness standpoint, therefore, Bhutanese refugees have no option but to comply with the laws placed in front of them as they have no influence over existing laws. These laws relevant to resettlement are static and Bhutanese refugees have to comply with them if they wish to resettle, despite the fact that they affect their family and social life.


Family waiting for resettlement to Canada after a lifetime in Bhutanese refugee camps. Photo by Nilima Rai.

References Griek, Ilse (2014) ‘Human Rights in Translation: Dispute Resolution in the Bhutanese Refugee Camps in Nepal’ Wolf Legal Publishers, the Netherlands pp. 242-269 Human Rights Watch (2007), Last Hope: The Need for Durable solutions for Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal and India. Hertogh, Marc (2004) ‘A European Conception of Legal Consciousness: Rediscovering Eugen Ehrlich Authors’ Journal of Law and Society Vol.31 No.4 pp. 460-457 IOM Damak Nepal (2008) ‘The Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal: A tool for re-settlement workers and sponsors pp.2 Nielson, Laura Beth (2000) ‘Situating Legal Consciousness: Experiences and Attitudes of Ordinary Citizens about Law and Street Harassment’ Law and Society Review,Vol. 34, No.4, pp.1059-61 Nepalese Citizenship Act 2006, Retrieve from: Citizenship%20Regs%20English.pdf

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Focus on ISS

Focus on CIRI

The Civic Innovation Research Initiative (CIRI) looks at how organizations and individuals mobilize to change their societies. It focuses on how they co-shape political, economic and cultural trends in pursuing the common interest whilst respecting differences. CIRI’s analysis of and support for civic innovation recognizes the importance of knowledge production led by researchers and activists working to change the development arena. It looks beyond development theories and policy frameworks which tend to emphasize structure, or actors themselves that overly stress the key role of charismatic change agents. Read more at:

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Focus on ISS


New book from the Civic Innovation Research Initiative Exploring Civic Innovation for Social and Economic Transformation, Kees Biekart, Wendy Harcourt and Peter Knorringa (eds) (2016 forthcoming). The edited volume – a collective effort of the Civic Innovation Research Initiative – will be the first to examine the globally rising phenomenon of civic innovation. Civic Innovation is about positive, creative and imaginative responses in the face of a world that seems beset by crisis narratives whether economic, ecological, social or cultural. It explores responses to social and economic injustices between global North and South, genders, classes, migrants and nationals, democratic deficits in rich and poor countries. Civic innovation is about how people are dealing with uncertainty, in different forms of resistance and innovative practices for change. Combining nuanced theory with rich empirical examples, the book defines the dynamic and complex process of civic innovation as the multiple economic, political and social processes where peoples, organizations, movements and ideas are shaping struggles for global justice on the interface of capitalism. Going beyond the strictures of development aid and its logics, the book celebrates how people on the ground are overcoming profound obstacles in their direct challenge to social, political, economic and cultural inequalities. In its mosaic of conceptual debate and narrative accounts, the book explores the new practices and imaginaries emerging from community and solidarity economies, transformative empowerment strategies in global value chains, local politics of social movements, and rights struggles around body, race, gender and sexuality. The book illustrates how civic innovation happens everywhere, at the global level as well as in communities, in governments, in markets, in families, as well as for individuals.

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CIRI staff has worked together since 2013 to put together the book, using participatory methodologies, intergenerational dialogues and jointly written chapters. One chapter has 6 authors – including ISS MA and PhD students. Though placed in Routledge’s economics listing, the book has a strong interdisciplinary approach as well as an activist researcher viewpoint. The authors are economists, sociologists, anthropologists and political scientists as well as activists in youth movements, sex workers rights campaigns, transnational feminist movements and trade unions. It is a unique contribution to the fields of labour studies, pluralist economic traditions, local economies, civil society movements, youth, sexuality and gender studies. It offers a pluriverse of strategies, experiences and analyses on the ‘interface of economic development’ and the collective efforts of people in many places around the world towards building social justice as they address poverty, discriminations, inequality and injustice.

Spring 2016 cycle on Civic Innovation The spring 2016 cycle of the ISS Development Research Seminars will continue the CIRI debates with ‘Dialogues on Civic Innovation Research’. The series of seminars held on Mondays from mid- January to June 2016 at ISS will deepen the discussions of the first volume on civic innovation: Exploring Civic Innovation for Social and Economic Transformation.

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ISS publications

Development and Change

Working Papers

Development and Change is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the critical analysis and discussion of current issues of development. It was established by the ISS in 1969, in response to the perceived need for a multidisciplinary journal dealing with all aspects of development studies.

The ISS Working Paper series provides a forum for work in progress which seeks to elicit comments and generate discussion. The series includes academic research by staff, PhD participants and visiting fellows, and award-winning research papers by graduate students. Subscribe to the Working Papers free notification service at

Original articles Boris Verbrugge The Economic Logic of Persistent Informality: Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in the Southern Philippines Roxana Maurizio Transitions to Formality and Declining Inequality: Argentina and Brazil in the 2000S Ian G. Baird, Bruce P. Shoemaker and Kanokwan Manorom The People and their River, the World Bank and its Dam: Revisiting the Xe Bang Fai River in Laos Grace Carswell and Geert De Neve Litigation against Political Organization? The Politics of Dalit Mobilization in Tamil Nadu, India Isabelle Hillenkamp Solidarity Economy for Development and Women’s Emancipation: Lessons from Bolivia Eglė Česnulytė ‘I Do Not Work: I Do Commercial Sex Work’. Ambiguities in the Discourse and Practice of Selling Sex in Mombasa, Kenya

Effects of decentralized health care financing on maternal care in Indonesia ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 607 p. 1- 42 R. Hartwig (Renate), R.A. Sparrow (Robert), S. Budiyati (Sri), A. Yumna (Athia), N. Warda (Nila), A. Suryahadi (Asep) and A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh) Renewing membership in three communitybased health insurance schemes in rural India ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 608 p. 1- 28 P. Panda (Pradeep ), A. Chakraborty (Arpita), W.A. Raza (Wameq) and A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh) Macroeconomic impacts of Universal Health Coverage: Synthetic control evidence from Thailand ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 609 p. 1- 16 M. Rieger (Matthias), N. Wagner (Natascha) and A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh) Cash transfer as a social policy instrument or a tool of adjustment policy: from indirect subsidies (to energy and utilities) to cash subsidies in Iran, 2010-2014 ISS Working Paper Series / General Series , Volume 610 p. 1- 26 M. Meskoub

Marco Di Nunzio What is the Alternative? Youth, Entrepreneurship and the Developmental State in Urban Ethiopia

Review essays Amiya Kumar Bagchi The Arithmetic of Resource-intensive Growth, Keynesian Monetary Management, and Egalitarian Green Growth Sumangala Damodaran The Chimera of Inclusive Growth: Informality, Poverty and Inequality in India in the Post-Reform Period

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Student life


STUDENT LIFE From top left clockwise: Preparing classes over lunch, Sports on Sunday afternoon, Preparing for the first exams, Halloween in ISS student hostel, Day trip to Giethoorn Thanks to the photographers: Parthasarathy Thirumalai Govindan, Peter Gamundani and Azmarina Tanzir

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International Institute of Social Studies Kortenaerkade 12 2518 AX The Hague P.O. Box 29776 2502 LT The Hague The Netherlands (+31) 70 426 0460 International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) International Institute of Social Studies (ISS) International Institute of Social Studies The Hague

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