A study of the spatial structure of a temple town -
O m k a r e s h w a r, -Deven Gajjar
Guide: Prof. Meghal Arya Undergraduate Research Thesis School of Architecture CEPT University Ahmedabad
â€œThis thesis is dedicated to the memory of my Niece for those wonderful daysâ€?
CONTENTS Introduction Aim and objective
Chapter 1 History and Background
1.2 History of Omkareshwar
1.3 Myths and beliefs
1.4 Important religious buildings in Omkareshwar
1.5 Evolution growth
Chapter 2 Elements that Constitute the Town
2.1 Structuring elements
2.2 Major elements and the land use
2.3 Street network and movement
2.4 Built mass
2.5 Configuration of the edges
2.6 Topography and its influences on built form
Chapter 3 Detail Analysis of the Elements of Omkareshwar
3.1.1 Overall street structure of Omkareshwar
3.1.2 Primary Street
3.1.3 Secondary Street
3.1.4 Tertiary Street
3.2. Nodes and Landmarks
3.3.1 General description
3.3.2 Kotitirtha Ghat
3.3.3 Chakratirtha Ghat
3.3.4 Nauv Ghat
3.3.5 Gaumukhi Ghat
Glossary Selected bibliography Illustrations credits Acknowledgement
The idea of a sacred centre which constitutes the temple
and its supporting institutions remains persistent in most religious settlements. This centre can in turn be seen to influence the form and character of the built environment and the various activities that occupy these spaces. This research document seeks to understand various factors that inform the order of a religious settlement for which purpose a case study of Omkareshwar (Madhya Pradesh) has been documented.
On visiting Omkareshwar the principle outline of the
study was laid out and clarified with a general experiences of the settlement. From the beginning, study was directed towards the raw nature of growth and spontaneity in built form. Firstly, it is important to understand the various component parts of the town and their relationship to the sacred centre of the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. Secondly, the study seeks to understand the relationship of built form with the complex geography of the region. Thirdly it became apparent that understanding of the settlement could only be complete through the study of the complex network of streets that make various relationships and experiences possible. Fourthly, study tried to look at the relationship between land and the water of the Narmada seen in the light of the various rituals performed along the banks.
Omkareshwar on the whole is seen through the
experience of faith propagated by the institution of the various temples upon the landscape and the built form of the settlement generated through mediating with the complex topography of the place. This dissertation seeks to discover the basic urban elements that constitute the town of Omkareshwar and the nature of assembly (when influenced by the main temple and the geography of the place) to create the larger settlement.
The urban elements that have been identified for the
purpose of study in relation to the Omkareshwar are the built mass, Ghats, Streets, Nodes and Landmarks. Each of these have been examined in their physical terms as well as from the point of view of activity pattern that integrated into the built environment.
Aim and objectives
The aim is to study the spatial structure of Omkareshwar
town and to understand the role of its constituent elements. The objectives of the study are therefore, 1. To study the factor of growth and formation of the overall settlement- pattern 2. To identify the elements those structure the town. These elements are Street, Nodes, landmarks and Ghats. 3. To understand these elements in terms of the spatial quality, character of spaces and organization patterns and activities that take place in these spaces.
Scope and limitation
The scope of the study is limited to the settlement of
temple town of Omkareshwar and to understand the physical environment as a result of impacts of the temple, religious activities and topography; the main focus being the physical construct and its constituent elements such as streets, nodes and landmark, Ghats. The study is limited to the current form and situation of identified built forms and their attitudes towards space-making. The focus of the study is not about inside of the buildings (private spaces) but the looking as elements of the town with respect to the town level activities. This thesis does not look at the transformation of the spaces due to modification or the new development. The study does not include the influences on architecture style but study aims to analyze the existing built form and to understand the space making.
Literature regarding the information about history, myth,
religious background are collected from the libraries and web sites which are the secondary sources. The emphasis is laid on first hand observations made on site, employing the use of measure drawings, sketch drawings, photographs and mapping of activities, as tools for representing these observation as well as for critical analysis. Drawings are made through proportional sketches for analysis and specially the basic mapping of the town because there is no primary data available for mapping the Omkareshwar town. No attempt is made to apply existing models
or theory onto the case study. Basic understanding of the urban environment and built form that has been acquired through the undergraduate program has formed the primary support material on which the observation and analysis are based.
Framework and presentation
The first chapter is based on the secondary source
which establishes the context of temple town of Omkareshwar in terms of its history, evolution and myths associated to place and geography.
The second chapter tries to understand the physical
construct of the town is established in terms of its constituent elements which are major factors in the structuring of the built form and the overall organization patterns.
The chapter third analyses each of the constituent
elements of the town in detail in terms of its physical aspect, characteristic and associated activities. This chapter establishes the cohesive nature of the elements and their distinct role and attitudes towards space making and place making of the town.
Framework and Analysis Chapter 1
Introduction of Omkareshwar
Understanding the basic role of the temples and the scared elements. Different beliefs in order to understand importance of the scared center with respect to the basic concept of place
Geography History Myths and belief Evolution of The town
Structure of Omkareshwar
Structuring element of the town Identification the elements
Elements that constituents the town
Detail Analysis of elements
Chapter 3 Streets
Nodes and landmarks
Water edge Ghats
Analysis Land use and elements of town
Topography and its influence on built form
Functional organization and relationship with the town
the streets chosen for analysis and chosen with respect to the prime movements and the maximum usage by people
Spatial organization, functional characteristic
-Spatial organization -Mass void relationship -Order of geometry -Functional order -Activity
-Spatial organization -Configuration of different elements -Layering conditions
Primary street Secondary street Tertiary street
Influences on built form, temples, street network and water edge conditions
Primary street Prime path to the center of the town (omkareshwar temple) Secondary street Amreshwar street and Street near to Vishnu temple (name given as Vishnu street in this thesis) Tertiary street No specific street has been taken ,but is aimed of overall overview
Major nodes and minor node / Landmark- town level and on the street The nodes have for the critical analysis are chosen on the basis of the locations and importance that generated by the different activities
Node near Hanuman temple Node of Jaypee Chowk Node near Omkareshwar temple
Northern bank Southern bank
The Ghats taken to analyze by the maximum concentration of activities, oldest of the town are studied for this purpose
Kotitirtha Ghat Chakratirtha Ghat Nauv Ghat Gaumukhi Ghat
Node near Amreshwar temple Node at the end of the bridge at northern bank
Spatial organizations -Order in Built mass along the street -Mass and void relationship -Degree of enclosure -Degree of penetration of ground floor -Elements that make the street facade -Layering element of streets -Activity pattern
Spatial organization - Structuring elements - Built mass relationship - Activity patterns
History and Background 1.1 Geography 1.1.1 Location 1.1.2 Approach and linkages 1.1.3 Context and surroundings 1.2 History of omkareshwar 1.2.1 Ancient period 1.2.2 Medieval period 1.2.3 From Mughal India to the British empire 1.2.4 Post independence 1.3 Myths and belief 1.3.1 Myth of Jyotirlinga 1.3.2 Myth of Narmada river 1.3.3 Relation of Narmada river and Jyotirlinga 1.3.4 Myth of kaveri and Narmada confluence 1.3.5 Omkareshwar island 1.3.6 Omkareshwar Parikrama 1.3.7 Monday ritual 1.4 Important religious buildings in Omkareshwar 1.5 Evolution growth
1.1 Geography of Omkareshwar 1.1.1. Location 1 Longitude : 76o 9’ E Latitude
: 22o 14’ N
Winter: Minimum 12co
Summer: Maximum 42co
Rainfall : Average rainfall 1267 mm Wind speed: average 13.3 k.m.
Population: 7211 (in 2004) Total area: 1267 hector
Fig.a. Location of the Madhya Pradesh in India
Average income: 1815.00 ( in 2003-2004) Average pilgrims visit every day: 4500
During the festival: 1.5 to 2 lacs Maximum pilgrims visit In Kartik Purnima
Festivals (number of days): Kartik Purnima (10),Mahashivartri mela (5), Shravan Mahino (30), Somvati Amavshya (2), Purnima(1),
Festival of 10 days, an average 5 lacs
22°14’N East Nimar
Narmada Jayanti (3), Ganga Dashmi (1),
Ganesh visharjana (2), Durga visharjana (2)
Fig.b. Districts map of Madhya Pradesh
Narmada river Fig. c. Satellite image showing the geographical context of ground and the river that flows between hills and forms the island 8
1. Omkareshwar Vikash Yojna(prarup). Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam.1973.Ke Pravardhanantargat Prakashit. Sanchalnalay, Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh, Madhya Predesh. 2007, p.2,3,5,6
1.1.2. Approach and linkages
Omkareshwar is well connected to
the all nearby cities within the range of 25 km like Indore, Maheshwar, Mhow, Mandu, Khandwa, Khargone falls within range of 75 km. Sanewad is the nearest town within 25 km. The town is also connected to the nearby villages by road network. The nearest railhead is Omkareshwar road 12 km from Omkareshwar town on the Ratlam-Khandwa section of the western rail. The town is also well connected to the most tourist places of the Madhya pradesh like Ujjain, Maheshwar, Mandu and Indore. Regional buses pass in large numbers on the road between Khandwa and Indore that give an easy access to Omkareshwar. Today Omkareshwar town is very well connected to the major parts of the country with improved transportation and infrastructure in spite of its isolated and Omkareshwar
remote location. Omkareshwar is accessible from the from Mortakka village
1.1.3 Context and Surroundings
Entire town is situated on the two
banks of the Narmada river. One is on the northern bank of Narmada river which is an island and the other is southern bank of the river. The town is placed between Vindhya range and Satpura range. This land is very
Fig. a. Road network of neighborhood cities and towns
undulating, and hilly in nature. The Narmada river flows between these two ranges and form the triangular shaped “island” (chapter 1 see Omkareshwar island, page 14) the aerial view of the island looks like the symbol “OM”. Appearance of the island is in form of OM as a result of valleys. Local belief says that the island is shaped of symbol ‘OM’. Fig.b. Map showing the Narmada river between Vindhya range and Satpura range.
The Narmada river flows from east
to west direction. Eastern tip of the island creates the bifurcation of the narmada and
splits it in to two part as Narmada and Kaveri river. And again meets at the western tip of the island called â€˜Sangamâ€™ (refer chapter-1.
Kaveri and Narmada confluence, p.14)
The island is fully covered with
forest. The western part is covered with teak wood forest. In the northern part, the forest
Godadpura Amreshwar temple
becomes more dense and has a variety of
trees. Though black cotton soil is found but in major parts of the region because of the hilly and rocky ground, the area is not so rich
for agricultural purpose and it is incapable of bearing crops. Dolomite and limes are found in some areas.
Fig.a. Boundaries of Omkareshwar 0
Narm San ada - k gam aver i
re ka m O m da
To Indore Mortakka village
Fig.b. Omkareshwar town and neighbourhood contexts
1.2 History of Omkareshwar
History of Omkareshwar has gone through several
influences under many major dynasties. Four distinct stages of the evolution of the place can be traced as following; 1.2.a Ancient period 2
The story of Omkareshwar can be traced from prehistoric
times dating from 5500 B.C. through the traces of life. There is an argument among Indian historians for the identification of Omkareshwar and Maheshwar which is mentioned in the Puranas. It seems that the city would have been a political and cultural center of an region. 1.2.b Medieval period 3
During the medieval period, the town of Omkareshwar
was ruled by the vast kingdom of the dynasty of Hindu king of Malwa Paramara of 975 to 1295 AD, formerly known as the kings of Avanti, the contemporary Ujjain. The Dynasty ruled the region from Bhopal to Hoshangabad, known as the Nimar and Khandwa. Then Old inscriptions engraved in slabs record concessions and subsidies by the Kings to Brahmins of the village. These tiles, dated 1274 found in the temple Mamleshwar (south side) have retained the names Jayasimhadeva (reign 1055 to1060AD) and Devapaladeva (1218 to 1232 AD.). They are signed in name of King Jayavarman II (1255 to 1275 AD.) Who belonged to the dynasty of Paramara kings. These documents were signed after the Kings had taken a bath in the Narmada. These archeological sources show that the holy city of Omkareshwar was an ancient city populated of Brahmins. The Paramara kings have built many temples of the city.
In 1165 Bharatsingh Prithviraj, one of the king from
Rajput dynasty from Rajasthan came to conquer MandhataOmkareshwar. He pushed away Mahummadans Muslim from the north through his conquest. He obtained possession of the city, hitherto under the authority of its governor Nathu Bhil, probably by marrying her daughter. The descendant of the exogamous marriage between a Rajput prince and Princess Bhil (Adivasi), formed the caste of local Bhilalas. The descendants of Nathu Bhil and Chauhan Rajput were now the heirs and conservators of the city temple on Mandhata Island. Today, they are still present and
2. Cremin Emilie, Omkareshwar, Une Ville Sainte de la Narmada en cours de transformation, MA thesis, University Paris Saint-Denis, 2005, p. 122. 3. Ibid., p. 123.
are called by courtesy “Raja”, while their rank and title are those of “Bhilala Rao Sahib of Mandhata”.
In December 1296, the Muslim conquerors tried to take
the city of Omkareshwar and other cities in East Nimar on their way to southern India. But the Chauhan Rajputs of Rajasthan supported the local kingdoms and protected the region from Muslim influences. Other troop that fought the battle with the Rajput was from Gonds tribe known as Gonda who resided in the east of the valley.
Since the 15th century the Khandwa region was mainly
governed by the past Muslim sultan Khalifat Faruqi, descendant of the Tughluqs dynasty, vassals of the Delhi sultanate. These territories were administered by many semi-independent feudal lords. Mandu fortress located 150 km from Omkareshwar, on a promontory of Vindhya was the seat of Muslim troops who controlled the fertile plain of Nimar district. 1.2.c
From Mughal India to the British Empire 4
In the mid-16th century, the great Mughal emperor
Humayun having conquered Gujarat and the Narmada region from Mandu to Khandwa in order to control the Deccan Central India. Emperor Akbar included the region in his empire early in the 17th century. However, from the inscription by Raja Gopal of Mandhata found on a portal of the city that date back to 1654, suggest that the Chauhan king had kept their position on Omkareshwar mandhata. The emperor Aurangzeb dominated region in the second half of the 17th century (1656 - 1707), while troops of the great Marathi Shivaji began to move north. The Maratha governed the region during the 18th century with the Peshwas governors. Then the region was disputed between Rajput Sindhya of Gwalior, the Holkars of Indore and Marathi. Holkar dynasty ruled from territories of the Narmada valley from 1728 to 1948 Indore was its capitol during that time. Queen Ahilya Bay Holkar (1767-1795) carried out many restoration in Omkareshwar. 1.2.a
Post Independence 5
Since independence in 1947, and the formation of the
State of Madhya Pradesh, the city is governed by a panchayat. Today, all three brothers downhill Bhilalas kings of OmkareshwarMandhata: Rao Shiv Charan Singh, Rao and Singh Shalendra
4. Ibid., p. 123 5. Ibid. p. 124
Davendra Rao Singh, perpetuate the tradition of Local kingdom. Each of these princes also has its own family. The second son, Rao Shalendra Singh is elected as mayor of the Panchayat of the town. His brother runs a guesthouse near to Jaypee chowk.
1.3 Myths of Omkareshwar 1.3.2 Myth of Jyotirlinga
According to local beilief, Vindhya was granted the boon
of profound knowledge by lord Shiva, who was impressed by the mediating of sage Vindhya. During the time, the deities and sages who were present there requested lord Shiva to reside in this place. During to the insistence of the deities, lord Shiva accepted the request to aside there. Thereafter, the one Omkar Linga was separated into two forms. The almighty, known as Omkareshwar and other known as Mamleshwar or amreshwar, Based on the above myths, it is believed that until the holy water collected from all the four holy pilgrims’ places is not liberated to Omkareshwar, the pilgrimage is not considered as complete. Therefore, after bathing in Kotitirtha Ghat and having travelled all the four holy places, people from all the parts of the world come to worship in the temple of lord Omkareshwar.
“According to Puranas, a Suryavanshi king named
Mandhata performed severe penanace on the island to please shiva. As a result of this, shiva was not only pleased but asked Raja Mandhata to make a wish. King Mandhata, in his wish, pleaded that lord Shiva should reside there permanently. According to the wish, lord shiva appeared on the island in form of a linga to reside on the island permanently in the temple of omkareshwar. However, according to local beliefs. Another linga of temple Amreshwar on the southern bank is claimed to be the Jyotirlinga but omkareshwar due to it’s stronger association is worshipped. Later on this island was named “Mandhata” after the king which change to omkareshwar on account of the shape of the island resembling the symbol ‘OM’.” 6
1.3.2 Myth of Narmada River
The rivers are considered as “Mother”, often associated
with female divinities in India. In all the holy places which succeed on the shores of river, the Narmada is colloquially known as “Mata Narmada” i.e. Mother Narmada. Water has a major role in the performance of religious rituals such as bathing in holy waters in 6. Gupta Anjum, TH-0442, ‘Typology of Sacred Centers’, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad, p.103.
Hindu religion, is believed to purify the soul and the body of all its sins.
In the Matsya Purana it is said â€œAll sins are cleansed
by seven times in the river Yamuna, once in the Ganges, but the mere sight of the Narmada is sufficient to absolve his sins once and for allâ€?. The river is considered to be one of the most sacred rivers in India, because having a Darshan to be purified. According to local legend, the god comes each year in the form of a black cow bathing in the Narmada. Then it returns to its home in the valley in the form of a white cow, with cleaned of all its sins. In Omkareshwar, significance of the Narmada River is the water edge, beauty of landscape and rituals along the Ghats. As one can notice that water of Narmada is touched through the articulation of ground which is called Ghat, where devotees get the pleasure to see the holy river and to perform various rituals along the water.
1.3.2 Association of the Narmada and the Jyotirlinga
The landscape of sacred island of the Omkareshwar is
marked by Narmada River. The pilgrims perform rituals on the bank of the river. In Omkareshwar temple, devotes receive the Darshan of the Jyotirlinga and participate in experience of the divine place. After that devotees go back to nearest Ghat (Kotitirth Ghat and Chakratirtha Ghat) to attain Abhishek of the Linga. In addition, Shiva Lingas, integrated into the plinths of Ghats, are regularly used for Pujas. On Monday evening, devotees and pilgrims worship and do Deepdaan. Deepjyot floating placidly on the water, music and Bhajan mounted speaker makes the peaceful and spiritual environment throughout the city so there Fig.a. Aerial view of the Narmada and Kavari confluence
is a interrelationship between the Narmada and Jyotirlinga with strong relation as two elements; water and earth.
1.3.3 Kaveri and Narmada Confluence
Narmada flows from the east to west. The Narmada River
divides Mandhata Island at the east corner and splits it into two rivers one remains Narmada and second is called Kaveri River. Both rivers surround the island and meets at the point where it is called the Narmada Kaveri Sangam. Local people believed that the waters of both the rivers does not meet. The Kaveri River is flowing on the northern side of the island and Narmada flowing on Fig.b. View of Omkareshwar island
the South side of the island. These two rivers are considered as
sacred sisters are meeting and mingle their waters in the western tip of the island which is known as “Sangam” (confluence). The site is covered with thousands of small tumuli; pilgrims put it in to the order which represents Shivalinga and take a bath here.
1.3.4 Omkareshwar Island
Omkareshwar Island is composed of a small triangular
plate at the center of the Narmada River, approximately 4 km long and 2 km wide. The plateau of this island rises 150 m above the river. The island has steep slopes across the edges. The geographical location and the undulating terrain allowed
Fig.a. An Artist’s representation of his perception of the place, highlighting island which resembles OM and other components like temple, river, ghats and activities
pilgrims to admire a panoramic view of sunrise but now there is a industrial interferences occurring to the island of Omkareshwar because of the construction of the dam. The plateau of island is sheared by a deep valley, dividing the island in to two parts.The island in the top view, resembles the sacred syllable “OM”. The syllable OM has its importance in the Hindu scripture. According to Hindu philosophy, the syllable OM has derived from the sound. It is considered to be the most sacred of all sounds. It is the fundamental syllable created by the Gods, which precedes the universe. The word OM contains entire universe. So according to
Fig.b. View of Riddheshwar temple
the local belief, people also worship the island and they feel more spiritual after landing on it.
1.3.5 Omkareshwar island Parikrama (see Fig. c)
The circumambulation of a holy place or sacred territory
symbolizes travel around the universe for Hindus. The sacred island is considered to be a linga surrounded by the water of Narmada which is referred to as a Yoni. Thus pilgrims will be pleased to have traveled the world by doing a Parikrama of the island. The path of Pradakshina (circumambulation) for the
Fig.c. Parikrama route on island.
sacred island was a small trail which could hardly be called a route where it was difficult for pilgrims to walk barefoot. In 1998, it was cemented and route becomes prominent on the island.7 and now more people are involved in Parikrama especially old age people. Many Ashrams and houses for Sadhus, and families of Adivasi were built around the valley and along the Parikrama route in the last decade. Now island is easily open for tourists and explore them self as joy. It starts from the main Omkareshwar temple, many small temples, big temples and many sacred places enroute the Parikrama. This path for pilgrims of 16 km provides a tour of the island and one can easily reach back to the south bank 7. Cremin Emilie, Op.cit., p. 119.
Fig.d. Chand-suraj Gate
of the island near to Omkareshwar temple within 1 hour 30 mins. On the Parikrama route there are many temples, Ashram found while moving on the Parikrama route. Even huts of sages found in the forest and on the rock. There is Kherapati Hanuman temple, Omkarnath Ashram, Ram Krishna mission Ashram, Gayatri Mandir, Rinmukteshwar Temple found on the route till Sangam. Then to end the Sangam where it particularly auspicious to take a bath to purify themselves. While moving toward the ridge of the island, there are huts of many Sadhus established in forest. Fig.a. Palanquin carried out on the Kotitirtha Ghat with the music
Then moving towards the east there are important temples called Gauri-Somnath temple and Siddharnath temple after that journey takes back towards the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga but before that devotees take Darshan of Bhairav then returns to Omkareshwar temple complex. The Parikrama is complete when the pilgrim arrives again to Temple of Omkareshwar to attend the evening Puja.
1.3.6 Omkareshwar Monday Ritual Fig.b. Sage dancing on the Ghat in front of Jyotirlinga
This ritual are performed on every Monday during the
year. The Shivalinga carried out with the palanquins from the Omkareshwar temple to the Kotitirtha Ghat. On this Ghat Sadhus performed the Puja on the water edge. Then sages kept that
Fig.c. Devotees and sages performing Puja around the Shivalinga on the ghat
Brahmapuri Amreshwar temple Fig.d. Palanquin carried to the boat for the processional.
Fig. f. Route of procession on the Monday ritual in Shravan mahino Festival
palanquin in the boat then boat takes Five rounds (auspicious number of lord Shiva) in the River after they return back to the Gaumukhi Ghat. After that palanquin is carried by the devotees for a procession, from the Gaumukhi Ghat to the rest of the town on southern bank of Narmada river with ritual music, dance, and celebrate with the colors. Then the palanquin is carried out in the procession route through the market and then back to the Omkareshwar temple.
1.4. Important Religious Buildings in town a. Palace
The palace is located on the south side of the sacred
island near the Omkareshwar temple. The building is relatively well maintained. It was built in the 17th century by the kings Bhilalas in connection with the Rajput kings of Rajasthan after the old palace was destroyed; it was built on a higher land,
Fig.a. View of the royal palace from the Shivapuri street.
protected by the natural moat form Narmada and the fortified walls of the ruins ancient city.5 The architecture of the palace is highly influenced by the Rajput style of Rajasthan. The interior consists of three courts surrounded by passage with columns around. The rectangular form of palace, Zarukha on the facade, massive architecture of the facade are giving more character and finesse.
Palace is still running by the kingâ€™s family. There is a
court open to the public, the rest being private. The presence of this building is, however, major in the landscape as it recalls the
Fig.b. View of first court inside the palace.
temporal order which ruled the city in the past.
b.Yasvant Vachnalay temple and library
On the Shivapuri ( the street which is near to Omkareshwar
Jyotirlinga) street, there is a temple called Yasvant Vachnalay. This temple is dedicated to the memory of the ancestors of the king of Mandhata. The Mandapa of the temple is used as small open library for reading books and for newspaper for local people and pilgrims. Articulation of the elements like Chajja, Zarukha on riverside, decorative columns brings the architectural style. Part of the both sides are now occupied as a houses. Fig.c. Yashvant vachnalay on the northern bank
c. Omkareshwar temple
In India, there are twelve jyotirlingas of lord shiva the
jyotirlinga of omkareshwar is one of them. this place being situated on the bank of the holy narmada This temple is called Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga which is situated on the island on the southern side. The orientation of the temple is east-west. Entry of the temple is from the west side. Before the entrance to the Mandapa, there is one square leading through the steep Fig.a. View of the omkareshwar temple and complex from the southern side of the town
flight of steps, through which the temple is approached. Inside the temple, there are walls and pillars occupied by the various divinities of god Ganesha, Ram, Sita as well as other protagonist of Ramayana and Mahabharata such as Hanuman. On the axis of the temple and entrance, there is a small pavilion where the Nandi is established.
The temple consists of five levels, in association with
the sacred number of five. The first two stories from the ground consist of Grabhagriha and Mandapa. Other three stories are considered as parts of the Sikhara. Each story consists of small Grabhagriha. The third Garbhagriha, contains Siddeshwar Mahadev. Fourth contains temple of Mahadev. Fifth contains Dhaveshwar Mahadev. Finally, the top of the Shikhara contains a Trishul and Dhvaja. Fig. b. View of the entrance of the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga, congestion happened around the Nandi pavilion because of the festival of Shravan Mahino.
The interior symmetry of the temple is such that the
Linga is not in line with the templeâ€™s front entrance, nor is it under the spire, either of which is its traditional place. Instead, the Omkareshwar Linga is off to the right in a small separate sanctum that the worshipper passes on the way to the back of the temple. The Shikhar of the temple is considered as the mount Meru, thus outer periphery of the temple used as Pradkshina path, which is narrow and many small temples of different gods and goddesses are located around the Pradkshina route. On the left side of the temple, there is a palace in ruins, which was built out of brick and wood.
Three Pujas daily take place in the Mandapa of the temple:
the morning Puja is carried out by the trust of Omkareshwar temple, that of midday by the trust of Sindhi and that of the evening by the priests of the trust of the State of Holkar. Fig. c. Space between Omkareshwar jyotirlinga and old palace that is on right side, used as Pradakshina around the temple
d. Vishnu Temple and Brahma Temple
The Vishnu temple and Brahmeshwar Mahadev temple,
these two ancient stone temples are visited by many devotees
during the holidays and festival (Now no longer a place for worship). Temple of Mahadev Brahmeshwar in the Brahmapuri and Vishnu mahadev temple in the Vishnupuri were built by Paramaras kings in the 13th century. Both the temples are located on the southern side of the town. Both temples are placed on the higher ground and lower than the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga temple. Brahmeshwar temple and Vishnu temples are aligned on one axis. Vishnu temple faces east side and Brahmapuri faces west. Vishnu temple is located in a courtyard. This temple has rooms are available in the ashram. It depends on the Trust the Nirvan Akhada, with its buildings nearby. So both these temples on the south side of Narmada and Omkareshwar temple on the north of Narmada River represent the Trimurti: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, forming a triangle in the sacred space of the town. Vishnupuri
Fig. a. View of Vishnu temple
It is located on the southern part of town. it is main
arrival point for the town and named after the vishnu temple. As this is arrival of the town, this part provides the facilities to accommodate the pilgrims and tourist with the commercial activities. In the complex of vishnu temple, there are few important religious institutions are located, like Markandya ashram, Godad Akhada, Mahanirvan Akhada. This part is mostly dense with the Dharamshalas and hotel to accommodate. Nagar panchayat an Ahilya holker foundation, educatoinal institutions are established here. Brahmapuri
Fig. b. View of Brahma (Brahmeshwar) temple
The southern-eastern part of Omkareshwar is called
Brahmapuri which is named after the temple of Brahma. It remains isolate cluster for the town as it is located on the distinct hill. This part provides the open ground for all important fairs and organize during the Festivals of Mahashivaratri and Kartik Purnima. There are few Akhadas like Niranjani Akhada, panchayati akhada etc.
e. Amreshwar temple
This temple is Located in the narrow gorge between the
Vishnupuri hill and Brahmapuri hill and opposite to Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. It is a historical monument and remains under the protection of the Department of Archaeological Madhya Pradesh. This Linga was forgotten when the town was under the Kala
Bhairav terror. The temple was abandoned and forgotten. The linga was in its ruins. At the end of the 18th century, one of Peshwas got some restoration of the Amreshwar temple done, the Linga was rediscovered then the Pandits Benares recognized as authentic, and Daulat Singh, the time of king Mandhata.8 The walls of the portico of the temple contains inscriptions dated of 1063 AD. This temple is the second most visited temple of Holy City, but it receives far fewer pilgrims than Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. It is isolated on the southern bank and less in value than Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga.
This temple was restored several times. Everything
around other smaller temples was built from materials reused Fig. a. View of Amreshwar (Mamleshwar) temple
from other buildings in ruins. Fragments of ancient temples are scattered all around. Shikhara raised high above of the Garbhagriha. At the front of the temple is a Mandapa open on three sides looking to the west in contrast to most other temples. This temple complex consists of a group of 7 temples- two big and two small. Out of all temples Amreshwar temple facing west and rest of facing east. Now Amreshwar temples forms the centered of the town on southern bank and that is believed to be the real Jyotirlinga instead of the main temple of Omkareshwar. People are worshipped every day after main Jyotirlinga, most in festival time and every Monday.
f.The Siddharnath Temple
The temple is now in ruins, once it was the most
prestigious temple of Omkareshwar-Mandhata. It is located on the plateau on the eastern part of the island and connected through the Parikrama route. Its architecture has a very original and very complex in relation to architecture medieval Brahmanic other temples of the city. This remnant of the temple was protected by the Shivaism and by Lord Curzon (Viceroy of India) in 1902, under the British Empire. He was also responsible for the restoration works carried out to its time. Nowadays, the temple is still used by some Brahmins and remains under the Protection and Conservation of the Department of Archeology of Madhya Pradesh in Bhopal. The plinth of the temple is articulate with the deities and massive stones with reliefs work of elephants in different postures which is of 1.5 m height. There is no precise data available about the date of its construction. The stylistic Fig. a. Siddhanath temple
characteristics of carvings that still allow one to believe that of was built in the 12th century.
8. Ibid., p.141
g. The Gauri Somanth Temple
This temple dates back to the 13th century, according to
the Archeological Department of Bhopal. The temple is located on the top and center of the island, connected by the Parikrama route. Somnath means â€œLord of the moon, one of the names of Shiva. This temple is in three floors. The temple architecture is much simpler than that of the temple Siddhanath. The temple is oriented towards eastern side. At ground floor there is a large black marble linga measuring of 1.80 M. high. According to the local legend, the linga was once a cylinder of pure white marble but according to some legend, this linga became black with time whereas some residents also add that the emperor broke the linga. Today, the linga has became black and shiny.
Fig. a. Gauri-Somnath temple
1.5 Evolution of Omkareshwar 9
Nilgarh fort was built by the Parmaras. The settlement started to grow around Amreshwar temple, which became the centre point/nucleus. The settlement acted as a pause point for the pilgrims and the devotees before reaching the temple at Omkareshwar. Rulers : Siyaka II ( 948 A.D. - 972 A.D. ) Vakpati Munja (974 A.D. - 995 A.D. ) Sindhuraja (995 A.D. - 1010 A.D. ) Local rulers : Tribals
2 A Jain temple complex, called Siddhawarkut was built by the Paramaras. The king of Paramaras, Bhojadev also built the temple of Amreshwar. A small settlement, called Panthiya grew during the same period. The Amreshwar temple was also constructed partially. Rulers : Bhojadev (1010 A.D. - 1055 A.D. ) Jaysimhadev ( 1055 A.D. - 1060 A.D. ) Local Rulers : Tribals
Fig. b Around the Amreshwar temple, the settlement grew bigger. The temple was completed by the Paramara king, Udayaditya. The settlement also grew around Amreshwar temple, which could be approached from South.
Rulers : Udayditya ( 1060 A.D. - 1090 A.D. ) Local rulers : Tribals
Fig. c The fort wall, the old palace behind Omkareshwar temple and the later additions to the temple were constructed by Bharat Singh. He also constructed Siddhanath and Ridheshwar temples. Later the settlements started to grow around these temple complexes. Also, the settlement grew larger around Omkareshwar and Amreshwar temple.
Local ruler : Bharat singh chauhan ( 1165 A.D. - ? ) ( Bhils + Rajputs = Bhilalas )
Fig. d 22
9. Gupta Anjum, TH-0442, â€˜Typology of Sacred Centersâ€™, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad
Along with the construction of Omkareshwar and Amreshwar temples, the settlements started to grow larger. Similar situation occurred with the growth of the settlements around Gauri Somnath and Rinmukteshwar temples. Therefore four major settlements grew on the island. They were a.Rinmukteshwar b.Gauri Somnath c.Siddhanath d.Omkareshwar. Rulers : Devpaladev ( 1218 A.D. - 1232 A.D. ) Jayavarman ( 1255 A.D. - 1275 A.D. ) Local Ruler : Bharat singh chauhan ( 1165 A.D. - ? ) ( bhilalas)
Construction of Brahma and Vishnu temples and other small temples such as Indra temple etc. Settlement around Amreshwar temple shifted towards the brahma and Vishnu temples (Brahmapuri and vishnupuri) Mughals destroyed few temples, fort wall etc. Sikh temple was also constructed. Approach to the town was from all five directions, but the cart track from Mortakka on the south of the town, became one of the major routes. Rulers : Mughals ( 1400 A.D. - 1600 A.D. ) Local rulers : Chauhans ( Descendants of Bharat Singh) (Bhilalas)
The settlements grew further around the Vishnu temple and also around the route from Mortakka because of which commercial activities like shops and dharamshalas started growing. During the same period, the settlements around Omkareshwar temple grew larger; the only approach to it, during that time was by means of ferries and boats. The construction of ghats especially near Omkareshwar temple took place. In 1890, the old palace was ruined and a new palace was built by Rao Daulat Singh. Reconstruction of pucca ghats near Omkareshwar temple and on the left bank of the river Narmada took place. Rulers : Holkars ( mainly ) scindhias Local Rulers : Chauhans ( up to 1800 A.D. ) Rao daulat singh ( 1800 A.D. - 1850 A.D. ) Sacred and trading : Mandhata - pattana place
In 1935, an earthquake destroyed major part of the town and also the temple complexes such as Riddheshwar, Siddhanath and Gauri Somnath. The fort was badly demolished. The settlement which was inside the fort, drifted towards the Omkareshwar temple. The British emperor in the town brought about several changes like the construction of the railway station in Mortakka and construction of Pucca road from Mortakka to Omkareshwar. A commercial activity in the form of a market place grew above the ghats at the end of the road. Rulers : Britishers
Local Rulers: Rao Sardar singh ( 1850 A.D. - 1980 A.D.) Rao yashwant Singh ( 1890 A.D. - 1922 A.D. ) Rao Saubhagya singh ( 1922 A.D. - 1970 A.D. ) 23
Commercial activities like shops and Dharamshalas grew around the main road, behind which settlements took place. In 1975, pedestrian bridge was constructed. A market square developed on the either side of the bridge. Density of commercial activities, mainly the religious shops, decreased on the Ghats leading to Omkareshwar. From the end of the pedestrian bridge to the Omkareshwar temple, religious shops grew on the either sides. Ruler : Indian government ( 1947 A.D. - present ) State : Madhya Pradesh Capital : Bhopal
Present settlement of Omkareshwar
Kaveri river Pari
Mandhata island Shivapuri Pa
Vishnu temple Brahma temple
Chapter- 2 Elements that constitute the town 2.1 Settlements of town 2.1.1 Structuring elements 2.2 Major elements and the land use 2.2.1 Major temples 2.2.2 Land use 2.3 Street network and movement 2.4 Built mass 2.4.1 Mass and void 2.4.2 Order in the settlement 2.4.3 Cluster formation 2.4.4 Built from along the primary street 2.4.5 Organization of building units 2.4.6 Functional order along the street 2.4.7 Organization of settlement on northern bank 2.5 Configuration of the edges 2.5.1 Built edge of northern bank 188.8.131.52 Laying condition of northern bank 2.5.2 Built edge of the southern bank 2.5.3 Integration of man made plinths and ground 2.5.4 Orientation of built form towards the water 2.6 Topography and its influences on built form 2.6.1 Role of topography 2.6.2 Topography and built mass 2.6.3 Topography and temples 2.6.4 Topography and street network 2.6.5 Edge condition of water edge 2.6.6 Topography and buildings
The northern settlement of on the island.
Town structure 2.1 Settlements of the town Island
Shivapuri Omkareshwar temple
Fig. a. Diagram showing the three different parts of the Omkareshwar, interconnected by the streets.
Fig. b. Aerial view of Omkareshwar showing the three settlements configuring the overall establishment of Omkareshwar. Island (Shivapuri) northern bank
The entire town of Omkareshwar is divided into three small settlements; each of which is called Puri. On
the northern bank of Narmada River, where the Omkareshwar temple is located, called Shivapuri. Brahmapuri and Vishnupuri are located to the opposite side of the Shivapuri at the southern bank of the town. A narrow valley, where Amreshwar temple is located separates Brahmapuri and Vishnupuri through which a narrow stream of water called Kapila flows until it meets the river Narmada. The confluence of the main river with the other water bodies is manifest by a point called ‘Gaumukh’. The spatial organization of the town is in accordance with the Vastu Purusha Mandala. Thus forming a triangle which identifies three strategic locations – Brahmapuri, Vishnupuri and Shivapuri, The space between any two Puris is marked as a sacred place. 29
Town structure 2.1.1 Structuring elements of town Sacred order (through positioning of temples)
Rivers: Narmada and Kaveri
Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga Narmada river w
Fig. a. Bifurcates into a tributary (i.e. Kaveri) which flows around the island of Omkareshwar.
Topography and island Amreshwar temple Fig. d. Sacred geometry established by the three temples mainly the Brahma temple, the Vishnu temple and the Shiva temple (Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga) Island
Fig. b. The undulating terrain and plateau, this island is formed by the fork of the Narmada river.
Temples on both the banks
Kaveri river Fig. e. Street network formed by the natural drainage of the site
r Omkareshwar Temple
The Omkareshwar is composed of
different elements that structure it. These are namely, the river, the island, topography, the
sacred order established by positioning of temples and the street network.
Amreshwar temple Fig. c. Establishment of temples on the island at Northern bank and southern bank of Narmada river
Town structure 2.2 Major elements and land use 2.2.1 Major temples 8
Important Temples 1. Omkareshwar temple 2. Amreshwar temple 3. Vishnu temple 4. Brahmeshwar temple 5. Indreshwar temple
6. Rinmukteshwar temple 7. Gauri-somnath temple 8. Ashadevi temple 9. Siddhanath temple 10. Kashivishwanath temple 11. Gaumukhi temple 12. Kalbhairava Cave 0
Town structure 2.2.2 Land Use Forest
Religious institutions - Temples and Shrines Community institutions - Dharmashala, Akhadas Commercial activities- Shops, Restaurant ( bhojanalaya ), Food Court Public institution - a. Administration, b. Primary schools, c. Palace, d. Old palace Residences Public Parking, P. Bus Station Informal Commercial Activity
The major land use pattern of
Omkareshwar town is defined by commerce, Dharmashalas,
residential. The distribution of all these functions are clearly defined and have adopted specific locations within the settlement. As one can see the major religious places like temples and Akhadas are located near the water edge. The commercial activity takes place along the major streets and Dharamshalas are seen at the main street Fig. a. Indreshwar temple at southern bank
Fig. b Amreshwar temple
and other important streets of the town.
The commercial facilities begins as
soon as one arrives in the town and stretches across the entire settlement. The street edge of the primary street leading to the Jyotirlinga is densely occupied by various functions that are commercials (i.e. Restaurants, sweet shops etc.). The inner part of the main street is a residential area for local people. There are hotels also within the cluster of the residential area. Open spaces like Ghats and small squares and the street edges are also occupied for commercial activities of Fig. c. View showing commercial activities of a building.
Fig. d. View showing temporary commercial activities on the secondary street near Gaumukhi Ghat.
a temporary nature. The Dharmashalas are
located on the major routes towards
the Jyotirlinga. A few of them are located on the Vishnu street and were established around 35 to 50 years back while the new Dharmashalas were built along the primary street. The Akhada is also an important institution for the sage communities. They provide free accommodation and people can
Fig. e . Inside the Indreshwar (Juna Akhada) at southern bank
Fig. f. View showing the Dharmashala at the Vishnu street.
perform rituals in the Akhada. The Akhadas are either located in vicinity of a temple or are separated from the urban fabric. Akhadas and Dharmashala are both public buildings and play a significant role in the town for pilgrims and tourists.
Fig. g. Inside the chowk of Akhada
Fig. h. View showing the Akhada near Jaypee chowk
Town structure 2.3 Street network and movement
HA TA IS
The pedestrian movement on this street is linear and constant towards the Omkareshwar jyotirlinga. This movement gets slower due to the narrow street form which often gets congested The movement pauses at this point where the pedestrian bridge ends on the island and this point becomes the point of arrival for the island. This has resulted in the space being occupied by small informal market.
All the vehicular movement stops here at jaypee square. And the pedestrian movement starts.
VISHNUPURI The local bus transportation and other heavy vehicles stop at this bus station
C gh hak at ra tir
Na Jayp e chow e k
Kotit ir ghat tha
at Gau Gha mukhi t
Brahma temple Vishnu temple street
Pedestrian movement on the steps which lead to Amreshwar temple and Gaumukhi Ghat
Pedestrian movement Major pedestrian root to reach temples Vehicular movement
Fig. a. Plan showing street structure and major movement of Omkareshwar 0 25 50
Town structure 2.3.1 Movement
Omkareshwar is a small town and
most places are easily approachable by walk. There is one ceremonial spine that beings people towards the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. There are two stages in the sequence of this movement, the first being the point on to which vehicular access is possible and the second which constitutes the pedestrian circulation. Vehicular access is provided up to Jaypee Chowk prior to which is the bus station, thus becoming a significant node (pause point) on Fig.a. The public movement along the narrow primary street near to the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga on island.
the street. The old bridge connects the two parts of the town on either bank of the river before bringing the visitor to the main axis towards the Jyotirlinga.
The movement on the primary street
is constant. People set their mind towards a
path to goal relationship where the nature of movement is governed by the direction
1 Arrival point of the town
Destination Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
Fig. b. Two kind of movements: 1. One is direct to the destination and 2. Second is through different pause points to the destination
of the major flowing crowd and therefore the movement on the primary street is continuously flowing until one reaches the temple.
activities wherever the open square is developed on the street. As a result, movement gets interrupted by that and gets quality of randomness. It is similar to what is experienced on Ghats. The movement which initially appears to be directed towards the water edge spreads horizontally across the whole Ghats when on reaching there.
Fig.c. The view of the Jaypee chowk. All kinds of vehicular movements stop here and pedestrian movement lead to the Omkareshwar temple.
Town structure 2.4 Built Mass 2.4.1 Mass and Void
Structure of the town is scattered and
spontaneous in growth. Here one can easily notice that the density is concentrated along
Density of built mass of the town
the major route towards the Omkareshwar temple. The built mass is gradually dispersed in accordance with the topography. The Southern bank of Omkareshwar is the major pause point for the tourist and the pilgrims because of the availability of the accommodation and food, therefore it is more developed. However it is notable that the development is haphazard. Even in the northern side settlements have grown in a linear manner along the major street only.
Fig. a. The plan of town showing the built mass
The growth of the northern settlement
is controlled by the geography and the lack of flat land. Some of it is managed by the authority of the Omkareshwar trust. Southern part is not controlled in growth because of the
Fig. b. Section through the river and built masses on both sides Shivapuri
less undulating surface and the ground allows easy to build. That is why the settlement of Vishnupuri is developed more than the other part of the town.
The dynamic quality of Omkareshwar
lies in its open spaces where the essence of place is manifested in various activities and the extended layers of built mass like plinths, roof and the front of buildings rendered the spaces. The integration between the man made plinths or built form and natural earth surface is a significant feature of this
Fig. c. Urban fabric at northern bank, Neighbourhood cluster of Omkareshwar temple. Linear mass on the edge of the river
Fig. d. Urban fabric at southern bank at south-west side, Concentrated at the center
settlement. The overall form of the town is very fragmented in nature and the establishment of clusters reveals a major impact of topography. Brahmapuri has large open ground which provides the large celebrating space for the Mela festivals of Kartik Purnima and other festivals
Fig. f. Mela ground at Brhamapuri Fig. e. Urban fabric at southern bank at south east side, Scattered in nature and isolated from the rest of the town
The mass of the town is concentrated
where topography is favorable. (I.e. In
Vishnupuri and near the main arrival point for the tourist). It is not concentrated around the temple. Only the linear street-form brings the
settlement along that.
2.4.2 Order in Settlement
The settlement of Omkareshwar
is ordered on the lines of an abstract Fig. a. Abstract diagram of Omkareshwar. The points 1,2,3,4 indicate the temples and the areas a,b,c,d indicate the settlements surrounding these centers
coordinates are assumed by the main temples.
Brahama temples), when superimposed upon
Shivapuri Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
the site. The settlement has developed in a linear manner alongside the primary streets connecting these temples. It is notable that each settlement one can easily recognize with the temple.
Two elements structure the growth of
the settlements. The one is the primary street and the second is the dominant temples of each settlements. (In fig. c). The important Vishnupuri Vishnu temple
Gaumukhi temple Amreshwar Jyotirlinga
Brahmapuri Brahma temple
streets of the town bring the settlements and organized in a linear form. (In fig. d)
Fig. b. The three temples represent the Trimurti: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva that form a triangle in the Omkareshwar town
c b Omkareshwar Temple Vishnu temple
Fig. c. Two generating elements for the growth pattern of Omkareshwar; the temples and the movement towards the Omkareshwar temple that is primary street.
Fig. d. This diagram shows the marked streets that become generator for the neighbourhood settlements
Town structure 2.4.3 Cluster Formation
Southwest bank Settlement (part of Vishnupuri)
Northern bank Settlement (shivapuri)
Fig. d. The order of the parallel walls on the street, the primary street strongly establish the connection to the main temple which brings the spontaneous and parallel growth
under the influences of the geography (i.e. Topography) of the site with respect to institutions situated on three different parts of the town. In the formation of the whole town, the topography plays a major role to formation of the each part.
Influence of topography
on the settlement pattern is discussed in chapter-2, 2.6.
Fig. a. The first layer of built mass organized along the primary street. The inside settlement which is without thick line is organized in organic manner with greater emphasis on cluster and topography.
Fig. e. The settlements at northern side are organized continuously on both sides sharing walls along the primary street.
The cluster patterns on both sides of
Hill and the barren rock
the river have seen found to have different formation patterns. I.e. it is notable that on the southern bank the urban block is defined by Primary Street, which gives way to an organic network of secondary and tertiary streets with transition in to the interior of the fabric. It is clearly notable that interior
of the block is irregular and surrounded by
complex street junctions. On the other hand
the northern bank which is steeply contoured with difficult terrain shows a different pattern of organization. Here built form is clearly organized on either side of a linear street (leading to the temple) on one axis. And it is bound by natural phenomena on the other
Fig. b. The dark part shows higher level which is dark part, gradually goes downwards and makes the flat land where the primary street is exist. Inside the first layer of the building units gradually they become scattered towards the higher ground. The flat land provides a dense character.
axis. (I.e. Cliff to the north and river to the south)
Fig. g. There is only one layer of built mass along the street because both sides have natural boundary of water edge: the stiff edge and other side cliff.
2.4.4. Built Form Along the Primary Street
Omkareshwar High density Middle density
maximum concentration of various functions and built mass. This street has a dominating nature within the town. Built form is organized alongside the primary street and establishes constant flow on both the sides. The whole experience of the primary street is divided into two parts by the river. And it is notable that both sides have different configuration
of built form visible through variation in the scale and size of the street. The building arrangement on the primary street can be classified as below; 1. Low density 2. Middle density
Fig. a. Building blocks arranged along the primary street up to the center of Omkareshwar.
3. High density
The low density is seen near to the
approach of the town where all the activities
start forming. The buildings are independent and residual spaces can be seen between two building blocks. The middle density is evident at the centre of the town, where all activities are neutralized by the Dharmashalas and hotels. Here the buildings are mostly utilized by the pilgrims and tourists for temporary
Fig. b. The street-side buildings are organized dense and the continuous row forming a linear street near Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
accommodation. Here, buildings are much bigger than at the starting point of the primary street. High density type pattern has flourished near the Omkareshwar temple.
The significance of the island and the topographical conditions do not make the spaces habitable. Therefore, linear growth has happened in a dense manner along the street.
Fig. c. Most of the building blocks are oriented in a way that obtain a large size of facade facing to primary street.
Fig. d. The building blocks are oriented in way that small size of building block face primary street and aligned by the large surface of the block
Fig. e. The building blocks are scatter and have no sense of arrangement, they are flowing along the primary street
Town structure 2.4.5 Organization Of Building Units
A. Building blocks near the Jaypee chowk
B. Building blocks Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
The intense growth of Omkareshwar
has happened along the primary street. The organization of building units is resultant of
the unplanned growth and accretive nature of fabric. An effort to utilize maximum space available around buildings is evident here. It is apparent that these patterns of organization are only seemingly chaotic or unorganized. That there is an underlying order generated by the arrangement of buildings along the
street which are of varying types depending upon distribution of function. Here there are two types that are particularly notable to affect the built form. In the first case, the
Shop as part of the building
Building block Shop
Shops as a building
Fig. a. Building units and its parallel organization along the primary street
Fig. d. Typical buildings along the primary street (a)
Fig. e. The building block divided according to structure elements of building and shops are individual divided
The building block itself becomes the whole shop
shop is created within volumes of the building block (Fig. e ). In the second case, the shop is placed on the front of the building where the building establishes the relationship to the street. The shop is not an entire block, but a part of the block, divided according to the structural system.
Fig. b. Diagram showing shop is arranged perpendicular to street but here both sides have different conditions. The left side of the shops becomes the part of the buildings and the shops on right in building block.
Fig. c. In this diagram, both sides of shops are arranged according to the order of the building size and dimension.
Town structure 2.4.6 Functional Order Along The Street
-At Amreshwar street -Street near to Vishnu temple House House
Fig. a. Organization of the buildings with respect to the shops, the shops are located out side the plinths and front of the buildings.
Fig. c. section of amreshwar street, commercial shops established in the front of the building facade on the plinths
Fig. b Amreshwar street.
-at Primary street -Street near Vishnu temple
Extension of shop
Fig. d. The shops are within building and are extended to the street on the plinths. This types of function are evident all over the primary street. Even in secondary streets like Vishnu street has the same texture.
Fig. e. Section at Shivapuri street, The shops are within buildings. The narrow path does not allow any extension of the shops. The shops are within buildings and heavy pedestrian movement restrict the extension of the shop to street
Extension of shops Shops are within a building on the front
Street near Vishnu temple Fig. f. The ground floor plan of street near Vishnu temple. The shops are within building but extension of shop layering the street edge with the plinths and shop furniture
Fig. g. Section of street near Vishnu temple. The extension of the shop is restricted by the drainage gutter and wide enough to extend their shops.
Town structure 2.4.7 Organization of Settlement on Northern Bank
The settlement on the northern
bank of the river is greatly influenced by the natural topography of the site. The primary street has been developed parallel to the river and the line of contour while gradually slopping upwards until it culminates at the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. Buildings flank either side of street so as to suggest a dense, linear pattern of cluster while the gradual slope establishes a clear hierarchy towards the religious center.
Key map of Omkareshwar town
Fig. a. Elevation of the northern bank settlement of Omkareshwar town 0
Town structure Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
Buildings are resting on the retaining wall
Fig. a. Section aa at the northern settlement
The buildings are organized densely by sharing a common wall. Building units are negotiating the edges which are extended in few places (see a.).
Fig. b. View showing the northern settlement which is leads to the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga Temple
Fig. c. Diagram of the northern bank edge: the built mass continuous flows parallel to the water edge. The settlement is accretive and ends at the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga.
Fig. d. The direction of the path is not aligned with the axis of the temple but is shifted little by the configuration of the settlement on the basis of topography 43
Town structure 2.5 Configuration Of The Edges Two edges : Northern bank : Kotitirtha Ghat, Chakratirtha Ghat (Ghats are discuseed in chapter-3,3.3)
Southern bank: Gaumukhi Ghat, Nauv Ghat
2.5.1 Built Edge Of Northern Bank
Fig. a. Photograph showing the elevation of the northern bank edge. The colored part is showing the clear image of the assembled elements on the edge
Both the northern bank and the southern bank of the river are distinct in nature. These edges differ due to the varying parameters of topography on either side. Here one can easily identify the manner of formation and assembly of different elements which configure the edge. The edge of north side of the town is an assemblage of retaining walls and the plinths of Ghats.
Fig. b. Edge of the northern bank on island. Highlighted gray part is showing walls of different buildings and retaining walls comes together and creates the strong, steep boundary for northern bank
Key map of Omkareshwar town
Town structure 184.108.40.206 Laying Condition Of Northern Bank
Ghats, plinths and shrines
Fig. a. Elevation of Northern bank
The rock of the hill The retaining walls The building facades
The northern bank of the river, which
constitutes Kotitirtha and Chakratirtha Ghats are generated by the assembly of four distinct elements. 1. Plinth 2. Retaining wall 3. Rock (terrain)
4. Building facades
All these elements when assembled
together create a visible physical manifestation and make a clear edge. The plinth, retaining wall makes fascinating image to the viewer Fig. b. Plan showing the profile of Northern bank edge
by its monolithic orange color. 45
Town structure 2.5.2 Built Edge Of The Southern Bank Narmada river
The southern edge is characteristically
steep hilly terrain. This edge is generated by the interplay of two key elements. 1. Hill with barren rock 2. Building facade The steep slope of the terrain has resulted in development restricted to the upper planes of the hill upon which buildings are seated. The natural rocky edge remain exposed towards the river front.
The schematic sketch shows the
steep undulating edge of the southern bank
Fig. a. The profile of the southern bank made by the natural barren rocks and man made plinths
upon which built form is developed. Here the natural texture of the rock stands in contrast to the even surfaces of the man mad
Key map Showing the southern bank of the town.
Barren rock Fig. b. Edge of the southern side of Narmada river , the red line showing the valley between two hillocks, which is developed by the natural drainage
Fig. c. The panoramic view showing the integration of the buildings ( which is in colored) and hills with barren rock creating the southern edge.
Town structure 2.5.3 Integration of man-made plinths and ground
Fig. a. The plan showing the water edge as defined by the natural condition of the earth. Most of the water edge is formed by the barren rock and stone plateau. Edge articulated by the plinths and steps called Ghats
The rough edge with the barren rock and stone plateau
Fig. b. The panoramic view of south side water edge showing the stone plateau in the color Building edge Plinth and ghat edge Water edge Fig. d. Edge at northern bank
Water edge Building edge Plinth and ghat edge Fig. c. View showing the plinths articulated by steps at the Gaumukhi Ghat. Fig. e Edge at southern bank 47
Town structure 2.5.4 Orientation of built form towards the water NO
Northern bank settlement Linear, facing straight to river, spontaneous
Southern edge of the river Scattered, orientation keeps changing according to the water edge
Buildings at the edge on the northern bank are oriented towards the water and continuously arranged along the water edge. Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga is oriented to east-west side. The street also opens up towards the water directly through the Ghats. The buildings are located on the high plinths. Higher level of building locations does not make any direct connection to water but visual connection happened.
Gaum u Ghat khi Brahma temple
SOUT H BANK ERN
Southern bank The settlement on the southern bank is also undulating near to water edge but the building follows the water edge. The building orientation keeps changing according to the ground flow but the temples are oriented towards the east-west. Only order of buildings follows the edge line and blocks are aligned according to that.
Amreshwar temple The orientation towards the water of the religious building, temples, streets and the ghats making the water edge more focused and significant. Axis of the buildings Axis of the temples Downward flows of the street towards river
Chapter- 3 Detail analysis Omkareshwar
3.1 Streets 3.1.1 Overall street structure of Omkareshwar 220.127.116.11 Approach to town 18.104.22.168 Street network 22.214.171.124 Organization 3.1.2. Primary Street 126.96.36.199 General description 188.8.131.52 Activities 184.108.40.206 As an element 220.127.116.11 Hierarchy in street 18.104.22.168 Built mass and void relationship 22.214.171.124 Degree of enclosure 126.96.36.199 Degree of penetration 188.8.131.52 Extended elements of building in to street 184.108.40.206 Activity 3.1.3. Secondary street 220.127.116.11 General description 18.104.22.168 Organization 22.214.171.124 Activity 126.96.36.199 Movement 188.8.131.52 Built mass and void relationship a. Organization of commercial shop b. Built form along the Vishnu temple street 184.108.40.206 a. Degree of enclosure b. Degree of penetration 220.127.116.11 Extended elements of building in to street 18.104.22.168 Vertical Layering Element of Secondary Street Edge 22.214.171.124 Construction elements of shops 126.96.36.199 Activity a. At Amreshwar street b. At Vishnu temple street 3.1.4. Tertiary street 188.8.131.52 General description 184.108.40.206 Organization 220.127.116.11 Activities
Street 18.104.22.168 Approached To Town
The approach to town is from the main
street, which directly leads to Omkareshwar temple .The street network of the town is
based on the geography of the region and the course of Narmada river which generates linear movement towards the Omkareshwar
Jyotirlinga. The main street directly reaches to Godarpura before which an urban space is created. There is constraint of vehicular movement,
kka GODARPURA Morta From e villag Fig. a Approach route of Omkareshwar
movement. This becomes the arrival space for tourist and pilgrims, as a result of which a large number of commercial activities, shops and Dharmashalas have emerged on this street. The Mandhata island is only accessible from Godarpura.
Pedestrian bridge (built on 1975)
In Earlier times, the approach towards
the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga was from
Guaumukhi and Nauv Ghats to Chakratirtha and Kotitirtha Ghats. The movement from one edge to the other edge in order to reach
the destination, happened only through the
river by means of boats. After the bridge was constructed in 1975, it became the primary source of connectivity and all major movement towards the omkareshwar temple
From Mortakka village
shifted to bridge route. However, the presence of institutions and commercial activities near Vishnu street gives an evidence of the older route and the street possesses a distinct
Fig. b. Plan showing movement and approached from the arrival point to Omkareshwar town
Fig. c. Photograph showing the primary street moving through settlements. 60
Street 22.214.171.124 Street network
Vishnu temple Brahma temple
Fig. a. Plan showing street structure
Secondary street Tertiary street
Street 126.96.36.199 Organization Goi
The primary street has become an
p ng u
important street because it is the only access to Omkareshwar temple therefore all activities are concentrated along it. All the secondary
and tertiary streets diverge from the primary street to connect all parts of the town.
Organization of street network is
majorly influenced by the topography of the place and the position of the temples. Terrain on both sides of the river is undulating with
Fig. a. Small sloppy streets connecting to primary street have a sudden scale difference that from narrow to larger space
Fig. b. Residences area connected through small interconnected lanes
huge level differences in land formation. In Godarpura, the ground level is higher than river, Therefore the steps become streets for the pedestrian movement as well as commercial activities. There is no apparent order in these streets formation, but there is an organic nature that is unconstrained with an interlaced pattern.
All secondary and tertiary streets
directly connect to the main street and make it highly active. The Primary Street is more dominating in nature and strongly associated
Fig. c. Plan showing the node is the concentration of the streets
Fig. d. Plan showing linear from of street near Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
with the main temple and town. It supports kinds of activities associated to temple as well as needs of pilgrims like commerce and accommodations. The main street is the
only major one developed in the center; it acts as the spine of the town, while all the
other streets are connected to it. All major commercial activities take place along the Chakratirtha Ghat Fig. e. Plan showing street connected on the primary street. Street transforms in to steps to connect the main street to Chakratirtha Ghat
spine. The street is linear in structure which suggests the influences of the land formation and the river. The secondary streets lead to the ghats and to the tertiary streets. Primary street Secondary street Tertiary street Fig. f. Schematic diagram hierarchy of street structure
a. Plans showing various street patterns and junctions makes the assembly for the street network
Street 3.1.2. Primary Street 188.8.131.52 General Description The primary street is an important part of the street network in Omkareshwar. It is connected to surrounding towns and neighboring cities in Madhya Pradesh. This road acts as a spine running through the town, with all other streets diverging from it. The spine is thus possessive of a sense of arrival and that of a destination towards the center, which is the temple.
184.108.40.206 Activities The Primary street carries major activities Fig. a. Spine of the town moves through the nodes, over the Narmada river
movement of pilgrims, commerce and other activities related to the temple or those that support the various festivals. It constitutes the Bazaar, the religious and social institutions, Shops, Restaurants and Dharmashala. The local people of the town use the main street for their small scale business. The street itself becomes the Bazaar. The primary street remains active right from morning to night; because all major activities occur there. The street is the busiest in the morning hours, as pilgrims arrive in the morning for the Darshan of Jyotirlinga. Since all the rituals of the temple happen there. The Dharmashala becomes activated in the morning in order to
Fig. b. Section showing the activities that take place on the street on both the side at Vishnu street
220.127.116.11 as an Element Primary Street is the most dynamic element in the town. It links all parts of the town together and provides a strong connection to the center of the town, thus this
street becomes the main spine of the town
Primary Street Node
Fig. c. Diagram showing the changing street scales and pauses between two streets. 63
Street 1 2
1 Omkareshwar temple 2 . Kotitirtha Ghat 3. Granthalay 4. Dharmashala 5. Omkareshwar street 6. Bridge ends ( square) 7. Jay pee chowk ( square) 8. Vishnu temple 9. Vishnu Akhada 10. Dodad Akhada 11. Way to the bus station
Narmada river 7
D A 5
Primary street A at northern bank of town Fig. a. Different parts of primary street 64
Primary street B at southern bank of town A
Section EE Fig. a. Various sections along the Primary street 65
Street 18.104.22.168 Hierarchy In Street Center Omkareshwar jyotirlinga
2 1 Omkareshwar jyotirlinga
3 Near the Omkareshwar temple
Square for near temple
Fig. a. Plan showing movement through Primary street and sections are highlighted at the various places
Square for transition at 3 Jaypee Chowk
Near Vishnu temple
From the approach route
Primary street Fig. c. Schematic Diagram showing the hierarchy of the sections along the primary street 0 1 3
Fig. b. Aerial view showing the clear line of primary street running through the Omkareshwar
1. Sections showing hierarchy on the main street, variation in the height and width 2. Section showing the open space created where bridge reaches to island 3. Section through the Jaypee chowk, showing the large space in the movement of the primary street 4. Section near to Jaypee chowk, shows the commercial on both the sides 5. Section at approach route of the town. 66
The movement on the primary street
is very direct to the centre of the town. The notion of the linearity on Primary Street is formed by the continuous activities along side and the strong flow of movement. As shown in Fig. a-3, the hierarchy of the primary street is decided by the nature of enclosure and
openness. When one moves towards the center, the street gets narrower and becomes more dense.
At one end of the street is the bus
station, which is the starting point of the street. The pilgrims or the tourists approach the town from here through neighboring towns and villages. Because the town of Omkareshwar is only accessed by this route, there is a major flux of movement along this
The street section at the bus stand is
wide enough to allow the circulation of a large number of buses, local auto transportation as well as that of tourist and pilgrims. All the major transportation stops at Jaypee Chowk except the people who are working for the 3
Omkareshwar temple trust.
1. Street leading to Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. 2. Main square of the town, from this point street start toward Omkareshwar jyotirlinga.
3. Primary streets ends here at southern bank and from this point leads to the other part of the town (to northern bank). 4. Street at southern bank near to Jaypee Chowk 5. Street connecting to bus station and the main temple 6. Pedestrian bridges connecting two different part of the omkareshwar which are southern and northern banks.
Fig. a. Different view of the primary street as going toward the omkareshwar temple
Street 22.214.171.124 Built Mass And Void Around The Street
The primary street supports all
movement unto the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. As it is the only path to the center of the town. It stretches across the Narmada river which dissects the town. The street continues in to a bridge across the river before joining ceremonial axis. It is notable that the character of this street appears to be distinctly different on either bank of the river. On the southern bank, built form is distributed along the main street as well as a network of other small streets. This part of the town remains commercially active. Through the observation, tourist and
pilgrims always find accommodation around southern bank. In northern bank, the major built form is concentrated around the main street with only of scattered part on hill.
The built masses on both sides have
different degree of density. On the northern bank, built form along the street is much more
Fig. a. Plan showing the built masses aligned with the edge and which is dense on both sides of street
denser than that on the southern bank. It is notable that on both the northern and southern
sides neighborhoods are aligned to and well connected with the primary street, the edge of which are fronted by buildings whose lower levels accommodate commercial activities
that extend into the street. The facades of these buildings are compound manifestations of different elements which provides the street with a distinct character.
Fig. b. Schematic sketch showing the building block defines and creates a profiles, color shows the boundary of the primary street 68
Street 126.96.36.199 Degree Of Enclosure
B. Degree of enclosure at northern bank
Fig. b. Typical Section at B showing the enclosure of the primary street spreads in to the commercial shops. Fig. c. View Granthalaya
Openness of the street Closed space as part of the street
Fig a. Degree of enclosure at southern bank
Key map showing the location of primary street Omkareshwar temple
Fig. d. Sectional part of the primary street showing the enclosure happens all along the built mass till the Omkareshwar temple
Street 188.8.131.52 Degree Of Penetration
As shown in Fig. c. The restaurant on the ground floor of the building allows the maximum penetration to occupied the space at the street level, shown in Fig. b.
Degree of Penetration into the built
Penetration of the built form
Visual penetration in to built mass Private spaces
mass is recognizable in two ways, namely the visual and the physical. The ground floor of buildings along the street allows people to penetrate inside buildings. Therefore the street act as a continuous flow within the built mass providing a physical connectivity. On the other hand most of the food and sweet shops open directly in to street. Their plinths are not more than 60 cm high and they have fully open front facades, hence appearing to
Fig. b. Street continuously flows in to the ground floors on both sides
be part of the street. Degree of penetration is decided by function on the ground floor and the layering of furniture on the street.
At some place like in Fig. b, shop at
ground floor has low plinths (30 cm height) that allow people to move easily and occupy it as a part of the street. At some place like in Fig. c, shops are resting on the higher plinths (varies from 50 to 120 cm height) so as to restrict physical penetration into the building. It is common to notice shop furniture extending in to the street so as to make a barrier. 70
Fig. c. Shop furniture and high plinths restrict the penetration of the movement but the visual penetration remains and provides a view of products displayed in the shops.
Street a. Street at Jaypee chowk
b. Street near Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
184.108.40.206 Extended Elements
Fig. d. Extended roof as balcony from the first floor . Ground floor extended by the shop extension
Fig. e. Extension of the ground floor as define by the roof and the supported column resting on the stone plate plinths
Fig. a. The extended roof and the fabric creates close enclosure with shades on the primary streets
Fig. f. View of primary street at southern bank of town, extension of the shop by the tarpaulin or aluminium corrugated sheet as roof and stone and brick as plinth Fig. b. Encroachment by building activities on street at Jaypee Chowk
Fig. c. Typical section of primary street, the fabric used as shading elements and supported by thread with building facade
Fig. g. The primary street shaded by the roofs of the shop 71
Street 220.127.116.11 Activity Fig.
a R ive r
The primary street near the Omkareshwar temple directly connected to main temple thus Most of the shops on street are related to Puja shop and mixed with the few restaurant and sweets shop.
All the vehicular movement ends at Jaypee Chowk and its establish starting point for pedestrian movement towards Omkareshwar temple. All the shops along this Chowk are occupied with the restaurant and kiosk for pilgrim.
Land use plan around primary street
Activities along this area are occupied with mixed, Puja material and the restaurant (Bhojanalaya) in regular distance. Because of the dharmashala and hotels, Street is getting narrower, encroachments of the shop is controlled and makes a enough passage for vehicles and pedestrian for people.
Key map of primary street
Fig. a. Activity pattern along the primary street
Restaurant, Sweets shop Religious artifacts shop Cosmetics and Accessories Provisional store and Cloths 0 5
Puja material and Florist
Fig. a. View of the restaurant extension at Jaypee Chowk. Fig. e. In festival, the terraces of the buildings are occupied by the pilgrims for Darshan of Jyotirlinga.
Fig. b. View of the Puja shops at main temple street
Fig. f. During the festival, Jaypee chowk allows dance to devotees and celebrate with the colors
Fig. c. View of the street near Jaypee chowk rows of shops contains Puja material.
Fig. g. People participate from their balcony for Jyotirlinga precession of Shravan Mahino. Devotees throws colors to each other and people on the street who carried palanquin of Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
Fig. d Concentration of commercial activities at the end of the bridge on the northern bank 73
Street 3.1.3. Secondary Street
Secondary street Primary street
Fig. a. Plan showing secondary streets
18.104.22.168 General Description In Omkareshwar, the secondary streets act as transitory elements which
generates linkages to different parts of the town. These streets become secondary
routes to reach certain temples and the water edges from the primary street. They make possible connection to Gaumukhi Ghat through Amreshwar temple and Nauv Ghat. In the northern bank, the Primary Street meets two secondary streets which go on to become steps that lead to the two Ghats; Kotitirtha and Chakratirtha respectively. Secondary streets can be identified as indirect route to the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga.
Amreshwar temple Ghat Secondary street
Fig. b. Diagram showing secondary streets gets bifurcated from main street and creates different entity
Street 22.214.171.124 Organization Most of the secondary streets bifurcate from the main spine and goes on to meet the water edge (the Ghats) and goes downward from the higher to lower level. They are used as pedestrian streets because they have steps. All secondary streets are used as transitional elements to reach different parts of the town.
126.96.36.199 Activity Secondary Street support informal activities at the ground floors of buildings, where one can encounter the dynamic programs of use Fig. d. There is commercial activity on both side of the street. In some cases where florist, jewellers, people selling Shivalinga, Puja materials etc are seen.
Various Secondary streets a. Street leading to Nauv Ghat b. Streets leading to Gaumukhi Ghat. This was the older root to connect both the side
c. Major institutions like Dharamshalas and commercial activities started along this route d. On this street, settlement has developed according to the topography and street travels from higher level to lower level. e. Street bifurcating from the main Omkareshwar temple street and lead to directly to Kotitirtha Ghat. f. Main street leading to Chakratirtha Ghat through the steps because of the steep edge.
Fig. g. Section at near Vishnu temple street
Street Plans of secondary street at Vishnu temple street and Amreshwar temple street Way to bus station
Way to Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
5 a. Plan of Vishnu temple street
B b .plan of Amreshwar temple street
Legend 1. Shree jadav gujjar Dharmashala 2. Vishnu temple parking 3. Reva gujjar Dharmashala 4. Shree kshatria kuravah Samaj Dharmashala 5. Gaumukhi Ghat 6. Chandramamleshwar temple
7. Indreshwar ( Juna ) Akhada 8. Indreshwar temple 9. Amreshwar temple 10. Dattatraya temple 11 Hanuman temple 0
Street Various section of the secondary streets at Vishnu temple street and Amreshwar street
Section AA at Vishnu temple street Indreshwar temple
Section BB at Amreshwar temple street
Section CC at Amreshwar temple street through the Indreshwar temple
Two major secondary streets have been discussed here, chosen with respect to its surrounding neighbourhood and the importance of the street.
Street 188.8.131.52 Movement
Most of the secondary streets play
a major role in connectivity with the water edges
C G hak ha ra t tir th a
play a significant role in activating water edges while simultaneously enhancing the experience of transition to the sacred banks
of river Narmada. The movement along the
au v ha G
a constant flow that takes people towards their
secondary street is therefore characterized by
goals. The streets setup destinations towards
an object or element of the town. The diagram in fig. b Identifies two kinds of movement; one
that directly connects the individual with their
respective destinations and the other in which
the individual is connected to the destination
through an between point or a mediator. E.g. Jaypee chowk, Gaumukhi Ghat,
On the northern bank, the secondary
Fig. a. Plan showing Secondary streets are leading directly to water edge through the steps
street a merely acts as a transitory element
providing a link to the Ghats. Furthermore these streets provide ground to support
several temporary activities.
possessed with a linear experiences (refer fig. b, page. 79), which is enhanced by commercial activities on both sides. These
Direct One point to destination
Through the mediator From one point to mediator and the destination
Fig. b. The movements are shown in respect towards Omkareshwar temple
narrow streets eventually culminate in to the open extents of the Ghats on the banks of the river, thus the final destination becomes a point of release. The movement is very
intense, continues and linear. There are lot of elements along the street that interrupt the movement such as the extension of the shop (which plays a major role), steps which make movement gradual, the narrow width of the street and the people stopping for buying the
Puja materials or food which create pause and enhance experience.
Fig. c. Diagram showing connection established between the rituals activities to water edge.
Movement flow in linear form at approach point of Secondary street
Narrow street generates the congregation and makes a dense movement
Movement released and spreads in to the open space
Fig. a. Diagram showing the intensity of movement at the secondary street
Fig. c View of Amreshwar street
Vishnu temple Fig. d. View of Vishnu street during the Maha-Shivaratri Festival
A. Movement at the Amreshwar temple street
b. Movement at the Vishnu temple
Fig. b.These diagram show the linearity and the dense movement through the various secondary streets which open up at the both the sides. 79
Street 184.108.40.206 Built mass and void around the street The Amreshwar Street has
developed on sloppy terrain in a narrow valley between two hills. These conditions of the ground formation controls the growth and regulates distance between building units. Here the built mass is concentrated upon flat land. The Amreshwar temple has activated and regulated development along this street.
It is notable that growth has taken place only in the close vicinity of the temple.
The buildings along this street are
only related to the public activities, such Amreshwar temple
as Dharmashalas, Akhadas, shrines and temples, and are used by pilgrims, for performing rituals or temple related activities. There are commercial activities layered along
1. Built mass around the Vishnu temple street
both sides of the street, to support these
Fig. a. Built mass at secondary streets
public activities. The Vishnu temple street is laid on
2. Built mass around the Amreshwar street
Typical configuration of two built masses along the streets
gradual slope and in the valley of two small hills. Here the built mass along the street street by its functions. The built mass creates a continuous edge on the both the side.
is dense and makes a strong relation to the
Here, the building units on the
right side of the street in fig. c are larger Shops
and constitute Dharmashalas with two to three storeys and the left side has linear building blocks staggering down towards the Gaumukhi Ghat with the one or two storey
At Vishnu temple street
At Amreshwar temple street
Building units are arranged continuously on the street. Both sides have different density. The right side of the Vishnu temple street is more dense and massive by the Dharmashala and the left side building units are organized in a linear form with the repetitive modules along the boundary of the Vishnu temple complex.
Building units are organized scattered along the street. Commercial shops is take place along the whole stretch of the Street. The commercial shops are arranged repetitive in order and continuously following the edge of the both side.
Street Three conditions generates to establish the shop Fig. a. The layer of the commercial shop occupied and the utilized along the building facade and leave a space before the wall And plinth become the part of the base for the individuals shops.
A. Organization of Commercial Shop at Amreshwar Temple
Amreshwar Street is organized in a
manner to reach to the Amreshwar temple. Thus all the commercial activities such as, the Dharmashalas and Akhadas, are located
Fig. b. The shops built along the compound wall or the building facade. Roofs rest on that wall and it becomes the support for the shop structure
along this street. The order of the street constitutes the formation of a continuous building block flanked along the linear extents
of the street. The shops along the Amreshwar Street are arranged in a repetitive manner. The massing of shops are configured at the
Fig. c. The shops built at the existing plinth with control over expansion at front and rear sides.
two variation of land occupation. 1. Building facade is an extended platform that use the background for structured support.
See fig. e
2. The platforms which are created with steps on both sides make a place for shops
At Amreshwar street, all the activities
are only related to the temple thus this place becomes active during day time. The street is configured by a series of plinths upon which buildings are stepped in response to the Fig. d. Plinths becomes the space for shop
Fig. e. View of the shops and street, landing allows people to pause. This acts as sustaining the commerce on street 81
Street b. Built form Along the Vishnu Temple Street In earlier times before the pedestrian bridge, this street was used as transitional space to Gaumukhi Ghat from the arrival point of the town to reach northern bank. So this street supports major functions like Dharmashalas and commerce. It assumes the profile of the natural drainage pattern of the land upon which at a later time steps were developed. The built form negotiates the slope. The street is formed by steps and plinths. Built mass along the street is linear and terraced downwards as one approach to Gumukhi Ghat.
the role of major building masses along the street.
The repetitive forms of the built mass
Shop Shop Extension Extension of shop of shop
Fig. a. Plan showing the private and the public domain on the street See Fig. c
allow the formation of a strong edge. Which in turn supports extension of shops and its furniture so as to spill over on the street, thus giving it its character.
Fig. b. Plinths is staggered in form. Every shops have plinths extended towards the street
Fig. d. Edge conditions of the street. Plinths , partitions wall of the shop, columns
Fig. e 82
Fig. c. View of the basic structure of the built mass which is fixed , add on the roof, extension of the shop
Street 220.127.116.11 a. Degree of Enclosure
The secondary streets have a distinct
formation of built mass and void relationship which occurs by varying degree of enclosure in the ground floor of built mass. The perception of enclosure is identified by the extension of the street in to the built form. In other words a part of the building becomes an extension of the street.
The narrow scale of street gives a
sense of a contained enclosure. Even the different elements that form part of the front of the shop enhance the character. i.e. Plinths, building facade, extended elements of the roof, the display elements and furniture.
Fig. a. At vishnu temple street
Fig. b. At Amreshwar street
Fig. c. Section at Vishnu temple street
Fig. d. Section at Amreshwar street
Shop Extension Fig. e. Domains on the street
Openness of the street Semi open area of the built mass
Street b. Degree of Penetration
Penetration of movement inside the built form Visual penetration inside built mass Private spaces Temple in Dharmashala
Fig. b. Section of Dharmashala through the street, physical penetration inside the building is restricted till the entry of the Dharmashala. The visual penetration established by the void in the built mass. Temple inside the Dharmashala creates the focus in first sight while one moves on the street
There is not much of a difference in
the primary and secondary streets in terms of their physical experience or visual penetration into the built form. In fact they even share the same types of commercial activity however, it is notable that in Primary Street the public institutions play an important role in defining the character of the streets. Along the Vishnu Street, one side is occupied by a Dharmashala and therefore this edge of the street is more active than the other.
Fig d. Temple in the Dharmashala established to make a visual penetration form the street level
Fig c. Shops extended in to the street, Creates the visual penetration in to the shop
Secondary street at Amreshwar temple
18.104.22.168 Extended elements of building in to street Secondary street near Vishnu temple
c3 c2 c1
Fig. a. Plinth and built mass along the street Layering of the plinths along the built mass and to the street creates the platform for the commercial activities.
Fig. b. Extended elements of the commercial shops along the street The extended roof and the fabric creates the close enclosure to generate shades in to shop and on the streets
Fig. e. View showing the extension of roof and the fabric hung over Amreshwar street
Fig. c. Plinth and the built mass. The plinths are within the buildings and serves the extension of the shops.
Fig. d. Extended elements of the commercial shops
Fig. f. The view showing the formation of plinths and the spaces occupied by the people
Fig. g. The view showing the commercial on both the sides at Vishnu street With the extended roof and fabric over street 85
Street 22.214.171.124 Vertical Layering Element of Secondary Street Edge
Fig. a. Secondary street at Amreshwar temple showing the basic elements that making the street edge.
h ug Ro rth ea
Fig. b. Secondary street near Vishnu temple showing the basic elements that make the street edge.
Street Repetitive form of the shop at Amreshwar street
r Am e l o T mp te
Vertical structure of the shop
Fig. a. at the Amreshwar street. The view showing formation of the street along the terrain with the vertical planes creating the rhythmic arrangement for commercial activities with prototype nature of shops.
Street 126.96.36.199 Construction Element At Amreshwar street Corrugated metal sheet or cotton fabric Tarpaulin or cotton fabric stretched with a threads
Bamboo for horizontal and vertical member
Plinth as base and boundary for the owner
Fig. a. The steps going up towards the Amreshwar temple and along those plinths are generated in staggered form. The shops are built on those plinths around an average 1.5 M. in depth. Plinths supports all informal and Kachha construction of shops. The shops is mainly constructed by the bamboo, corrugated sheet, tarpaulin fabric or thick cotton fabric. Some shops are constructed with the metal frame and covered with the aluminium thin sheet.
At Vishnu temple street
Plinths as base for the extension of the shops. Few shops are only in out side of building, inside becomes private space Roof used as extension of the shop and shelter , metal corrugated sheet. The wooden thin columns for the support the roof.
Fig. c. Views showing the different street conditions and the built mass configure the street at secondary streets
Street 188.8.131.52 Activity
a. Activity at Amreshwar street
Fig. a. Near a shrine the plinth, beggars take their place
Fig. e. The space on both side is occupied by beggars. They are seen all along the street.
Fig. f. The extension of the shops and their display lure the people who come for the Amreshwar temple.
Fig. b. View showing the plinth of the Hanuman temple which generates gathering space for the pilgrims to rest
Fig. g. View showing the display of the small individual shop displaying the maximum material for the Puja and other ritual stuff
Fig. c. One Sadhu performing a Puja at Hanuman temple.
Amreshwar temple Complex Fig. d. View showing the people performing Puja and rituals around Amreshwar temple
Fig. h. View showing gathered people performing Puja in the scared realm at the amreshwar temple 89
Street b. At Vishnu Temple Street
Fig. e. Moving people stop on the steps at particular shop to buy products. Fig. a. The entrance space of Dharmashala becomes the public interface towards the street ,
Fig. f. Small vendor display their shop and occupy on the residual space of the plinth and corner
Fig. b. The out side plinths of Dharmashala becomes the visual interaction and even establishes the connection between moving people
Fig. c. Fig. g. Shop displayed their product in organized manner
Fig. d. The small Hanuman temple gives people some rest while climbing the steps. 90
Fig. i. Fig. h.
Street 3.1.4. Tertiary Street 184.108.40.206 General Description Most of the tertiary streets are connected to the primary street or secondary Streets.
thoroughfare into residential areas. The complex built mass of the residential area and
the sloping terrain form the organic pattern of
the tertiary street. Most of the tertiary streets
terminate in dead end or in to open ground.
220.127.116.11 Organization The urban fabric of Omkareshwar is accretive in nature thus resulting in a complex network of tertiary streets. These streets mostly connect residential areas or some Dharamshalas and guest houses with other parts of the town and with the primary and secondary streets. It has been observed that this random network is responsive for a lot of residual spaces within the fabric. In tertiary
Fig. a. Tertiary street of Omkareshwar temple
streets, the edges of the street are made of plinths, steps which leads to the entrance of the buildings, gutters which are running through both sides, extended elements of floors in to the streets (roofs, slabs, signboards etc.).
st re et
18.104.22.168 Activity The tertiary street and interior
im ar y
neighbourhood are not only occupied by
local people and their respective residences but also by pilgrims and tourists who visit for a temporary period. Some institutions like the
Dharmashala or guest houses are located along these interior lanes thus suggestive of t
a mixed use pattern. Most of the streets are used by local people for bathing and washing cloth in the front of their buildings. As a result, street gets dirty.
Fig. c. Diagram showing the tertiary street starts form the primary street and ends at open space or land
Fig. b. The streets meets to the primary street. Sudden scale difference.
Street Various tertiary streets of Omkareshwar town
Fig. a. Tertiary street at west side of vishnupuri
Fig. e. Narrow and steps lane lead to the street near to palace
Fig. b. Lane formed by the stagged built mass on the sloppy hill,, and houses on the both sides are organized according to negotiation of level differences
Fig. c. Narrow and height scale of tertiary street meets to the vishnu temple street.
Fig. d. kachha construccion of hosue
Fig. f. Private spaces of the residential area directly opens into the primary street.
3.2. Nodes and Landmarks 3.2.1 Locations of nodes 3.2.2 Nodes on primary street 3.2.3 Landmarks in the town 3.2.4 Landmarks on the streets
3.2.1 Locations of Nodes
6 7 Brahmapuri
Fig. 1. The highlighted color defines the major nodes. Nodes are situated on the primary street, and the few nodes are located on the secondary street.
1. Node created by bifurcation of the movement, and the point where one path leads to Omkareshwar temple and one paths leads to Kotitirtha Ghat. 2. Node created between narrow street which leads to Chakratirtha Ghat and main street. 3. Bridge end at the Mandhata island that creates an interphase to the new land. 4. Major pause point in public movement, Activities like vehicular movement end at this chowk where four streets meets. 5. Main street bifurcates towards Gaumukhi Ghat. 6. Junction made by the pedestrian movement. One leads to Nauv Ghat and other path ends at Amreshwar temple. 7. This junction connects Amreshwar street and Brahmapuri
The settlement of Omkareshwar has
developed along a string of nodes connected to one another on the path towards the Node
Jyotirlinga. The principle generator of the
nodes is the primary street. This strong spine Street
becomes the connector for other parts of the town. The street network is developed in a manner such that all secondary and tertiary streets meet to the primary street so as to create major and minor nodes, which
Ghat Connects to other part of the town
supports all the major activities associated with the neighborhood buildings. There are three types of nodes so developed with respect to the movement breaks between two
Fig. a. The diagram showing the node created between two important entities
different entities and concentration of various activities. 1. Nodes between the streets and the Ghat 2. Nodes between the streets and other important parts of the town. 3. Nodes between two streets
In Omkareshwar the node occurs at
the junction of two entities and in turn supports different activities. The first node is created at the bus stand of the town which is traced by the commercial activities. There are several nodes located on the Primary street; 1. Node near Hanuman temple 2. Node of Jaypee Chowk 3. Node near Omkareshwar temple Jaypee chowk
4. Node near Amreshwar temple 5. Node at end of the bridge on Northern bank. Several minor nodes are generated on the
Fig. b. Two important nodes; bus stand as arrival point for the Omkareshwar town and jay pee chowk as pauses in the centre of the town
3.2.2 Nodes on Primary Street
To Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
a. Node near Hanuman temple Structure
From the primary street, the secondary
street bifurcates and is interconnected with the Amreshwar temple through the Gaumukhi Ghat. This secondary street connects two different parts of the town, Vishnupuri and Brahmapuri. This node does not provide any
To Amreshwar temple and Gaumukhi Fig. a. The movement Ghat bifurcated from the primary to secondary street. Area of the node marked in plan, where activities take place and making a strong node in primary street
concentration of activities and not making any square but the movement pauses here. The sense of enclosure is created by the buildings and the elements are extended on to the street. The surrounded buildings are two floors or three floors in height and creates a shaded area. There is no landmark to fix the image
Fig. b. The boundary of the building creating an enclosure for node
of this place the most remarkable feature of this node is the only strong bifurcation of the primary street to the secondary street and steps which leads to Gaumukhi Ghat. Activities
The activities are not concentrated
around this node with the exception of shops. These shops support different activities like that of food shops, Pan shop, sweet shop, etc. Small Bhojanalaya, cloth shop, jewelry
Fig. c. Ground floor showing the commercial shop along the street
and accessory shops. During the festival this nodes is become gathering place where people dance and celebrate.
Fig. d. View showing the informal vendor take Fig. e. View showing the shops place 96
Node b. Node at Jaypee Chowk
To omkareshwar temple
Structure To Nauv Ghat
This node is a prime node on the
primary street, established along the path of movement providing for gathering space that supports several activities. There is a pause in the movement to provide for gathering space before connecting towards the town center. This is also a major pause between
Fig. a. The starting point to reach island
Fig. b. This node is established by the primary movement meet and spread to the different part of the town
To Ram Ghat
The approach toward the main
temple begins from this node which also To bus station
connects two parts of the town; four streets from different directions meet at the node (Fig. c) The node is contained by buildings of different scale and heights. The ground floor
Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga Nauv Ghat
two parts of the town.
of the building are occupied by commercial activity which extended into the open space. Activity
This node is evolved by organization
of built mass on the four sides of a rectangular geometry. There are several activities associated with this node, such as Fig. c. Primary movement pauses at this point and is connected to the other part of the town
a restaurant (Bhojanalya), food shops, sweet shops, few shops selling the Shivalinga, Dharmashalas, automobile workshop etc. several rituals are also performed here in festivals. I.e. In Shravan Mahino festival, the palanquin carried through this node and devotees dances and plays with colors during the procession of first Monday of the month. These kinds of activities bring a remarkable image and character to this place. This
Fig. d. The edge is defined by the buildings of similar height in which multi storied building block are emphasized
open space also supports the temporary commercial activity and hawkers. These activities arrange themselves along the flow of the movement towards the bridge.
Fig. e. At the periphery of this node, activities Concentrate and play an important role to established the prime urban space for the pilgrims and tourists.
Fig. a. Section aa at Jaypee chowk showing the activities The key map of the Jaypee Chowk a a
Fig. b. The metal fence grid offers the space for the pilgrims. During the festival or, when the whole town gather at the Chowk in night.
Fig. c. View showing the extension of the every shop occupying the space to attract the pilgrims and tourist. The encroachment of the shops becomes a part of the node.
Fig. d. View showing the Chowk becoming highly concentrated with people during the night of the festival, when this chowk is used for leisure activities. The drama is organized by the members of Dodad Akhada.
Fig. e. View showing the activities during day time. The square becomes the hangout place for the people after the ritual performance are performed
Node c. Node near Omkareshwar temple
This node is created by the bifurcation movement
temple and the Kotitirtha Ghat. It is a dense Omkareshwar temple
congested node. There are two major movements occurring through the node: one is from the primary street to Omkareshwar temple or Kotitirtha Ghat and second is from Omkareshwar temple to Kotitirtha Ghat. The
Kotitirtha Ghat Fig. a. Plan showing the bifurcation of the movement into two different entities
movement is congested and becomes slow while one is walking towards the temple through the narrow passage(4 meters width) along the steps. Activities
The strong connection of the Kotitirtha
Ghat and the beginning of the Omkareshwar temple provides the ideal setting for local people to sell Puja material for rituals, flowers Fig. b. The two different direction of the movement creates the congregation at this node
etc. Other shops such as
book shops, and shops to sell Shivalinga etc are also established. The narrow passage with numerous activities makes this place congested. Therefore this node remains active and congested during the festivals.
Fig. c. The two stories high buildings and the narrow street opens up at this node and creating the sense of openness
Fig. d. View of the node before entering to temple
Fig. e. Shop in the corner
Node d. Node at Amreshwar temple
To Gaumukhi Ghat
Fig. a. Plan showing the bifurcation of Movement To Brahmapuri and creation of small nodes on the Amreshwar street
This node occurs at the junction where
a street bifurcates from the Amreshwar street. This junction is a pause point between two entities where one street leads to Brahmapuri and the other leads to Amreshwar temple. This is not a very important node but it occurs along the shortest path to reach Brahmapuri.
To Amreshwar temple
The edge of the enclosure is defined by the temporary activities, commercial shops and a series of plinths of varying heights. The
Fig. b. The ground floor plan showing the node as a generator of commercial activity.
plinth plays an important role in making a narrow passage. The narrow street and the continuous flight steps makes the movement slow and becomes a point of pause. Activities
the entire street of Amreshwar as well as the expanded areas which leads to the Brahmapuri. There are shops selling Puja materials and flowers, food and some small restaurants. The most characteristic of this Fig. c. The section showing the major pause at a point where one climbs the steps from the Gaumukhi Ghat
node is presence of the beggars and Sadhu. The play of Steps and plinths holds the small gathering space near Hanuman temple.
To Amreshwar temple
Fig. f. The important element of this node is the Hanuman temple . The gate which is threshold for the way to reach Amreshwar temple
Towards Gaumukhi Ghat Fig. e. The view showing the remarkable elements
Fig. d. This node is identified by the small Hanuman two temple with bright orange colored.
Node e. Node at the end of the bridge on the Northern bank Structure Pa rou r i k r a te m
The pedestrian bridge ends at the
northern bank of the island up on the high a
plinth which is about 1.2 meter high, and To O Jyo mka r tirli nga eswa r
Fig. a. Plan showing the node on the Northern bank Fig. b. Bridge ends at this node and from this point it is connected to different part of the Norther bank
Towards southern bank
then descends to the street level. People move through the 4 meters wide bridge before arriving at this point of release. This is also the point where most of the local vehicular movement terminates. (Especially two wheelers related to those who work at the temple or others who live within the various neighbourhood) intense pedestrian movement occurs at this node during the festivals.
Fig. c. The brides ends at this node, and carries the place for the baggers
This small square is occupied by the
commercial activity along the buildings and even the outside where the temporary shops
Fig. d. Plan of the node.
are organized. This is an important node Retaining wall
which one has to pass through on the way to the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga even it is starting point for the Omkareshwar Parikrama.
Fig. e. Square generates by the surrounding buildings and bridge.
Fig. f. The visual connection established between the bridge and the square.
Fig. g. View showing the commercial activities take place and they occupied the all corners to fit them self.
Node f. Minor nodes in town
There are several small nodes found
on the primary and secondary street which occur at junctions of the Primary Street and Tertiary Street for e.g. Like there are two small lanes meeting near the Granthalya, or One lane connects to the Kotitirtha Ghat and one lane is connects to the backside of the buildings where the private spaces open
Fig. a. Small node at Granthalaya near to Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga
up on to the street. These small nodes are important for the people who take the ritual pass through.
A Node near Gaumukhi Ghat is
created by the two movements, one which
Ga Gh u m u k at hi
bath at Chakratirtha Ghat as they have to
leads to the Amreshwar temple and one that generates the linkage direct to the edge. At this point, few temporary shops are concentrated that stimulates activity.
Fig. b. Node near Gaumukhi Ghat
Fig. c. View of the node
3.2.3 Landmarks in the town
tourists establish their movement towards the centre or towards their goal, developed through important landmarks which become reference point to locate themselves in the town.
Landmarks are the key elements
for the visitors to help them establish their relationship with the buildings, shops, sign ages, etc. Here the prominent landmarks are the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga, Amreshwar temple, Vishnu temple, Brahma temple, Gaumukhi Ghat, bus station, Jaypee Chowk
Fig. a. Kingâ€™s palace on northern bank of Omkareshwar
(square), and bridge. These are the prime focuses of the town. The royal palace can easily be recognized from the distance while walking on the streets, because it is placed on the higher level on the Omkareshwar Island. It exhibits unique architectural character. Landmarks here are defined by the two categories. 1. The singular physical form in space 2. Form created by the neighborhood buildings which are squares and Ghats.
Fig. b. Northern side settlement can be seen from the distance, even from the southern side. The settlement itself becomes prominent landmark for the omkareshwar town, hill on the back ground enhance the clear profile of the settlement
Physical form can be recognized
by the singular form of the building in major temples of the Omkareshwar town. Form of the temple that is Shikhara stands out form the urban fabric and one can easily identify as a reference point.
Amreshwar Indra temple Temple
Narmada river Fig. c. Temples emphasize in the urban fabric on the both the settlements 103
3.2.4 Landmarks on the streets
The primary street is an important
element of the town where major activities and major elements take place. Here the landmark can be observed clearly along this route. People start establishing their reference point. Like the bus station is the first place where people are introduced to the town. This becomes the prominent feature where all the basic activities are layered on the peripheral part of the open space. One can find buses, local people and temporary commercial activities etc. At this point on commercial activity continuous up to the Omkareshwar temple. One can find the nodes or the square C
Fig. a. Elevation of the northern bank settlement, three different scale of landmarks observed from the southern bank . A. Dharmashala, B. Sikha temple and library, C. Omkareshwar temple
wherever this continuity is interrupted. Some landmarks become a part of the urban fabric and one cannot be recognized by their single forms but only through the entire facade seen as combinations of different elements. For example on the secondary street near Vishnu temple, there are rows of Dharmashalas that provide a remarkable character to the street. The elements of the faรงade plays an important role in making the place recognizable. The northern bank of the Omkareshwar consists of the Dharmashala (Seth Jaykishangopikishan baheti) and the Granthalaya (Sikha temple). These buildings are clearly visible from a distance as they are 104
Fig. b. View showing the Dharmashalas making and unique architectural language to the street
Landmark emphasized by the articulation of the facade and the massive structure that stands out from the urban cluster. Even the Granthalaya stands out clearly by Shikhara of the temple.
3.3 Ghat 3.3.1 General description
22.214.171.124 Location of the ghats 126.96.36.199 Major ghats 188.8.131.52 Structuring elements of the ghats 184.108.40.206 Linkage and movement 220.127.116.11 Activities along the ghats
3.3.2 Kotitirtha ghat
18.104.22.168 Structure 22.214.171.124 Structuring elements 126.96.36.199 Movement 188.8.131.52 Activities A. Commercial B. Ritual
3.3.3 Chakratirtha ghat
184.108.40.206 Structure 220.127.116.11 Movement 18.104.22.168 Activity
3.3.4 Nauv ghat
3.3.5 Gaumukhi ghat
22.214.171.124 Structure of gaumukhi ghat 126.96.36.199 Movement 188.8.131.52 Activity
Ghat 3.3.1 General Description
1. Kotitirtha Ghat (Omkareshwar Ghat) 2. Chakratirtha Ghat
Fig. a.View of Northern bank
Fig. b. Plan and photograph showing the Ghats on both side of the Narmada river
3. Nauv Ghat 4. Gaumukhi Ghat
Fig. c. View form the north bank
184.108.40.206 Location of Ghats
The prominent characteristic of Omkareshwar town is its
own water edge where the settlement meets Narmada river. The urban fabric is beautifully connected to water edges. In earlier time, Ghats were used for transportation from one edge to island. The Narmada River has a sacred value which in turn brings Fig. d. View of Nagar Ghat at southern bank
people to the Ghats for bathing and other rituals. The entire town consists of rows of Ghats which continuously stretch across both sides of the river. Ether side also has a distinct characteristic in the physical formation. The northern edge is well defined in terms of its clear edge conditions where the fabric meets the river in the form of Ghats. The southern water edge is created by barren rock and the hill because of which edge is unfinished and rough, and the fabric sits on top of the hill. The water edge is
Fig. e. View of Omkar Ghat
finished by the row of steps and the plinths.
Ghat 220.127.116.11 Major Ghats Northern bank
Fig. b.Kotitirtha Ghat
Ghat Fig. c. Nauv Ghat
Southern bank Fig. a. Plan showing major Ghats located on both the edges of Omkareshwar
Fig. d. Chaktratirtha Ghat
There are over eight different Ghats located on the water
edge on both the sides of town. Kotirtha Ghat, Chakratirtha Ghat, Guamukhi Ghat, Nauv Ghat and Ram Ghat are the oldest amongst them. All major Ghats are located near the temples and at the lowest level near water. Both the edges have a different attitude towards space making the detail of which are discussed in sub chapters. Four different Ghats have been taken for study: two on each side of the river. The Kotitirtha Ghat and the Chakratirtha Ghat are on the Northern bank dominated by the Omkareshwar temple; while the Nauv Ghat and Gaumukhi Ghat are located on the southern bank, dominated by the Amreshwar temple.
Fig. e. Gaumukhi Ghat
Ghat 18.104.22.168 Structuring Elements of the Ghat
The water edges of Omkareshwar
are not well defined or constant, but keep changing with the flow of the river and changing water levels in different seasons. Therefore morphing and altering of the edges
Cha k Gha ratirtha t Koti ti Gha rtha t
for years make the water edge uneven.
Formation of the Ghats is directly
connected to the topography and varying conditions of the water edge that depends upon the topography and stepped nature of the plateau. The river flows through the town
i v e
and makes two different edge conditions with respect to topography. Both sides of the Ghats are therefore developed differently with respect to the topographical condition.
Gau Gha mukh i t
Every Ghat is developed to ensure
maximum possibility to reach up to water and the location of each is identifiable through its
Fig. a. Profile of the water edges that forms the Ghats
relationship to the temple and other activities happening in the neighborhood. Kotitirtha Ghat is located under the Omkareshwar temple. This Ghat is primarily used by people for ritual purpose. Gaumukhi Ghat is developed between two hills. It is used as place for worshipping at the Gaumukhi temple and for other ritual activities. Chakratirtha Ghat is located on northern bank and the Nauv Ghat is located on southern bank and used for the private ritual bathing and for
Fig. b. Locations Kotitirtha and Gaumukhi Ghats are highly influenced by the temples
Fig. c. Diagram showing the Ghats established in the pocket created by the terrain. The form of the terrain and natural edge conditions allows to shape of Ghats
Fig. d. Offset of the edge on both sides results in a slower water stream on the edge as compared to the middle stream which makes the water edges calm
The diagrams showing the various forces generates the Ghats
Ghat 22.214.171.124 Linkage and Movement
All the Ghats are directly approached
Cha k Gha ratirtha t
through a secondary street which may be considered to be the bifurcation of primary t ha Gha
street, as in the case of Kotitirtha Ghat. In case
of Chakratirtha Ghat, it can be approached from the cross junction of the primary street.
The other two Nauv and Gaumukhi Ghats are in stepped form and became as secondary
streets in themselves.
The level differences from the water
edge to that of the street varies from about
15m to 22 meter. The terrain is very steep towards the river which in turn prevents direct access to water edges. Also, there is not enough availability of space on the edge to develop Ghats parallel to the river.
Fig. a. Plan showing the linkages pattern of the Ghats.
As a result, stepped narrow Ghats were developed, to facilitate access to water. These steps therefore, become a major connecting Omkareshwar temple
element between the water edge and the rest of the town. Steps Ghats
Fig. b. Route toward the main temple establishes the relation to Ghats, and its connected through the steps .
c. Steps following the retaining wall to get down to Kotitirtha Ghat. Ghat transformed in to continues steps which leads to primary street. d. Steps Leads to Chakratirtha Ghat from primary street e. Enclosed space and the less commercial activities brings people here for ritual baths on Nauv Ghat f. Steps from Amreshwar temple meets to Gaumukhi Ghat g. Street leading to Gaumukhi Ghat 111
Ghat 126.96.36.199 Activity Along the Ghat Omkareshwar is a temple town, and the Ghats hold an important position It is here that all the sacred rituals and Pujas are performed along the holy river Narmada. Several major public activities also take place along the Ghats. The Ghats are space of intense activities and movement, used by both the pilgrims and the local residents. Commercial
developed along the whole stretch of ghats on both sides, which in turn provide material for the various Puja along the holy river.
In order to supply the material for Puja
Fig. a. Representation of photograph showing the informal market generated along the stretch of Kotitirtha Ghat
and worship of the holy river, the commercial market developed along the entire stretch of the Ghats on both sides. However the nature of this activities is random. The shops are established along the path of movement towards the water edge, such as in the corner of the street, on steps, on the plinth of Ghats etc. These shops assume a spatial organization of that gives a rough and dynamic characteristic to Omkareshwar.
Fig. b. The scattered commercial shops take place at the junctions of the different levels.
Fig. c. Row of temporal commercial activities take place at the water edge.
Fig. d. Representation of photograph showing the roof of the commercial shops render the Kotitirtha Ghat
Fig. a.The water edge of Nauv Ghat used for ritual bathing and the washing the clothes.
Fig. b. Gaumukhi Ghat occupied by shops, Organized along the line of steps
Fig. c. Ritual ceremony performed by the people on the raised plinth without public interruption
Fig. d. View of Gaumukhi temple and pavilion at the water edge of Gaumukhi Ghat
Ghat 3.3.2 Kotitirtha Ghat 4
Narmada river 7
Fig. a. Plan of Kotitirtha (Omkareshwar) Ghat 1. Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga 2. Omkareshwar street ( primary street) 3. Kotitirtha Ghat 4. Old palace
Fig. 2.Photograph showing the Kotitirtha Ghat
5. Square near Omkareshwar temple 6. Shrines 7. Barren rock 8. Path leads to Chakratirtha Ghat
Ghat 188.8.131.52 Structure
Kotitirtha Ghat is located on the
northern bank of river Narmada. The form of this Ghat is derived from the curved shape of the retaining wall. The retaining wall covers the edge towards riverside as well as the stepped Plan
Fig. a. Plan and elevation showing the built masses structuring the Kotitirtha Ghat. Distribution of mass and void creates the place for people. In the plan, black color shows the built mass and the gray defines the informal market Retaining wall
street connecting to primary street, as shown in fig. b. Form of the ghat is rectangular in shape with the extended part ending to the kachha Ghats (kachha ghats are ghat which are not paved and there are no gradual steps leading to the water edge, only the natural surface of the earth.) The edge of the Ghat is defined by continues steps going down to water.
Ghat is divided into four levels. Here
the level differences plays an important role in defining the sense of the place. The Earth surface Fig. b. Schematic sketch showing the surface of the earth and the retaining wall making the enclosure and establishing the relationship to the water.
level difference between the Ghat and the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga temple is fairly high and that supports dynamic activities. All these platforms are staggered down towards the water and connected to each other with the small narrow steps excepting the last plinth (4th plinth shown in the fig. c) has only continuous steps along the entire length of the platform, creating the edge of the Ghat.
Fig c. Wall defined the boundary of the Ghat and the water define the edge
1 2 3 4
Fig. c. Sketch showing the levels of platforms creating the Ghat
Ghat 184.108.40.206 Structuring Elements
Retaining wall of the building creating an edge and the background for the ghats. Even creating physical enclosure toward river for Ghat.
Curved shaped retaining wall and steps acting as a connecting element to the Ghat.
Steps and plinths are assemble to create the levels that to reach the water edge
Small shrines are established on the ghat and people perform rituals around the plinth. These shrines are located under the omkareshwar temple.
The platforms are stacked down and gradually decrease in the level to reach water. The platforms are generally used where water level is higher than the average.
The plinth on the ghat makes a place for performing Puja and ritual activities
The steps are stretched along the edge of the ghat. And lead to water gradually
Ghat 220.127.116.11 Movement 2
the point where the level difference begins.
The primary street bifurcates from
As shown in figs 1. One flight of narrow steps lead up to the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga and another down to the Kotitirtha Ghat. This junction is a narrow one, about 5 meter in width, which gives rise to congestion during
festivals and other events when the number of pilgrims increase unexpected. 3
The approach to the Kotitirtha Ghat
begins with the narrow flight of steps (from the primary street) which terminate in a small landing where the informal market begins. The movement follows the form of the edge which is created by the retaining wall. The steps gradually descend through a few
Fig. a. Plan showing movement of the Kotitirtha Ghat . 1. Major movement from the Omkareshwar temple 2. Secondary movement from the primary street 3. The junction connected to the edge of the ghats where movement happens in on both directions. 4. Movement from the Pradkshina route 5. Kotitirtha Ghat connect to the Chakratirtha Ghat
platform and then reach the water edge.
The movement towards the water
edge is not direct but through a series of platforms. The transition from the primary street to water edge occurs by the steps. These steps are actually not a part of the Ghats but has a sense of enclosure as well as openness which makes them like a part of the ghat. Major movement of Kotitirtha Ghat
Fig. b This space acts as transition for the Ghat. While moving towards the Ghat, both side is occupied by the commercial shops .
occurs only on the edge of the ghats where all ritual ceremonies take place throughout the day.
From the primary street
Fig. c. View showing the narrow steps making the beginning of movement towards the Kotitirtha Ghat.
From the Omkareshwar temple
Fig. d. Junction showing the narrow passages going and links to Kotitirtha Ghat.
Ghat 18.104.22.168 Activities
Fig. a. Section along the Kotitirtha Ghat, showing the activities happened on Ghat
Section taken along Kotitirtha Ghat
Performing Ritual bathing Puja
Fig. b. Distribution of activities on the Ghat
Fig. c. The whole Kotitirtha Ghat become the part of the public realm
The formation of the activities on
Kotitirtha Ghat is forced by the linear and narrow form of the Ghat. Broadly three kinds of activities are observed at Kotitirtha Ghat 1. Rituals and Puja, 2. Commercial activities 3. Bathing and boating
connected with the primary street and Kotitirtha
activities on both the sides of steps which happen along the linear plinths. The shops are arranged continuously until a point when they may interrupt movement. These shops maintain their line in accordance with the Fig. a.
Linear element or continuos surface like retaining wall
Shops Fig. c. Diagram showing the arrangement of the shops according to surface.
Fig. b. Space on Ghat are occupied by informal commercial activities, selling materials for Puja and accessories for the temple worship.
other shops. They are so organized that the passage becomes narrower than the actual width, thus causing congestion at certain phases of time. The arrangement of the shops at the Ghat side also follows the surface of the plinth or the wall and creates a continuous flow of shops. The habits of making this arrangement regulates movement of people through commercial activity.
Ghat a. Commercial Activity a A
Enclosure by the surfaces of wall and plinth Enclosure by the shops and roofs
B A B Fig. a.
Fig. d. Detail A. The plan shows a Shop that is set along the plinth surface and expands its territory with the material and the roof
Fig. b. Section AA showing, at the passage (connector), the temporary activities taking place along both sides. The retaining wall which is extended on left and retaining on the right side of the passages makes a close enclosure to this space. Fig. e. Detail A. Sectional sketch showing the shop is occupying the corner and making semi open space with roof
Fig. f. The view showing the shops organized in order to expose themselves to people and linear in form
Fig. c. Detail a. The temporary shops occupy the space as they modified them selves against the ground. According to the steps each shop is making them horizontal and established their space to sell the rituals material. The shops are shaded according to weather condition, in the monsoon they are fully covered with the fabric and in the summer also to avoid the heat. These habits make this transitory space more enclosed.
Ghat b. Ritual activity
The sacred island and Omkareshwar
Jyotirlinga invites people to perform rituals activities. Kotitirtha Ghat supports the major ritual activities and Puja along the whole stretch of the Ghat. The edge of the Ghat is generally use for performing Puja and worship of the holy Narmada where the Tirtha plays a Fig. a. View showing people sitting on the steps and the Sadhu attending to all of them to perform rituals at the water edge of Kotitirtha Ghat.
significant role. Pilgrims ought to take a holy bath of Narmada river before worshipping the goddess and pursuing the Darshan of the Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga. Plinths and steps plays important role to concentrate the group of people to perform rituals. It is noticed that people generally performed the rituals on the large plinths near to the wall (see in fig. e).
Fig. b. People gather on the ghat to celebrate the first Monday ceremony of the Shravan Mahino festival;. The congregation happens because this is an important festival of lord Shiva. (Refer chapter 1 - omkareshwar Monday rituals)
Fig. d. The water edge is used by the pilgrims for ritual bath and Puja. The water edge boundary is clearly defined by the metal fence to restrict the risk of accident.
Fig. c. Sages performs Puja of Omkareshwar Jyotirlinga on Shravan Mahino festival
Fig. e. This plinth is defined by the gated entity. The gateway and the establishment of several Shivalingas make this plinth more sacred than any other area of the Kotitirtha Ghat. 121
Ghat 3.3.3 Chakratirtha Ghat To 1
Fig. a. Plan of Chakratirtha Ghat 5
1. Dharmashala 2. Granthalaya ( library ) 3. Chakratirtha Ghat
Fig. b. View showing the Chakratirtha Ghat
Key map of town
Ghat 22.214.171.124 strucure
Chakratirtha Ghat is located on the
northern bank of the river Narmada and on the edge of the sacred island of Omkareshwar. The overall Form of the Chakratirtha Ghat is Plan
rectangular and oriented eastward. This Ghat Fig. a. Plan and elevation showing the built masses structuring the Chakratirtha Ghat. Distribution of mass and void creates the place for people. In the plan , black color shows the built mass and the gray defines the informal market.
is built on a stone plateau, which is visible from the boundary.
The orientation of the Ghat is so
that one goes down facing the east side. That is why pilgrims use this Ghat to orient themselves easily toward the water and sun in the morning. This Ghat appears as an isolate element on the northern bank and it doesnâ€™t seem as part of the built form but its separated from the built mass thus becoming a significance image on the northern bank. The building edge facing toward the riverside makes the enclosure for the Chakratirtha Ghat which is laid on the undulating terrain.
Fig. b. Diagram showing that the enclosure of the Chakratirtha Ghat is created by the surfaces of the buildings and the plinth.
Fig. c. Ghat follows the topography and is built on the stone plateau which make the edge rough and defined.
Fig. d. Sectional view of the Chakratirtha Ghat showing the hierarchy of the spaces and levels gradually leading to Ghat from primary street.
Fig. e. Movement of people through the steps and shops
Ghat 126.96.36.199 Movement
There are three linkages to reach
Chakratirtha Ghat; the first is a major route from the primary street, the second connects from the square where the bridge ends on
the island, and the third is from the Kotitirtha
Ghat. Both these Ghats are connected by a passage.
The movement toward Chakratirtha
Ghat seems indirect from the primary street because of the narrow opening between buildings that lead to the Ghat. The level of primary street is so high that there is no space to provide steps directly from this ghat. Therefore, this movement to reach the Ghat is a serpentine.
Fig. a. Plan showing the movement of the Chakratirtha Ghat 1. Major movement coming form the primary street through the narrow opening 2. Movement toward the Ghat 3. This path connecting to Kotitirtha Ghat and Chakratirtha Ghat 4. Movement coming from the square which is created by the landing of the bridge 5. Movement distributed to whole Ghat 6. Movement of the boats for recreational purpose. Primary street
Fig. b. Narrow passage creates a threshold for the Chakratirtha Ghat Level of primary street
Fig. c. Movement toward the water edge is interrupted by the shops
Water level Chakratirtha Ghat
Fig. d. Small opening from primary street
There is no sense of destination to reach the Ghat but the small opening toward the river emphasizes the presence of the Chakratirtha Ghat by seeing (refer fig. d). The movement is interrupted by various levels, plinths, the chaotic order of the direction, commercial shops and the small Shivalinga on the plinth of the Ghat. 124
Fig. f. View showing the movement flowing from the primary street to the Chakratirtha Ghat.
Fig. e. Group of people occupying the place and sitting on the steps
Ghat 188.8.131.52 Activity
Fig. a. Sectional view showing the Activities on Chakratirtha Ghat 0
Temporary commercial shops
Rituals and bathing
Fig. b. Distribution of activities on Ghat The ritual activities occur mainly on the edge of the Ghat. All spaces of the Ghat are occupied by the commercial activities, the temporary shops making a space randomly but making a clear route to reach the water edge. The Ghat edge is occupied by people performing Puja and rituals near holy river Narmada. On the water, place occupied for the holy bathing and the boating.
Key map of Chakratirtha Ghat
Activities are distributed along the
entire Ghat. The steps and plinths near the water edge are mostly occupied by commercial activities as against the higher part of the Ghat. The shops are maximum occupied on wherever plinths are available. Fig. a and b are showing the shops established on the To water edge
steps. Ritual activities happen along the entire stretch of water and on plinths. Since devotees are taking baths and performing Puja on the plinths near to water.
Fig. a. Plan of the typical shops , the area of one shop is defined by the roof and the containers on the ground enhancing the physical boundary.
Fig. d. The boats layered along the water edge and docked onto the Ghat.
Fig. b. Section of the typical shop, the negotiation of the space by using the steps for the structure and the landing between two flights.
Fig. e. Nature of commercial occupation along the Ghat
Fig c. The layout of the commercial activities organized along the whole Ghat
Ghat 3.3.4 Nauv Ghat
Fig .a. Plan of Nauv Ghat
Fig. b. View of Nauv Ghat (A)
Ghat 184.108.40.206 structure
Nauv Ghat is located on the southern
bank of the Narmada. This Ghat serves only for purpose of transportation; for people to reach the northern side of the river bank. But at present, after the bridge was constructed this Ghat is occupied for bathing and as an
arrival point by boat to reach the Gaumukhi Ghat. Both Gaumukhi and Nauv Ghats are interconnected with the steps and plinth along the river. The shape of this Ghat is structured
Fig a. Plan showing the built masses . Distribution of mass and void of earth and building creates the place
by the hill and the topographical conditions. The form of this Ghat spreads along the edge and the steps developed parallel to the water and linear in form. The edge of the Ghat toward the hill side is through an uneven surface and creates a strong enclosure with the high hill because of which, the sense of openness towards the water becomes very clear. The sense of place becomes so private that all bathing activities, especially for women occur
Fig. b. Diagram showing the enclosure of the Nauv Ghat is created by the rock edge ,
here before performing Puja.
The approach toward this Ghat is
mainly from the Jaypee Chowk. The Ghat is lower than the approach point. The movement initially starts with buildings along both the sides (with the institutions like Dharmashala). But after arriving near the edge, the surface becomes undulating and rough with the rock. The Second path of movement comes from
the Gaumukhi Ghat. This linkage is very informal in nature because of the rough edge and the Kachha path between the two Ghats (Nauv and Gaumukhi), After the dam was 2
constructed the water level rises or drops by almost by 1 to 2 m., so Nauv Ghat gets almost immersed into the river.
Fig. c. Plan showing the movement of the Nauv Ghat 1. Secondary movement coming from the Jaypee Chowk. 2. Major movement happened from the Gaumukhi Ghat.
Ghat 3.3.5 Gaumukhi Ghat NARMADA RIVER
Fig. a. Plan of Guamukhi Ghat and neighborhoods 1. Gaumukhi temple 2. Gaumukhi Ghat 3. Street leads to Amreshwar temple 4. Street leads to main temple street( primary street )
5. Path leads to Nauv Ghat 6. Commercial activities 7. Boating
Fig. b. Photograph showing the Gaumulhi Ghat at southern bank of the Omkareshwar
Ghat 220.127.116.11 Ghat
the southern bank of Narmada river and created between the two hills of Vishnupuri and Brahmapuri. This Ghat is influenced by the Amreshwar temple, which is located southward to it. The Ghat is named by the Guamukhi temple which is located on the water edge where the ground water falls on the Shiva linga of the temple. This Ghat is used as an intermediate space when one moves toward the Amreshwar temple.
The Ghat is formed by the two lofty
hills on both the sides which open up towards the river. The uneven ground is finished by
Fig. a.Plan showing the built masses structuring the Gaumukhi Ghat. Distribution of mass and void creates the place for people. In the plan, black color shows the built mass and the gray define the informal commercial market.
the steps and platforms where people can use the water. The water edge of the Ghat is defined by the steps which continue running
through the edge. The shape of the Ghat is very much rectangular in form because of a definite boundary held by varied plinths.
Fig. b. The uneven ground negotiated by the plinths and it gives a rectangular base to the ghats therefore it provide a geometrical order to the ghats
Fig. d. The boats layering the southern bank and the concentrated at the Gaumukhi Ghat
Fig. c.The diagram showing the enclosure created by the profiles of the two hills on both the sides; Vishnupuri hill and Brahmapuri hill. And the southern bank of the Ghat is enclosed by the sloping terrain.
Ghat 18.104.22.168 Movement River
accessible from the primary street. Even
this Ghat makes possible interconnection Brahma temple
The approach towards the Ghat is
between two settlements (Brahmapuri and Vishnupuri). The movement from the street is directed towards the Ghat and released into
the open space. This is strongly influenced by 4
the formation of the plinths. There is a pause landings or flights end and activities emerge on these places. Even the corners of the two
Fig. a. Plan showing the movement on the Gaumukhi Ghat
junctions support commercial activity where group of people to gather.
1. Movement coming directly from the primary street and secondary street end at Ghat 2. Movement running through the Ghat and going to the Amreshwar temple 3. Movement directly leads to Ghat form the Amreshwar temple and also connects the Gaumukhi temple to the water edge 4. Movement connecting two Ghats of Nauv Ghat and Gaumukhi Ghat. 5. Movement happens to reach water edge of the Ghat. 6. Movement end at this point and runs through the water edge
Large open space and the presence
of sacred elements make this Ghat vary significant for pilgrims. Thus shops are established all over the Ghat, as observed on the normal day. The shops change their positions during the festival, when they cause congestion (see fig. c). Few commercial
shops arranged along the movement from the primary street as shown in fig. b-1. The
platforms and its level differences provides
space for shops as in fig b. 2,3,4. In festival time, all the spaces on this Ghat is fully occupied by dense commercial activity. Only
Fig. b. Organization of commercial activities
the water edge is clearly open for the ritual and boating activities.
Fig. c. View of Gaumukhi Ghat during the festival time.
Ghat 22.214.171.124 Activity
Fig. a. Section showing the Gaumukhi Ghat and the activities
Key map of the Gaumukhi Ghat
Performing Puja and ritual bathing
Commercial shops, like puja materials
Commercial shops, temporary, accessories
Fig. b Activities patterns on the Gaumukhi Ghat. The activities distributed in three layers. The commercial shops which is integrated with the streets and movement towards the Amreshwar temple. The second layer comes with the rituals and the performing Puja near to the water edge. The third is boating.
Ghat Tarpaulin for the roof Bamboo for horizontal member Bamboo for the vertical element The wooden platform Fig. a. This type of shop settlement take place on whole Ghat wherever the open ground is available with the sense of location according to movement toward the water edge
Tarpaulin the roof
Fig. c. The plinth used for performing rituals
Bamboo for horizontal member
Bamboo for the vertical element
Fig. d. The shops occupying the space along the certain elements like street poll, plinths, and corners of the steps.
Fig. b. This types of shop are constructed on the raised platform of the Ghat or the plinths. The assembly of this kind of shops is simply out of two basic elements, the bamboo and tarpaulin.
Fig. e. Gaumukhi temple and devotes performing puja
Fig. g. The higher plinths used for performing Puja by people, Becomes the sacred entities for the time.
Fig. f. View of Gaumukhi temple where devotees performing rituals with the holy water of river narmada
Spatial structure and characteristics
Generating factors 1. Temple -Location of the omkareshwar temple at highest point and other important temples (Brahma, Vishnu and Amreshwar temples) on mounts. -Important elements of town generates the path to reach these temples and establishes the connections to the main path 2. Topography and river -River makes two street networks -Movement towards Water edges for ritual bathing, performing Puja -Undulating surface 3. Other -Location of arrival chowk (Jaypee Chowk) generates linkages to the other parts of the town
Prime path establishes the main spine of the town, Unconstrained growth, Non geometrical and Organic order characterise the street pattern
Streets follow the flat land wherever it is possible and otherwise the steep slope is negotiate in form of stepped path
Street follows the natural drainage of the land,
Temples other than Omkareshwar temple are connected by the secondary street.
Use as Ceremonial space and processional during the Shravan Mahino festival and Shivaratri
Bridges establishes the physical connection between two parts of the town
Elements that constituent the town
1. Primary street: Connector between arrival point to main temple
2. Secondary streets: Connecting all settlements and important institutions Two important streets; -Amreshwar street -Street near Vishnu temple
3. Tertiary street: Provide accessibility to interior of neighborhoods
Temple: -Sacred geometry established by Trimurti; Brahma, vishnu and Shiva temples and movement towards the Amreshwar temple Streets: -Primary street: major concentration of all activities, near Vishnupuri and Shivapuri -Prime path towards the Omkareshwar temple Topography: -Availability of flat land -Boundary defined by the river -Undulating surface
• 1 a
Multi nucleic nature, Not concentrated around the main temple but grew along the path towards the town with maximum concentration of activity and functions Organic in form and scattered on the edges, spontaneous, haphazard, and accretive in nature The mass of the town is concentrated where topography is favorable and which in turn decides the density and massing, in general settlements occupy the flat land and less undulating surface and not on the very steep slopes Topography controls the growth and gives a definite edge to built from. Order of the building unit along the water edges are facing towards the river and orientation keeps changing according to the line of water.
Three settlements make the entire town; Shivapuri (northern bank) Settlement near to vicinity of Omkareshwar temple
Vishnupuri (southern bank) settlement near to vicinity of Vishnupuri temple
Brahmapuri (southern bank) Settlement near to vicinity of Brahma temple
These diagrams and plans are not in scale
Cluster near amreshwar temple Settlement occurs on the path of movement towards the temple
Spatial structure and characteristics
Plan and diagrams
Town is dominated by temple, Most people who visit for the purpose of worship, It act as the main spine of the town, linking the Omkareshwar and other neighbourhood towns, Connectors between two parts of the town (Vishnupuri and Shivapuri), Maximum concentration of commercial activities and built form occur along the main spine with high density of massing along it, Communal space, Layering of activities that render the street up to the Omkareshwar temple
Mostly linking the water edges (Ghats), Connecting Brahmapuri and settlement near Amreshwar temple, These are mostly in the form of steps which flow downward to link water edges. Concentration of commercial activities. Narrow streets, Medium density of massing, carrying most of the public institutions like Dharmashala and Akhada, used as pedestrian
Vishnu street Amreshwar street
Establishes the linkage between the house and primary street, Acts as private space for local residents, Made of small lanes or Kachha paths, It gets dense when it meets the primary street. Scattered and making a complex network of paths
Dense, linear massing along the street and spontaneous growth, it is controlled by steep hills, river and availability of flat land, Settlement grew along the axial path towards the Omkareshwar temple, single layering of the building unites along with the street and generates the small lanes and narrow street widths.
-Dense, organic and concentric growth along the primary street, Scattered when it goes far from street, maximum street network established by the organic order in settlement, It is a main focal point to start the approach towards the center or the other part of the town. -Generator for the various squares that form the main gathering spaces of town (e.g. Jaypee chowk)
Scattered and fragmented in growth, more open space, Provides the communal space for Mela festival for the town
Fragmented and linear massing is prevalent along the street, Grew on the axis of movement towards Amreshwar temple and constitutes the Dharmashalas and Akhada, commercial shops layered along the entire street.
These diagrams and plans are not in scale
Spatial structure and characteristics of main element
Generating factors •
Topography: -Easy accessible it to water edge which decides the orientation and avaibilty of flat ground River: -Holy river narmada that is associated with holy Bathing and rituals River flows and makes two different edge conditions
Temple: Establishment of Ghat near the vicinity of temples
Street: -Generator of the major nodes -Interlinking of various parts of the town 1. Nodes between the streets and the Ghat 2. Nodes between the streets and other important parts of the town. 3. Nodes between two streets
Edges are uneven with barren rock, developed on the lower ground and slope towards the water edge negotiated by the platforms and steps • Developed along smaller degree of slope and lover level of ground which suggests establishments of Ghats • Ceremonial space, concentration of commercial and ritual activities, Accessibility to water, Articulation of edges • Two edges defined by the Narmada river; northern and southern banks Northern bank Northern bank; -Created by Ghats plinths, shrines, rocks, retaining walls and building facade, clear edge conditions defined from Kotitirtha Ghat to Chakratirtha Ghat -Solid, constant and gives the sense of retaining the edge of the island Southern bank; -Created by Ghats, plinths, buildings, Southern edge and few shrines Unfinished and rough edge with less part articulated with plinths, Continues plinths from Nauv Ghat to Gaumukhi Ghat
• • • • •
Node Node Street
Major nodes are found on the primary street concentratoin of Commercial activity Point where movements get distributed e.g. Jaypee chowk; They form Town level gathering place and interaction place as well Space for communal activity and ceremonial activity during the festivals
Two edges and important Ghats
Northern bank: Kotitirtha Ghat
Nodes on primary street Near Hanuman temple
At Jaypee chowk
End of the bridge on northern bank
Elements that constituent the town
Near omkareshwar temple
Connects to other part of the town
Near amreshwar temple
Topography; Location of temples on the higher ground, Singular form of building, emphasis in the surrounding context
Element emphasis by the singular form, verticality with respect to silhouette of settlement
These diagrams and plans are not in scale
Four temples; Brahma, vishnu, Omkareshwar, Amreshwar Mandhata island, few shrines like Hanuman temple on Amreswhar street, entire settlement of Shivapuri
Spatial structure and characteristics In sub-element
Plan and diagrams
Ghat making continues steps till to the primary street, Linear along the water edge and rectangular in shape, Defined by the curved wall of retaining wall, structure by four plinths Maximum people occupy this Ghat, maximum concentration of the religious activities and supported commercial activities. Ceremonial and processional purpose Oriented towards the east direction, sense of distinct element of an edge, well articulated by steps and plinths with integration of rocky ground, earlier it was used by the transportation, Place for rituals activities when it gets more congested on Kotitirtha Ghat, bathing, concentration of boating activities along the water edge. Constructed in the valley between two hills; Brahmapuri and Vishnupuri hills, rectangular form generate by the definite boundary held by various plinths, three plinths makes the access to water edge, second concentration point of southern bank at town level (first is Jaypee chowk), commercial activity on the periphery and ritual activity on the water Linear and following the edge of the hill resultant in long and narrow ghat, two plinths and stretched steps across the Ghat, Sense of privateness thus ritual bathing take place especially for women, silent in nature, remain shaded with trees and high hill on one side, boating also happened from this Ghat. Bifurcation of primary street into secondary street which leads to Gaumukhi Ghat, second pause point after bus station, point of moving two direction, small concentration of commercial activity Prime and large node, main pause point of town, Established on the path towards the omkareshwar temple, Approach point to northern bank (shivapuri), four street meets to this node, Rectangular shape, Sense of arriving at the center of the town, sense of arrival, Town level gathering space, communal space, concentration of commercial activities, vehicular movement terminate here and pedestrian starts Small square, Bridges end at this point on northern bank, point of release by the bridge movement ends here, local vehicular movement terminate here, sense of arrival to island, Dense and congested node, two movements generate; towards the omkareshwar temple and kotitirtha Ghat, sense of arrival to temple Small node on the street which leads to Amreshwar temple, linking to Brahmapuri in shortest path, concentration of small shrines, plinths and steps creating a narrow passage, small gathering space
-Creates a sense of image of the town, -Becomes the reference point to get familiar with town
These diagrams and plans are not in scale
The temple town of Omkareshwar has grown
around various elements and shaped by various influences. Those influences are topography, the various temples (Amreshwar and Vishnu temples) and the presence of a principal notion of movement to the centre. All the elements of the town are associated to each other and make a continuous passage to create constant flow of space with different characteristic natures of activities which render the built-environment. Omkareshwar is one example where belief and myth generate the dynamic environment with multiple focal points that are linked through the various elements of the built form.
The street connects the main temples of the
town with the rest of the city while simultaneously supporting the various commercial activities that are characteristic of the place. This network of thoroughfare is interspersed by nodes which in turn the program of public spaces in the form of a small large square. The Ghats are equally significant in the sense that they define the nature of relationship between the land and the river. The edge is appropriated so as to facilitate rituals and sacred bath thus activating the river banks.
transforming in relationship to the various elements (urban) and constantly subject to the flow of pedestrian movement and commercial activity is clearly apparent and provides the town with a homogeneous character.
GLOSSARY Abhisheka: It is a Sanskrit term that denotes a devotional activity, an enacted prayer, or a religious rite or ritual common to all religious faiths such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Abhisheka, also called Abhishekam, is conducted by priests, by pouring libations on the idol of the deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras. Usually, offerings such as milk, yogurt, ghee, honey, panchaamrutam, sesame oil, rosewater, sandalwood paste may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed. This ritual is regularly performed in most Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples. Adivasis: Tribal communities in India Akhada: The Akhada is the place where residents of regiment’s Sadhus exercise their bodies and are trained in handling arms. In case of Omkareshwar, initially they were not intended to be centers of religious study but later Sadhus began to practice severe austerities and carry different types of yoga. Ashram: In Sanskrit “ashram” means the place where one lives to deepen his spiritual life. Initially, the ashrams were ephemeral formations. Bhajan: Devotional singing by group of people Bhils: Tribals living in the region of the Vindhyas hills Bhojanalaya: Place for eating Chattri: Decorative pavilion on a facade in Rajasthan style of architecture Chowk: Square Darshan: The sight of god. The vision of an individual would have the power to transform and transmit the energy from a sacred object. Dharamshala: Accommodation for pilgrims and devotees visiting the holy places. They are often initiated by a community of same caste collecting funds to construct and maintain a building to house them at religious places. Ghat: A flight of steps leading to the bank of river GauShala: Shelter for cows where cows are fed Garbhagriha: Garbha; the womb, the inside; Griha: house, Habitation: Garbhagriha: womb house, the Sanctum Granthalaya: library Kund: Sacred water body Lingam: The Lingam is a symbol for the worship of the Hindu deity Shiva. The use of this symbol for worship is an ancient tradition in India extending back at least to the early Indus Valley civilization. Shiva means auspiciousness and linga means a sign or a symbol. Hence the Shivalinga is regarded as a “symbol of the great God of the universe who is all-auspiciousness.” Shiva also means one in whom the whole creation sleeps after dissolution. Linga also means the same thing -a place where created objects get dissolved during the disintegration of the created universe. Since, according to Hinduism, it is the same god that creates, sustains and withdraws the universe, the Sivalinga, represents symbolically God himself. Mandapa: A mandapa in Indian architecture is a pillared outdoor hall or pavilion for public rituals. In the Hindu temple the mandapa is a porch-like structure through the (gopuram) (ornate gateway) and leading to the temple.
It is used for religious dancing and music and is part of the basic temple compound. A large temple would have many mandapas. Mandir: Temple Pakka : Paved or finished Puris: Districts Pradakshina: Circumambulation around a shrine or sacred element in a temple as a form of worship Prasad: â€œgraceâ€? (of God), symbolized by a little food on the devotee receives in a temple in return for the offering that he made. Puja: Worship, ritual devotional exercise to try to get in communication with deities, Practiced by Hindus morning and evening. Sadhu: Sage. Sangam: A meeting place or confluence Sikhara: The spire or tower of a temple, the top, an apex, the lower part of the finial, the tapering superstructure Svayambhu: Self generated Shravan Mahino: 10th month in the Hindu calendar falling during the monsoon in India. Tri-murti : Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva Tehsil: Administrative districts. Tirtha: Sacred place for worship Trishul: Trident of Shiva Dhvaja: Flag Tulsi: Tree aromatic basil, believed to be divined by devotees of Vishnu, Ram and Sita. Trimurti: Level of expression of divinity, where she is to preside over the triple different states of the cosmos (Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma). Vastu Purusha Mandala: The Vastu Purusha Mandala constitutes the mathematical and diagrammatic basis for generating design. It is the metaphysical plan of a building that incorporates the course of the heavenly bodies and supernatural forces. Purusha refers to energy, power, soul or cosmic man. Mandala is the generic name for any plan or chart which symbolically represents the cosmos.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Published Works:
Anderson, Stanford Ed, ‘On Street’, Massachusetts, Cambridge etc: MIT press, 1978 Balsavar.U. Durganand, ‘An Understanding of the City, a Human Construct, As a Process in Time’, Published by School of Architecture, Ahmedabad, 1992 Begde Prabhakar V., ‘Ancient and Medieval Town Planning in India’, Oxford uni. Press, Toronto, Delhi etc, 1978 Kostof Spiro, ‘The City Shaped’, Bulfinch Publishers, USA, 1993 Lynch, Kevin,’ The Image of the City’, the MIT press, London, 1965 Noberg Schulz Christian, ‘Genius Loci- Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture’, Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 1980 Omkareshwar Vikash yojna(prarup). Madhya Pradesh Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh Adhiniyam.1973.Ke Pravardhanantargat Prakashit. Sanchalnalay, Nagar Tatha Gram Nivesh, Madhya Predesh. 2007 Schwartzberg, Joseph E. Ed. Historical atlas of South-Asia. [Atlas], Uni. of Chicago Press, London, 1978 Vatsyayan, Kapila, ‘Concepts of Space: Ancient and Modern’. Indra Gandhi National Center for the Arts, New Delhi, 1991 William f. Fisher, ‘Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling Over India’s Narmada River’, M. E. Sharpe publication, 1995
Articles: Pieper Jan, ‘Water in Hindu Urban Architecture’, AARP: Art and Archaeology Research papers, No: 15-17, June 1980 Dasgupta Shalini, ‘Temple Town of Omkareshwar: a Profile’, Architecture + design: Journal of Indian architecture, vol.14, 1997
Unpublished Undergraduate Theses:
Arora, Shalini, TH-617, ‘Urban Order as a Cultural Paradigms: an Interpretation of the Order in Ujjain, undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, Ahmedabad Baranwal, Aparna, TH-0814, ‘Spatial Expression of a Gendered Public Space in the North Indian Context: an Inquiry into the Making of a Moment’s Ghat and Bazaar in Mirzapur, Undergraduate thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad
Cremin Emilie, Omkareshwar, une ville sainte de la Narmada en cours de transformation, MA thesis, University Paris Saint-Denis, 2005 Deshbandhu, TH-0273, ‘City-River Connection Study of Ghats of Varanasi and Mirzapur, Undergraduate thesis, School of architecture, Ahmedabad Gupta Anjum, TH-0442, ‘Typology of Sacred Centers’, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad Kumar Shalini, Omkareshwar- A conservation strategy, post graduation thesis, department of architectural conservation, SPA, Delhi, 1993 Nanda Vivek, TH-0403, ‘Urban Morphology and the concept of type: A Thematic comparative study of the Urban Tissue’, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad Parmar, Krshnakant, TH-0868, ‘Study of temple town and its public realm: Dakor’, undergraduate thesis, School of architecture, Ahmedabad Patel, Dilip D, TH-0206,’ Religious Building (temple) as Nucleus of City: Study of the Impact of a Dominant Building on the City, Undergraduate thesis, School of architecture, Ahmedabad Parikh, Rishma, TH-0716, ‘Urban Edge as Mediator: Understanding the Experience of the Ghats in Banaras, Undergraduate thesis, School of architecture, Ahmedabad
Web sites Http://omshantimandiram.org/emilie.html (accessed on September 2008) http://emilie.cremin.free.fr Http://translate.google.com (accessed on September 2008) http://in.babelfish.yahoo.com/ (accessed on September 2008) www.earth.google.com (accessed on Jan. 2007, Sept. 2008, Feb. 2009) Http: //web.missouri.edu/~omshanti/omkares.html (accessed on Oct. 2008) www.flickr.com (accessed on Jan. 2009)
ILLUSTRATIONS CREDITS Chapter-1 Fig. 8a: Historical atlas of south Asia (Atlas) Fig. 8b: June 2008 <http://www.indiavisitinformation.com/ndia-map-physical/Madhya-Pradesh.shtml> Fig. 8c, 10b: Google earth Fig. 9a: September 2008 <http://wikimapia.org> Fig. 9b: Historical atlas of south Asia (Atlas) Fig. 14a, 14b: October 2008 <Http: //web.missouri.edu/~omshanti/omkares.html> Fig. 15a: Painting by local artist of Omkareshwar Fig. 18b: January 2009 <www.flickr.com> Fig. 22a, 22b, 22c, 22d, 22e, 22f, 22g, 22h, Fig. 24a: Gupta Anjum, TH-0442, ‘Typology of Sacred Centers’, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad
Chapter-2 Fig. 30b,49a: Gupta Anjum, TH-0442, ‘Typology of Sacred Centers’, Undergraduate Thesis, School of Architecture, Ahmedabad Fig. 29b,49b,52c: October 2008 <Http: //web.missouri.edu/~omshanti/omkares.html>
Chapter-3 Fig. 60c, 66b: October 2008 <Http: //web.missouri.edu/~omshanti/omkares.html> Fig. 131c: January 2009 <www.flickr.com> All the images and drawings that appear in the thesis and have not been credited are the works of author.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank, My guide, Prof. Meghal Arya for helping me throughout intense discussion and sharpening my thoughts towards study Prof. Nilkanth chayya, Kashi, Pratyush shankar and Rushank for initial discussion Omkareshwar Mandir trust, Nagar Panchayat of Omkareshwar and especially Mr. Ashok mahajan for helping me to get important information about Omkareshwar. Dhaval for most documentations Pappi (vishal), Dhaval and setu for photography. Bhakti for proof readings for entire thesis for more than “hundred times” and supports. Khusboo for critical proof readings. Vignesh for his best effort for discussion. Nisha for helping me towards more clarification of this dissertation. Sivith for the careful and ‘makeup’ reading for entire thesis. Purvi and her sweet presence always. And offcourse dedication towards the finishing dissertation Setu and Mendi for their competitive approach to this study with violent discussion on true religions (in room No.45 hostel) Music room for serving me the “best” drum and playing music along with Sivith, Setu, Manvendra, Kushal, aditya and Anish. Middle Khopcha- Dhaval, Dilip and me (old thesis room) for all extreme, deep, dark and peaceful frozen memories through the square window. Sivith, Dhruva, Khusboo, Bindi, Ipsit, Dhaval M., Janmay, Gangu and Nikunj ch. for being blur neighborhoods Hirya for the free chay almost all the time “Dark and complex Batch of 2000” and all wonderful junior friends Campus with real nights and dreaming days My parents for being kind always with great respect to them and understood the possible dimension Jay for develop energized sphere around me
Published on Dec 4, 2014