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slender high long STEEL STRUCTURES

Edition


Contents




ROOFS 010 Matmut Atlantique Stadium in Bordeaux 020 Central Railway Station in The Hague 030 Technology Center in Chicago

040 Quai de la Moselle Sports Hall in Calais 048 Coal Drops Yard in London 058 Jewel at Changi Airport in Singapore

BRIDGES 070 Motorway Bridge in Sundsvall 082 Isarsteg Nord Bridge in Freising 088 Queensferry Crossing near Edinburgh

098 Pedestrian Bridge in Be’er Sheva 106 Kienlesberg Bridge in Ulm

BUILDINGS 118 Intesa Sanpaolo High-Rise Block in Turin 128 Morpheus Hotel in Macau 138 Experimenta Science Center in Heilbronn

150 Oodi Central Library in Helsinki 162 Arena Office Building in Herzogenaurach

SPECIAL STRUCTURES 176 Observation Tower in Brighton 184 Lausward Power Plant in Düsseldorf 194 Meixi Urban Helix in Changsha

204 Vessel in New York 214 The Shed Cultural Centre in New York

APPENDIX 226 Authors 228 Image credits

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229 Project participants 232 Imprint


Foreword Jakob Schoof

Elegant ­ and ­Efficient

006




“Cast iron was, effectively, an entirely new construction material, the first one since the Romans introduced concrete on a wide scale. There were no precedents, no standard designs, no design rules.” This is how British structural engineer Bill Addis describes the situation at the birth of modern iron archi­ tecture at the end of the 18th century. Since then, iron and steel have been used for all sorts of purposes in construction. Its tensile strength exceeds that of other traditional building materials; it has relatively good fire protection properties; high potential for large-scale prefabrication and speeds up construction processes. It is therefore not surprising that Addis’ German colleague Richard J. Dietrich once described steel as the “material of possibilities”. Iron and steel, however, were always expensive and in limited supply. Their early use in construction was therefore largely dictated by thoughts of efficiency and their dimensions calculated by engineers. The lack of regulation of their design and use described by Addis, soon gave way to modern construction principles and industrial product standards developed using scientific methods. This was one way in which iron and steel construction set itself apart from older forms of building, which were based on empirical knowledge accumulated over centuries. The first golden age of iron construction at the start of the 19th century went hand in hand with many inventions, such as the I-beam and the truss, which still figure significantly in the structural engineer’s repertoire today. The construction of Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace in London in 1851 signalled the birth of industrial, standardised, mass prefabrication in building construction. Pioneering bridge structures, such as the Brooklyn Bridge in New York and the Forth Bridge to the north of Edinburgh, would also have been impossible to realise without iron and steel. Engineers of today must consider new aspects, such as designing modern steel structures for ease of deconstruction and the recyclability of their materials. Steel, according to one pertinent observation, is only used and not consumed. The fascination that steel structures exert shows no sign of waning: delicately proportioned roofs and daring cantilevers can be built in steel just as well as in all other mass construction materials. This was convincingly demonstrated by Frei Otto with his Olympic roof in Munich and Jean Nouvel with the Culture and Congress Centre in Lucerne. Steel structures can define the external appearance of buildings, such as the Hearst Tower in New York or the Morpheus Hotel in Macau, which will be extensively discussed in this book. Steel structures can also be extravagant, for example the Atomium in Brussels, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao or New York’s large-scale sculpture, the Vessel, which also features in this book. The title “Slender High Long” alludes to steel’s uniqueness: steel almost always has a key role to play in slender towers, long-span bridges and audacious cantilevers. Twenty-one pioneering structures from past years – including bridges and skyscrapers, stadiums and station halls – are presented in detail on the following pages. We hope that they can be a source of real inspiration for your own designs. The development of digital design and analysis methods allows us to believe that the limits of innovation with respect to structural design are nowhere close to being reached. This prognosis, however, applies not only to steel construction and ingenious structural design, but has long since led to efficient utilisation of the strengths of all available materials. “Slender High Long – Steel Structures” is therefore only the starting point for a three-book series. Two other volumes about structures in reinforced concrete and in timber are already in preparation and will appear in the coming months.

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Architects ALA Architects, Helsinki (FI)

Structural engineer  Ramboll Finland, Espoo (FI)

Oodi Central Library in Helsinki

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151


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dd

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site plan scale 1:10,000 sections scale 1:1,000 floor plans scale 1:1500

1 entrance 2 foyer 3 multipurpose hall 4 restaurant 5 cinema 6 group rooms /studios

7 stepped seating 8 child / family zone 9 library

6

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6

7

Oodi Central Library

7


Helsinki’s new central library lies in the heart of the city, between the parliament building, Töölönlahti bay and the main railway station. The straight rear elevation of the building follows the railway line, which passes quite closely behind it. The sculptural frontage opens o ­ nto Kansalaistori Square. A glazed roof storey with an attractive, undulating ­window wall forms the top of the building. The facade facing the square is clad in spruce boards and twists along its length to create a curved entrance area, seemingly drawn down into the interior of the library. The timber surface, tilted almost to the horizontal, becomes the ceiling of the foyer behind the curving line of the glass facade. A restaurant, cinema and multipurpose hall are intended to entice more of the passing public to enter. Visitors ascend a double spiral staircase set into the glass f­acade or an escalator in the rear part of the building to reach the upper floors. In contrast to the column-free foyer, the whole of the s­ torey above is defined by the building’s structural elements. The size of the rather small, ­enclosed rooms determines their type of use. A curving, stepped sitting area has the timber-clad profiles of the load-bearing structure ­informally superimposed upon it and forms the internal face of the curved facade. The reading room, another space glazed on both sides under an organically curved, white, cloudlike ceiling is found on the more orthogonally laid out roof storey. Circular skylights transition gently into the ceiling surface and contribute to the calm, bright atmosphere of this space, a welcome place of withdrawal from the commercial bustle of the city. A balcony terrace, cantilevering far beyond the western side of the reading room, offers views onto the busy city and creates an inviting, weather-protected forecourt at the edge of the square. Burkhard Franke

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helsinki (FI)


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Text +16.100 Simon de Neumann, Ramboll Finland, Espoo (FI) +15.576 +15.228

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Oodi Central Library

A elevation and plan view of the arches scale 1:666

B  The two arches in the ­context of the overall structure: the front arch is 1.6 m wide. The height

C The special box-slab structures at the arch ends with the attachment points for the tendons

D The arches are each supported by five steel truss towers during erection

varies between 1.6 m and 2.4 m. The rear arch has a cross-section 1.2 m wide and a height of between 1.4 m and 1.8 m.


STRUCTURE FOR A COMPLEX SHAPE The new building for the Oodi Library resulted from an international competition, which was won by ALA Architects in 2013. The main characteristics of the design are the open, column-­ free foyer with a curved ceiling and the balcony terrace with the large cantilever towards the west. The structure behaves as a bridge spanning over a future tunnel planned to run directly under the building. The task for the engineers from Ramboll charged with the structural design in 2014 proved to be complex: the space available for the load-bearing structure was quite tight due to the architectural requirements placed on the room-defining surfaces. The structural depth available for the bridge construction at the vertex over the foyer was hardly more than two metres, while the end supports were ­restricted to two relatively small areas. Loads from the upper storeys had to be transferred into the main structural members from over more than two-thirds of the depth of the building. In addition, the balcony, which projects up to almost 14 m beyond the west facade, creates a highly asymmetrical loading pattern. In response to D

155

helsinki (FI)

these requirements, the engineers devised a system of two outwardly tilted arches with a span of 109 m (Fig. B). The 12.5° tilt of the front arch reduces the ­balcony cantilever, while that of the rear arch at 22.5° minimises the transverse deck span distances. There remained enough room in between them for the feature suspended spiral staircase that defines the foyer. The longitudinal profile of the arches deviates slightly from the ideal line; their cross-sections result from the axial forces and bending moments arising from the imposed loads. Thus the depth of the hollow box profiles varies over their length, with the more heavily loaded front arch also being wider (Fig. A). In order to resist the considerable horizontal forces from the arches, their bases are tied together by 17 tendons designed for a total tensile force of 115 MN and cast into the ground floor slab. The arches and tendons terminate in special box-slab structures made from welded steel plates, which transfer the vertical forces into the foundations (Fig. C).


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Oodi Central Library


157

helsinki (FI)


Architects Marks Barfield Architects, London (GB)

Structural engineer Jacobs UK, Manchester (GB)

Observation Tower in Brighton

176


177


On the line of Brighton’s old West Pier, which burned down in 2003, leaving only a charred steel skeleton to brave the wind and weather, a new symbolic structure opened under the name “British Airways i360” in the southern English coastal city in August 2016: a 162-m-high tower with a diameter of only 3.9 m on which a continuously glazed observation pod moves up and down. The idea for this “vertical pier” between Regency Square and the shingle beach goes back to architects and entrepreneurs David Marks and Julia Barfield, who also conceived the London Eye’s giant wheel at the end of the 1990s and cooperated closely with engineers Jacobs on both projects. The observation pod, which is fitted out with a bar and has an external diameter of about 18 m, travels at a speed of 0.4 m/s and carries up to 200 people to a halt at a height of 138 m. An energy

a

6 5

7 2 4

1

3

3

a

5 office 6 exhibition 7 kitchen 8 café

floor plan scale 1:800 section visitor centre scale 1:250

1 tower 2 pod 3 shop 4 event area

178

Observation Tower

aa

8


recovery system ensures that almost half the energy required to ascend the tower is recovered on descent. Not least because of the streamlined pod, the efficient damping system with “sloshing liquid dampers” and the metal cladding to r­ educe horizontal wind forces, visitors can e ­ njoy a safe and com­ fortable ride, even in strong winds. The ascent in the observation pod begins on the roof terrace of the visitor centre, which is situated on the beach promenade and has a lower floor at beach level.  Roland Pawlitschko

179

brighton (gb)


Architects Heatherwick Studio, London (GB)

Structural engineer AKT II, London (GB) Thornton Tomasetti, New York (US)

Vessel in New York

204


205


46

46

46

46

Looking like a gigantic inverted beehive, “Vessel” occupies the central public open space in Hudson Yards on the west side of Manhattan. At a height of 46 m, the viewing platform is high enough to give visitors a view over the now partially built-over Long Island Rail Road depot towards the Hudson River. On the other hand, the project is tiny in relation to the skyscrapers with heights of up to 400 m surrounding it. At an estimated total cost of US$25 billion and comprising around a dozen residential and ­office towers, luxury shops and restaurants, a huge arts and cultural centre and access to the High Line Park to the south, Hudson Yards is one of the largest real estate projects in the USA. Against this background, the spectacular publicly accessible sculpture designed by Heatherwick Studio in London was intended to be, among other things, part of the marketing strategy for this newly created district and – in view of its considerable construction cost – could only be financed in this way. In urban planning terms, the Vessel is a landmark in the middle of a square and enhances the public space as an attractive assembly, event and exhibition venue.

location plan scale 1:5000

section, plan view, ground level layout plan scale 1:750

206

vessel


From a distance, the perforated structure a ­ ppears initially to consist of multiple kinked horizontal bands that resolve themselves into multi-layered staircases in an arrangement of considerable complexity as the viewer gets closer. Visitors to the staircase sculpture ascend a few steps on a circular base, which ­elegantly conceals the complex foundations, before entering the centre of the structure through openings between the five support points. Those who do not wish to use the l­aboriously designed inclined elevator climb radial staircases to the first intermediate platforms on the outside of the structure. From here s­ ingle flight staircases lead alternately on the inside and outside of the sculpture via 16 intermediate levels up to the five highest platforms. Because the diameter of the sculpture increases with height, the top staircase landings are also the longest. With this sculpture, it is not a matter of climbing to the highest point to gain the best possible view but finding a f­avourite position on its circumference to enjoy not only the view of the surroundings but also onto the astounding geometry of the structure comprising 160 staircases. Burkhard Franke

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new york (us)


AUTHORS JAN AKKERMANN Jan Akkermann is managing partner at Krebs+Kiefer ­Ingenieure and was involved in the structural design of the Kienlesberg Bridge from the time of the competition.

design at the AKT II consultancy in London and was­ jointly responsible for the construction of the Vessel in THORSTEN HELBIG Thorsten Helbig is managing New York. partner at Knippers Helbig and was jointly responsible CHRISTOPH MAYR Christoph Mayr is an archiwith Boris Peter for the ROLAND BECHMANN tect. His consultancy J2M structural engineering Roland Bechmann is chairArchitekten working with design of the Technology man and partner of the engineers from Bergmeister Center in Chicago. Werner Sobek engineering Ingenieure and &structures OLIVER ENGLHARDT consultancy, which was won the competition for TIM KELLY ­responsible for the structu- Oliver Englhardt is a civil the Isarsteg Nord Bridge in Tim Kelly is a structural engineer. He and his conral engineering design of Freising. design engineer at Buro the Arena office building in sultancy &structures were Happold and was the proresponsible for the structu- ject manager for the consHerzogenaurach. SIMON DE NEUMANN ral engineering design for Simon de Neumann is truction of the Morpheus the Isarsteg Nord Bridge in Hotel. AMLIS BOTSCH an engineer specialising Amlis Botsch studied archi- Freising. in structural steelwork at tecture and worked at the Ramboll in Espoo. He manaDEVAN LEVIN Institute of Building Structu- BURKHARD FRANKE ged the design and consDevan Levin works as a Burkhard Franke is a freeres and Structural Design truction of the steel structucivil engineer at Rokach & lance architect, editor and (ITKE) with Professor Jan re for the Oodi Library. Ashkenazi Engineers and Knippers. He was a freelan- photographer. He is a frewas project manager for ce editor at Detail between quent author of articles for BAS VAN OOIJEN the structural engineering Detail and structure – pub­ design of the Be’er Sheva 2016 and 2019. Bas van Ooijen is a structulished by Detail. ral engineer and was the Bridge. ULRICH BREUNINGER project manager at Grontmij ANDREAS GABRIEL Ulrich Breuninger is mana(now Sweco Netherlands) SCOTT LOMAX Andreas Gabriel, who is ging partner at Weiske + responsible for the structuScott Lomax is a structuPartner structural engineers, an architect with extensive ral engineering design of ral engineer and a senior lectures on composite steel practice experience, was the Central Station in The principal for the engineeconstruction at the Techno- an editor at Detail up to the ring consultancy Thornton Hague. year 2018, where he was logy University of Applied Tomasetti, which was re­involved with the concepSciences Stuttgart (HFT) sponsible for the structural ANDREAS ORDON Andreas Ordon is an tion and implementation and is a certification engiengineering, facade and neer for construction in the of themed pub­lications, ­kinetic design of The Shed. ­architect and works for ­ tollenwerk Architekten. fields of concrete and steel ­specialist books and new He is also an assistant pro- S structures. He was respon- journal profiles. From 2014 to 2017, he fessor at the Pratt Institute sible in Germany for the was a freelance editor for and a member of the advistructural engineering MATTHIAS GANDER the maga­zine structure – sory council of the Urban design of the Meixi Urban Matthias Gander is a civil Assembly School of Design published by Detail. engineer. He and his conHelix. and Construction in New sultancy Bergmeister Inge- York. NIR OVADYA nieure were responsible ED CLARK Nir Ovadya was an architect Ed Clark is a director at for the detailed design for with Bar Orian Architects WOLF MANGELSDORF Arup and heads a multi-­ the Isarsteg Nord Bridge in Wolf Mangelsdorf is a and project manager for the disciplinary department for Freising. ­structural engineer at Buro Be‘er Sheva Bridge. Happold and was the project building design in London. partner for the construction ROLAND PAWLITSCHKO In the Coal Drops Yard pro- BARTLOMIEJ ­HALACZEK ject, he led the design team Bartlomiej Halaczek is a civil of the Morpheus Hotel. Roland Pawlitschko is from the concept developengineer and architect and an ­architect as well as an ment stage up to complewas responsible as an asso- ALESSANDRO MARGNELLI author, architecture critic Alessandro Margnelli is tion. ciate at Knight Architects and translator. He has been for the architectural design ­director of engineering and working as a freelance 226

CRISTOBAL CORREA Cristobal Correa is a director at Buro Happold Engineering in New York and was responsible for the structural engineering aspects of the Jewel Changi Airport project. He is also professor for structural ­engineering at the Pratt I­ nstitute in New York.

APPENDIX

of the Kienlesberg Bridge in Ulm.


editor with the Detail editorial team since 2007. BORIS PETER Boris Peter is managing partner at Knippers Helbig and was jointly responsible with Thorsten Helbig for the structural engineering design of the Technology Center in Chicago. JULIA RATCLIFFE Julia Ratcliffe is a structural engineer and the founder of scale consulting ltd. She was formerly a Director of Expedition Engineering in London and was responsible for leading the structural engineering design team for the Intesa-Sanpaolo tower in Turin. JOHN ROBERTS John Roberts is a structural engineer and director of operations at Jacobs UK in Manchester. He was the chief engineer for the design and construction of the Observation Tower in Brighton. MARTIN ROMBERG Martin Romberg is Corporate Officer and Group ­Manager in the International Bridge Department at Leonhardt, Andrä und Partner in Stuttgart. On the Queensferry Crossing project, his main responsibility was the geometry and installation of the cable and superstructure. KLAAS DE RYCKE Klaas De Rycke is managing director of Bollinger+ Grohmann Sarl in Paris and Brussels and also on the board of Bollinger+ Grohmann Holding AG. He supervised the Quai de la Moselle Sports Hall project in Calais during the competition and design phase. 227

NORBERT SAUERBORN Norbert Sauerborn is co-­ partner and manager of the engineering office at Stahl + Verbundbau in Dreieich, which was involved in the construction of the Arena office building in Herzogenaurach.

management board at schlaich bergermann partner, was the project manager responsible for struc­ tural engineering design and the construction of the Experimenta Science Center from the time of the competition.

ANGELIKA SCHMID Angelika Schmid is an authorised signatory for the Werner Sobek engineering consultancy in Stuttgart and was the project manager for the Arena office building in Herzogenaurach.

ALBERT WILLIAMSON-­ TAYLOR Albert Williamson-Taylor is director of engineering and design at the AKT II consultancy in London and was ­jointly responsible for the construction of the Vessel in New York.

JAKOB SCHOOF Jakob Schoof has been an editor since 2009 and deputy chief editor of Detail since 2018. Among his ­responsibilities during this time were magazines and books in the Detail Green series on sustainable building. He also edited the maga­zine structure – pub­ lished by detail. KJELD THOMSEN As managing director of ISC, Kjeld Thomsen was ­responsible for the structural engineering design of the steel superstructure on the Sundsvall motorway bridge. EDOARDO TIBUZZI Edoardo Tibuzzi is director of engineering and design at the AKT II consultancy in London and was jointly responsible for the construction of the Vessel in New York. AGNES WEILANDT Agnes Weilandt is a structural engineer and, as a partner at Bollinger+Grohmann, is responsible for many French projects. MICHAEL WERWIGK Michael Werwigk, who is a member of the extended

AUTHORS


IMPRINT EDITOR Jakob Schoof

DESIGN strobo B M (Matthias Friederich, Julian von Klier, Monnier Ostermair)

EDITORIAL TEAM Roland Pawlitschko, Lena Stiller

TRANSLATIONS Raymond Peat PROOFREADING Meriel Clemett REPRODUCTION Repro Ludwig, AT– Zell am See

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APPENDIX

Bibliographical informa­ tion published by the German National Library. The German National Library lists this publication in the Deutsche National­ biblio­grafie; detailed biblio­ graphical data is available on the internet at dnb.d-nb.de. 

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