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SCHOOL BUILDINGS

Spaces for Learning and the Community Edition ∂


4 Foreword Sandra Hofmeister 6 Sustainibility in School Buildings: Planning Processes and Spatial Concepts Kirstin Bartels, Barbara Pampe 14 Sustainibility in School Buildings: How Little is Enough? Elisabeth Endres

SPATIAL CONCEPTS 34 Primary School in Hangzhou, CN GLA 42 Comprehensive School in Odder, DK Cebra 50 School Village in Mzamba, ZA Studio Mzamba

18 Participation in the Process of School ­Building Susanne Hofmann

58 Primary School in Höchst, AT Dietrich | Untertrifaller

26 Artificial Lighting in Schools Imke Wies van Mil

66 International School in Copenhagen, DK C.F. Møller Architects RENOVATION AND EXTENSION 78 Special School in Ghent, BE evr-architecten, Gent 88 School Extension in Vilanova i la Geltrú, ES GATPA 98 School Building in Sabadell, ES Harchitectes


108 School and Cultural Centre in Feldkirchen / Donau, AT fasch&fuchs.architekten

CONCEPTS FOR THE COMMUNITY

LIGHTING AND SPATIAL COMFORT

196 A School in Motion in Aarhus, DK Henning Larsen / GPP Architects

120 School in Orsonnens, CH TEd’A arquitectes, Rapin Saiz Architectes

208 Four Primary Schools Built to the House of Learning Principle in Munich, DE wulf architekten

130 Primary School in Lebbeke, BE Compagnie-O 140 Primary School in Chiarano, IT C+S

222 School Extension in Versailles, FR Joly & Loiret Agence d’Architecture 230 Secondary School in Copenhagen, DK 3XN

150 The German School in Madrid, ES Grüntuch Ernst Architekten

APPENDIX

SUSTAINABILITY

242 Authors Picture Credits

164 Secondary School in Diedorf, DE Hermann Kaufmann Architekten mit Florian Nagler Architekten

243 Project Participants

174 Education Centre in Hamburg, DE bof architekten 184 Primary School in Wakefield, GB Sarah Wigglesworth Architects

248 Imprint


Foreword

ARCHITECTURE AND THE CULTURE OF LEARNING When parents and grandparents think back to their school life, they recall teacher-centred learning, agonising discipline and having to sit still in classrooms for hours on end. For their children and grandchildren, however, this is not an everyday scenario, as the culture of learning and pedagogical concepts in schools have changed significantly. Yesterday’s guidelines or rules have become history. The forms of teaching and methods for guiding pupils are distinctly more diverse today and sometimes even contrary to those of the past. Inclusion and all-day schooling are becoming prevalent; open learning landscapes enable work in small groups, alone, or in pairs. Movement and playful learning are standard practice in many schools now, while different forms of social and informal learning are increasingly being considered in curricula and corresponding teaching concepts. SPACES FOR EXPANDING HORIZONS To implement all these major ideas for a new learning culture, school buildings require adequate spaces corresponding to the demands and needs of teachers and pupils. The architecture of school 4

Sandra Hofmeister

buildings has a decisive impact on pupils’ everyday lives. It shapes community and focus-related experiences, and may influence patterns of social behaviour as well as encourage learning based on new models and structures. It goes without saying that the architectural quality of school buildings also reflects a society’s awareness of its responsibility towards future generations. This book presents 20 different school buildings in Europe, South Africa and China where the architecture responds to specific pedagogical areas of focus. The project examples are systematically compiled into four chapters and organised according to various aspects of their architecture. Differentiated spatial concepts for individual school types are introduced and specific solutions for the renovation and extension of existing buildings documented. More-

over, aspects of lighting and spatial comfort are illustrated using specific examples and, finally, the sustainable design of selected school buildings is described in detail. The extensive project section focuses on floor plans and forms of spatial organisation, as well as on the respective construction and architectural details of the selected examples. The books begins with essays by Kirstin Bartels and B ­ arbara Pampe, Elisabeth Endres, ­Susanne Hofmann and Imke Wies van Mil which address relevant, more fundamental questions. They introduce planning processes and strategies of participation, discuss the connection between light and cognitive performance and take up the fundamental debate of high-tech and low-tech in everyday school life. The “dark corridors” of many historical school buildings, mostly of the ­Wilhelmine era in Germany, no longer exist in the pioneering school building concepts of the future. However, for parents and grandparents as well as architects and clients, this recollection is certainly also an incentive to facilitate a better daily routine for today’s generation of pupils to prepare them for life in the best possible way.


Neue Schule Wolfsburg (DE): extension of the secondary school. The centre as the heart of the school: a place for encounters, informal exchange and events. Architecture: Kirstin Bartels; Schneider + Sendelbach

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Sustainability in School Buildings: Planning Processes and Spatial Concepts

Sustainable behaviour, also in the form of sustainable building, is one of the great guiding principles of our time. With its 17 sustainable development goals, the United Nations has defined standards to this end in its global sustainability agenda (Agenda 2030) that are intended to safeguard sustainable development on an economic, social and environmental level across the world. Goal 4 calls for ensuring “inclusive and equitable quality education” for all.1 For school building, this means: there are more dimensions of sustainability than environmental and climate protection, and energy, resource, and cost efficiency. Moreover, the question arises how school buildings must be designed to be sustainably efficient and fulfill current as well as future educational requirements. 6

Kirstin Bartels, Barbara Pampe

WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE SCHOOL BUILDING? In 2007, the EU defined various dimensions of sustainability in its three-­pillar model that asserts environmental, economic, and sociocultural aspects for sustainable action. In Germany, for example, the federal government stipulated specific dimensions of sustain-

ability in planning, construction, and the use of buildings in an assessment system for sustainable building (Be­ wertungssystem für Nachhaltiges Bauen, BNB) in 2009, which has been mandatory for federal buildings since 2011. In addition to the three criteria of the three-pillar model, it also considers the technical and process quality as well as the site characteristics. As a follow-up to the assessment system for office buildings, an assessment system for sustainable classroom buildings (Bewertungssystem für die Nachhaltigkeit von Unterrichtsgebäuden) was introduced in 2013.2


Spatial concepts for more sustainability in school construction: From the classroom to a place of learning Cluster

Open learning landscape

Clusters are groups of rooms where several study and class­rooms together with the associated group, team and sanitary or ancillary rooms are combined into a functional and social unit.

The model of the open learning landscape disengages from the conventional understanding of a general learning and teaching area structured according to classrooms, instead following a concept of more individualised and independent learning. Pupils and teachers can choose between different learning areas and atmospheres; access and common areas are integral parts of the learning landscape. Open learning landscapes have only a few defined and specifically equipped functional rooms (e.g. audi­ toriums or small think tanks); otherwise the pupils use their respective locations for individual or group work, depending on the situation. Compared to classic additive school planning based on the classroom principle, open learning landscapes in fact en­ able space savings thanks to overlapping spatial usage and staggered usage as well as significantly smaller traffic and development areas. The concept is now applied to all years from primary level to upper secondary level.

Old school

New school

10 %

5 – 20 %

30 %

15 % 30 %

70 – 80 % 30 %

70–80 % teacher-centred learning, mostly lectures by the teacher or learning through questions

30 % teacher-centred learning, lectures by teachers or pupils or conversations in class developing from questions

15 % studying during homework time outside the school or in short practice phases in class (pupils are mostly left to their own devices and rarely checked)

30 % individual learning, each pupil by themselves (not left to their own devices, but rather with clear and compulsory, verifiable assignments and a sense of achievement)

5–20 % studying in partner or group work

30 % learning in small groups (between two and six pupils) 10 % learning within the class (ideally 15–20 pupils). Everyone can see everyone. All speak to each other and can negotiate common matters

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SUSTAINABILITY IN SCHOOL BUILDINGS


Participation in the Process of School Building

PLANNING PLAYFULLY What is a perfect school? What is a perfect building, a perfect learning landscape? How can a school be integrated into a city or rural area? What possibilities do buildings offer for working, meeting, moving about and feeling comfortable? The parameters that determine what makes a good school are diverse. Its architecture can facilitate or also inhibit a great deal in this regard. Therefore, the architects must know what the users in particular expect from a building being converted or newly constructed. The model briefs of the school administrations, different in each federal state, aren’t sufficient for this purpose. The pupils, educators or caretakers, by contrast, have the experience and the knowledge needed for their respective world of work, learning and living, i.e. for the environment in which they spend their everyday life. Often, however, this leaves too little time for gathering one’s thoughts or reflecting upon daily routines with respect to the built reality. Hence, there are many opinions, conceptions, interests and ­ideas to productively coordinate and bring together. Participation means collecting as many views, ideas and needs of potential users as possible.

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Susanne Hofmann

TAKING PART IN PLANNING The architecture firm Die Baupiloten, with support from the Hans Sauer Foundation, has developed a school vision game for this purpose that allows schools and municipalities to perform an independent participative needs assessment. For developing and applying this innovative participatory tool, the firm was awarded the “Kultur- und Kreativpiloten” prize for “cultural and creative pioneers” by the Federal Ministry of Economics. In 100 minutes and 17 steps, the game allows users to playfully explore the different needs of all user groups in dialogue with politics and administration, and negotiate priorities, which are

brought together in a joint spatial pedagogical programme for the school. This helps all parties participating in the process to refine and formulate their conceptions on the interrelation between education and architecture in a playful manner. Architects, in turn, benefit from being able to attune their designs to the needs of the users and, at best, acquire socially “robust knowledge” – i.e. that of a range of people, users or concerned persons in contrast to expert knowledge, according to the sociologist Helga Nowotny. The outcome of the negotiation game offers a space requirement analysis and points out user needs as well as functional interactions of the future school. It constitutes an abstract school building concept in the form of spatial pedagogical zoning and attribution, not an architectural design or construction planning. The school vision game gives free rein to the players’ imagination, while at the same time structuring their visions such that the outcome of the game can serve as a basis and stimulus for the design of a new building, a comprehensive conversion of a school or the redesign of a learning landscape.


Study group 3 Location 2 Years 8, 9, 10

entrances

communicative helpers-middle

active learning workshop

exciting movement circus

fresh oasis of relaxation

cosy socialising lounge

focused discovery lab

closed

partly closed

open

guided

largely self-organised

Year 10 Year 9

Subject area arts

Subject area STEM Engineering / handi­ crafts

Relaxation Oasis

Helpers – middle

“Heart of learning”

Subject area music

Focusing lab

Subject area housekeeping Dispute settle­ ment

Socialising Lounge

Auditorium / Media library

Student Council

Workplaces

self-organised School team

Social worker Cafeteria

Administration

Facility manager

Year 8

Relaxation oasis

Gym

Leisure area

Outdoors

Movement circus

Excerpt of the space and functional diagram on the participation procedure for 10 schools in Duisburg-Marxloh (DE), 2010

Game situation during the vision workshop of Die Baupiloten for ten schools in Duisburg-Marxloh.

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PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCESS OF SCHOOL BUILDING


German School in Madrid

150

Grüntuch Ernst Architekten

LIGHTING AND SPATIAL COMFORT


In 2015, the German School moved from the centre of Madrid to a new building on the northern outskirts of the city. The new location offers an unobstructed view of a nature reserve and up to the Sierra de Guadarrama mountains. The relationship with the landscape but also the climatic conditions of central Spain characterise the design by Grüntuch Ernst Architekten, which combines transparent building shells and light-flooded classrooms with spatial comfort, a pleasant environment and energy efficiency. The private school’s large building volume for a total of 1,800 children is organised into a complex of variously sized buildings joined together in a honeycomb-like fashion. The nursery school, the primary school and the secondary school each have their own buildings, which are connected by open spaces and two covered foyer courtyards. A separate pavilion at the centre of the complex houses the cafeteria; the auditorium and gym, both geared towards public events, adjoin the secondary school on the east part of the plot. While the building development opens up towards the landscape in the north, a delicate latticework of diagonal aluminium rods frames the school complex towards the forecourt and the urban district on the south side without closing it off. It remains permeable for views, air and sunshine. The two protected, covered foyer courtyards with their outside staircases, ramps and seating are available as spacious playing and common areas to all children. The recesses in the roof surfaces and the slanting concrete columns coalesce into an expressive overall form of sculptural power: thanks to the diagonal lattice structure, nuanced light and shadow effects are created that constantly change the ambience of the courtyards. The roofing and the elevated building areas provide numerous shaded outdoor areas for hot summer days. The motif of the courtyard continues inside the school buildings with their pentagonal floor plans: the classrooms are each arranged around patios and partly accessible from the courtyards, so that the group rooms and classrooms with their extensive glazing are oriented towards the landscape. The external, V-shaped facade columns of white concrete characterise the appearance of the school complex with their distinctive structure and also provide shade for the glass elements. A pleasant indoor climate and sustainable building operation is ensured by both an appropriate insulation standard and ventilation with heat recovery, as well as natural cooling using a so-called thermal labyrinth; its concrete ducts in the basement channel and temper the air. The regenerative energy concept includes, moreover, solar thermal elements as well as a photovoltaic system on the roof surfaces. Thus, the new school building is also intended to encourage environmental awareness. At the same time, it exudes a strong sense of architectural identity, highlighting its significance in the cultural landscape of Madrid.

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Location

Madrid-Montecarmelo, ES

Construction period

2012–2015

Type of school

Nursery, primary and secondary school

School concept

Adaptation to climatic conditions and relationship with the landscape

Pedagogical concept

German school abroad > bilingual / cultural ­exchange

Additional room uses

Public events organised by the school

Gross floor area

Approx. 27,000 m2

Effective floor area

Approx. 15,600 m2

No. of pupils

Primary and secondary school approx. 1.500 pupils Nursery school approx. 300 children

Structure

Reinforced concrete Roof construction auditorium: steel construction Roof construction sports hall: steel composite construction

Lighting

Natural lighting

Ventilation

Mechanical ventilation (thermal labyrinth) with possible natural ventilation Night-time air flushing

Energy aspects

Climate-appropriate construction Thermal labyrinth Adiabatic cooling of exhaust air Solar thermal energy Photovoltaics Rainwater cistern CHP unit with absorption refrigerator

GERMAN SCHOOL IN MADRID, ES


Vertical section Scale 1:20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

liquid plastic sealing layer 500–600 mm reinforced concrete roof finished to falls with spherical voids sheet titanium-zinc standing-seam covering separating layer wood supporting construction 100/45 mm aluminium framing 100 mm galvanised steel T-section colour-coated 260/260 mm steel and concrete composite column laminated safety glass (2× 12 mm) breakthrough resistant aluminium post-and-rail facade with double glazing

The courtyards have been designed with reference to the landscape.

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LIGHTING AND SPATIAL COMFORT


22 2

111

3 33

5 55

4 44

7 77

66 6

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GERMAN SCHOOL IN MADRID, ES


Comprehensive School in Aarhus

196

Henning Larsen / GPP Architects

CONCEPTS FOR THE COMMUNITY


Large common movement spaces characterise the interior of the new comprehensive school in the district of F ­ rederiksbjerg in Aarhus. It was completed in 2016 as one of the first schools following the Danish school reform and encourages the children to move about more during a day at school. For this purpose, an abundance of different opportunities is on offer throughout the building: a climbing ramp in the entrance hall, varied access routes with slopes and steps, cloakrooms with ropes or rings, two gymnastics halls with large windows facing the atrium, as well as sports facilities on the roofs of the terraced buildings – there are places for climbing, jumping, playing everywhere. The physical activity has a positive effect on the pupils’ ability to concentrate and is part of the pedagogical concept of this school in motion. Teaching doesn’t exclusively take place in the classroom anymore but in specially designed zones for group work, presentations and classes. Window niches, seating steps, sofa lounges and mobile tables provide multifaceted environments for open learning, either individually or in small groups. The location can be selected by the children themselves. Through glazed, soundproof doors and dividing walls, teachers and educators can always keep an eye on their pupils. Every cluster consists of a central group space with a kitchenette, three classrooms for the same year, as well as smaller quiet areas and the terrace. These are adjoined to the heart of the school building, the floor-to-ceiling atrium, via commonly used play and movement areas. This central hall visually links all levels, while its extensive glazing also provides views of the two gymnastics halls that seem to float in the atrium. On the ground floor, the canteen, the school kitchen, the sports hall in the west wing, as well as the specialist rooms and the administration in the north wing, are adjoined to the central zone, including the day-care centre, preschool and primary school classes; the three upper floors for the older children also house the library and the youth club besides the clusters, as well as a health centre for medical check-ups of new-born babies, which is often joined to state-run primary schools in the Scandinavian countries. For the facades of the school building, the architects partly recycled bricks from the preceding building, thus referencing the inner-city residential neighbourhood with its typical brick facades of the economic boom period from the mid-19th to the early 20th century. Various types of windows, playfully inserted in the brick facades, enliven the homogeneous surfaces. Moreover, reinforced concrete columns accentuate the large, covered entrance area at the corner of the L-shaped building. With opportunities on offer for adults and children, the school is a community space anchored in the district. Hence, the open spaces with numerous play devices as well as the sports fields on the roofs are accessible at all times.

197

Location

Aarhus, DK

Construction period

2014–2016

Type of school

Primary and secondary school

School concept

The design of the school revolves around facilitating activity throughout the school, from the playground to the classroom. The classrooms are organised as clusters with a central group space, kitchenette and terrace.

Pedagogical concept

By means of climbing stairs, Tarzan tracks and playgrounds, the school is designed for fun physical activity to support more sustainable learning. Customised zones are offered for presentations, group work and individual studies. The results are better learning and higher test scores.

Additional room uses

The spaces are often used for continuing adult ­education classes, ranging from foreign language courses to capoeira and dance classes.

Gross floor area

15,000 m2

No. of classrooms

55 rooms dedicated to study/teaching

No. of pupils

Approximately 1,000

Structure

Steel construction. Brick facade uses exclusively recycled bricks taken from razed buildings in the area.

Lighting

Daylight is a key parameter and driving design concept in the school. A variety of window sizes creates a variation of daylight throughout the day, and relates to the learning settings within. Additionally, Henning Larsen doctoral candidate Imke Wies van Mil conducted research at the school around focused artificial light sources in schools. The research shows that it is possible to significantly reduce noise levels and improve ­concentration in classrooms by using focused light sources such as pendant lights around work tables. (see essay pages 26–31)

Energy aspects

Sustainability is Building Class 2020 according to Danish Building Regulations 2010.

COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL IN AARHUS, DK


Vertical section Scale 1:10 1 wall construction: 108 mm outer skin with reused bricks 360 mm thermal insulation reinforced concrete wall: ground floor: 250 mm upper floor: 180 mm 2 stainless-steel wall tie 3 alum. cover to 85 mm blind box 19 mm fibre-cement strip 50/50 mm wood bearer 4 wood/aluminium window with triple glazing 5 window sill/bench: 20 mm composite wood board 13 mm adhesive ­cement 12 mm fibre-cement sheeting 6 acoustic soffit: 25 mm mineral fibreboard 7 gym window ­reveals: 12 mm ­fibre cement sheeting, 13 mm adhe­sive ­cement 8 19/60 wood strip 9 polymer concrete window sill/seating 10 damp-proof course 11 area-elastic system floor for sports 120 mm reinforced concrete floor 400 mm compression-resistant ­ thermal ­insulation

2 1

3

6

4

5

8 7

7 9

10

206

11

CONCEPTS FOR THE COMMUNITY


Sections Floor plan Classroom Scale 1:200

aa

207

a

a

b

b

bb

COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL IN AARHUS, DK


AUTHORS

PICTURE CREDITS

Kirstin Bartels is an architect, school building consultant and managing partner at Cityförster Hamburg. Following her studies, she lived in Oslo for 14 years where she developed her work focus in the field of “pedagogical architecture”. She has realised innovative school buildings in both Norway and Germany. At present, she is working on planning the Elisabeth von Thadden Secondary School as part of IBA Heidelberg. Since 2012, she has also been advising schools, cities and municipalities at home and abroad on the development of spatial pedagogical school concepts, starting from “phase zero”.

fasch&fuchs.architekten Front cover Vertikal section skylight (School- and Cultural Centre in Feldkirchen/Donau) Adam Mørk Back cover (Comprehensive school in Odder) labor b designbüro on template by Jochem Schneider. Source: Schulen planen und bauen 2.0. Grundlagen, Prozesse, Projekte/Leitlinien für leistungsfähige Schulbauten in Deutschland. Editor: Montag Stiftung Jugend und Gesellschaft 7, 12 bottom Montag Stiftung Jugend und Gesellschaft 8 top left, 11 bottom Stefan Bayer 8 top right HeidelbergCement/Steffen Fuchs 8 bottom left flashpoint studio 5, 8 bottom right Eberhard Weible 11 top, 12 top Eduard Hueber 16 Jakob Schoof 157, 158/159, 174, 176, 180/181 die Baupiloten 19, 20 top, 21, 32, 76, 118, 162, 194, 240 Jan Bitter 20 bottom, 22, 25 Imke Wies van Mil/Henning Larsen 27, 28, 31 Su Shengliang 34, 36, 38/39, 40, 41 Adam Mørk 42, 44, 46/47, 48, 49, 66, 68, 70, 71, 72/73, 74, 75 Markus Dobmeier 50, 54, 55 Christian Brandstätter 52, 56/57 Bruno Klomfar 58, 60, 62/63, 64, 65 Stijn Bollaert VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 78, 80, 82/83, 84, 85, 86, 87 José Hevia Blach 88, 90, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97 Adrià Goula 98, 101, 102/103, 104, 106, 107 Hertha Hurnaus 108, 110, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117 Luis Díaz Díaz 120, 122, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129 Tim van de Velde VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 130, 132, 135, 136/137, 138, 139 Alessandra Bello I-Venedig 140, 142, 144/145, 147, 148, 149 Grüntuch Ernst Architekten, photo: Celia de Coca 150, 152, 155, 156, 160, 161 Stefan Müller-Naumann 164, 166, 169, 172, 173 Carolin Hirschfeld 168, 170 Meike Hansen/Archimage 178 Hagen Stier 182, 183 Mark Hadden 184, 186, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 Hutton + Crow 196, 203, 207 bottom Jørgen Weber 198 top Peter Nørby 199, 204, 207 top Henning Larsen 205 Brigida González 208, 212, 213, 214, 216/217, 218, 219, 220, 221 Schnepp Renou 222, 224, 226/227, 229 Adam Mørk/3XN 230, 232, 235, 236, 237, 238/239

Elisabeth Endres studied architecture at the technical universities of ­Kaisers­lautern and Munich. She was research associate at the Chair for Building ­Climatology and Building Services with Professor Gerhard Hausladen. Since 2013, she has been a project manager at the engineering firm Hausladen, where she also joined the managing board in 2018. Her dissertation researched the topic of “Low-tech vs. high-tech – Building services at the interface with architecture”. Following teaching assignments at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich and the universities of applied sciences in Wismar and Salzburg, she has since 2019 held the professorship for building technology at TU Braun­ schweig. Susanne Hofmann is an architect and member of the Association of German Architects (BDA) as well as founder and owner of the Berlin-based architectural practice Die Baupiloten BDA. Her focus is on the participative development of schools, educational and cultural institutions, as well as public housing. The innovative, socially committed architectural projects, participatory procedures and tools have received various awards. For example, the school vision game, a negotiation tool for developing spatial changes, was awarded the Kultur- und Kreativpiloten 2018 prize by the Federal Ministry of Economics. ­ Sandra Hofmeister is editor-in-chief of Detail magazine. After studying ­history of art and Romance studies in Berlin and Munich, she received her doctorate at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universiy of Munich. She was editor-in-chief of the German edition of Domus from 2012 to 2015. Her articles on architecture and design have been published in international newspapers, magazines and books. In addition to her work as an editor and publisher, Sandra Hofmeister teaches at the University of Applied Arts Vienna. Barbara Pampe is an architect and, together with Dr Meike Kricke, has been chair of the Montag Stiftung Jugend und Gesellschaft [Montag Foundation Youth and Society] since December 2019, where she headed the P ­ edagogical Architecture division from 2014 to 2019. Following her studies in Bordeaux, Weimar and Delft, she worked in various architectural practices and founded “baladilab” together with Vittoria Capresi in 2011. In the field of school building, she conducted research and taught at the Institute of Public Buildings and Design at the University of Stuttgart, headed by Professor Arno Lederer. She was professor for design and building theory at the German University in ­Cairo (GUC) from 2011 to 2014. Barbara Pampe has authored and initiated diverse publications and projects on the topic of future-oriented school building. In parallel with her work at the Montag Stiftungen [Montag Foundations], she has taught at various universities at home and abroad. Imke Wies van Mil is an architectural lighting designer and researcher. She cur­ rently works at Henning Larsen (Copenhagen, DK), contributing her lighting expertise to a diverse range of projects. At the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Imke is working towards a PhD degree. Her research interest aims to ­improve the lighting conditions in our everyday, and specifically ­educational, environments. Before taking up her current positions, Imke worked for multi­ disciplinary design firm Arup in Amsterdam (NL) and London (UK). She holds an MSc in Industrial Design Engineering (Delft University of Technology) and an MSc in Lighting Design (University College London).

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IMPRINT Editor Sandra Hofmeister Authors Kirstin Bartels, Elisabeth Endres, Susanne Hofmann, Barbara Pampe, Imke Wies van Miel, Claudia Fuchs (project texts), Jakob Schoof (project text The German School in Madrid) Project management Michaela Busenkell Team Michaela Linder, Charlotte Petereit Translation Julian Jain Copy editing Stefan Widdess Proofreading Meriel Clemett Design Wiegand von Hartmann GbR, Munich, DE Sophie von Hartmann, Moritz Wiegand, Oliver Schwamkrug Drawings Detail Business Information GmbH, Munich, DE DTP Roswitha Siegler Reproduction ludwig:media, Zell am See, AT Printing and binding Kösel GmbH & Co. KG, Altusried-Krugzell, DE Paper Kamiko Fly

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The FSC®-certified paper used for this book is manufactured from fibres originating from environmentally and socially compatible sources. © 2020, first edition Detail Business Information GmbH, Munich, DE detail.de detail-online.com ISBN (Print) 978-3-95553-516-2 ISBN (E-Book) 978-3-95553-517-9 This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved, w ­ hether relating to the material in whole or in part, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in other ways, and storage in databases. Permission of the copyright holder must be sought prior to use of any type. Bibliographical information published by the German National Library. The German National Library lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliographie; detailed bibliographical data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.