Enquiry into Regnerating Anshan Road Historic District through Participatory Bottom-Up Approach Jena Alexander and Disha Sahu
School of Architecture, University of Texas at Austin: International Transportation Issues 2018 led by Dr. Ming Zhang In partnership with: Shuming Gu, Yike Tang, FangFang Tian, Jiulun Yang, Siyuen He, Nannan Zhao, Ruyue Wang, Yu Wang, Keith Amos, and Shimeng Tang, from: School of Architecture, Tianjin University School of Urban Design, Wuhan University School of Public Administration and Policy, Renmin University of China School of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University
Table of Contents General Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 1.1 Overall Picture 1.2 Policy Approaches 1.3 Why Bottom Up? 1.4 Process and Methods Project Introduction: Site Analysis .............................................................................................................. 2.1 Location 2.2 Surrounding Areas of Interest 2.3 Site Characteristics
Related Case Studies and Precedents ........................................................................................................ 3.1 Ahmedabad Pols: Case Background 3.11 Key Issues 3.12 Approaches and Methods Taken By Team 3.13 Plan, Design, and Policy Solutions Presented by Case
3.2 Tianzifang: Case Background 3.21 Key Issues 3.22 Approaches and Methods Taken By Team 3.23 Plan, Design, and Policy Solutions Presented by Case
Analysis of Site Conditions .......................................................................................................................... 4.1 Analysis of Anshan Road Strategic Strengths in Regional and Local Context 4.2 Interpretation of Upper Plans and Policies that Influence Anshandao Development, Planning and Design 4.3 Overall Impints of Site Conditions 4.31 Land Use 4.32 Historical and Cultural Preservation 4.33 Building Conditons and Property Rights
4.34 Transportation 4.35 Public Space
4 5 5 6 6 6 6
8 8 9
12 12 13 13 14 14
Plan Proposal ................................................................................................................................................... 16
Problems Threatening the Realization of the Vision.....................................................................................17 17 6.1 Land Use
6.2 Historical and Cultural Preservation
6.3 Building Conditons and Property Rights
6.31 Government Action and Resident Perspectives on Repair, Relocation, and Renovation
6.32 Building Conditions
6.33 Property Rights 6.4 Transportation 6.5 Public Space
24 27 29
Strategies and Solutions ................................................................................................................................. 29
7.1 Land Use
7.2 Historical and Cultural Preservation
7.21 Background and Explanation of Anshan Road Historical Value
7.3 Building Conditons and Property Rights
7.31 Common Conditions and Solutions
7.32 Operating Models and Financing for Area Renewal 7.4 Transportation 7.5 Public Space
38 41 49 55
Concluding Remarks ...................................................................................................................................... 59 References...................................................................................................................................................... 60
Appendixes ................................................................................................................................................... 61
1.0 General Summary 1.1 Overall Picture Poor living conditions, varied building stock, and complex property rights situations thwart developer and government initiative in regenerating this area. The area faces developmental pressure due to rental gap issues from already redeveloped surrounding neighborhoods. A lack of formalized cultural district and streetscape identity do not contribute to a realized property value. Unmanaged parking as well as traffic flow issues impact neighborhood operability and safety. Yet the neighborhood boasts strong social ties and social services, and an excellent location which binds the residents to the neighborhood. Figure 1. Overall Weaknesses and Strengths of Site
1.2 Policy Approaches Due to the complexity of property rights and building conditions, historic preservation restraints, diversity of economic activity, as well as strong resident allegiance to the area, we propose a bottom-up method that retains and amplifies the cultural and historic value of the area while improving living conditions and economic vitality. We propose to do this through a course of: • Conservative surgery that maintains the street network and layers of built form, while rehabilitating needed areas. • Resolving issues with minimum investment and disruption by conducting in-depth resident interviews to adequately understand property rights situations and infrastructure needs • Proposing legislation that dictate minimum living standards • Pursuing public-private funding approaches • Utilizing cooperative schemes that resolve issues on the building, block or neighborhood level • Integrating buildings into a unified cultural streetscape
1.3 Why Bottom Up? We chose a bottom up approach because of infrastructure conditions, as well as resident relationship to the site. The infrastructure conditions of varied building stock, multiple types of property rights within same buildings, as well as historical preservation standards that restrain development combine to make top-down approaches too expensive. In addition to the infrastructure conditions, strong resident attachment to the site also influenced our decision. For instance, residents boast close-social relationships, as well as use and value the available social services. This type of activity creates the fabric of the social and business vitality of the neighborhood. A bottom-up approach will reduce resident need to leave the neighborhood because of rising rents and gentrification attendant with top-down approaches. In addition, neighboring districts already are fast-paced business districts with many high-rises. The Anshan Street District would offer a needed service to the surrounding area by being an alternative to that type of rushed pace. In addition, it retains its unique familiarity and family-friendly flavor by not trying to compete with existing business districts.
1.4 Process and Methods The proposal methodology was based out of a four-step process: • Site analysis and problem identification: The project team went out to field visits and observed the patterns of humanbuilt environment interactions in categories of land use, building conditions and property rights, transportation and public space and historic preservation. The teams interviewed residents at length to understand their concerns and point of view in these categories. The interviews were further reviewed in the context of national plans and policies to decode the institutional repercussions of choices preferred by the residents. • Visioning goals and objectives: The teams assimilated site observations with the upper level plans, policies, resident site interviews to undergo an extensive visioning process. The vision yielded goals and objectives for each of the category: land use, building conditions and property rights, transportation and public space and historic preservation. • Evaluation of alternative solutions: To realize the goals and objective, teams identified numerous case studies across the world which looks at the cases of historic preservation, urban regeneration and community development and extracted principles which could be reinterpreted in context of Anshan Dao historic district. • Implementation: The design team culled out extensive implementation strategies for bottom-up participatory design solutions. Most of these schemes are phased over a decade or two and need to re-integrate community/city level institutional impetus to achieve envisioned outcomes.
2.0 Project Introduction: Site Analysis 2.1 Location The site is close to the Haihe River, and is located in Heping district,which is the central zone of Tianjin city. It is within the original Japanese concession. The site is close to three commercial centers: Binjiang Road Commercial Center, Gulou commercial district and Xiaobailou CBD. It has high land value and strong development potential. There is a subway station on Nanjing road on the south side of the site. Being an arterial road close to the center of the city, Anshan Road faces high traffic pressure during peak hours Figure 2. Location of Site
2.2 Surrounding Areas of Interest Tianjin has several historic conservation districts in areas surrounding Anshan Road. One is the Yigong Garden Historic Conservation area, also known as the Tianjin Italian Style Street. Formerly an Italian concession, this area is the result ofa top down urban redevelopment project that involved the eviction of residents as well as the destruction or radical alteration of historic buildings. The area was rebuilt with Italian style buildings, with pedestrian streets fronting boutique style retail shops, cafes, and restaurants. The area functions as a commercially vibrant tourist destination. Another is the Five Old Street Historic Conservation areas, which was a former British concession. It is known for architectural styles from England, Spain, Italy, Germany, and France. The place is also famous for residences of celebrities, and is a quiet residential area. There is a stadium at the center which as become an important open space for the surrounding residents and tourists.
2.3 Site Characteristics Anshan Road District is part of a former Japanese concession and has historic residences formerly occupied by famous politicians and other celebrities. Many of the buildings occupied by locals are also historic, through severely decayed. The average block size is 65*100m and the neighborhood has narrow streets and dense roads. It has many small retail businesses and restaurants, as well as social services such as a fire station, post office, several schools, a hospital, chinese medicine clinic,
Figure 3. Surrounding Areas of Interest
a nursing home, conflict-resolutions services, and government-service kiosks. It is surrounded by well-developed business districts.
Figure 4. Site Characteristics
3.0 Related Case Studies and Precedents 3.1 Ahmedebad Pols: Case Background Pols of Ahmedabad are traditional living quarters located in a dense old urban setting of Ahmedabad, India. These Pols have thrived in Ahmedabad and other medieval Indian cities for centuries, however, due to major urban expansion and need for more open housing, people are drifting away from these community-oriented living quarters. Pols are characterized by tight urban living conditions, shared walls, timber framed masonry housing units which were developed incrementally overthe last 2-3 centuries. These structures are typically 2-3 stories high and are embellished with intricate wooden carvings. The ground floor is occupied by local commercial and service-based activities. The shop owners live in the above floors in joint family systems.
Figure 5. Living quarters in Ahmedebad Pols Source: YogoYo.com
Figure 6. A lane in Ahmedebad Pols Source: YogoYo.com
3.11 Key Issues Like Anshan Dao, Ahmedabad Pols are also suffering from high rental gap issues, deteriorated building and living conditions, complex land-ownership issues and threatened heritage preservation. Given the above-mentioned challenges, the residents choose to live in the Pols due to proximity to social services available in city center along with strong social ties with neighbors. Both given challenges and advantages of Pols were very similar to Anshan Dao.
3.12 Approaches Taken By Case Team The Pol regeneration initiative was started in 2004 by the city government of Ahmedabad. Pol regeneration is a multi-phase incremental planning project spanning over two decades. The regeneration involved two main efforts: first, the infrastructural redevelopment, and second, the housing and community redevelopment. The infrastructural redevelopment included streetscaping, green infrastructure development, improving sidewalk pavemen, and roadway redesign. This segment of the project was done through a top-down urban design process with minimal public input. The other component of the project involved housing and community redevelopment. This was envisioned as an incremental process where the project develops block by block. A block is chosen, and through intensive community engagement and charrettes, design ideas are gathered. Blocks were redesigned to house community areas for workshop, entrepreneurial development, play spaces 8
for kids, and community housing. Since each block had different kinds of residents and supporting businesses, the block redesigning process was unique for each block and time intensive.
3.13 Plan, Design, and Policy Solutions Presented by Case Following Pol’s strategy, we decided to consolidate parcels to develop multi-use housing with community amenities that strengthen the existing service-based businesses in Anshan Road area. Given the right of way and complex property rights, we understand that borrowing Pol’s implementation strategy, i.e. separating infrastructure projects (top-down implementation mechanism) and housing redevelopment (bottom-up implementation mechanism) seems very realistic. We also envision that consolidating land parcels will give greater flexibility to develop underground parking structures within the housing complexes and avail a greater leverage to design active public realm in Anshan Road area. Extensive community engagement is required to evaluate how best can the local heritage be preserved while integrating the future aspirations of the current and incoming residents. This suggested scheme is operating block-by-block, inserting or rebuilding footprints whereever building conditions are too deteriorated via conservative surgery, to rebuild structurally sound buildings in a cohesive morphology.
3.2 Tianzifang: Case Background Tianzifang is a residential area formerly known as the Taikang Road area, located in the Luwan District of Shanghai, China. It was previously an outdoor food market and now consists mostly of two and three story traditional shikumen lilong, or narrow lane buildings influenced by French architectural styles. Much of the housing is dilapidated, with high population density as well as building density. During the 1950s period, Tianzifang had six factories that subsequently declined and were left vacant by the 1990s. In 1998, Chen Yifei, a well-known artist moved into the neighborhood and converted a shikumen building into his personal art studio. Other artists, both local and international, also moved in and converted old factories and warehouses into studios, workshops, and galleries, hence revitalizing the area. In 2005, the government created a proposal to “transform the district into high-rise residential and commercial redevelopment” (5). The Dapu street office along with artists, scholars and owners protested this proposal and applied for conservation status for the shikumen historic buildings. After achieving conservation status, and along with with planning officials, the above named stakeholders were able to initiate the redevelopment of the area by means of planning and marketing the creative industry there. Later on in 2007, bars, restaurants, and retailers were added. (Yung, et al.)
3.21 Key Issues Tianzifang is relevent to Anshan Road area in several ways. Firstly, Tianzifang has a very high population as well as building density. Like Anshan Road District, Tianzifang is situated at the center of several prosperous abutting districts, which causes strong rental gap pressure. As well, both Anshandao and Tianzifang are filled with conservation-protected historic housing as well as other historic buildings (Tianzifang advocates applied for and received this designation as a way to save the area from commercial redevelopment). The social picture of the neighborhoods also mirror one another. Both neighborhoods have many elderly residents who prefer to “age in place” rather than relocate. Residents in both areas enjoy strong social ties with neighbors, as well as, use outer areas such as alleys between housing that “[become] an intimate shared living room for the community where the private and public spaces overlap” (Yung, 7). This type of social 9
Figure 7. Shikumen Architecture Source: TravelChinaGuide.com
Figure 7. A lane in Tianzifang Source: Singaporeair.com
picture reflects distinctive local ways of life and cultural customs that are being threatened by the importation of western development models.
3.22 Approaches Taken By Case Team Much of the transformation was initiated and financed by the artists as well as other business enterprises moving into the area. In 2005, “creative industries” was accepted by the Shanghai government as an economic development strategy. After which, there was investment by the government to renovate housing stock inhabited by low-income residents, as well as investments by Luwan District Government to install sanitary facilities, fire sprinkler systems, lighting and pavement (9). Artists and entrepreneurs were offered rentable properties in order to avoid transfer of property rights. Temporary permits were issued to allow change of residential spaces to nonresidential spaces which eliminated difficulties with obtaining business licenses. Community participation was present from the get-go with the transformations initiated by the artists, and together with other owners and intellectuals, they were able to sway the course of redevelopment to adaptive reuse rather than demolishing and rebuilding the area. (Yung, et al.) The public also participates in an “Owners’ Management Committee” to “oversee selling and renting matters for the shikumen housing” (8). In addition, this committee participates in setting guidelines related to the architectural integrity of the historic buildings, as well as supervising the renovation work (8). The City of Shanghai also helped marketing by designating the area a “creative industry park” in 2009, and set up a management board to manage the factories and scenic spots as an integrated public area (8). (Yung, et al.)
3.23 Plan, Design, and Policy Solutions Presented Like the Tianzifang case, which exhibited adaptive reuse of historic buildings, we also propose to reuse, restore, as well as showcase the historic buildings in the district. This approach is in opposition to the method implemented by the nearby Tianjin Italian Style Street area, in which residents were evicted from their homes in order to completely demolish and rebuild the neighborhood as a tourist destination. Our approach not only preserves the historic buildings, but also the diversity of architecture throughout the district. This method falls under a broader strategy of conservative surgery to individual buildings and areas that need renovation, which as best it can, helps preserve the original way of life of the residents. The method of conservative surgery is apropos because the original way of life, expressed by the neighborhoodâ€™s extant social vitality and fabric of social ties, is a direct result of the nature and arrangement of residential housing. Educating and publicizing the historical context of the neighborhood through building preservation and reuse also provides an opportunity to unite the district under an single identity and purpose, that of historical tourism. This identity stands out in contrast to neighboring busy financial districts, and provides the proper incentive for those districts to look to Anshandao as a slower paced refuge that can offer supporting services such as intimate restaurants, creative retail stores, and smaller-scale hotels or guesthouses. Unlike Tianzifang, which at first transformed without government intervention or funding, but through the actions of artists and local property owners, the transformation of Anshan Road will be managed, executed, and funded by several types of stakeholders, as well as financing and operating models, which will be explained in the Building Conditions and Property Rights section in this report. Like Tianzifang, we deem public participation to be an important component. The Property Rights and Building Conditions section of this report explains our integration of public participation by means of housing cooperatives, Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), as well as an operational framework that shows how committees, residents, the government, and private enterprise work together to ensure that the goals of residents, historical preservation, and financing methods alike can be brought into cooperation.
4.0 Analysis of Site Conditions 4.1 Analysis of Anshan Road Stretegic Characteristics in Regional and Local Context Anshan Dao historic district is a vibrant and diverse (mostly represented by low income and middle-income service-oriented) community in the heart of Tianjin. It was formerly part of a Japanese concession and therefore houses historically significant buildings (with varied degree of Japanese influence) which are in varied degree of disrepair. The neighborhood has a disproportionate amount of aging population. Most of the building stocks can be deemed unlivable due to cramped living conditions along with poor structural health. Poor public space design and roads flooded with excessive illegal parking cut down on the ability of streets to be healthful social public space.We find these attributes as the most pressing weaknesses of Anshan Road historic district. The area is situated in the heart of Tianjin and is well connected to different parts of the city. It is well served by motorized and non-motorized forms of transportation (transit, walking and biking) and therefore is very accessible. It is surrounded by developments which attract prime businesses and residential neighborhoods. Projects like Haihe Riverfront development project and Italian Style Street rejuvenation project leverage high quality open public space and built environments within a proximity to the Anshan Road historic district. Because of this presence of a diverse regional demographic (high and middle income working population with families), Anshan Road District currently serves as a hub of affordable social services to these communities. The Anshan Road residents prize their neighborhood because of the high quality social ties they share with other residents. During the evenings, local residents come out and occupy streetscapes to hold conversations, do group exercises activities, and live a meaningful social life. This generates a strong sense of community and bind residents to the place. These characteristics form the strengths of the Anshan Daohistoric districts. Lack of formalized cultural district identity inhibits the touristic potential, given the heritage of Anshan Road historic district. Being located in the most accessible parts of the city, the urban regeneration could bring in diverse demographics, make it economically more sustainable and make local businesses more profitable. Most of the residential buildings are falling apart and are in dire need of reconstruction. Given the rental gap and high real estate value of the neighboring developments, Anshan Road urban regeneration is an appropriate opportunity to rebuild the area and open it to more diversity in terms of demographics, socio-economic indicators and types of spatial density/land uses. Given the abovementioned opportunities, the design team also recognized that without including appropriate equity incentives to hold the current marginalized populations in place, this urban regeneration could displace the residents and diminish the existing strengths of the site. Thus, gentrification and loss of underrepresented diversity is perhaps the strongest threats of the urban regeneration of Anshan Dao historic district.
4.2 Interpretation of Upper Plans and Policies that influence Anshan Road Development, Planning, and Design The Tianâ€™an Road historical and cultural street protection plan identifies Anshan Road historic district as the 9th most significant cultural districts of Tianjin with a geographical area of almost 18hm2. Other significant districts include Fifth Avenue, Italian Style Street and Yigong Garden Historic Conservation area etc. In the 2012 masterplan, the siteâ€™s architectural and preservation typologymap describes the buildings that have been set out for historic preservation. The buildings in red are historically significant buildings that qualify for government aided preservation funding. The ones set out in blue and orange are noted commercial and institutional buildings. Those demarcated in beige residential developments. Additionally, we gathered from our site visits that most of the residential building stocks are in dire need of major structural repairs or entire rebuilding. During the review of the 2012 masterplan, we
found another map â€“zoning and building control map-which was relevant to our study area. The policy documents suggest that it is possible to bring in mixed-use development and create a moderately dense urban environment. The policies also mandate that the historically significant buildings and community-focused amenities like schools, health centers and fire stations be preserved or added upon to adequately serve residents. The masterplan 2012 also culls out an historic streets and alleys plan. This plan classifies various streets and alleys of Tianjin in order of its historical significance. As per the relevant maps, the Anshan Road, Ningxia Road and Xinghua Road are historically significant streets. As per the policy mandates, these historically significant streets (of the highest order--colored dark green in the map) qualify for government funded streetscapes programs.
Figure 7. Relevant Maps from 2012 Tianjin City Masterplan
Source: 2012 Tianjin City Masterplan
4.3 Overall Imprints of Site Conditions 4.31 Land Use The land use regulations and plans have not been strictly followed through during the past couple of decades. The area suffers from poor built-environment conditions. Years of neglect paired with habitation from a marginalized community and running of unregulated service-based businesses from ground floors has negatively impacted the historical branding of the neighborhood. For many years, the congested urban morphology of back alleys of Anshan Road has posed a hazardous living condition for many residents. Most businesses are service oriented and there is an untapped revenue potential
associated with these neighborhood-based businesses. There is a lack of diverse building uses (economic output) in the area. And the built environment is generally non-supportive of the aging community of Anshan Road.
4.32 Historical and Cultural Preservation The historic value of the buildings and area have not been fully realized. This is due to both structural issues, as well as the way the buildings are being utilized. For instance, some buildings are in need of renovations, while others have heavy gates or fences in front that limit access. Some historical buildings are being informally used as residential accommodations, while some of them lie vacant. As a whole, the cultural and historic presence in the neighborhood is not adequately reflected in the streetscape. Figure 8 on the facing page presents information about types of historic buildings present on our site. Based on our interviews, residents do not feel a connection with the historical aspects of the site. Residents are blocked out by the heavy gates in front of the historical sites, and also feel the entrance fee is too expensive for them to visit it. However, they recognize the historical value and need for preservation. There is also willingness to renovate and create a unified cultural and historical streetscape.
4.33 Building Conditions and Property Rights The Anshan Road District has many positives, including close proximity to social services such as hospitals, parks, schools, banks, community health service stations, libraries, fire-stations, and chinese medicine clinics, as well as other financial districts. The one amenity that lacks minimum standards and that distresses residents is the dilapidated housing. While the residents very much want better housing, the convenience of the other amenities keeps them in the neighborhood. Residents disagree on their best-case scenarios, however, most hope for a new or renovated home either in the same location or somewhere else in the district at no cost to them. A complex set of intermingled cultural, economic, legal, historical, and municipal factors combined under the hood of â€œproperty rights issuesâ€? make renovations difficult to get permission for as well as finance.
4.34 Transportation During our site analysis and field visits, we found the overall transportation to be adequately smooth flowing. The site was well connected to bus and metro system and people perceive that the transit is a time-efficient and comfortable way of getting around the city. We found many people using bikes to get through and around the Anshan Road historic district. A large proportion of these bikers were women, aged people and people from lower and middle-incomebackgrounds. This diversity of demographics stresses the equitable nature of biking in Tianjin. We also observed that people find the area to be extremely walkable. The diversity and density of different land uses make most trips conducive to walking and biking. Although these indicators reinforce the overall positive nature of transportation on site, we also identified area which can be improved upon to deliver an even better quality of transportation in Anshan Road Historic district.
4.35 Public Space Anshan Road historic district is a vibrant service-oriented community nested in central Tianjin. During our site visits we found, despite the socio-cultural vitality, there are some strong public space and urban design concerns that impede Anshan Road district from becoming an aspirational yet inclusive historic urban neighborhood. For years, this neighborhood has been a service-oriented lower and middle-income neighborhood with a mediocre quality built environment. There are some historically significant buildings along Anshan Road but most of the buildings stand in a state of disrepair. Since we adopted a bottom-up regenerative process which will include piecemeal development of parcels, we propose to keep the eclectic nature of the neighborhood alive, but within a consistent framework of urban design guidelines. These guidelines shall direct some faรงade control, wayfinding and neighborhood signages, and urban street furniture mandates. Our design proposal tries to integrate the eclectic nature of Anshan Road historic district into a more structured and coherent historic urban environment.
Figure 8. Types of Historic Buildings There are two classifications of historic building occuring in our study area: heritage buildings, and historic buildings. Heritage buildings have greater restrictions on their future usage, for instance, they may be used as a museum, but not a restaurant. Whereas historic buildings usage is more flexible--as long as the construction and style are maintained as required. The map below indicates the distribution of heritage and historic buildings (orange is heritage, peach is historic). We will engage both types of buildings in our cultural and historic renovation effort. (Source: Ph.d Candidate Ziqi Lu, University of Texas at Austin)
5.0 Plan Proposal 5.1 Vision Our vision is to create an inclusive, cozy, and self-regenerative, historic district in the heart of Tianjin.
Figure 9: Our Vision Why Inclusive? Recognizing gentrification as a legitimate threat to the Anshan Road urban regeneration project, we dedicate the planning efforts to promote inclusiveness. By promoting inclusiveness, we are committing that the project will avoid resident displacement and engender socio-economic diversity. The redevelopment of land parcels will attract higher population densities for residential and economic activities. The planning mechanisms will integrate incentives and policy mandates to subsidize redevelopment living costs for the existent population, and create opportunities for incoming middle and high-income populations to invest in and co-exist in this vibrant community. In this way we can realize sociocultural and economic inclusiveness. The infrastructure refurbishment project will ensure that that all diverse economic groups will have an equitable access to amenities. Why Cozy? During our field visits and site analysis, we found that residents value, as well as, positively correlate the existing scale of built environment conducive to their healthy social life. During many instances, we found neighbors lingering at street corners and smoking, or a group of elderly men playing chess on sidewalks. We also found children accompanying parents as they socialized in the lively street environment during the evening. The neighboring new developments do not exhibit these characteristics of close social ties and healthy community values. Through this urban regeneration initiative, we want to retain as well as reinstate human-scaled built environments in Anshan Road historic district. Why Self-Regenerative? There is abundant literature on various modes of initiating urban regeneration in close knit, marginalized urban neighborhoods like Anshan Road district. During our literature review, we found that the urban regeneration schemes that were not economically sustainable for lower-income communities resulted in gentrification and loss of diversity for neighborhoods like Anshan Road. Contrary to that precedent, our vision of self-regenerative schemes are aimed at keeping the urban morphological character of the neighborhood. Piecemeal and small-segment inclusive growth is meant to promote small businesses and let them thrive alongside providing for improved physical aspects of the built environment. Additionally, promoting the historical preservation value of the site through educational, promotional, and retail activities, as well as faĂ§ade modifications introduces a new type of unified neighborhood identity, as well as economic input that will support the areaâ€™s self-regenerative capacity. 16
6.0 Problems Threatening Vision Realization 6.1 Land Use We found that following land-use related issues in the Anshan Road area through site observation and one-on-one resident interviews. 1. Congested urban morphology in back alleys: Most of the back alleys have been constructed in a way that leaves minimal open space for circulation. These back alleys are difficult to service in times of fire and other hazards. There is a dearth of adequate open spaces or green spaces. However, even in the absence of planned open spaces, there is an active social life that characterizes Anshan Road neighborhood. 2. Absence of economic diversity among businesses: Most of the businesses are service-oriented and are not very profitable. Businesses of high quality do not deem Anshan Road area as aspirational place in the city to do business. The area has numerous small-scale eateries, butcher shops and related businesses, and in the absence of well provided infrastructure to cater to the needs of these kinds of businesses, the neighborhood tends to get smelly and dirty. These associations create a negative impact in peopleâ€™s cognitive map regarding Anshan Road. 3. Absence of regulation for healthful building environment: The residential building not only is crowded by the measure of how many tenants live in one unit, but also are too tightly packed along the road, thereby not availing enough sunlight, ventilation, or temperature control into the houses. Building codes and regulations were not followed through during construction, nor during following years and refurbishment. 4. The existing buildings are not elderly-friendly: As discussed earlier, most of the buildings and infrastructures are in disrepair in Anshan Road area. This neighborhood has a major share of aging population. During out sight visit, we identified that numerous sidewalks were not walkable and did not have curb ramps, tactile paths, and enough lighting. When the building conditions team went into individualsâ€™ homes, they noticed that the living conditions were particularly adverse for aged people. While the government offered some health services such as chinese-medicine clinics, there were no elderly-friendly community centers or such amenities that offered wellness and recreational services.
Figure 10: Many first-story businesses of low-profitability
Figure 11: Lack of curb ramps impede accessibility for the elderly.
6.2 Historical and Cultural Preservation Historical and Cultural Preservation issues are largely the result of improper land-use, state of building disrepair, as well as lack of knowledge and interest in historical value of heritage buildings that are available for tourism: 1. Some buildings are in need of renovation: Both heritage buildings, as well as residential historic buildings are in need of renovation and repair.
Figures 12-16: Photographs from our study area documenting various land-use, use, and structural problems.
2. Unclear property rights: Some historical buildings lie vacant, and it is unclear who owns the rights to these properties. 3. Some buildings use needs to transfer from residential or private to public historical use: Some buildings are illegally being used as residential use with excessive population. 4. Lack of unified planning: The neighborhood lacks a consistent cultural streetscape, which prevents the historical nature of the site from being realized. 5. Lack of accessibility: Some of the heritage buildings are fronted by thick gates or fences that block out views as well as access to the property, which creates disconnection with the streetscape as well as residents. Traffic congestion arround these areas also deters accessibility.
Figure 12: External Closure
6. Lack of publicity and education regarding historic and cultural areas: Our interviews reveal that residents do not feel a connection with the historical aspects of the site, nor do they see the value of historical preservation of these site. In internet searches, only three of the heritage buildings and gardens on site were found as available for tourism, though there are more than six significant heritage buildings on the site. 7. Promotional value of attractions needs to be improved: Residents do not feel that the heritage buildings available for tourism interests them. As well, they feel the entrance fee is too expensive, which dulls their interest.
Figure 16: Building in disrepair
Figure 15: Vacant Room
Figure 13: Fence Closure
Figure 14: External Utilities infrastructure
6.3 Building Conditions and Property Rights Problems with government response to residents’ needs, dilapidated building stock, as well as complicated, or unknown property rights situations comprise the issues threatening building and block renovation.
6.31 Government Action and Resident Perspectives on Repair, Relocation, and Renovation Our interviews with residents informed us of the options residents perceived they had with regards to improving their living conditions, as well as obstacles to the fruition of these options. Option 1: Stay in Anshan Road and have the government demolish and rebuild or simply repair their building. However: • Government repairs are often severely delayed, as well as patchwork. The buildings are also so dilapidated that they need to be rebuilt from scratch to truly solve the problem. • Expectation for demolition is small due to delayed follow-through by government to complete demolitions plans on certain properties since the 1990s. • As a result of unfulfilled hopes for demolition, residents hope the government will make small improvements such as renovation of the kitchen and bathroom and the beauty of the street. Example resident: families with school children who don’t want to leave the building because that building falls within the boundary of a good school for the children. Option 2: Have the government pay residents the value of the home so they can move to another neighborhood; move to the suburbs and exchange small home home for large house. However: • The government isn’t willing to pay residents a compensatory value that can get them a home in a comparable location with the same types of amenities as listed above. • Residents value the livability of the larger houses in suburbs, and are willing to accept the inconvenience of moving there • Residents have high expectations for the market value of the large houses. Example resident: middle-aged, with children who are not married. They wish for a larger home to live together with their children. Option 3: Wait for the government to relocate residents to a new high-rise home However: • There is disagreement on the replacement area • There is disagreement on the compensatory purchased price • Majority wish to have home replaced at no additional cost, with hope of an increase in sq. footage or better layout Example resident: Elderly who value the educational and medical resources, and who enjoy the convenience of close proximity to various services in the Anshan Road District
6.32 Building Conditions Many buildings are dilapidated and lack basic necessities. The following is a summary of problematic building conditions prevalent in the district: • Lack of adequate indoor lighting • Lack of adequate heating • Leaking roofs • Moisture and mold build-up on walls • No indoor cooking facilities • No private toilets • Illegal privatization of public space--for instance, illegal decks and enclosed decks or patios • Old buildings repaired by modernized materials • Patchwork repairs rather than full repairs • Exposed pipes that make streetscape ugly • Living spaces extremely small, because over the years, owners and renters have split the rooms into many more spaces than the home was designed for. • Living spaces are so small that home goods, cooking utensils etc. are piled up outdoors. In addition, clothes are hung to dry between buildings and other public spaces. This creates a cluttered and messy visual scene for passersby.
Figure 16. Diagram of splitting a house into many households. (Source: Ruyue Wang)
Figure 15. Diagrams of the various ways residents informally create additions to their homes, most of them illegal. (Source: Ruyue Wang)
Below is a map showing the distribution of dilapidated houses in our study area. Orange signifies dilapidated housing. The red dashed line signifies the boundary of our study area. From this map we can see that dilapidated housing accounts for about half of all housing in the area.
Figure 17. Map of dilapidated housing distribution in Anshan Road (Source: Dr. Zhu, Tianjin, China)
6.33 Property Rights From our interviews and research, we identified a number of situations in which interconnected cultural, economic, legal (property rights), as well as municipal factors impact the living and building conditions in the area. For instance: • Public Renters can’t initiate repairs Public renters (residents who rent from the government) don’t want to spend their own money, don’t have money, or don’t have permission to make repairs. However, government repairs are often severely delayed or patchwork, and do not serve a consistent facade. • Owners and renters in the same buildings delay needed demolitions Owners who share buildings with public renters frequently add needed utilities such as toilet and cook facilities to their own properties. Therefore, their living conditions are better. However, since they share the buildings with public renters, this deters demolition and new construction of the building to aid the renters.
• Property rights split by multiple related parties complicates renovations Some property ownership has been passed down to generations of siblings and split into multi-tenant housing, and is frequently leased to renters. Therefore renovating the property requires permissions from many renters and owners. • Properties being used by many more people/families than they were designed for A house originally used by one household has been divided into ten households, 15 households, and even 40 households. Situations such as this has lead to privately built, though often illegal mezzanines and toilets. Situations such as this also contribute to excessive population density in the neighborhood. • Development deterred by complex housing and property rights situation On the level of development, dilapidated building conditions, the complexity of property rights, and the historic nature of buildings combine to make renovations too expensive for top-down development schemes. • Cultural norms have changed, causing inadequate living conditions In a previous era, public toilets were considered acceptable. In current culture, private toilets are considered the norm and housing lacking this facility is considered inadequate. • First story frontages illegally built to resolve tiny and inadequate living spaces/facilities First story frontages also built to house toilets and businesses. Some first story frontages are historic, while others are illegally built. Inconsistency in these structures also leads to an unattractive and incohesive streetscape. Figure 18 below documents problematic building conditions in our study area with associated property rights.
Figure 18. Map of problematic buildings conditions with associated property rights. (Source: FanFan Tian and Julian Yang)
Figure 19. Types of Property Rights in Anshan Road Historic District There are four categories of property rights existing in our study area: 1. Public housing that is rented. The housing is generally rented at low rates, around 150 yuan per month. The tenants are commonly retired state-owned enterprise employees. According to our interviews, about 90% of people rent, with a majority of them being migrant workers engaged in simple services and manual labor. In some parts of the area, the tenants are half local people, and half migrant workers. 2. Public housing bought from the government by residents, and now private property. These houses are either owned, leased, or traded. 3. Business owned houses. In this situation, multiple businesses own the property rights, and they rent to their employees. (Review article regarding this) 4. Commercial Housing. There is a small number of commercial housing, in which a business once owned a
Figure 20. Rights of Use for Public and Private Residents Property owners retain different types of rights to their properties based on whether they own or rent, and whether they live in public or private housing.
(Source: FanFan Tian and Julian Yang)
6.4 Transportation We found that following transportation related issues in the Anshan Dao area through site observation and one-on-one resident interviews. 1. Congested sidewalks: We observed that the sidewalks were congested with utilities and encroachments. In most cases, there was not enough distance between two obstructions (Utility boxes and poles holding up hot water pipes and gas lines etc.) for two people to cross at same time. The curb ramps were either missing or were in such disrepair that wheelchair or carts could not pass over them smoothly. We see this as a hindrance for pedestrians in the area.
Figure 22. Congested sidewalks 2. Not enough separation between different modes: Although the area has abundant bikers on street, we noticed the insufficient separation between non-motorized and motorized modes. We observed that although slow moving bikes move to the right of the street but there areno dedicated bike lanes for cyclists. In many instances, cyclists overtake and intermingle with motorists which can give rise to safety issues. During one-on-one interviews, local residents expressed their preference for a color designated bike with barrier protection at crowded intersections. They thought that this possible strategy would increase their perception of biking safety specially for old-aged and young bikers.
Figure 23. Little mode separation 3. Dockless bike parking: Another ubiquitous but also site-specific non-motorized transportation issue that we noticed was the parking of the dock lessbikes. We witnessed instances ranging from bikes that were parked on medians to ones where bikes were heaped around the broadest area of the sidewalks. Dock lessbike share like OFO and Mobikesâ€™ parking has congested the older neighborhoods like Anshan Road more severely than its newer counterparts. This is an interplay of two factors--first, older neighborhoods have tighter street sections and smaller sidewalks with more adhoc utilities placement, which results in poor bike parking space allocation. Second, Anshan Road is a service-rich neighborhood. We were told by a local shop owner-resident that during evenings, people from neighborhood business districts use bikeshare to come to the neighborhood to buy
Figure 24. Ubiquitous bike-parking
bread and meat for their household. On their way back, they do not prefer to use bikeshare but rideshares like DiDi or another form of transit. This phenomenon creates an oversupply on bikes in areas like Anshan Road. So, when local residents step out in evening to use parklets and take evening strolls, they encounter these bikes parked inappropriately. We came across many instances where people just left their bikes on either median or side of a travel lane. We gathered that city agencies are trying to devise methods to hold bike share users accountable for responsible parking. 4. Over-supply of parking on inner streets: The inner neighborhood streets have too much on-street parking. Not only does this affect the visibility of crossing pedestrians and hampers pedestrian safety, but this also devalues the cozy neighborhood experience that the streets could generate in absence of these parking.
Figure 25. Map of existing on-street parallel parking scheme in Anshan Road district The map in Figure 25 above shows Anshan Daoâ€™s existing on-street parallel parking scheme. The main thoroughfare through the site, Anshan Road, has no street parking. Neighborhood main streets like Gansu road, Shaanxi Road, Heibei Road and Xinhua Road also have no parking on them. The streets marked in orange have on-street parking (mostly free). And the streets which are marked in yellow have cars parked illegally on them. Residents told us that there are no parking regulations or enforcement in the neighborhood because even the agencies know that the parking demand outweighs the supply. In the absence of larger regulations regarding licensing fees, newly built parking garages to match supply, and onstreet parking charges, the city agencies have been dormant regarding too much parking in the streets.
5. One-way quick moving traffic on Anshan Road: In our site observations, we found that Anshan Road was designated as a one-way arterial road and during the peak hours behaved as a thoroughfare for regional traffic. From an urban design perspective, the urban regeneration of Anshan Road would have gained more from slower traffic and wider pedestrian paths, but after observing regional traffic pattern during the on and off-peak hours, Anshan Road serves as a critical traffic distributor for neighboring regional arterials such as Dohlun Road, JinZhou Road, Nanjing Road and Zingâ€™an Road. Although we did not review any traffic data to substantiate this qualitative observation, our design intentions assumed that the traffic flow is best kept as it is and within that constraint we wanted to improve the experience for bikers, pedestrians and transit users.
Figure 26: Roads that have non-motor vehicle in Anshan Road district
6.5 Public Space We found the following public space and urban design related issues in the Anshan Dao rea through site observation and one-on-one resident interview:
Only for the elderly
Only for viewing
Uncomfortable for pedestrians
Figure 27: Public space problems 1. Lack of diverse groups using public space: We observed that the public space in and around the site was used most often by old people. The current design of public space lacks diversity of uses and function for varied demographics. We found that during the evenings only elderly men gather in parks and play various sorts of board games. The parks and streetscapes do not have any playscapes or engaging built-in activities that young people and children like to do. During our interviews with residents, we found that young people and children are willing to use public space, if they find it useful and interesting. 2. Public spaces are not utilitarian: We found that the nature of most existing public spaces served mostly the purpose of aesthetics, rather than varied purposes such as aesthetics, recreation, exercise, and social gathering. Most of these spaces were green viewing islands with shrubbery functioning as a barricade, making them inaccessible. 3. Public spaces do not prioritize pedestrian scale: During our site visits, we found that there are two main typologies of public spaces existing in our site-i) small pocket parks/open spaces and ii) streets. Our analysis revealed although the pocket parks were manicured, their scale of elements and neighborhood interactions did not match. One could often walk into these parklets to find themselves lost due to poor landscape design, low utilizable space for group sports activities and inadequate night lighting/signages. Although streets are vibrant, and people use them, it does not serve as a pedestrianprioritized comfortable public realm.
Inconsistent building style
Disconnection between buildings and streets
Figure 28: Urban design problems
1. Inconsistent signage and street character: The streets and historical district lacked a consistent wayfinding and signage. The streetscape also looked utilitarian; there was no coherence in lamp posts, utility boxes and other such infrastructure. This lack of unified character hampers the desirability of the pedestrian experience of Anshan Dao historic district. 2. Lack of a unified architectural language within the district: The Anshan Road historic district does not have a unified cultural or architectural language. The site has buildings from various time periods which are invarying state of disrepair. Most of the residential building stock is in poor structural health. 3. Missing public realm connection between the building edge and streets: There are points throughout the corridor where there isnâ€™t enough transition between the built envelope and streets carrying traffic. Congested sidewalks and high compound walls further exacerbate this experience, creating a cluttered environment for pedestrians.
7.0 Strategies and Solutions 7.1 Land Use Our land use solutions and strategies areas follows: 1. Create a high-quality mixed-use corridor: This corridor would run through Anshan Road, Hebei Road, Shandong Road and Xinhua Road. By upgrading a few of the main corridor residential lots to commercial lots, we propose to invite more diverse (high quality) businesses to operate in Anshan Road neighborhood. The residential land use development rights could be transferred to other non-frontage lots, thereby increasing the density of residential developments in Anshan Road area. Along these main commercial corridors, we propose a diverse set of building uses: hotels, restaurants, community centers, book store, pet care, tourism agencies etc. 2. Re-invigorate urban morphology: Our proposal looks at implementing conservative surgery on the neighborhoodâ€™s morphology to inset open space, and increasing density of the existing blocks, while simultaneously preserving the overall feel and characteristics of this neighborhood. This design goal is oxymoronic. Since these incremental schemes will be implemented by bottom-up process, we expect that community input will play a major role in making designers understand how urban morphology (blocks, open space, building footprints and street scale) best be designed to achieve the desired vision. 3. Address the rental gap through innovative financial mechanisms. These financial mechanisms will help to avoid pricing out of economically marginalized communities. Our proposal encourages businesses of all sizes (family shops to upscale hotels) to operate in Anshan Road historic district. After studying the return on investment of this urban regeneration project, the economic development division of Tianjin city might offer tax abatements to attract unconventional kinds of businesses. Some of the refurbished historic properties might be made available for adaptive re-use and be run as boutique hotels, museums or upscale-retail outlet. The additional revenue under planning mandate can be directed to improve the living conditions or street conditions in the neighborhood. We foresee that adding the upscale businesses might be the catalyst to gentrification of the neighborhood. Our proposed work-around is to redirect the additional revenue to improve and subsidize the local residentsâ€™ needs and living conditions. This is proposed as a balancing act between the existing and new residents. In addition, bringing in economic diversity will make more tourists and locals come to this neighborhood and integrate the area into the rest of the neighboring high development areas. Please refer to figures 28 and 29 on pages 30 and 31 for further additional information.
Figure 29: Map of Development Axis
Strategies Recap: 1. Make full use of location advantages of adjacent commerical districts, and form a location-complementary format with Binjian Road 2. Land along axis is mixed-use 3.. Add different business functions for different segments:: North: hotel, restaurant bar, cafe, and theatres, because it is near a commercial pedestrian street. Middle: exhibitions, historic sites, museum, cafes, art studios, photo studios, because that area has many heritage buildings. South: tutoring agency, bookstores, to maintain quiet environment for schools in that area.
Figure 30: Revioned land use map
Strategies Recap: 1. Change residential land nearby Anshan Road into commercial use 2. Open the courtyards and the outbulding of the historic building for commercial use 3. Improve the abundance of the businesses 4. Encourage businesses of all sizes, from small family shop to upscale hotel 5. Make full use of attractions and bring into play the benefits of commercial agglomeration
7.2 Historic and Cultural Preservation 7.21 Background and Explanation of Anshan Road Historical Value The Anshan Road District is a former Japanese Concession that was established in 1898 following the end of the SinoJapanese war and continued until the Japanese surrender during WWII in 1945. The historical buildings and gardens in this area include: 1) Jingyuan Garden/Garden of Serenity which was the private residence of Luzong Yu, minister-counsellor of Japan; as well as of Sun Yat-Sen, first provisional president of the Democratic Republic of China; and Asin-Gioro Pu Yi, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty 2) Former residence of Duan Qirui, politician, warlord, and Premier of the Republic of China 3) Zhang Garden--private garden of Zhang Biao, prefect of Hebei Province towards the end of Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-Sen and Pu Yi lived there as well. 4) Former residence of a general Lu Zhonglin 5) Tianjin Daily--the Tianjin Daily newspaper building which was instrumental in disseminating information during the period of revolution 6) Wude Hall--currently a private library
Pu Yi The last Emperor
Sun-Yat Sen, Democratic Revolutionary Leader
Zhang Wei General in Late Qing Dynasty
Duan Qirui First Prime Minister of Republic of China
Lu Zhonglin Northwest Army General
Figure 31: Principal political figures and celebrities who resided in Ashan Road District. (Source: Dr. Zhu, Tianjin, China) The famous individuals associated with the historical buildings and gardens hail from the period of Chinese history marking the fall of the Qing Dynasty and creation of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China. The history of the Chinese resistance against the Japanese aggression during this period is one of brutality and severe loss, yet some accounts suggest that the Chinese national identity as a country came about because of the the need to unify against the Japanese (Chang). In addition, the influence of the Japanese as well as the other concessions in Tianjin has been recognized as having spawned the
modernization of China. The wealth of historical buildings and gardens that mark the birth of the Republic and history of the transition to modernization in China is of value and therefore we propose to unify those landmarks into a historical theme relevant for tourists and locals alike. In addition, there are ten heritage buildings on the site, as well as 22 historical buildings. These buildings are part of a larger pattern that shows an architectural diversity in the area, including Eclectic, European, Spanish, Japanese, Modern, and Su styles constructed at various periods between 1915-2000s. (Tianjin Architecture Design Institute Anshandao slideshow 2018.07.02, presented by Dr. Zhu at Tianjin University)
7.22 Strategies Our goal is to unify the district by telling the story of the buildings, as well as the story behind the buildings. There are three themes that must be paid attention to: the story of the Republic of China, the story of the Japanese-influenced memory, as well as the current day lifestyle of a Chinese neighborhood.
Figure 31: Three themes of preservation effort We suggest renovations to historic buildings that are architecturally integrated into a cultural and historic streetscape, as well as drawing the connection between the buildings through a series of signs guiding the way from one historic attraction to the next as part of a “feature trail.” The attractions are meant to be accessed by walking or biking along the feature trail and is modelled after the Boston’s Freedom Trail Walk. A full-path tour guide will also be available as a package tour. Please see figure 33 on the next page for a graphic illustration of the Anshan Road Historic District feature trail.
Figure 32: Anshan Road Historic District feature trail showing points of interest Source: Shuming Gu
Types of Attractions: 1. Celebrities Homes: Telling the story of the celebrities who lived in this area evokes the historical memory for tourists of the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. Relevant Buildings:. Zhang Yuan, Jing Yuan, and Duan Qirui’s former residence. Historical Figures: Sun Yat-sen, Pu Yi, Duan Qirui Feature Theme: “Celebrities Homes: The Path of Overthrowing the Monarchy to Create a Republic” Reconstruction plan: 1. Historical repairs 2. Increase area connection to streetscape by: a) Demolishing fences that separate the buildings from the main street. i. Street lighting and lamp posts ii. Street furnishings, utility and manhole covers: Due to the nature of piecemeal development of Anshan Road area, one could see numerous utilities in and around the site. We propose that the various utilities like overhead pipes, manhole covers, building facades could be regulated through physcial planning codes. Below is a reference form Boston Freedom Trail project which celebrates U.S’s freedom history in Boston through intricately designed streetscape elements like manhole cover, lighting elements, benches and other such embellishments and furnishings. iii. These above mentioned elements could be co-ordinated to create street games like hopsotch or web-interface games related to the Chinese history of the neighborhood. This uncoventional approach at preserving histry of the neighborhood along with making it more people and tourist friendly will form a collective community identity.
Source: New York historic district streetscape
Source: Boston Freedom Trail Project
Source: Street Hopscotch historic neighbood
Figure 33: Examples of historical elements in facades to draw connections with buildings. From left to right: distinctive streetlighting and lamp posts; decorated manhole cover, pavings containing games related to neighborhood history
Figure 34: Zhang Garden, residence fo former emperor, Pu Yi, 1925-1927. Photo by Shuming Gu
Figure 35: Jngyuan Garden, former residence of ministercounsellor of Japan, Luzong Yu, as well as SunYat-Sen, and Pu Yi. Source: http://www.foreignercn.com
Figure 36: Former residence of Lu Zhong-lin Source: Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Concessions_in_Tianjin
Figure 37: Wude Hall, currently a private library Photo by Shuming Gu
2. Japanese History Visiting examples of Japanese architecture brings to memory the history of humiliation at the hands of Japanese aggression, as well as the history of resistance between the military and the people. Relevant Buildings: Wude Hall Feature Theme: “Anti-Japanese History: The Path of Military and Civilian Resistance against the Japanese” Reconstruction plan: Open Library to public, plus Anti-Japanese Cultural Exhibition 3. Cultural Heritage Buildings such as Tianjin Daily building Through the history of newspapers and periodicals, the Japanese aggression is put into the context of bringing about the spread of modern civilization in China. Relevant Buildings: Tianjin Daily Feature Theme: “Newspaper Culture: The Path to Modern Civilization” Reconstruction plan: Newspaper museum and theme restaurant 36
4. Other Historical Renovations: Relevant Buildings: 76 Anshan Road Feature Theme: “Modern Style: The Journey of Tianjin’s Liberation” Reconstruction plan: 1.Repair historical buildings 2. Use art as a means to show the historical process of Tianjin’s Liberation, as well as cultural characteristics of modern Tianjin. a) Art Creations: Create studio space to attract artists into neighborhood b) Art Exchange: Galleries, Salons 3. Supporting services added to bring in revenue, add vitality to neighborhood, as well as serve neighboring fi nancial districts a) Specialty restaurants, retail, boutiques, homestays, bars, cafes, clothing stores, art-related bookstores. How tourists can access the sites Sightseeing tickets will be available through a historic building association. All major spots participate in package tour ticketing, with a discount for area residents and business owners. How these strategies support realization of the vision Historical tourism is a strategy that bolsters the self-regenerative capacity, as well as coziness of the Anshan Road Historic District. By introducing a historic tour, as well as renovating the street façade so that it showcases the historic nature of the place, the neighborhood will gain a marketable identity that will draw both local, national, and international tourists. This theme adds value to the tourist experience in Tianjin, since tourists will be already visiting other areas such as the Italian-Style Street. Tourists will be able to add this experience to their travel itinerary, but get a different experience, one of both Chinese and Japanese history. Drawing more tourists to the area also adds vitality as well as diversity to the neighborhood, enhancing the coziness, as well as the inclusiveness of the area. Lastly, the street façade renovations will add to the visual appeal, and thus the coziness of the neighborhood.
7.3 Building Conditions and Property Rights 7.31 Common Conditions and Solutions Below we present some flow charts to show solutions for recurring types of housing conditions across the site:
Figure 38: Building with first story frontages flowchart
1. Buildings with first story properties that may be illegal: Figure 38 above examines a common area problem, which is the ubiquitous first-story frontages, many of which are illegal. Our interviews with residents found that some of these are illegal, others are historic, with historic plaques, while others house basic services that are not present in the home, such as a private toilet. Many of them are also being used to house small businesses. In order to bring the neighborhood into a consistent cultural and historical street facade, as well as giving back the public space to the public we suggest demolishing the illegal properties, and instead using the space to create more park space, which is one of the common requests in resident interviews. These can be pocket parks. Other alternatives would be expanding the sidewalks or using the space to provide public services such as government service kiosks. If the building is historic, we propose renovating the architecture so it fits with the cultural and historical urban fabric.
Figure 39: Photos of first story frontage properties in our study area
If the property is illegal, but fulfilling a needed service such as a toilet, we recommend demolishing it and building the needed service inside the house. This process may end up being part of a larger demolish and rebuild process if the main home is dilapidated.
Figure 40: Historic building with too many occupants flowchart
Figure 41. Diagram of area history of splitting a house into many households. (Source: Ruyue Wang) 2. Historic buildings occupied by too many occupants: Figure 40 above explores another common problem, that of historic buildings that are owned and rented out by a number of occupants that exceedes the occupant density the buildings were designed for. In the problems sections, we described properties that, over time, went from housing one household, to housing ten, fifteen, or even forty households. In this situation, we propose that legislation be created that dictates a minimum square footage per person. This will result in decreased neighborhood population density, decreased wear and tear on housing structures, as well as increased compliance with fire and disaster safety standards. In order to manage the effects of that legislation, we suggest options of 1) offering residents options for housing in other properties or locations; 2) providing legal and conflict resolutions services for family members who jointly own a building, but rent out different rooms to tentants. This will help support the resolution of conflicts regarding both property owners, as well as renters; 3) If residents are living in that building in order to be in the zone of a particular school district, they will be given a waiver which secures their child a spot at the same school, as well as middle and high schools those feed into, for the duration of their life as young students. Another second option for this type of problem is for the government, developer, or PPP to offer to buy the property, since it is most likely dilapidated, and renovare it into a hotel with architecture that fits with the cultural and historic streetscape. This option supports the historic district tourism industry. 39
Figure 41: Dilapidated housing owned by businesses flowchart
3. Many types of property rights and excess occupancy occuring in one building: Figure 41 illustrates a common problem where multiple owners and renters live in row houses, with many families in each house. The houses are designed for only one family. The owners have been able to implement repairs and keep up their homes, as well as add personal toilet facilities, however the rentersâ€™ quarters are severely dilapidated, have patchwork reparis done by the government, lack adequate lighting, toilets, and/or cook facilities. Our research did not involve structural engineers, therefore, we do not have adequate evidence of whether the structures thenselves are unsound from deterioration. We have two solutions for this type of situation. The first scenario is when the building is found to be structurally sound, and owners are not willing to relocate, remodel, or demolish and rebuild the building. In this case, we suggest the creation of a block renewal committee, explained in detail later on in this section, where renters can have their homes renovated, one by one, through application to this committee. The second scencario applies if owners are willing to relocate. Then the building can be remodeled, or demolished and rebuilt, via a Public Private Partnership utilized to help fund the transformation. We will explain the PPP model later in this section. If the building is found to be structurally unsound, then it would be the governmentâ€™s duty to require the residents to relocate, temporarily until the building is rebuilt, or permanently if they choose. 4. Dilapidated housing owned by businesses: Figure 42 illustrates the situation in which dilapidated housing is owned by businesses, and rented to employees. In this case, employees donâ€™t have the rights or funds to renovate their stucture. In this situation, legislation can be created that specificies businesses must comply with at least a minimum quality standard
Figure 42: Dilapidated housing owned by businesses flowchart
for building conditions. To support this legislation, an advisory body would be created that counsels residents on how to apply for renovations through their company or some other government entity, as well as on their legal rights as renters regarding the new minimum quality standards legislation. We also suggest incentives such as tax breaks to encourage companies to comply with these standards, as well as to lighten the economic burden of renovations and compliance with the minimum standards.
7.32 Operating Models and Financing for Area Renewal We propose a number of models that will ensuring proper overseeing, organization, support, financial allocation, and rights protection during the process of block and district renewal. 1. Operating Model I: Gradual Transformation Model of Multi-Party Cooperation This model introduces a private foundation for the conservation of historic buildings which will provide funds, technology, and human resources for the process of block renewal. As you can see from Figure 42 on the next page, the Private Foundation for Conservation of Historic Buildings will finance and supervise an Anshan Road Block Renewal Committee (ABRB). The He Ping District government will also lead, supervise and finance the ABRB. Residents will apply for renovations to their homes through the ABRB. The ABRB will then implement and renovate the buildings, with added supervision, guidance, and financial backing from the Tianjin City Historical Building Protection Committee.
Figure 42: Operating Model I: Gradual Transformation Model of Multi-Party Cooperation Source: FanFan Tiang and Julian Yang
This kind of neighborhood transformation is meant to occur at the small-scale, one house after another. This model would therefore be suitable for properties where more than one type of property rights ownership is present. 2. Operating Model II: Historical Architecture Conservation and Development Led by Government In this model, the Tianjin Municipal government gathers an Expert Advisory Committee (EAC) to consult on the protection and development of the buildings. The government also creates a Committee on Conservation of Historic Buildings (CCHC) which develops protection regulations to standardize the redevelopment of the historic buildings. Finally, the government creates a Protection and Development company (PDC) to buy the property rights from renters and private owners. The PDC then uses the advice and regulations standards from the EAC and CCHC to restore the historic building. When the restoration is complete, the PDC either auctions the building or uses it for commercial operations. This model has proved successful in practice and we think it can apply to several well known historic buildings that have not been fully used. 3. Operating Model III: Public Private Partnership Led by Government This model is designed for the building in which all residents are renting from the government (property rights are owned by the government). Our research shows that the main interest of these residents is to improve their living environment. Therefore, their willingness to transform the area is strong, and they support renovations and rebuilding.
Figure 43: Operating Model II: Historical Architecture Conservation and Development Led by Government Source: FanFan Tiang and Julian Yang
For these conditions, we looked to the case study of the Ahmedabad Pols, in Gujurat India. Like Anshan Road, the Pols are traditional housing stock in the historic city center of Ahmedabad which faces intense development pressures from surrounding upcoming development. The strategies used for the Ahmedabad Pols include: • The government demolished and rebuilt key dilapidated buildings over a period of 20 years • The government replaced old dilapidated buildings with social services and community workshops • Housing cooperatives were formed in designated neighborhoods • Government invested heavily in upgrading the urban infrastructure such as street lighting, way finding & community identity. Like in Ahmedabad, we have chosen a bottom-up approach of conservative surgery, investment in urban infrastructure and cooperative economics in order to resolve issues in a cost-sensitive manner that respects existing resident social networks and socio-economic context. We propose that the housing cooperative model would also work well as a self-regenerative strategy for the Anshan Road District. Figures 44-46 on the next page illustrates how the housing cooperative model works and how it is funded.
Housing Cooperative Model Description: 1. Site Choice • Sites analyzed and chosen for demolition and reconstruction. 2. Transition • Current residents will be given temporary homes while their home is reconstructed. Buildings are reconstructed with additional stories as well as larger square footage per home. 3. Re-Occupation • Residents move back in as members of the cooperative. • First and second floors are used for retail, art studio and public service spaces • New members move into additional stories. Building upon the housing cooperative model, a neighborhood cooperative model can be utilized to help supply temporary homes for residents while their buildings are being reconstructed. Figure 45 describes the neighborhood housing cooperative model, whereby multiple new constructions are working together to resolve the issue of temporary homes while buildings get renovated or rebuilt. In this scenario, residents of a “Property A” can find temporary housing in an already constructed housing cooperative “Property B” while the new “Property A” is being built. In this scenario, the loan for Property B will take longer to pay back, since the renters from Property A will be occupying housing that new renters might
Figure 44: Housing Cooperative Model illustration
Figure 45: Neighborhood Housing Cooperative Model illustration
have occupied at market rate, during that year of construction. Financial Mechanism of the Housing Cooperative Model: Funding • Funded by Public-Private partnership • Housing Cooperative takes out Microloan Property Ownership Rates • Original renters are given reduced rent that is affordable. • Original renters who want to move out are paid market rate • New coop members pay at market rate. This money is used to finance the microloan. Commercial Activity • Lower floors house renovated commercial space, providing space for both local businesses as well as art commerce, which attracts more visitors and brings in more commercial activity. • Some share of profits can be used to pay back microloan. Figure 46: Financial mechanism of the housing cooperative model
Neighborhood Diversification • This model increases inclusivity, as it increases diversification of classes, and age groups in the neighborhood due to the new available housing. It also brings greater economic vitality and resiliency to neighborhood economy because of the increased number of available retail spaces.
Figure 47: Twenty-year urban block refurbishment strategy diagram
Figure 47 shows a potential block-refurbishment strategy that we envision unfolding over 20 years, using the housing cooperative model and neighborhood housing cooperative model. Streetscape improvements would be necessary on all roads in the Anshan Road area, while housing cooperative projects would be selected based on need, location, financing ability, and resident will. Institutional Framework for the Public-Private-Partnership: This PPP is a company established cooperatively by Heping District government and private companies. We also propose a Anshan Road District Renewal Management Committee (ARDRMC). This department is responsible for assisting residents and companies in reaching agreement on relocation and reconstructions plans. It would be responsible for the overall planning, sharing the plan with stakeholders, encouraging public particpation, and supervising the relocation and rebuilding.
Figure 48: Operating Model III: Public Private Partnershipi Lead by Government Source: FanFan Tiang and Jiulun Yang
The residents of these accommodations have two options. They can move out terminally which usually means, due to low income, they would no longer reside in the city center. Another option is to move back after the rebuilding is finished. In order to reduce resident density, we would provide incentives for people to move out, for example, waivers that reserve familiesâ€™ access to schools, irrespective of where they live. Private companies would be allowed to build a small number of commercial housing to sell at market rate, to create return on the capital investment.
4. Operating Model IV: Build-Operate-Transfer Method (BOT) In this case, we propose setting up a PPP whereby a private company builds, operates a commercial project, and finally transfers it to the government. As you can see from figure 49 below, we chose several buildings. The public housing renters (renting from the government) donâ€™t live in these houses. They sublet them to other renters. We think that subletting doesnâ€™t help the overall planning and development of the whole building. Therefore, we recommend that under the aegis of cooperative committee, further subletting should not be allowed. Heping District government can buy back the rights of use from these renters, and reserve those familiesâ€™ places in schools, to prevent resistance. For those subletters, the government would have to pay appropriate compensation. The government then signs an agreement with private sector to allow it to build an Anshan Road District Business Operation Company. The company would be able to develop service industry businesses that serve the financial districts adjoining parts of Ashan Road, such as mid or high range small hotels, guesthouses and restaurants. This would be a decades-long process. Finally, all of the rights of buildings would be transferred to the Heping District government.
Figure 49: Operating Model IV: Build-Operate-Transfer Method Source: FanFan Tiang and Jiulun Yang
Figure 50, below, summarizes the strategic plan regarding these models, pairing the operating model with their corresponding redevelopment targets within the Anshan Road District.
Figure 50: Regeneration strategy identifiying operating models and their corresponding redevelopment targets in Anshan Road District. Source: FanFan Tiang and Jiulun Yang How these strategies support realization of the vision Our strategy of conservative surgery will increase the self-regenerative capacity, the coziness, as well as the inclusiveness of the Anshan Road area. Improving the quality of the housing stock without evicting residents and razing the buildings increases the structural as well as cultural longevity of the neighborhood, thus increasing the neighborhoodâ€™s coziness and self-regenerative capacity. Our direction of using PPPs as well as housing cooperatives requires resident input and participation, which increases inclusiveness by encouraging resident voices. This direction also increases inclusiveness, as well as self-regeneration, by diversifying the area both economically and demographically by creating space and opportunity for new renters and business owners in the area.
7.4 Transportation Our transportation solutions and strategies are mainly geared towards achieving the following goals. Each goal is numbered with a numeral and is accompanied by objectives that are numbered by alphabets: 1. Promote smooth flow of traffic in Anshan Dao historic district. As described in the fifth sub-section of the problem identification, Anshan Dao serves as a critical traffic distributor for neighboring regional arterials. Currently the street section has 2 uni-directional travel lanes measuring 3.5 m each with bi-directional bicycle sharrows on each. During the peak travel times, the travel lane gets clogged due to inefficient space allocation and competing travel operations between buses, car-owners and bicyclists. We propose the following two strategies to improve the LOS for transit and bikers. In our design thinking we are prioritizing transit users and bikers because planning literature has established that automotive transportation priority is an unsustainable way of urban growth and even more so in context of dense Chinese cities. a. Reduce the conflict of operations between bike lanes and buses to optimize LOS for transit and bike users: In Tianjin, the bus shelters are situated either on median islands (BRT) or on sidewalks. In Anshan Dao district, the bus stops are situated on the sidewalks. The bike lanes are tucked in the two lateral edges of the road. This situation creates a constant conflict between the boarding and de-boarding bus riders and bikers. The conflict severely impacts the LOS for both transit and bikers, more so in as congested streets as Anshan Dao.
Figure 51: Illustrations and location of pedestrian and bike priority boxes To reduce this point of conflict and prioritize transit users (we observed that transit users are more mobility wise challenged, have additional bags and are accompanied by kids), we propose the following design: when the buses stop by the bus stop to pick or drop-off the passengers, we propose that the bikers wait in an extended bike box
behind the bus to allow safe boarding and de-boarding. The bike waiting box extends out of the bike path and measures 5m x 5m. The buses stop right in front of bike waiting box and upon bus departure, the bikers can resume riding. We also propose than Anshan Dao historic district uses bike boxes at traffic intersections. Bike boxes are prevalent design tools which prioritizes bike over motor vehicles at traffic signals. They improve safety and reduces delay while biking. b. Designate material separated bikeways to differentiate between motorized and non-motorized traffic: Currently there is no material or grade separated demarcation for bikeways in Anshan Dao district. At best, around traffic intersections bike icon in white are painted on road to demarcate biking sharrows. We propose that Anshan Dao historic district uses material separated biking lanes. This will enable a lane driving discipline amongst the bikers and improve overall mobility of motorists and bikers.
Figure 52: Location and illustrations of ways to designate materially differentiated bikeways and roadways in Ashan Road area.
2. Leverage macro-level accessibility of Anshan Dao district via means of walking, biking and public transit a. We suggest improve the Nanjing and Heping Road intersections for comfortable and safer crossing environments for aged pedestrians and bikers using Anshan Dao district: The site is surrounded by two arterials on north and south side. While accessing Anshan Dao Road from Nanjing and Heping Road, we found the pedestrian crossing time to be inadequate. The medians of the arterials do not provide sufficient refuge space for pedestrians. And the curb ramps are often missing from the intersection.
Figure 53: Top: Location and photo of Nanjing and Heping Road intersections. Bottom: Illustration of proposed street improvements
Thus, we propose that the pedestrian signal timings should be increased. Adding some shady trees at the median crosswalk intersection. Adding bike boxes to prioritize safe bike crossings at signals. Cobble stoning the zebra crossing and surrounding areas to promote slower traffic and safe pedestrian environment. Using bright colors like
yellow as pavement marking and ambient night lighting to increase visibility of crossing pedestrians and bikers. 3. Prioritize walking and biking as a principal mode of transportation for short distance trips in the neighborhood. a. Devise a district-wide sidewalk and bike infrastructure & management plan: since the site has a high population density and residents use walking as a principal way of getting around the site, we found the quality of the sidewalks to be unsatisfactory. Often the sidewalks were cluttered with utility poles, parked bikes or scooters and some form of encroachment by the local businesses. We propose that Anshan Road historic district invests in upgrading the sidewalks and creates an enforcing body which frequents the neighborhoods and tickets businesses and individuals who do not follow regulations. b. Devise differential pricing regulations for bikeshare parking and operations to free-up sidewalk space for pedestrian uses: We propose that the sidewalks should have demarcated spaces for bike parking. And if the bike users do not park in the designated spots, their ride would be charged much higher. This kind of differential bike parking pricing will promote orderly bike parking without calling for the need of docked bike parking.
Figure 54: Top: photo of bike parking solutions Bottom: Illustration of prioritized bike parking areas.
4. Configure demand and availability of car parking. a. Mandate the new housing developments to provide for on-site parking to declutter the street space: We understand that through the urban regeneration process most of the most housing lots will be up for re-development. By mandating new housing developments to provide for (paid) on-site or basement parking, we can declutter the streetscape and pedestrian environment.
Figure 55: Left: Map of Anshan Road District with map of existing parking structures, on street parking, illegal parking, and proposed integrated parking structures. Bottom: Photo of example community-based parking structure with open food hall on ground floor.
b. Integrate the new community-based parking structures with social services like community kitchen, day-to-day services. c. Proposing a parking pricing mechanism: since there is a robust parking demand but no supporting infrastructure, we propose a self-regenerative parking pricing mechanism to help fund the needed infrastructure. We understand that the parking demand comes from three main demographics--residents, visitors and business owners. i) For residents, we propose capping the maximum no. of cars per household and use of differential pricing mechanism to reduce car ownership. We also propose local start-ups to make community rideshares readily available which will also cross-subsidize for the parking need. ii) For visitors, we propose timed free parking in tourist focus locations. We also suggest that the new lots which undergo construction, should account for some additional parking than the ones they would be generating. This model will ensure that parking availability is well dispersed and there is no concentrated supply of parking through large garages (a model that we do not see fit for historic neighborhoods). iii) For businessowners, we recommend blocking certain hours during the day which will ensure that loading and unloading is hassle-free and neither does the visitor parking get compromised through this process.
Figure 56: Chart explaining parking-pricing mechanism
7.5 Public Space STRATEGIES FOR PUBLIC SPACE 1. Redesign green open spaces as functional and inclusive parks: During our site analysis, we came across two kinds of green open spaces: first, small parklets that were adjacent to the private properties, and second, neighborhood-scaled parks. The small parklets are mainly used for aesthetic purposes and rendered inaccessible to pedestrians and bikers for refuge purposes. We identified 5 of the neighborhood-scaled parks and found that they are rarely used by residents because they do not have enough amenities, seem deserted for the most part of day, and are not well-designed for recreational purposes. We propose that Anshan Dao historic district prioritizes good quality urban parks for its residents. The neighborhood committee should engage community to asses their needs at depth and repurpose the existing neighborhood green patches to fulfill communityâ€™s lifestyle and activities. Figure 57 below shows a parklet as it exists currently, as well as a reimagined illustration of the same parklet. The new parklet would have seating available for active occupation of it, as well as clearly defined entrances and footpaths. The new parklet woud have adequate lighting, which enhances the user experience as well as increases safety. Nearby blighted architecture such as dilapidated walls would be blocked from view with foliage from new landscaping. Additional plantings, such as the ones spilling over the white fence, can soften the heavy boundary between parklet and street, thereby inviting passersby to enter these parklets and increase usage.
Figure 57: Before and after vision of a parklet, as well as locations of such parks in Ashan Road historic district. Source: Siyuen He
Figure 58: Before and after vision of a parklet, as well as locations of parks that are good candidates for recreation parks. Source: Siyuen He Figure 58 shows a “before” picture of a park that, again, is designed mostly for viewing rather than relaxing or recreating. The “after” illustration shows how the park can be turned into a park for children. We have also identifiied serveral area parks that would be good candidates for this type of intervention, or alternatively, recreation or exercise equipment for adults and seniors. 2. Provide for street infrastructure and facilities: We identified that for eclectic districts like Anshan Road, signage and wayfinding schemes are feasible tools to impart a coherent urban district character. In addition to providing for wayfinding schemes, median vegetation and bike lanes (transportation section intervention) we propose that the streetscape refurbishment projects integrate extensions of pedestrian zone, adding benches, newspaper racks, trash cans and pedestrian scale lighting to the pedestrian zone. Figure 59 on the opposite page illustrates the addition of street infastructure and facilities. STRATEGIES FOR URBAN DESIGN 1. Use form-based planning codes to establish physical characteristics of buildings in Anshan Dao historic district: Since the buildings in the area have a very heterogenous character, in order to create an urban district-like feel, we propose that a form-based coding zone will be helpful in creating a coherent spatial experience. We anticipate that the form-based code will coordinate textures, ethnic elements, forms and materiality of the building. Figure 60 on the opposite page shows a before and after rendition of a street corner with physical planning code enforcement.
Figure 59: Before and after vision of a street, with infrastructure and vegetation added, as well as location of street intervention. Source: Siyuen He
Figure 60: Before and after vision of an adaptive reuse project with coordinated physical elements as per the urban design codes. Source: Siyuen He
2. Make buildings interact with streets: We propose through the form-based codes, Anshan Road historic district could control fenestrations, specifically the occurrence of boundary walls to ensure that the street interacts with building envelopes. We hope that through controlling the pedestrian zone, building facades, and street elements, the human scale, cozy environment of the neighborhood gets strengthened.
Figure 61: Before and after illustration of effect of demolishing walls, increasing green spaces, and wider sidewalks. Source: Siyuen He
8.0 Concluding Remarks Our proposal aims to regenerate Anshan Road historic district into an inclusive, self-regenerative, and cozy neighborhood. The proposal examines the existing site conditions on themes of land use, historical and and cultural preservation, housing conditions, public space and urban design, and transportation. The study proposes conservative surgery and a bottom-up participative approach in order to maintain the eclectic nature, close-knit social ties, and fine-grained urban morphology of the area. The proposal seeks to improve living conditions of housing, make the district more economically visible and connected to nearby communities, as well as promote economic development and historic preservation. The proposal should be seen as a long term, multi-phased iterative project with extensive community involvement and inputs. The proposal took careful consideration of development constraints and leveraged developmental opportunities to regenarate the neighborhood.
9.0 References Case Studies Ray, C. N. (2008). “The traditional neighbourhoods in a walled city: Pols in Ahmedabad.” Sociological Bulletin, 57(3), 8196. Kaur, A. (2012). Adaptive Reuse of Pol Houses in Ahmedebad.b Saiyed, A. A., Basalingappa, A., & Sinha, P. K. (2016). Value network in heritage walks: case studies of ahmedabad city walks. Journal of Heritage Management, 1(2), 191-204. Oliveira, V., & Silva, M. 0.5 ISUF Task Force on Research and Practice in Urban Morphology. 0. PLENARY SESSIONS 25, 32. Yung, Esther H.K., Edwin H.W. Chan, and Ying Xu. “Community-Initiated Adaptive Resuse of Historic Buildings and Sustainable Development in the Inner City of Shanghai.” Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 140:3. September 2014. Cultural and Historic Preservation Chang, Gordon C. Born of Struggle: “Forgotten Ally” by Rana Mitter. New York Times. Web. Sept 6 2013. Accessed August 25 2018. China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival by Rana Mitter – review. The Guardian. June 6 2013. Web. Accessed August 25 2018. Japanese Occupation of China before World War II. “Japanese Occupation of China”. NA. Web. August 2016. Accessed August 3 2018. http://factsanddetails.com/asian/ca67/sub426/item2537.html Tse-Kang Leng & Rung-Yi Chen (2017) Local state adaptation and grassroots participation: Tianjin and Nanjing’s preservation of cultural relics in comparative aspects, Journal of Contemporary East Asia Studies, 6:2, 187-209 Zhang Jialu, Ed. “Understanding Modern China Through Tianjin.” Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2010. Web. August 9 2014. Accessed August 25 2018. ww.tj-summerdavos.cn/system/2010/01/14/004432539.shtml
10.0 Appendixes I. Transportation Resident Interview Responses
Key: Yellow--mode of transport Green--strengths Red--weaknesses
II. Building Conditions and Property Rights Resident Interviews: Summary of topics of importance and desired changes as stated by residents: 1. Educational resources: Strong desire from many residents to school campus separation fixed, as well as to limited space development in the schools 2. Public space: Strong desire among residents for expansion of park green space for residents to relax 3. House quality: desires among residents for interior renovation, reinforcement and beautification, indoor cooking facilities, individual toilets and washrooms, adequate heating, old housing repair, clean and safe home environment, adequate indoor lighting General Responses: • One main reason the elderly don’t want to leave the neighborhood is because the hospital is close by. In addition, they find general shopping very convenient due to close proximity. They feel like “just need a bed” and are “poor people in a rich place” • Some residents expressed that they weren’t concerned about gentrification, because the cost of living is already high, and something needs to be done to fix living conditions. “We don’t need to think so far ahead; we need to resolve the current problem”