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The Great Big Book of Typographic Treats

Aliaa El Kalyoubi University of Kansas Spring 2013


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TABLE OF CONTENTS Rules Check Sheet 4 Special Characters 6 Typographic Rules 12 Grids 24 Quotes, Apostrophes 40 Dashes 46 Small Caps 52 Numerals/Figures 58 X-Height 62 Column Width 76 Kerning 80


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Alignments 84 Hyphenation 90 Justification 94 Combining Typefaces 104 Paragraph Breaks 118 Heads and Subheads 132 Captions and Notes 142


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RULES

CHECK SHEET The following is a compendium of the rules established in this book. You might want to check through them each time you complete a publication. Use only one space between sentences. Use real quotation marks. Use real apostrophes. Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong. Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge. Use en or em dashes, use consistently. Kern all headlines where necessary. Never use the spacebar to align text, always set tabs and use the tab key. Leave no widows or orphans. Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row. Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph. Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word.


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Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout. Never justify the text on a short line. Keep the word spacing consistent. Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps or with few ascenders and descenders. Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs. Adjust the spacing between paragraphs. Either indent the first line of paragraphs or add extra space between them – not both. Use a decimal or right-aligned tab for the numbers in numbered paragraphs. Never have one line in a paragraph in the column or following. Never combine two serif fonts on one page. Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page. Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page. Use the special characters whenever necessary, including super- and subscript. Spend the time to create nice fraction or chose a font that has fractions. If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it.


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SPECIAL CHARACTERS


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The following is a list of the most often-used special characters and accent marks. On the following pages are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need.

“ Option [ Opening double quote

” Option Shift [

Closing double quote

Option ] Opening single quote

’ Option Shift ] Closing single quote; apostrophe

– Option Hyphen En dash

— Option Shift Hyphen Em dash

… Option ; Ellipsis

Option 8 Bullet

fi Option Shift 5 Ligature of ‘f’ and ‘i’

fl Option Shift 6 Ligature of ‘f’ and ‘l’

© Option g Copyright symbol


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™ Option 2 Trademark

® Option r Registered symbol

° Option Shift 8 Degree symbol (e.g., 102°F)

¢ Option $ Cent symbol

€ Option Shift 2 Euro symbol

⁄ Option Shift 1 (one) Fraction bar

¡ Option 1 (one) Upside down !

¿ Option Shift ? Upside down ?

£ Option 3 Lira symbol

ç Option c French c cedilla

Ç Option Shift c Capital French c cedilla


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Use copyright, register, and trademark marks properly

The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline.™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60% of the size.


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Ellipsis Character Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

Accent Marks Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, then press the letter you want under it.

´ Option e ` Option ~ (upper-left or next to the Spacebar) ¨ Option u ˜ Option n ˆ Option i


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TYPOGRAPHIC

RULES


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Insert only a single space after punctuation Inserting two spaces after a period was common when using a typewriter. Monospace typefaces were designed to occupy the same amount of space no matter the width of the character. Therefore, two spaces were needed to identify the end of a sentence and the beginning of another sentence. With the introduction of the Mac and digital type, characters are designed proportionately, which allows for the correct practice of using one space after all punctuation.

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Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote duration (time.)


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Use proper quote and apostrophe marks Use true quotation marks and apostrophes instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks.

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Use True Small Caps When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options.


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Add letter spacing to capitalized text and small caps Letterspacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs caller letterspacing tracking. Use positive number values (to about 2 or 3) to open up letterspacing to capitalized text and small caps, except when periods are used between characters.

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Use old style figures when appropriate Old style figures, also known as non-lining figures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

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Use caps properly With options given to you by almost any type family (bold, point size, etc) you will seldom need to use all caps to draw attention to your text. Not all typefaces are legible when set in all caps; esp. true for script and decorative typefaces. Short headlines may be the once exception to this rule.


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Use copyright, register, and trademark marks properly The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the xheight. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60% of the size.

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Ellipsis Character Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

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Avoid underlined text This was useful back in the days of the typewriter to draw attention to the text. With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.


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Increase line spacing to improve readability in body text Line spacing (aka leading) refers to the space between lines of text. It is important for readability and appearance. Leading is measured from baseline to baseline. As a rule of thumb, allow leading that is 120% of the point size. For sans serif, you may need 130% or more. When setting headlines, solid leading (leading = point size, 12/12) or negative leading (leading =< point size, 12/10) may be appropriate.

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Body copy size

Body text is set anywhere from 9-12 points. When you print text, it is usually larger than what it looked like on the screen. So, print out your text before finalizing your layout. Type studies will help you determine the proper size before you proceed with your layout.

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Altering fonts Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t alter the original typeface by stretching or condensing the letters improperly. Certain type families provide you with a lot of flexibility, so you should not need to destroy/alter text.


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Legibility of fonts Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well for body copy (i.e. Frutiger, Meta, Scala Sans, etc.)

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Decrease line length and increase margins Line length is a measure of text on one line. Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single column widths. The ideal measure for body text length is 66 characters (counting both letters, punctuation, and spaces.) For multiple columns, a measure between 40 and 50 characters is ideal.

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Avoid letterspacing lowercase body copy Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t letterspace body copy as it really hampers legibility. Use letterspacing when working with caps. small caps, numbers and display text where looser type spacing may increase legibility.


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Word spacing should be fairly close

For text meant for extended reading, the amount of space between words in a paragraph should be fairly close–about the width of a lowercase “i.” If the word spacing is too close, it appears as one giant word and legibility is decreased. Keep the spaces between words fairly thin, consistent and even!

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Ideal column width For single-column pages, 4.25 inches is ideal. For two-column width, columns can be as narrow as 2 inches. Turning on the hyphenation feature can improve word spacing.

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Justification of text Justification can be appropriate in certain places. However, it can create certain problems such as rivers and word spacing. Adjusting size of margins, decreasing body copy size, turning on auto hyphenatation and manually hyphenating the text are all examples of possible solutions.


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Choose the alignment that fits

Make sure the alignment chosen for all areas of text are legible and consistent with the design and guidelines. Left-aligned text is easier to read and set. Justified text is harder to set w/o inevitable word spacing problems. Right-aligned and centered are generally not used for body copy.

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Rules of hyphenation Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegant-ly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break.

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Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.


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Always spell check! Once you are finished with your design, spell check the text using both of the following: a. Use spell=check option that comes with the software you are using for the project. b. Print the document and read it. The monitor and design of the document will make text look perfect when it may not be. Even if text is given to you by a client, check it. Never ever assume that it is correct. Keep a dictionary close as well.

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Avoid widows and orphans Widows are either single words alone on a line or single sentences alone on a new page. Orphans are single lines of copy alone at the end of a page.


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Kerning in headlines Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative space.

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Indents In continuous text, mark all paragraphs after the first with an indent of at least one “em” (3 spaces). Do NOT use three spaces but rather use the tabs or indents option in your software.

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Items in a series Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.” (i.e., ‘peaches, apples and oranges.’)


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GRID

STRUCTURES


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When designing a layout and working with text and/or images the use of a grid is essential, as it is the basis on which information is organized and clarified, ensuring legibility. The grid provides a framework were text, image and space can be combined into a cohesive manner. A grid subdivides a page vertically and horizontally into margins, columns, inter-column spaces, lines of type, and spaces between blocks of type and images. These subdivisions form the basis of a modular and systematic approach to the layout, particularly for multi-page documents, making the design process quicker, and ensuring visual consistency between pages. At its most basic, the sizes of a gridâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s component parts are determined by ease of reading and handling. From the sizes of type to the overall page or sheet size, decision-making is derived from physiology and the psychology of perception as much as by aesthetics. Type sizes are generally determined by hierarchyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;captions smaller than body text and so onâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;column widths by optimum word counts of eight to ten words to the line, and overall layout by the need to group related items. This all sounds rather formulaic, and easy. But designers whose grids produce dynamic or very subtle results take these rules as a starting point only, developing flexible structures in which their sensibility can flourish. Grids often need to be designed to give more flexibility than the single column of text per page (Jan Tschichold's grid). This is due to to a change in our reading patterns. Grid structures have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than a grid using only text and may utilize more modules. The design of the grid had to be relevant to the purpose.


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“The grid system is an aid, not a guarantee. It permits a number of possible uses and each designer can look for a solution appropriate to his personal style. But one must learn how to use the grid; it is an art that requires practice.” —Josef Müller-Brockmann

1) Tschichold's grid / symmetrical grid 2) Fibonacci's sequence: The golden section 3) Column grid 4) Modular grid 5) Asymmetrical grid


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1) Tschichold's grid / symmetrical grid


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Symmetric grids sit centrally on a single page (folio) so that the left and right margins are equal. The term can also be applied to a grid system used across facing pages where the position of the margins and text areas are symmetrically reflected or mirrored. Margins are not necessarily equal but run both left and right of the text area on single pages and are mirrored across the spread.


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2) Fibonacci's sequence: The golden section


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The golden section, a ratio (relationship between two numbers) that has been used in Western art and architecture for more than two thousand years. The formula for the golden section is a : b = b : (a+b). This means that the smaller of two elements (such as the shorter side of a rectangle) relates to the larger element in the same way that the larger element relates to the two parts combined. In other words, side a is to side b as side b is to the sum of both sides. Expressed numerically, the ratio for the golden section is 1 : 1.618.


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3) Column grid


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These may consist simply of a number of vertical columns used to position text and image matter, and may include the space between columns -- the gutters -- and the margins of the page, which must be given consideration. It may be necessary to produce grids with narrower subcolumns to enable a greater degree of flexibility in the design and layout of pages. Text widths can be set to multiples of the narrower columns, allowing the design to accommodate different matter thus allowing for a change of pace, rhythm and style from one page or section to the next, while still relating the content.


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4) Modular grid


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Modular grids are associated with Swiss typography or the 'International Style' of the 1950s and 60s. As well as a vertical division of space, modular grids divide space horizontally too, creating units or cells. The depth of the cell may depend upon the size of the text type and leading being used. Multiples of the line depth (leading size) form a good basis on which to construct the cells. For example, ten lines of 10pt type type on 12pt leading could allow for a cell height of 120pt within the grid. Again, each cell division is spaced by the equivalent of a gutter both vertically and horizontally. Vertical columns still appear, but further rationalization as to the position of text and image in relation to the depth of the page can be made via the grid.


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5) Asymmetrical grid


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These grids may have an off-centre appearance either as single pages or combined in spreads. If used in spreads, the grid is not mirrored from one page to the next as in symmetrical grids, but is more likely to appear repeated in a single position from page to page. Again, as with all grid systems, attention to the relationship of the margins is important. It can be this element alone that determines the success of the eventual layout.


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Baseline grid Modular grids are created by positioning horizontal guidelines in relation to a baseline grid that governs the whole document. Baseline grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all) layout elements to a common rhythm. Create a baseline grid by choosing the type size and leading of your text, such as 10-pt Scala Pro with 12 pts leading (10/12). Avoid auto leading so that you can work with whole numbers that multiply and divide cleanly. Use this line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences. Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine the number of horizontal page units in relation to the number of lines in your baseline grid. Count how many lines fit in a full column of text and then choose a number that divides evenly into the line count to create horizontal page divisions. A column with forty-two lines of text divides neatly into seven horizontal modules with six lines each. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines. Illustrate a baseline grid.


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Use true quotation marks and apostrophes instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks.

Use real quotation marks – never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use "and" – not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application – you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you. It is necessary to know how to set smart quotes/real quotes yourself because sometimes the software doesn't do it or does it wrong.

Opening double quote: “

Type: Option [

Closing double quote: ”

Type: Option Shift [

Opening single quote: ‘

Type: Option ]

Closing single quote:

Bridge Clearance: 16'7" The young man stood 6'2" The length of the wall is 153'9".

Type: Option Shift ]


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Apostrophe: ’ option shift ] As as aside, people often are confused about where the apostrophe belongs. There are a couple of rules that work very well.

For possessives: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.” “The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always. It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes — and neither should its.

For contractions: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out.


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For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around—just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’). In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed—the g is missing. In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction—it is simply plural.


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Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens. Never use two hyphens instead of a dash.

Everyone knows what a hyphens is—that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use or given text that uses a double hyphen—to indicate a dash. This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.


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Hyphen En dash â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Em dash â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using.

An em dash is a type of

An en dash is equal to half

punctuation used to offset clauses

the length of an em dash.

in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. En dashes are used to denote duration (time.)


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Hyphen A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

En dash – To type an en dash en dash – Option Hyphen hold the Option key down, then tap the hyphen key An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to.” In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space. October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age


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Em dash — To type an em dash em dash — Shift Option Hyphen Hold the Shift and Option keys down, then tap the hyphen key.

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. It is also used for attribution of text. —Mac is not a Typewriter Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens (or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using an—no space is used on either side.


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Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which me and that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong. When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with small caps as a family. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options. Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as nasa or nasdaq in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines. Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as am or pm in small caps so they don't overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for a.m. and p.m.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.


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Where to use small caps:

If you set acronyms in regular all caps, their visual presence is unnecessarily overwhelming. One standard and practical place to use caps is in acronyms such as fbi, nrc, cbs, or simm. Traditionally, “a.m.” and “p.m.” are set with small caps. If you were taught to type on a typewriter (or if you were taught on a keyboard by someone who was taught on a typewriter), you probably learned to set these abbreviations in all caps because there were no small caps on typewriters. But now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.

Harriet, and FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M. Harriet, and fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 p.m.

The capital letters in the middle of the sentence call too much attention to themselves. Notice how the small caps blend in with the text. The capital letters for ‘P.M.’ are much too large—the abbreviation is not that important. .


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Fonts that have small caps 6 Serif

3 Sans Serif

MrsEaves cnn

Helvetica cnn

Baskerville cnn

FUTURA

Caslon cnn

CLICKER

cnn cnn

Swift cnn Bembo cnn Clarendon

cnn

The Wicked Are Very Weary. The weight of the computer-drawn small caps is thinner than the weight of the regular initial first letter caps. Typeface is Futura.


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True-drawn small caps: There are quite a few font families that include “true-drawn” small caps—letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thickness of the uppercase. These families are often called “expert” sets or perhaps “small cap” sets. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturbing tone throughout the text.

There Is No Rest For The Wicked. The Wicked Are Very Weary.

True-drawn small caps are specially drawn to match the weight of the capital letters in the same face. Typefaces are Adobe Caslon Pro regular and semibold.


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NUMERALS /FIGURES


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Oldstyle figures, also known as non-lining figures do not line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look and are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one. Unlike lining figures, Oldstyle figures blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle figures; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites. If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.


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Fonts that have old style numbers 3 Serif

3 Sans Serif

MrsEaves 1234567890

Meta 1234567890

swift 1234567890

Platelet 1234567890

Big caslon 1234567890

Bodoni 1234567890

Aligning numerals 12 12.5 Rockwell 134 134.0 17 17.8 1023 1023.4 323 323.0

Notice how large and chunky these numbers appear: Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

Notice how these numbers blend beautifully right into the text: Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.


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ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag ag


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Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.

As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked... Who is to read it? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it?

How will it be read? Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.


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Xxhg Xxhg

Belizio David Berlow

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/12 x-height: average character width: wide color: dark

Adobe Caslon William Caslon and Carol Twombly

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/12 x-height: small character width: narrow color: light


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72 point

Xx hg Mrs Eaves Zuzana Licko

Xxhg

Adobe Garamond Pro Claude Garamond and Robert Slimbach

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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X xhg Xx h g Futura Paul Renner

Gotham Tobias Frere-Jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Gill Sans Eric Gill

Frutiger Adrian Frutiger

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Goudy Old Style Frederic W. Goudy

Helvetica Neue Max Miedinger and Linotype staff


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Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Berthold Akzidenz-Grotesk GĂźnter Gerhard Lange

Interstate Tobias Frere-Jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Platelet Conor Mangat

DIN Albert-Jan Pool


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Memphis Rudolf Wolf

Meta Erik Spiekermann

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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X x hg Xxh g Clicker Greg Thompson

News Gothic Morris Fuller Benton

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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Determining Line Length A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inchessimply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. Type size: 12pt Line length: 26 picas


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Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Type size: 9pt Line length: 19 picas


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KERNING K E R N


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I N G KERNING KERNING


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Kerning is an adjustment of the space between two letters. The characters of the Latin alphabet emerged over time; they were never designed with mechanical or automated spacing in mind. Thus some letter combinations look awkward without special spacing considerations. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T). In metal type, a kerned letter extends past the lead slug that supports it, allowing two letters to fit more closely together. In digital fonts, the space between letter pairs is controlled by a kerning table created by the type designer, which specifies spaces between problematic letter combinations. Working in a page layout program, a designer can choose to use metric kerning or optical kerning as well as adjusting the space between letters manually where desired. A well-designed typeface requires little or no additional kerning, especially at text sizes.


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Metric kerning uses the kerning tables that are built into the typeface. When you select metric kerning in your page layout program, you are using the spacing that was intended by the type designer. Metric kerning usually looks good, especially at small sizes. Cheap novelty fonts often have little or no built-in kerning and will need to be optically kerned.

Optical kerning is executed automatically by the page layout program. Rather than using the pairs addressed in the font's kerning table, optical kerning assesses the shapes of all characters and adjusts the spacing wherever needed. Some graphic designers apply optical kerning to headlines and metric kerning to text. You can make this process efficient and consistent by setting kerning as part of your character styles.


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In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together. If someone insists that fully justified text is better than left-aligned text, tell them they are wrong. If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is better than justified text, tell them they are wrong. If they are both wrong, then what's right? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.

"Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication." â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Peter Bilak - Illegibility


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Justified Text Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text. Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned). May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text. May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers. Some people are naturally drawn to the "neatness" of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

Left-Aligned, Ragged Right Often considered more informal, friendlier than justified text. The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good)


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Centered There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don't center it. As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different.


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Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegant-ly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word. Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.


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Hyphenation rules pay attention to: How the text is read avoid widows (one word on the last line of a paragraph). Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout.


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Justify text only if the line is long enough to prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing. The only time you can safely justify text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don't have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You've seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that's what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

Reminder A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.


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Rivers In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.

Widows and Orphans Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

Widow When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

Orphan When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. ALWAYS correct this.


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Akzidenz Grotesk 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

75%

Problems:

Desired

60%

This is a demonstration of the standard justification

Maximum

140%

that indesign applied on default. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clean but the first line of the third paragraph is awkward.

Didot 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. Minimum

40%

Desired

50%

Maximum

150%

Problems: The wordspacing seems kind of tight and heavy.


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Helvetica Neue 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

75%

Desired

60%

Maximum

140%

Problems: The wordspacing is seems to be still too tight with this setting.

Mrs Eaves 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

40%

Desired

50%

Maximum

150%

Problems: In this example, the justification seems to be more tight than it is normal.


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Bembo 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

75%

Desired

60%

Maximum

140%

Problems: The lines look properly spaced out as the words are not too tight together.

Frutiger 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

10%

Desired

50%

Maximum

70%

Problems: The line spacing is way too tight and hard to read because the words seem squished.


101

Interstate 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Minimum

75%

Desired

60%

Maximum

130%

Problems: This is better though the paragraphâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entirety seems somewhat loose and uneven.

Gotham 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. Minimum

100%

Problems:

Desired

200%

The excessive amount of spaing between words

Maximum

300%

makes the paragraph very loose and interrupts its flow.


102

Belizio 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. Minimum

55%

Desired

175%

Maximum

200%

Problems: The spacing still appears too frequently and interrupts the flow of the text.

Melior 9/12 Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. Minimum

50%

Problems:

Desired

50%

This probably is my most successful attempt

Maximum

150%

among all. The spacing between the words have some decent consistency and flow quite well together.


103


104


105


106

When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies.â&#x20AC;? Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. {Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea}


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1. Meta and Bembo

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Meta 18pt : humanist and Bembo 9pt: old style

These two fonts work very well toghether though they are both very odd. Metaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bold form works very well with Bemboâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s severely contrasting strokes. Meta also has a much higher x-height so it works perfect for subheaders, while its very bold/rectangular allcaps is perfect for a headline with astonishing hierarchy!


108

2. Palatino and Franklin Gothic

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Palatino 9pt : old style and Franklin Gothic 18pt: grotesque

Both of these work pretty well together because they are both very narrow and fine tuned fonts. Palatino has very smooth contrasting stroke weights that contrast well with Franklin Gothicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s solid structure with minor stroke weight changes. Gothic has a higher x-height so I decided to use Palatino as the header/subhead.


109

3. Gotham and Melior

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Gotham 18pt :geometric sans and Melior 9pt: transitional

These are both just too odd to work well together. Gothamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s odd descenders and stroke weight differs too much from Meliorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s regular stroke weights.


110

4. Mrs Eaves and Frutiger

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Mrs eaves 9pt : transitional and Frutiger 18pt: humanist sans

Mrs. Eaves is a solid serif body text that goes really well with frutigers bold and defined header/subhead text. Frutiger is simple, but effective because of its short descenders while Mrs. Eaves short x-height allows for a wonderful heirarchy to be drawn.


111

5. Futura and Didot

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Futura 18pt : geometric sans and Didot 9pt: modern

Again the serif and sans serif combination is a perfect match. Futura’s very structural/geometric form contrasts wonderfully with Didot’s severely contrasting stroke weights and odd form all together. It’s like mixing cookies and cream.


112

6. News Gothic and Walbaum

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg News gothic 18pt : modern and Walbaum 9pt: grotesque

News Gothic is another very defining header that compliments the Walbaum content text.


113

7. Mrs Eaves and Futura

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Mrs eaves 9pt : transitional and Futura 18pt: humanist

Futura worked great for a header, but Mrs. Eaves doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work well with it as a serif. Futura should be placed with another sans serif in my opinion. The small x-height of each creates a very unstable and unappealing paragraph that seems too suffocated.


114

8. Clarendon and Interstate

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Clarendon 9pt : new transitional and Interstate 18pt: geometric sans

Interstate creates a bold headline demonstrating great hierarchy to the elegant Clarendon.


115

9. Futura and Memphis

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Futura 18pt : geometric sans and Memphis 9pt: slab

Honestly, I think that these two combined make a weird match. Memphisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bold and thick brackets create a very firm headline that is very different from Futuraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s geometric and bold form.


116

10. Belizio and Helvetica

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg Belizio 18pt : slab and Helvetica 9pt: humanist sans

Like Memphis, Belizio creates a very bold and interesting headline while Helvetica’s clean and plain form makes for a great body text. Reversing these two would make it unsuccessful because belizio’s thick slabs would create a body text too sporadic and complicated to read.


117


118


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120

Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.

In typography there are 4 rules regarding paragraph breaks: 1. First line at the beginning of an article should be flush left (do not indent first paragraph)

2. Block paragraphs are flush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return

3. The amount indent is = to the leading (sometimes needs a bit more) 4. Never hit two returns between paragraphs


121

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


122

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


123

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 20, 1909, WHEN THE paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT IT IS THE MOVEMENTS WHICH SURVIVE, ODDLY, HERE WHERE WE LIVE and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO FOR ITALIAN FUTURISM BRISTLED with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


124

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


125

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


126

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


127

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


128

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately original; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


129

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909,

when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Itali an poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where w live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


130

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

BUT IT IS THE MOVEMENTS WHICH SURVIVE, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

WHILE MARINETTI'S OPENING MANIFESTO for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term-still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-ofthe-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


131

F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W h i l e M a r i n e t t i ' s o p e n i n g m a n i f e s t o for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, "technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta, by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (circa 1915), "Everything of any value is theatrical."


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Header:

The material which is separated from the main body of text and appears at the top of a printed page.

Subheader: A phrase, sentence, or several sentences near the title of the article or story.

The main header or “headline” is essential to be bold and leap out as the main title of the page or chapter start. If it does not, the reader may be confused as to where the document actually starts. So I always think its a good rule to ensure the reader knows where a section starts and make it quite plain. The main header should also look like it belongs to the first sentence. This can be achieved by ensuring that its paragraph spacing (the space after a hard return) is smaller than the paragraph spacing of the first sentence. Paragraph spacing is not commonly used - even amongst designers, but it is an extremely useful tool. Many people add spacing by hitting return but this does not give much control and cannot be styled from style sheets. Introduction paragraphs are a useful way to entice the reader to continue on reading. They also help not to waste a readers time if they are not interested in reading further. Typographically speaking these into paragraphs need to be easy to read but moredistant than the body text below. They are not the main article and need to be distinguished from it. The purpose of a subheader is to split up body text so that a reader can find their way around the document with ease. it also makes the document more readable because the viewer is not faced with a page of block text. Each subheader needs to be linked with the corresponding body text underneath it. This should be achieved by using correct spacing after and before the subheader (You find these settings in most “Paragraph” tool pallets and the example below demonstrates how it looks when executed.)


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WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on either and both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


136

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Fi garo published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to works then getting . The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


137

Words in Liberty A

F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d on February 20, 1909, when the Paris news-

PROLOGUE paper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso

Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, FUTURISM originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to

TO

attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

W h i l e M a r i n e t t i ' s o p e n i n g m a n i f e s t o for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


138

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. Radical mix of art and life

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


139

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


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WORDS IN LIBERTY Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris

A Prologue To Futurism

newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while


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Footnotes and endnotes Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)


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Numbers or Symbols Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

Size Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.


WORDS IN LIBERTY

146

A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced

on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

1

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 2

3

selbst = himself


147

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue To Futurism 1

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

2

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3

selbst = himself

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today-was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


148

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism

1

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Fi garo published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 2

3

selbst = himself

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to works then getting . The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


149

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innova1 Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

tion in culture and society1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on either and both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key 2 parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett

3

Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a decade. Outrageous and aggressive,

selbst = himself

the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."


150

Words in Liberty A

F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d on February 20, 1909, when the Paris news-

PROLOGUE paper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso

Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, FUTURISM originality, and innovation in culture and society1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to

TO

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 1

attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

W h i l e M a r i n e t t i ' s o p e n i n g m a n i f e s t o for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 2

3

selbst = himself


151

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced

on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti's manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great "art" movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti's opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets & artists offered formal/"technical" approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term--still resonant today--was parole in liberta2 , by which poetry was to become "an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena." This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn't end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that "scurried off the page in all directions at once," as Emmett Williams phrased it for the "language happenings" of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915): Everything of any value is theatrical."

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 1

2

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3

selbst = himself

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