Pioneers of Modern Chinese Painting in Paris

Page 1

Xu Beihong 徐悲鴻 1895-1953 (Paris 1919-1927)
 Pan Yuliang 潘玉良 1895-1977 (Paris 1921-1928/1937-1977) Lin Fengmian 林風眠 1900-1991 (Paris 1920-1926) Sanyu 常玉 1901-1966 (Paris 1921-1966)
 Wu Dayu 吳大羽 1903-1988 (Paris 1922-1927)
 Yun Gee 朱沅芷 1906-1963 (Paris 1927-1930) Wu Zuoren 吳作人 1908–1997 (Paris 1930-1931/1934-1935) Wu Guanzhong 吳冠中 1919-2010 (Paris 1947-1950) Zao Wou-Ki 趙無極 1920-2013 (Paris 1948-2013)
 Chu Teh-Chun 朱德群 1920- 2014 (Paris 1955- 2014)
 Xiong Bingming 熊秉明 1922-2002 (Paris 1947-2002) T’ang Haywen 曾海文 1927-1991 (Paris 1948-1991)

The Pioneers of Modern Chinese Art History 這一代藝術家在巴黎做了什麼?

Professor Dr. Lao Zhu (Zhu Qingsheng), Beijing University Wu Ning, Secretary-General, Wu Zuoren International Foundation of Fine Arts

朱青生 , 北京大學歷 史 系教 授 吳寧, 吳作人國 際 美 術基金 會 秘 書 長


The Pioneers of Modern Chinese Art History This exhibition features 12 artists, including Xu Beihong, Lin Fengmian, Zao Wou-Ki and Chu Teh-Chun. Chu Teh-Chun who just passed away was the last of the first and second generation Chinese artists who painted in Paris. There is a saying in China that “you can draw a final conclusion of a man once he passed away”. But in fact, the historical significance of a person is mutable. It changes when interpreted by people with different needs and standpoints. By holding the 34th Congress of the International Committee of the History of Art in 2016, we aim to review how Western Art influenced art in other countries; and how China, a country with long artistic tradition, accepted Western Art during its process of modernization, to the extent that its own general aesthetic standard and basic creation methods have been substituted and overshadowed by Western Art. China desired to achieve modernization after it was defeated in the First Opium War in 1840. The fervent crave resulted in a self-denying value took the Western imperial countries as role models, following and imitating every one of their characters. There was no exception when it comes to art, people studied and imitated Western Art and learnt art history based on Western artistic developments. They saw their native art as a failure or at least a cultural reason for the country’s fall. An art revolution hence broke out. Nowadays, art practices in China, whether in art creation or theory, are generally conducted in western methods and terminology. China’s art education system, from entrance examination to the final year project, has been strictly following Western Art institute structure in the 19th century. Meanwhile, Western Art terminology and concepts are gradually being applied into Chinese art history. In other words, after the invasion from the West, in order to “salvage the nation and survive”, China modernizes its art by adopting Western Art, the art of the “conqueror”, “invader” and “winner”; and also by using Western Art terminology to re-describe its art throughout the history. This situation had remained until the Reform and Opening-up in 1979, when some fundamental changes took place. This process went through three stages, and this exhibition features the period during and after the second stage. First stage: “Self Strengthening Movement” in the late Qing dynasty (1840-1919). During this stage, Chinese people strived to make changes, learn from the West and achieve modernization. At that time Chinese art standard was displaced by the Western one, as Chinese artists started to learn the Western Art creation methods. Ever since the 17th century, the Qing emperors partly accepted realism from the West. Not only did Kangxi and Qianlong order etching copperplate in France, they also hired professional painters in the royal workshop to paint memorial posters by imitating Western Art. Yet, in general, China adhered to its general aesthetic standard and classified Chinese calligraphy as the highest form of art. Three calligraphy masterpieces from the Eastern Jin dynasty (317 – 420 AD) were then deemed as the best of the best. 1. Qianlong even built the “Hall of Three Rarities” for these three artworks. After losing the two Opium Wars and a series of anti-invasion wars against the West, a Qing emperor launched a modernization movement with Kang Youwei being the leader. Although Kang claimed to support Chinese core art value, he actually described ancient China as if the same as the West, without explicitly saying so. He strongly advocated the revival of Chinese painting concepts formed before the 15th century, especially that of the Song dynasty (960 – 1279 AD). In his book “Painting and Calligraphy Collection of Wanmu Caotang”, Kang Youwei completely denied the “freehand painting tradition” derived from calligraphy after the Yuan dynasty (1271 – 1368 AD). Figure 1. “Three Rarities of Calligraphy” (detail), three masterpieces of Wang Xizhi family in Eastern Jin Dynasty (316-420): “Timely Clearing After Snowfall” by Wang Xizhi, “Mid-Autumn Festival” by Wang Xianzhi, and “Letter to Boyuan” by Wang Xun.


這一 代藝 術家在巴黎做了什麼? 在 這次 展覽中涉及 到徐悲鴻、林風眠到趙無 極、朱德 群等12位藝 術家。隨著幾 天前朱德 群的 故去,這一組藝 術家已經 全 部 作 古。中國有句古 話叫“蓋棺定 論”,其實歷史的結 論 永 遠是隨著解釋 者的需要和立 場不停地 生發出新的意義。 而我們 在中國正在 通 過召集 2 016 年的“第3 4 屆世界 藝 術史大 會 ”來 重 新檢 討西方藝 術 對各國 藝 術的影 響,也包 括探 討中國 這 樣 具 有悠久藝 術 傳 統的國家在 近代的現代化 過程中,如何接受西方藝 術,以 至 於 藝 術 整 體的評 價觀 念 和創 作的基 本方法被西方的藝 術 置 換和遮蔽 這個問題。 在 中 國 1 8 4 0 年 鴉 片 戰 爭 失 敗 之 後 ,中 國 力 求 實 施 現 代 化 。但 是 由 於 對 現 代 化 的 要 求 過 於 迫 切,所 以 就 把 勝 利 的 西 方各 國( 列 強 ) 的 所 有 特 點 都 看 做 學 習 和 模 仿 的 榜 樣 。在 藝 術 上 把 西 方 的 藝 術( 以 及 以 西 方 藝 術 為 研 究 對 象 發 展 起 來 的 西 方 藝 術 史 )作 為 學 習 和 模 仿 的 對 象 ,將 自己 的 藝 術 作 為 失 敗 的 藝 術,至 少 是 作 為 導 致 國 家 失 敗 的 文 化 因 素 加 以 批 判 ,從 而 發 生了一 次 藝 術 變 革 。在 現 在 的 中 國 藝 術 實 踐 中,無 論 是 創 作 還 是 理 論,都 在 普 遍 使 用 西 方 藝 術 的 方 法 和 詞 彙 ,中 國 的 藝 術 教 育 體 制,從 入 學 考 試 到 畢 業 創 作,到 現 在 一直 秉 持 西 方1 9 世 紀 藝 術 學 院 的 體 制 。同 時 中 國 逐 步 使 用 西 方 藝 術 的 術 語 和 概 念 來 描 述 中 國 過 去 曾 經 有 過 的 藝 術,寫 作 藝 術 史 ,於 是 把 中 國 的 藝 術 事 實 也 按 西 方 藝 術 史 的 方 法 進 行 了 描 述 。也 就 是 說 當 中 國 在 西 方 的 侵 略 之 後 ,為了 現 代 化“ 救 亡 圖 存 ”,不 僅 藝 術 中 使 用 作 為“ 征 服 者 ”、“侵 略 者 ”和“ 勝 利 者 ” 的 西 方 藝 術,而 且 使 用 西 方 藝 術 術 語 重 新 描 述 了自己 歷 史 上 的 全 部 藝 術 。直 到 1 9 7 9 年 改 革 開 放 以 後 ,情 況 才 發 生了 根 本 的 改 變 。 這 個 過 程 經 歷了三個 階段,展 覽 涉及 第 二 階段 及以後 的歷 史 時 期。 2.

階 段 一 :晚 清 的“ 洋 務 運 動 ”(1 8 4 0 - 1 9 1 9 )。此 階 段 處 於 力 求 變 法,學 習 西 方,謀 求 現 代 化 的 洋 務 時 期 。在 這 個 階 段 ,藝 術 的 標 準 被 置 換 成 西 方 的 標 準 ,並 學 習 西 方 的 創 作 方 法 。雖 然 清 朝 皇 帝 從 1 7 世 紀 以 來 就 部 分 接 受 西 方 寫 實 藝 術,康 熙 和 乾 隆 時 期 不 僅 在 法 國 定 制 銅 版 畫,而 且 在 宮 廷 作 坊 建 立 相 應 的 專 職 畫 匠 ,模 仿 西 方 的 方 法 擴 大 歷 史 畫( 紀 念 性 宣 傳 畫 )的 創 作 。但 是 ,在 總 體 藝 術 的 品 評 系 統 上 還 保 持 了 中 國 自己 價 值 標 準 , 將 中 國 書 法 列 為 最 高 成 就 ,將 三 件 東 晉 時 期 的 書 法 作 品 列 為 最 高 的 藝 術 成 就 代 表 ,乾 隆 為 之 建 立“ 三 希 堂 ” 以 標 榜 。兩 次 鴉 片 戰 爭 和 一系 列 抗 擊 西 方 侵 略 戰 爭 失 敗 之 後 ,以 由 清 朝 皇 帝 發 起 的 現 代 化 改 ​​良 運 動“ 戊 戌 變 法 ”的 領 袖 康 有 為 的 思 想 為 例 ,雖 然 標 榜 堅 持 本 國 藝 術 核 心 價 值 ,但 實 際 上 他 把 中 國 古 代 解 說 得 與 西 方 本 來 相 同,只 是 不 明 說 西 方。他 力 倡 恢 復 中 國 在 公 元 1 5 世 紀 之 前,特 別 是 宋 代(公 元 9 6 0 年 — 1 2 7 9 年 )的 繪 畫 觀 Figure 2. George Chinnery, ‘Director of the Macao Ophthalmic Hospital Dr. Thomas Kerridge and Chinese patient’, c. 1835, oil painting, collection of the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts, USA.


When he was exiled to the West after the failed political reform in 1898, he visited many museums and had a very good understanding towards Western oil paintings. He then adhered to Realism as the only criterion of painting and considered Chinese painting as “collapsed”. He required Chinese art creations following Western suit and crowned Giuseppe Castiglione (1688 – 1766), a second class Italian painter who worked in China, as the father of Chinese painting revival, hoping to combine Eastern and Western ideas and open up a new path for art. When learning painting in Shanghai, Xu Beihong was a student of Kang Youwei and was deeply influenced by his teacher’s thoughts. Second stage: “The New Culture Movement” (1919 – 1949) in China. After the failure to implement constitutional monarchy, the Revolution of 1911 overthrew the monarch and founded the Republic of China. “The New Culture Movement” was launched under the new social institution, aiming at even more radical modernization by thoroughly rejecting 3. and criticizing Chinese tradition. Although there was an equal force defending the old tradition, the main trend of art was to absorb Western ideas. With the support of government and families, Chinese students began to study oversea. Centered in Paris, they learned Western Realism concepts and methods. They also brought back to China the system of Western art institute. For example, Chen Duxiu, leader of the May Fourth Movement initiated by a group of radical scholars and students, proposed art revolution: to totally abandon Chinese art tradition and reform Chinese art by adopting Realism ideas and methods. Xu Beihong was one of the very first participants; he wrote an article named Theory on Reforming Chinese Painting, suggesting Chinese painting should be reformed by learning from the West. He then got a scholarship to study in Paris and became a figure of his time. But his art perspective determined the choices he made, which resulted in disputes between him and other Chinese students studying in Paris. Third stage: “People’s Republic of China before the Reform and Opening up in 1979” (including the “Cultural Revolution”) (1949 – 1979). Because of the Cold War, China was segregated from the West until 1979. Although China adopted the policy of “a hundred schools of thought contend” to promote diversity in art, the mainstream art was still following the spirit in Chairman Mao’s speech in 1942, “Talks at the Yanan Forum on Literature and Art”, in which he defined art as a powerful weapon to “unite people, educate people, fight the enemy and destroy the enemy”. After the Communist Party became China’s ruling party, its disagreements with the Soviet Union separated itself from the international communist union, thus China started to emphasize “self-reliance”. As for art practice, different Nationalization Movements occurred in different forms, based on previous two attempts to learn from the West (first, the large scale learning from Western Europe since 1919; and second, the learning from the Soviet Union 4. since 1930s in Yan’an by the left-wings, which remained dominant after the New China was founded). Part of the movements was the Nationalization of Oil Painting” which can be divided into two categories: 1) oil painting of Chinese landscape or object, 2) oil paintings that incorporates Chinese traditional painting elements. What also emerged was the National Painting Modernization Movement, which aimed to change Chinese aesthetic principles and creation methods based on calligraphy and ink style by adopting the sketching and composition training of Western art institutes. Meanwhile, artists who settled in the Western countries at the time explored the developing Western modern art, especially Abstraction, which significantly deviated from the Realism tradition formed in the Renaissance period. Under the pressure of photography technology, Western Art started to put emphasis on expressions of feelings and meanings, which is exactly the strength of Chinese painting tradition. Figure 3. Giuseppe Castiglione, ‘Qianlong and his Court’ Figure 4. May 1942, shown here are Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Ren Bishi and Wang Jiaxiang with participants at the forum at Yangjialing, Yan’an.


念。康 有 為 在《萬 木 草堂 藏 畫目》中 把 元 代 之後中國 繪 畫 使 用書 法 的 方 法而形成 的“ 寫 意 傳 統”徹 底 否 定。由 於 他 在18 9 8 年 變 法 失 敗 後流亡西方,參 觀 並了解 西方 油畫,因此明確 按 繪 畫 寫 實與否 作 為 判斷 優 劣之標 準,貶 斥中國 畫 已 經“衰 弱”,根 本 無 法和西方 繪 畫 相比,要求 按西方 繪 畫 的 標 準 來 創 作,把 在中國 就 業 的 意 大 利 二流 畫 家 郎世 寧 (G i u s e p p e _ C a s t i g l i o n e,16 8 8 年7月19日-176 6 年7月16日)尊 為中國畫的 複 興之祖,希望出現中西 結合的新的繪 畫 方向。徐悲鴻曾經在 上海 學 畫時 拜康有為為師,深受他的思想的影響。 階段二:民國的“新文化 運 動 ” (1919 -19 4 9)。此階段 處 於君 主 立 憲制改良失 敗 之後, 經 過 1 911年 辛 亥革命,推 翻 了君 主,建 立了共 和 制的中 華民 國。在 新 的 社 會 制 度 之下 展開了“新文化 運 動 ”,以更 為 激 進的現代化 為目標,徹 底 地 批判和否定中國自己的傳 統。雖 然也 有一股同樣 強 大的反 彈力 維 護 著 傳 統,但 是 總體的趨勢則是在藝 術上完 全 吸取西方,陸 續由國家 和家庭 支 持中國的留學生留學西方,以巴 黎為中心,開始 全面學 習和掌握西方的現實主義觀念和寫實主義方法。並 且把西方的美術學院系統帶入中國, 完全取代了中國過去的藝 術教育方法,形成了完全西方化的學院式藝 術教育體制。以由 激 進的學 者 和學生發 起的現代化 運 動“五四運 動 ”的 領袖陳 獨 秀 為 例,他倡導 藝 術 革 命,徹 底 地 摒 棄中國 藝 術的傳 統,強 調 要用現實主義的觀 念 和寫實主義的 方 法來 改 造 中國的藝術。此階段一開始徐悲鴻就在北京參與,並發表用西方繪 畫改 造中國畫的文章 《中國畫改良論》,並 且得到國家獎學 金留學巴黎,成 為這一時 期的代 表。但是 他的藝 術 觀念決定了他的選 擇,並與 其他留學巴黎的同胞發生爭論。


階段 三:1 9 7 9 年 改革 開 放 之前 的人 民中國(包 括“ 文化 大革命 ”運 動)(19 4 9 -19 7 9)。此 階段由 於冷 戰,中國19 7 9 年 改革 開 放 之前 幾 乎和西方隔 絕。在中國國內,藝 術 雖 然 或 緊或 鬆 地 執 行“百花 齊 放 百家爭 鳴”的 方針,但 是其 主 導 方向是毛澤東 主 席19 4 2 年 在《 在 延 安 文 藝座 談 會上的 講 話》確定的藝 術 規 範​​,即 藝 術是“團結人民 教 育人民 打 擊 敵 人消 滅 敵 人”的有力 武 器。只是在共產黨成 為中國的 執 政黨 之後,由於與蘇 聯的矛盾而逐步脫離國際共產 主義聯 合 體, 而主 張“自力更 生”,從而在 藝 術上,基 於兩次學習西方(1919 年以 來 大 規 模 學 習西歐,和 3 0 年 代以 來 共 產 黨 的延 安 地 區 和國 統 區 的 左 翼 學習蘇 聯 直 至共產黨 建 立 新中國 後 蘇 聯 藝 術成 為中國 藝 術之 主 導)的基 礎 上,展 開了各 種 形式的“民 族 化”運 動,出現了“油畫 民 族 化” (中國風 格油畫,其中分成 畫中國對 象和風 景以及用中 6. 國 藝 術傳統因素 進 入油畫這兩個方向)和國畫現代化 運 動(用素描 寫生和造 型構圖的西方學院 式訓練 改變中國繪 畫以書 法為核心和以 筆墨為中心的美學原則和創作 方法)。 而留在西方的藝 術家則參 與了正在發展的西方 現代 藝 術的 探索,特別是 抽 象 主義 繪 畫,因其 在藝 術目標 上背 離 文 藝 復 興 時 期的寫實傳統,在 照片 和機 械 攝 製 技術的進 逼下開始 注 重 形式自身的意 味 和​​痕 跡的表 意方法,而痕 跡表 意方 法正好 暗 合書 法和中國寫 意 繪 畫的傳 統,所以中國 藝 術家的 文化 教 養 和天 賦 就 在其中發 揮 奇異的作用,出現了趙 無 極、朱德 群、熊秉明這樣的藝 術家。 Figure 5. Xu Beihong Figure 6. Wu Zuoren with other Chinese students, 1930. From left, Tang Yihe, Wu Zuoren, Ai Qing and Zhou Gui.


Therefore, Chinese artists such as Zao Wou-Ki, Chu Teh-Chun and Xiong Bingming shined with their talents and multiple sources of cultural nurtures. This exhibition is going to display artworks created by the most important artists during that westernizing period. Still, if you study their stories and achievements carefully, you will realize that they are far more complicated than expected. Now let us reexamine them in a historical context. Among the 12 featured artists, five of them went back to China, while seven of them stayed in the West. Those who returned are the symbols of the second stage, but their lives underwent huge changes after entering the third stage, during which two of them were well respected (though experienced socialist rehabilitation as well), while three of them were treated unjustly.


In 1919, Xu Beihong went to Paris. He then constantly travelled between Paris and China; he was also in charge of many art institutes or departments in the Republic of China. After New China was founded in 1949, Xu Beihong became the chairperson of the Chinese Artists Association and the Dean of China Central Academy of Fine Arts founded in 1950. As he passed away in 1953, Wu Zuoren replaced him as China Central Academy of Fine Arts (Associate Dean in 1955 and Dean in 1958). He was afflicted in the Cultural Revolution. In 1984, he became the chairperson at the Chinese Artists Association up until his death in 1997. In 1949, Lin Fengmian was dismissed, reinstated and denounced and finally quit his job in 1953. During the Cultural Revolution, he had property confiscated and was imprisoned. In 1950, Wu Dayu was dismissed. In the same year, Wu Guanzhong returned to China. According to what he said in his later years, he suffered from huge repression in the New China. These artists who returned to China represented the second stage of China’s accepting western art. But they could not play any important role during the third stage, even those in high positions (Xu Beihong and Wu Zuoren) were rejected by the authority, not to mention the others (Lin Fengmian, Wu Dayu and Wu Guanzhong) who were repressed and denounced. Meanwhile, because of the segregation caused by the Cold War, artists who stayed oversea, including Pan Yuliang, Sanyu, Yun Gee, Zao Wou-Ki, Chu Teh-Chun, Xiong Bingming and T’ang Haywen, had no influence on Chinese art circle before the Reform and Opening up.


As the third stage ended, China entered the reform and opening up in 1979, people started to know and respect the above artists once again, especially those who were neglected and criticized during the third stage. These artists greatly influenced the modern art movement emerging after the reform and opening up by proposing the use of western modern art methods. But simply respecting them is not enough to catch up with the art trend in the world, as their artworks have already become a mark of modern art of a particular period. As for the artists who stayed abroad during that time, they were not part of the Chinese art circle whose works belonged to a certain nostalgic or classical style. However in China, they were still highly respected. Some artists, like Zao Wou-Ki, even played an inspirational role in the modern art movement while he was invited to teach for a few weeks at the Hangzhou Academy in China in 1985.

The study and exhibition of the works and materials of these artists have provided us not only with a chance to appreciate their work, but also a chance of historical research. In other words, this is an archaeological study on Chinese art history. After the “Self Strengthening Movement” in the first stage, China was still not fully modernized. Thus an important change occurred when China was learning from the West in the second stage: China no longer treated its culture as fundamental element. On the contrast, it pushed forward the modernization by criticizing its core cultural value. This process was painful yet inevitable. It is also an irrevocable process all countries have to endure after imperialism, or colonialism, in order to participate in globalization. Countries that are relatively Figure 7. February 26, 1948. Photo taken in Shanghai before Zao Wou-Ki’s and Lan-Lan departure to France. From left to right: the daughter of his professor Lin Fengmian, his second sister, the architect Wong Ten, his mother and his father, Lan-Lan with their son, Zao Wou-Ki, his younger brother and his third sister. Figure 8. Zao Wou-Ki teaching at the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts in Hangzhou, 1985


而這 個 展 覽中展 出的 就 是中國 接 受西方 藝 術 最 重要 的 代 表 人物。但 是當 我 們 仔 細 考察 他們 每 個 人 的 經 歷 和 作 為 的 時 候,我們 會發 現事情 遠非想像得這 麼 簡單 和 單純。現 在我們把 這 樣的分析放 到歷史的情境中重 新 考察。這次 展 出 的1 2 位 藝 術家 有5 位回到了大 陸,7位留在了西方。回到 大 陸的人 是 上 述 第二 階段 的主要 代 表 藝 術家,但 是 進 入 第三 階段以後,他們的命 運發生了巨大的變 化,其中有 兩人 受 到重 視,但也 經 歷了社 會 主義改 造,有三人 受 到了不 公正的 待 遇。


徐 悲 鴻1919 年 到 達巴 黎。之後 多 次 來往 於巴 黎 與中國 之 間,在民國時 期 執 掌過 多所 美術 院 系。19 4 9 年新中國成 立以後,徐悲鴻出任中國美術家協會主 席,並 擔任195 0 年成 立的中央美 術學院院 長。他1953 年去世之後,由吳作人 接 任 執 掌中央 美術學院(1955 年 任副院 長,195 8 年 任院 長),文革中受 到衝 擊,後出任中國美術家協會 主 席(19 8 4 年),直 至19 9 7年去世;而 林 風 眠19 4 9 年 被 解 聘、復 職、批判,19 53 年 徹 底 退 職,直 至文革 被 抄家、投 入 監 獄,吳 大羽 195 0 年 被開除 公職,吳 冠中195 0 年回到中國,據他晚年的說 法,他一直 在 新中國受 盡 壓 抑。 這 些回國的藝 術家在第二階段是中國接受西方藝 術的代 表,但是在第三階段中,他們並不大 能 發 揮作用,即 使 處 在中央 美 院 和中國 美協的 領導崗位 上(徐 悲 鴻 、吳 作人),其 實 都 是 受 到排斥的,更 遑論那一批受到壓 抑和打擊的藝 術家(林風眠、吳 大羽、吳 冠中)。而留在國外 的潘玉良、常玉、朱沅 芷、趙無 極、朱德 群、熊秉明、曾海文,由於冷戰,在 改革開放 之前與中 國國內的藝 術界不 構成任 何關係。

第三階段 結 束後,進 入 改革開 放(19 7 9 年),上 述 所有這 些 藝 術家都 再 次 受 到 重 新 地 認 識 和 尊 敬,特別是在第三階段 受 到忽視 和批判的藝 術家,因為 他們宣 揚和採 取的是西方現代 藝 術 的 方 法,因 此 在 改革 開 放以後 新 興 的 現 代 藝 術 運 動中 他 們 的 作用 就 顯 得 特 別 突 出,受 到 推 崇,但是 重 視他們的藝 術已 經 不能 夠跟 上當代 世界 藝 術的潮流,他們的藝 術已 經是現代 藝 術 某一 個階段的風 格的凝固。而留在海 外的藝 術家,雖 然 他們 在 所處的本地已 經 不 在藝 術的最 前 沿,也 類 似 於 一 種 舊的 經 典 風 格,但 是 在中國國內也受 到了極 大 的 重 視,甚 至 有些 人 如 趙 無 極在中國代 藝 術 運 動早 期,即19 85 年曾被 邀回杭州學院教 書 幾 個星期。 所以對這一批藝 術家的研 究 和展出,除了可以欣賞這一代特 殊時 代中國藝 術家的代 表 性 風 貌 之外,還有非常明顯的歷史研究的價值。這是一次 對中國藝 術史的考古。


經 過了第一階段以“洋務 運 動 ”為 代 表的藝 術 觀 念的變 化 之後,中國作 為 整 個國家 並沒有完成 現代化的任務,因此第 二 階段中國 對西方 藝 術的學習發生了一 個 重 大的 變 化,就 是 把自己的 文化 不 再 繼 續 看作民 族 和國家的 根 本,而是決 定 通 過 批判自己的 文化 核心 價值 來 繼 續 推 進 現代化。這個 過程 既痛 苦,又必 然。這 是一 切處 在世界 發展 到帝國 主義 階段即 殖民 化 之後,所有的國家 不 得不攪 入 全 球化的 進 程,在其中,相 對來 說比 較 傳 統 的國家會 在 先 行 現代化的國 家的侵 略和 殖民中間處 於被 動的狀 態,政 治上被侵 略和壓 迫,經 濟上被 剝削,文化 上 就 會 相 應 地 經 歷 一段否定 和自 我否定、甚至力圖“消除 ”自我 文化的境 地。由於中國的政 治 領袖利用外 交手段 和國家幅員 廣 大的特 點,沒有使 得國 家完 全淪為 殖民 地,所以它的進 程 並不是 來自作 為 侵 略者的西方 直 接 實 施的 文化 改 造,而是由中國的政 治 領袖和知 Figure 9. Xu Beihong at his studio Figure 10. Zao Wou-Ki at Hangzhou Fine Art School, 1935


traditional would find themselves in a passive position, being politically oppressed and economically deprived by their modernized counterparts. As a result, they would go through a period of cultural self-denying or even try to “eliminate” their own culture. Thanks to the large population of China and the diplomatic means of Chinese political leaders, the country did not completely descent into a colony. Therefore, the cultural reformation was not a direct intervention by the West, but rather a self-realization and changing process, also called as “New Culture Movement”, initiated by Chinese political leaders and intellectuals, with art being the most noticeable achievement. So when we are looking at artworks of this stage, they are not merely paintings, but the character of the era. In an attempt to change the country, those advanced intellectuals in the second stage bore the responsibility to criticize, deny and reform Chinese traditional art, while learning from the West. The artists who went to Paris set an example by personally taking part. They were more or less influenced by the thoughts of Chen Duxiu, who was not just a man, but also a symbol of an ideology. After arriving in Paris, they learnt Western methods and used oil painting or sculpting skills. de Sarthe gallery exhibition shows how well they knew about Western creation methods and art perspective. Xu Beihong was a master of realistic painting, a field he was good at before going to Paris because he had already learnt this in China. Figures of the first and second stage, namely Kang Youwei and Cai Yuanpei (principal of Peking University and supporter of Chen Duxiu) both appreciated Xu Beihong’s painting skill. After arriving in Paris, Xu Beihong quickly polished his sketching skill to a very high level, although there was still room for improvement in his paintings. As for Wu Zuoren, upon his arrival in Paris and Bruxelles, he completely mastered Western institute art techniques in a short time; he even won the honor of “Laureate Student” in Belgium’s Royal Institute of Fine Arts, signifying he was the best artist on sketching and oil painting among his fellow western classmates. Sanyu and Pan Yuliang involved themselves in traditional painting skills of Fauvism and the Paris School, such as the 12. techniques used by Modigliani, Vuillard, Derain and Picasso. Meanwhile, Zao Wou-Ki, Chu Teh-Chun and Wu Guanzhong went to explore Abstraction. 11.

During this stage, it seemed that Chinese artists had learnt every mode and style of Western Art. Some of them took part in art learning activities about Realism in salons or institutes, while the others carried out art exploration experiments in independent salons. This was Chinese students’ echo of the Paris art circle. As they returned to China, although receiving less foreign influence, they still brought great impacts to their respective field. They represented the overall change of Chinese art direction – learning from the West.


However, under this general direction, two main artistic conflicts occurred, showing Chinese contemporary cultural problems.

The first conflict: passively receiving Western Art, Chinese artists lacked a good understanding on Western Art history and development. They could not tell the differences between western outdated traditions and modern art revolutions, because China was not at the same pace of development with the West. Therefore, realistic oil painting, a tradition that should be abandoned and surpassed in the eyes of Western advanced artists, was viewed by Chinese artists as a “New Art” with visual impact that could bring tremendous revolutionary effects to Chinese art tradition. As for Fauvism and Cubism founded in Paris, they made use of Eastern cultural elements, including Chinese one, to develop new art form, composition and color, so to surpass the realism painting (sculpture) symbolized by academism. To Chinese artists, this kind of art was just a twisted form of their traditional style. Konkusho Kankokai from Japan and Chen Shi from China drew the conclusion that the Western Art revolution was a revival of Chinese literati painting in World Culture. Figure 11. While Xu Beihong was holding ‘Chinese Contemporary Painting Exhibition’ in Paris in 1933, he went to Brussels to visit Mr. and Mrs. Wu Zuoren: from first row right side, Lina, Xu Beihong, Shen Yijia; from second row right side, Zhao Meibo, Wu Zuoren, Jiang Biwei - Figure 12. Wu Zuoren and his wife, Lina in front of the statue of Delacroix in Jardin du Luxemburg, Paris - Figure 13. Wu Guangzhong, Chu Teh-Chun and Zao Wou-Ki


識 分 子的自我“覺 醒”所 進 行的所 謂的“新文化 運 動 ”來 對自己的 文化 進 行自我改 造,藝 術 就 是其最 鮮明和最突出的 標誌性成 果。所以我們今天看 待 這個階段的藝 術,那就 不僅僅是幾 幅繪 畫,而是看到這個時 代的表徵。 為了移風 易 俗、改 造 國家,第二 階段的那 些 先 進 分 子承 擔了批判、否定 和改 造中國 傳 統 藝 術、向西方學習藝 術的過程,其中到巴 黎 學 畫的 這一批 人 就 是 身 體 力 行 者。他們多 多 少少 都受 到了上 述陳 獨秀的思想的影 響,陳 獨秀不是一 個 人,而是一種 意 識 形態的代言 者。他們到了巴黎之後,學習的都是西方的方 式,使 用的是油畫 或 者雕 塑技巧,在我們的 這 個 展 覽中可以 看 到 他們 或 多或 少已 經 從 素描、色 彩 和 造 型 上 接 近 和 掌 握 當 時西方的 創作 方 法和藝 術 觀 念。徐悲鴻 具 有 極強的寫實 能力,他 本來 在 出國之前,就 是以畫 像作 為自己 才 能的突 出表 現,在中國已 經學習了西方 寫實的 初步技巧,受 到第一階段代 表 康 有為和第二階段代表蔡元 培(北京大學 校長,陳 獨秀的支 持 者)的共同認可。到了巴黎之 後徐悲鴻 很快 就 在素描上 達 到了極為 精微的程 度,只是在色 彩上尚有欠缺。而吳作人 到 了巴黎及布魯塞爾之後,除了在素描上 迅速掌握之外,很快在色 彩上也全面地把握了西方 的學院技巧,並 ​​且 在比利時皇家美術學院中按照西方的藝 術標準,奪 得了全校第一名,獲 得“桂 冠生”稱號,成 為 在同代的西方人中掌 握 素描和油畫能力最 強的藝 術家。常玉和潘 玉良已經介入 到西方野獸派和巴黎畫 派的傳統 畫法,如莫 迪利亞尼、維 亞爾、德 蘭、畢加 索等人的畫法。趙無 極、朱德 群和吳冠中等直接介入了抽象主義的一些探索活動。


在 這個階段,表面上看 起 來中國 藝 術家學習了當時西方藝 術的幾 乎所有 藝 術樣 式 和風 格。他們一 部 分人在學院 和沙 龍中參加西方 寫實 藝 術的學習和活動,另一 部 分人同時 也 在 獨立 沙 龍中從 事一些 探 索性 藝 術的實驗,這 種情況 其 實是當時巴 黎 藝 術界的真實 情況 在中國學生中的迴 聲 和反 映。回到中 國以後,雖 然 各方面所受 到的影 響 變 得 微弱而 稀 釋,但 畢竟 在各自的 方向上都造 成了廣 泛的漪 漣。 他們代 表 著中國藝 術變 化的一個總體方向—向西方學習。 但 是在 這個 大的總體 方向之下,卻 有 兩 個 重要的藝 術 衝突明顯地 顯 示出來,成 為中國近 現代 文化問 題的縮影。 15.

第一 衝 突 是由 於被 動 地 接 受西方 藝 術,所以中國 藝 術 家 對 於 西方 藝 術 的 歷 史 和 發展 方 向 缺 少 鑑 別,無 從 判 斷 哪 些 是 西方 的已 經 過 時 的 傳 統、哪 些 是 西方反傳 統 而 發 起 的 現 代 藝 術 革 命。這 是 因 為 中國 的 現 代 化 進 程 和 西方所處 的 階 段 不一 樣。於 是,在 西 方 被 創 新 的 藝 術 家 看 做 傳 統 而 要 加 以徹 底 拋 棄 和 超 越 的 寫 實 油 畫,對 於 中國 來 說,恰 恰 是可 以 拿 來 改 造自己文化 藝 術 傳 統,具 有最 革 命、可 以 產 生 變 革 的 最 大 效 果,從 而 獲 得 視 覺 衝 擊 力 的“ 新 藝 術 ” ;而 對 於巴 黎 出現 的 野 獸 派、立 體 主 義 等,無 論 造 型、構 圖,還 是 色 彩,恰 恰 ​​是 在 吸收包含 中國 在 內的 東 方 和 異 文 化 因 素 的 基 礎 上 發 展 起 來 ,是 超 越 學 院 派 代 表 的 寫 實 油 畫( 雕 塑 )的 新 探 索,而 對 於 中國 的 眼 光 來 說,這 種 被 西 方人看做 離 經叛 道的藝 術反而不過 是自己的一種傳 統 風 格的特 殊變 化,所以 才 會出現日本的大村西崖 和中國的陳師 曾把西方藝 術的革命 看成 是中國文 人 畫 在世界文化中的普 遍復 興的後 果這樣的結 論。 Figure 14. Pan Yuliang sculpting Wang Shou Yi Figure 15. Pan Yuliang first arrival in Paris


The second conflict: although Chinese political and cultural elites tried to reform the tradition, it was not an easy task at all. Chinese tradition was a strong and stable existence which was deeply rooted with convention, so there was a lot of resistance towards the reformation. Moreover, among political leaders and intellectuals, there were people who fought to defend the tradition, or even tried to restore China back to ancient time. These forces in the art circle became stronger and more noticeable upon the return of Chinese artists from Paris. A group of new artists emerged to support Chinese art tradition (formed before the first stage). As foreign art being introduced to China, there was a resistance force with artists such as Qi Baishi, Huang Binhong and Pan Tianshou. They did not study in the West, nor did they follow the western artistic concepts and methods, yet they had to face this kind of art. In order to challenge and distance themselves from it, they developed a new image of Chinese art, which was no longer a “normal” development but rather a mutation happened during conflicts. More interestingly, those artists who studied in the West decided to reform Chinese tradition. Under their proposals and careful arrangements, western art training system was applied to “Chinese Painting”. As Xu Beihong said, “Sketching is the basis of all kinds of artistic form”, sketching and drawing from life became the compulsory courses of Chinese painting study. By combining Realism techniques and Chinese ink drawing style, “New Chinese painting” was thus created. Take Xu Beihong, Wu Zuoren and Lin Fengmian as examples, their art achievements in China during late period were mainly Chinese paintings (horses, camels, pandas and maids) apart from sketching and oil painting. In other words, they built up part of their own artistic images by reforming Chinese painting. To conclude, appreciating these 12 artists’ paintings is in fact an archaeological study that unveils these particular periods of Chinese history, which reveals issues that deserve our attention.


第二 點 是,雖 然中國的政 治 與文化 精 英 強 調 對中國 傳 統 的改 造,但 是中國 傳 統 是 一 個巨大而 穩 定 的力量,它 有 著深 刻的土 地 與習俗的基 礎,因此 這 種改 造 實際 上 會遇 到很大的阻力。況 且即使 在 政 治 領袖和中國知 識 分 子內部,也 出 現 極力 對抗 現代化,要求 維 護傳統,甚至 是回復 到古代傳統的心態 和勢力,而這 種 勢力在藝 術上的表現,會隨 著巴黎 帶回中國的這 些 藝 術的新 鮮力量的出現而變 得更 為 激 烈、鮮明和強勢,因此 在中國出現了一批 新的藝 術家,他們從根 本上 堅 持中國藝 術的傳統, (也 就是在第一階段 之前的那 個 藝 術留下 來的悠遠的傳統,)而在外來引進藝 術的刺激 之 下,產 生了“對抗性的逆 反”,從而出現了像齊白石、黃賓虹、潘天壽這樣的藝 術家。他們雖 然 沒有去西方留學,也 沒有 追隨西方藝 術的觀 念 和創作 方法,但是 他們必然要面對這樣的藝 術,從而出於與之拉開距離 和建 立挑 戰的目的,而發 展出了新的藝 術 形象。他們的藝 術已經 不是中國傳統藝 術的“正常 ”發展,而是在一種 衝突中的變 異。 而更有 意 思的是,這 些 從西方學習了素描 和油畫 造 型 技 術的藝 術家,決 定要嘗 試 改 造中國的傳 統。在他們的 極力主 張和精心設 計之下,竟然把西方 訓練 造 型能力變 成“中國畫”的基 礎,強調“素描是一 切造 型藝 術的基 礎” (徐悲鴻) ,用素描 和 寫 生作 為 學 習中國 畫 的必 修 課 程,將素描 寫 實 的 造 型 方 法和中國 筆 墨 的 方 式 相 結合,創 造 出了“新中國 畫”,徐悲鴻、吳作人、林風眠 都是典 型的代 表,他們後 來在中國的藝 術成 就,除了他們從西方學習回來的素描和油畫 之外,很大 程 度 上 是 他們的中國畫(馬、駱 駝、熊 貓、仕 女),也 就 是 說,這 些 人 是以 改 造了的新中國畫的成 果建 立了 自己的藝 術 形象和成 就的一 部 分。 因此我們看到的這次12個人的繪 畫,確 實是 對中國這一個歷史階段的考古 和揭示,裡面所揭示的問題值得重 視。


Xu Beihong

1895-1953 (Paris 1919-1927)


“It is a blissful event that China is having its unprecedented national art exhibition, and it is worthy of congratulation. What is even more worth congratulating is that it includes no shameless works by Cézanne, Matisse, or Bonnard… If our revolutionary government is able to unfold its grand strategy to unite the nation and give full scope to its far-ranging vision, yet merely uses tax receipts from tobacco and gambling to establish a large-scale gallery and fill its ten large rooms with works by the likes of Cézanne and Matisse, each priced at three to five thousand yuan (even though two of their paintings may be completed within one hour), the benefit to the people may be no greater than buying morphine and heroin along the street. As for me, Xu Beihong, I will grow my hair long and move to the mountains, where I will see no more of their base, decrepit, dark, and degenerate kind.” Xu Beihong, In an article titled ‘Confusion: An open letter to Xu Zhimo’, published in the fifth issue of the journal Art Exhibitions.


包括塞尚、馬蒂斯或者博納爾那些沒有廉恥的作品…如果我們的革命政府要開展偉大的戰略, 團結民族,展望遠大的未來,卻同時以菸草和賭博的徵稅來舉辦一個充斥塞尚、馬蒂斯等作品 的畫展,每一幅畫還要標價三至五千大洋(儘管他們一小時可能就可以畫兩幅畫),那麼此舉的 好處,尚不及沿街販賣嗎啡和海洛因。至於我,徐悲鴻,則會蓄髮隱居深山,再也不見這些俗、 腐、黑暗、墮落之流。」 摘自徐悲鴻文章《惑——致徐志摩公開信》,發表於《美展匯刊》第五期。


Self portrait c.1922 Oil on Board (recto) 37.5 x 32 cm Signed lower right



Carvorting Lions c.1922 Oil on Board (verso) 37.5 x 32 cm



Pan Yuliang

1895-1977 (Paris 1921-1928/1937-1977)



“If a Chinese artist learns Western painting without trying to combine it with the Chinese traditional art form or creating a unique personal style, this artist must not have a proper artistic aspiration, nor will he/she succeed in arts. I have made up my mind. I do not care what others think. I choose my own path. You cannot accomplish anything if you try to get everyone else’s understanding before doing it.” Pan Yuliang, 1932

「⋯⋯一個中國人學西畫不與中國傳統藝術相結合,不去創造自己的獨特風格,那不是有志於藝術事業 的人,更不是有出息的藝術家。我決心已定,不管他人怎麼議論,我要走一條自己的路。若是做任何事之 前,都想要得到人家的理解,那永遠做不成一件事。」 潘玉良,1932年


Nude 1957 Ink and watercolor on paper 60 x 90.5 cm Signed upper right



Lin Fengmian 1900-1991 (Paris 1920-1926)



“Apart from imitating the brush and ink work of others, very few have been able to capture the spirit of the age or create a unique style, and today traditional Chinese painting finds itself in desperate straits and utterly without any means of livelihood!” Lin Fengmian, ‘We should pay attention’

「除了模仿的筆墨之外,很少人能夠捕捉到畫家歲月積澱的神韻,很少人能夠獨創一格。而如今,傳統中 國繪畫卻置身於隔絕的海峽一邊,完全難以賴以謀生。」 《我們要注意》――國立杭州藝專紀念周講演, 林風眠


Fish market c. 1960s Oil on canvas 77.5 x 77.5 cm Signed middle right in Chinese Lin Fengmian




1901-1966 (Paris 1921-1966)



“I would starve to death if I returned to China because nobody would understand my paintings.” Sanyu, 1948

「如果我回到中國,我會餓死。因為沒人懂我的畫。」 常玉,1948年


Leopard 1931 Oil on canvas 93 x 116 cm Signed in Chinese and in French lower left and dated 1931



Sparrows on a Line 1931 Oil on canvas 50 x 80 cm Signed in Chinese and in French upper right



Wu Dayu

1903-1988 (Paris 1922-1927)


“What painting requires is perception, not painterly skills. Do not portray the outward appearance, but allow it to transcend.” Wu Dayu

「繪畫需要感知力,而非畫工。不要只懂得畫外表,而要讓它的內在昇華超越。」 吳大羽


Untitled No.28 c. 1970s Oil on canvas 53 x 37.9 cm



Yun Gee

1906-1963 (Paris 1927-1930)



“Perhaps nothing welds peoples together more closely than a common understanding and respect for each other’s cultures. This is what I felt when I lived in the French capital. As I strolled through the beautiful streets of Paris and passed the historic buildings, I forgot that I was in a strange land and that my home in Canton was thousands of miles away. I was quite young then and did not speak the language but it did not seem to matter. When I visited the Louvre day after day, the masterpieces there spoke to me in a language which was neither French nor Chinese but which transcended both time and place. Here was something universal which had meaning for every man regardless of race or station. A painting by Cézanne or Courbet became as close to me as any of the scrolls by the Chinese masters with which I was so familiar. And I realized then that East and West were not so far apart, for in their finest creative effort, there was something very much akin.” Yun Gee, New York, September 1944

「也許,除了相互理解和尊重彼此文化之外,沒有什麽更能夠把人與人凝聚在一起了。這是我在法國首都 居住時期的最大感觸。當我在美麗的法國街頭漫步,經過一座座古老的建築時,我忘記了自己身處一個 陌生的國度,忘記了我的家鄉廣東原來在千里之外。我當時還很年輕,還不會說法語,但這一點都不影 響。我日復一日到參觀羅浮宮的時候,每件偉大的藝術品都在向我說話,不是用法語,也不是用中文,但 卻能夠超越時間與空間的限制。有一種普世的東西,它不論種族,不論身份地位,對於任何人來說都具 有意義。於我而言,一幅塞尚或庫爾貝的畫作,與任何我所熟悉的中國名家卷軸一樣讓我感到親近。我 然後才意識到東方和西方的文化之間,並非如此遙不可及,在彼此最精深創造力之中,包含著息息相關 的內涵。」 朱沅芷, 1944年9月於紐約


The Flute Player (Self Portrait) 1928 Oil on canvas 58.4 x 48.3 cm Signed upper right Yun Gee



Wu Zuoren

1908-1997 (Paris 1930-1931/1934-1935)



“Standing before all the deities of art here, I determine to spare no effort learning art, so that one day I will shine as well, with the glory from the remote east inherited from thousands of years ago.” Wu Zuoren, after visiting the Louvre for the first time, April 1930

「我 一定 要 竭 盡 全 力,在 這 藝 術 眾神 前,努力 學 習,使自己有 朝 一日,也 成 為光 源,發 放 出來自 遙 遠的東方的千載 相傳的 藝 術的 輝 煌 光芒。」 吳作人 , 第一次參 觀 進 入羅 浮宮之後 , 19 3 0 年 4月


Nude woman 1932 Oil on canvas 49.5 x 29.5 cm Signed lower right



Wu Guanzhong 1919-2010 (Paris 1947-1950)



“Forty years passed, I am getting older. Came back, I use my oriental hands and eyes to paint the old Paris-new Paris. There is much to feel about, not least to paint!” Wu Guanzhong, The Paris Notes

「四十年已逝,我變老了,重返巴黎,我用我東方的手和眼睛,去畫當年的巴黎和現在的巴黎。不僅有太 多東西要畫,是有太多的感觸要在心頭體會啊!」 《巴黎筆記》 吳冠中


Gulang Islet 1977 Ink and watercolor on Korean paper 102 x 103 cm Signed lower right with the seal of the artist



Spring Calling c. 1980s Ink and watercolor on paper 69.3 x 137 cm Signed and stamped lower left with the seal of the artist



Zao Wou-Ki 1920-2013 (Paris 1948-2013)


“To me, Chinese painting ceased to be creative in the sixteenth century. Since that time, painters have merely copied what the great Han and Song traditions invented. Chinese art has become a set of manufacturing formulas, beauty confused with know-how. The hand movements and brush strokes were codified. There was no room for the imagination and the unexpected. Since childhood, I have experienced this tradition as a straitjacket that I had to get rid of. It became necessary for me to remove myself from China to come to live in France, a sort of first surgical operation I made on my own culture to start and finally solve this problem. I felt that was either that or die. There was no other alternative.” Zao Wou-Ki, Autoportrait

「在我看來,中國繪畫藝術的創意,早於16世紀已經不復存在。漢、宋兩朝畫壇盛世曾現,但之後畫風因 循苟且,中國藝術淪為流水作業,許多人只會賣弄技巧,美學觀念卻早已模糊不清,手法筆觸亦流於形式 化,作品缺乏想像與驚喜。 自幼這一切便猶如約束衣,將我緊緊綑綁,教我急欲掙脫,不得不忍痛割捨鄉情文化,由中國遠逃法國, 踏出衝破故土形式框框的第一步,也是必要的一步。 不突破,毋寧死。 我別無他選。」 《自傳》 趙無極


02.04.59 1959 Oil on canvas 91 x 132 cm Signed and dated 59 lower right and titled on verso



Chu Teh-Chun 1920-2014 (Paris 1955-2014)


“Despite I had been living abroad, what has always guided me in my behaviour and relationship with others is the spirit of Chinese culture that I have comprehended when I was young.” Chu Teh-Chun

「雖然我一度在外國居住,但引領我言行舉止、待人接物的卻是我年輕時所理解吸收的中國文化精神。」 朱德群


Untitled No. 195 1965-66 Oil on canvas 146 x 114 cm Signed and dated center left 1966 Signed and dated 1965-66 on verso



Xiong Bingming 1922-2002 (Paris 1947-2002)



“I am a seed born from Chinese culture but growing on Western land. I don’t know what kind of flower I will blossom into - red, purple or gray, or what kind of fruits I will yield - sweet, sour or bitter. In the end of my life, I have to show my fruits to my friends. But I am neither proud nor ashamed.” Xiong Bingming, Paris, 1965

「我是一顆種子,生於中國文化,長於西方土地。我不知道我會開什麼樣的花朵,紅色,紫色或是灰色, 也不知道我會結什麼樣的果子,甜的,酸的,還是苦的。在我生命的尾聲,我必須向我的朋友們展示我的 果實。但我既不感到驕傲,也不感到羞恥。」 熊秉明, 1965於巴黎


Chinese Earth Buffalo 1969 Bronze Edition of 5/8 35 x 68 x 26 cm Signed and dated 69





T’ang Haywen 1927-1991 (Paris 1948-1991)


“I think that total abstraction is a dead end, only justified by theory, expressing itself through a fleshless verb... Painting can only evolve from some degree of concrete figuration. Thus, it can regenerate itself without losing itself and spread within the areas of affectivity and spirituality”. T’ang Haywen

「我認為純抽象是一條死胡同,只能通過無血無肉的動詞來表達自己,僅在理論上行得通…… 繪畫可以 從某種程度進化具體物象。因此,繪畫可以使物像重新自我再生而不失去本質,同時在情感和精深的層 面得以延伸擴展。」 曾海文


Naissance du Dragon (Birth of The Dragon) 1970 Ink on Kyro card, diptych 70 x 100 cm Signed lower right Inscribed in the back: “Naissance du Dragon catalogue N° 3 diapo”



Untitled 1964 Oil on canvas 61.8 x 50.5 cm Signed in pinyin and Chinese and dated 64 lower right



Untitled 1965 Ink and watercolor on Kyro card 70 x 50 cm Signed and dated 65 lower right





Xu Beihong


Self portrait

c.1922 Oil on Board (recto) 37.5 x 32 cm Signed lower right

Christie’s Hong Kong: Sunday October 30, 1994, lot 8 Private collection, Asia




Carvorting Lions

1931 Oil on canvas 93 x 116 cm Signed in Chinese and in French lower left and dated 1931

c.1922 Oil on Board (verso) 37.5 cm x 32 cm


Christie’s , Hong Kong, 28 April 2002 Private collection, Asia

Pan Yuliang




Private collection, Asia


The Art of Pan Yu-Lin, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan, 1995

Untitled No. 28 c. 1970 Oil on canvas 53 x 37.9 cm



1931 Oil on canvas 50 x 80 cm Signed in Chinese and in French upper right, signed and dated on back Sanyu 20, 4, 1931



The Art of Pan Yu-Lin, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan, 1995, plate 115, page 118, illustrated

Henri-Pierre Roche, Paris Jean-Claude Riedel, Paris Private collection, Asia


Lin Fengmian Fish market


c. 1960s Oil on canvas 77.5 x 77.5 cm Signed middle right in Chinese


Henri-Pierre Roche, Paris Jean Claude Riedel, Paris Private collection, Asia

Sparrows on a Line


Wu Dayu


Sanyu, Catalogue Raisonne Oil Paintings, Rita Wong, Yageo Foundation, Lin & Keng Art Publications, plate 213, page 335, illustrated in color

1967 Ink and watercolor on paper 60 x 90.5 cm Signed upper right

Sanyu, Tamsui Centre of Arts and Culture, 1994, page 36 Overseas Chinese Painters- Sanyu, Antoine Chen, Artist Press, 1995, page 119 The Art of Sanyu, National Museum of History, Taipei, 1995, plate 62, page 36 Masters of Chinese Paintings - Sanyu, Chin Hsiu Publishing Company, Taipei, 1997, page 7 Sanyu, Catalogue Raisonne Oil Paintings Volume Two, Rita Wong, 2001, plate 256, page 145, illustrated in color

Sanyu, Tamsui Center of Arts and Culture, Taipei, 18 August - 4 September 1994 Sanyu, Home Gallery, Taipei, 12 August - 3 September 1995 Sanyu Paintings, Taiwan History Museum, Taipei, 14 October - 26 November 1995.


Home Collection, Home Gallery, 1992

Private collection


Exhibition of Wu Dayu’s Painting, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan, 9 March - 8 April 2001 Wu Dayu, Lin & Keng Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan, 7 November - 30 December 2007


Exhibition of Wu Dayu’s Painting, National Museum of History, Taipei, Taiwan, 2001, illustrated page 59

Yun Gee


The Flute Player (Self-portrait)

1928 Oil on canvas 58.4 x 48.3 cm Signed Yun Gee upper right


Helen’s World of Yun Gee, Sotheby’s Taipei, Sunday 17 October, 1999


Private collection, Asia


Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1929 Brooklyn Museum, 1931 Balzac Galleries, New York, 1932 Anderson Galleries, American Art Association, 1933 Galerie a la Reine Margot, Paris, 1938 Montross Gallery (Benefit of Chinese Women’s Relief Organization), 1940 Boston Institute of Modern Art (group show), 1941 University Settlement Society of New York (Benefit of United China Relief Fund), 1942 Milch Gallery, New York, 1943 Lilienfeld Gallery, New York, 1945 Lucien Labaudt, San Francisco, 1946 China Institute of America, New York, 1947 Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, New York, 1968 The William Benton Museum of Art, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 1979 Weatherspoon Art Gallery, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 1980 The Oakland Museum, Oakland, California, 1980 Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, Maine, 1980 Vanderwoude-Tananbaum Gallery, New York, 1983 The Art of Yun Gee, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, March 25 to June 14, 1992


Cover: Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, catalogue, 1968 American Artist, January, 1974, Lion Art Monthly, February issue, Taiwan, 1975, page 82 Cover: William Benton Museum of Art, catalogue, 1979 Hsintu Monthly, No.16, December issue, New York, 1979, page 56 Cover: Artist Magazine, No.57 Hsiung Shih Art Monthly, No.108, February issue, Taiwan, 1980, page 130 Cover: Yun Gee: Early Modernist Paintings 1926 – 1932, Vanerwoude-Tananbaum Gallery, 1983


The Art of Yun Gee, Taipei Fine Arts Museum, 1992, page 117 Helen’s World of YUN GEE, Sotheby’s Taipei, 17 October 1999, page 61

Wu Zuoren


Nude woman 1932 Oil on canvas 49.5 x 29.5 cm Signed lower right

Provenance Private collection, Asia


Wu Zuoren, 60 Year Art Life Exhibition, National Museum of China, 1986 Wu Zuoren Art Exhibition, National Museum of China, 1999 Academy and Art, Wu Zuoren Centennial Exhibition, National Museum of China, 2008 Basis of Sketch: The Revolution of New Chinese Painting? Wu Zuoren Exhibition, 2010-2011, travelled to: National Agriculture Exhibition Centre, Beijing, Changshu Art Museum, Jiangsu Province, Xuhui Art Museum, Shanghai, Guan ShanYue Art Museum, Shenzhen


Wu Zuoren Collection of Art Works (Oil Painting volume), Liaoning Fine Arts Publishing House, 1995, page 10 The Study and Memorial of Wu Zuoren, Beijing Press, 1999, page 355, Wu Zuoren Hundred Years Anniversary, Guangxi Normal University Press, 2008, page 183 Catalog Academy and Art, Wu Zuoren Centennial Exhibition, National Art Museum of China, 2008, page 53 Wu Zuoren Sketch Collection, Culture and Art Publishing House, 2009, page 6 Basis of Sketch: The Revolution of New

Chinese Painting, Chinese Literature and Art Publishing House, 2010, page 55

Wu Guanzhong


Gulang Islet

1977 Ink and watercolor on Korean paper 102 x 103 cm Signed lower right with the seal of the artist


Private collection, Asia


The Chinese University of Hong Kong Art Gallery, Modern Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Collection of the Kau Chi Society of Chinese Art, August 29 to October 4, 1987 An Unbroken Line: In Commemoration of Wu Guanzhong, Poly Art Museum, Beijing, China, 30 August - 6 September 2010 Revolutionary Ink: The Paintings of Wu Guanzhong, Asia Society Museum, New York, 25 April - 5 August 2012


Selected Works of Wu Guanzhong, People’s Fine Arts Publishing House, April 1979, page 3 Modern Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Collection of the Kau Chi Society of Chinese Art, Art Gallery, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, July 1987, plate 124 The Complete Works of Wu Guanzhong, vol.V, Hunan Fine Arts Publishing House, August 2007, page 75 An Unbroken Line: In Commemoration of Wu Guanzhong, Poly Art Museum, Beijing, China, October 2010, page 42-43 Revolutionary Ink: The Paintings of Wu Guanzhong, Asia Society Museum, New York, 2012, plate 8 Awakening Spring: Significant Works by Wu Guanzhong, Sotheby’s Hong Kong, October 2013, plate 1

“I love old trees, not because I treasure there annual rings, but because I love their shapes that contain so much strength and power. I went to Hainan Island, Gulang Islet, Sipsongpanna and Nanning, looking for huge banyan trees. Their twisting, curling and spiralling trunks and the drooping aerial roots can provide the realist artists with unlimited perspective to explore, and abstractionist artists with infinite inspirations to develop.” “Once I was trying to represent a big banyan tree with oil painting in Gulang Islet. The twisting and winding trunks, attached by layers of aerial roots forming numerous vertical lines, juxtaposed with the background of the horizontal waves in the boundless sea. Yet in my oil painting, I took “colour change”, “substanceemptiness”, “echoing” and every other concept into account – except for the “maze” formed by the dense vertical lines. The painting became a failure, because it did not express the meaning I intended. A few years later, I did it again with ink and water, putting the emphasis on the linear structure instead of colour. It turned out to be just satisfactory and it did touch the hearts of many speculators.”

Spring Calling

c. 1980s Ink and watercolor on paper 69.3 x 137 cm Signed and stamped lower left with the seal of the artist


Private collection, Asia


Landscape Paintings by Eight Artists, Tsi Ku Chai, Hong Kong, May 9 to 12, 1990 Revolutionary Ink: The Paintings of Wu Guanzhong, Asia Society Museum, New York, 25 April - 5 August 2012


Selected Landscape Paintings of Eight Artists, Tsi Ku Chai, Hong Kong, August 1989, plate 54

Revolutionary Ink: The Paintings of Wu Guanzhong, Asia Society Museum, New York, 2012, plate 45, page 30 Awakening Spring: Significant Works by Wu Guanzhong, Sotheby’s Hong Kong, October 2013, plate 6 “White walls and a grey roofs, small bridges and winding rivers, lakes and ponds, all of these constitutes the waterside landscape of southern China. Black, white and grey are the key tones of the southern China waterside. Silver-grey is mainly used to represent the overcast sky. I love the overcast sky in the spring of southern China. You won’t find sunlight and projection in my painting. Even if I were to express sunlight, I would capture the moment when a piece of cloud is blocking the sun. I have spent my lifetime in southern China; and among my works on southern China, or I should say, among all my works, I believe that Spring Calling is my most prominent, representative work.” “In Spring Calling, the main techniques are plane splitting and the combination of geometric shapes. It shows a strong contrast between the horizontal long lines and the vertical short black blocks. Mondrien pursues the beauty of simplicity and innocence in his painting with combination of geometric shapes. Yet the emotion in his painting tends to be vague, or even void. Spring Calling, on the other hand, clearly expresses an ‘oriental style of missing’: the swallows flew away, yet the missing for homeland remains. The contrast between horizontal and vertical, black and white have made a success in Spring Calling, which has been preserved in my mind as an ‘eye’ to view arts. … Almost every composition of abstractionist work, with its intertwining complex and emotions, is developed from concrete images. Different periods of works of an artist can reveal what he/she was up to during these years. The privacy hidden in the heart of artists is shown to the public through their works. ”

Zao Wou-Ki



1959 Oi on canvas 91 x 132 cm Signed and dated 59 lower right and titled on verso


Galerie de France, Paris, France Private collection, California, USA Waddington Galleries, London, United-Kingdom Paris, Chayette-Calmels, lot n°88, 31 March 1989 de Sarthe gallery, Hong Kong Private collection, Asia


Zao Wou-Ki, Galerie de France, Paris, France, 1960 Zao Wou-Ki, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France, 2003 Zao Wou-Ki, Bridgestone Museum of ArtIshibashi Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, 2004 Zao Wou-Ki Paintings: 1950’s – 1960’s, de Sarthe Gallery, Hong Kong, March 18 – April 29, 2011


Zao Wou-Ki, Leymarie, Jean, Hier et Demain Editions, Paris/Ediciones Poligrafa, Barcelona, 1978, full page color illustration no. 76, page 126. Zao Wou-Ki, Leymarie, Jean, Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 1979, full page color illustration no. 76, page 126. Zao Wou-Ki, Leymarie, Jean, Cercle d’Art Editions, Paris/Ediciones Poligrafa, Barcelona, 1986, updated edition, full page color illustration no. 76, page 126. Zao Wou-Ki, Roy, Claude, Cercle d’Art Editions, Paris, 1988, full page color illustration no. 08, page 95 (also in the second and updated edition 1992 and in the third and updated edition 1996) Zao Wou-Ki, Galerie Nationale du Jeu de


Paume, Paris, France, 2003, full page color illustration page 97, Zao Wou-Ki, Bridgestone Museum of Art – Ishibashi Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, 2004, full double page color illustration no. 27 page 88-89 Zao Wou-Ki Paintings: 1950’s – 1960’s, de Sarthe Gallery, Hong Kong, March 18 – April 29, 2011, full page color illustration page 22-23

Chu Teh-Chun


Untitled No. 195


Private collection, Paris de Sarthe gallery, Hong Kong Private collection, Asia


Chu Teh-Chun: Nature in Abstraction, de Sarthe Gallery, Hong Kong, Oct 5 – Nov 3, 2012


Chu Teh-Chun: Nature in Abstraction, de Sarthe Gallery, Hong Kong, Oct 5 – Nov 3, 2012, full page color illustration page 20-21.

Chinese Earth Buffalo 1969 Bronze Edition of 8 35 x 68 x 26 cm Signed and dated 69


Private collection, Asia



Naissance du Dragon (Birth of The Dragon) 1970 Ink on Kyro card, diptych 70 x 100 cm Signed lower right Inscribed in the back: “Naissance du Dragon, catalogue N°3 diapo”


1959 Oi on canvas 146 x 114 cm Signed and dated center left 1966. Signed and dated 1965-66 on verso.

Xiong Bingming

T’ang Haywen


the Guimet Asian art museum in Paris. Note: Jean-Paul Desroches, recently retired,was the General Curator for National Heritage at Musée Guimet, an old friend of T’ang as well as close to many Chinese artists in Paris, such as Zao Wou-Ki and Chu TehChun. Amongst other things Mr. Desroches wrote the journal of production of the series of’ceramics produced by Chu Teh-Chun at the manufacture nationale de Sèvres (collection “de Neige d’Or et d’Azur”) and produced several exhibition projects for Zao Wou-Ki.

The artist. Private collection, Paris Will be included under number S10-LDI-11 in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné now being prepared by Mr. Philippe Koutouzis

Photograph of the inscription on the back here below:


Catalogue of the exhibition:

T’ang Haywen, Musée des Beaux Arts de Quimper, Quimper, France, 1983 T’ang Haywen, Musée des Beaux Arts de Vitré, Château de Vitré, France, 1984 “Tian An Men 4 Juin – 4 Décembre je n’oublie pas”, Centre Georges Pompidou 牢記六月四日天安門 ( Tian An Men June 4thDecember 4th I do not forget), 1989

“Tian An Men 4 Juin – 4 Décembre je n’oublie pas”, Centre Georges Pompidou 牢記六月四日天安門 ( Tian An Men June 4thDecember 4th I do not forget) Image of the catalogue cover here below


Tian An Men 4 Juin – 4 Décembre Je n’oublie pas, Centre Pompidou, reproduced in the catalogue. Foreword by Elisabeth Badinter, 1989 T’ang Haywen Lavis et aquarelles, Musée du Château de Vitré. Reproduced in the catalogue. Foreword by Dominique Ponnau, Directeur de l´Ecole du Louvre, 1984

Notes: The inscription on the back

“Naissance du Dragon catalogue V°3 diapo”. Birth of the Dragon catalogue V°3 diapo (diapositive) By Mr. Jean-Paul Desroches organizer of the exhibitions of T’ang in 1983 and 1984 in Quimper and Vitré and then Curator at

1989 T’ang Haywen writes a draft of a letter to a friend (a few mistakes, orthograph and syntax)


“Merci pour ta lettre, je suis de retour de Londres depuis 10 jours et auparavant j’étais en Belgique. Je regrette de ne pas avoir été à Paris pendant ton passage. Les évènements qui avaient tourné en grande tragédie ont bouleversé entièrement la dernière illusion du régime totalitaire Il nous ne reste que l’horreur sanglante de Tiénanmen (Tien instead of Tian and accents sur e et n) dans la mémoire collective. Maintenant le Rideau de Fer y tombe, le mensonge et la persecution y continuent. Il est impossible de répresser la juste aspiration de tout un peuple et l’on garde toujours l’espoir d’un changement radical selon l’avis general d’ici 5 ou 6 ans ? (“Aragon” écrit à gauche dans la marge)

provoking the brutal end the “spring of Prague” and of the project of “socialism with a human face”. Aragon writes “I see no light at the end of this path of violence”. In 1989, two years before his death, feeling weak but concerned about the future of freedom in China, T’ang uses the words of Aragon but wants to believe in hope. Image of the letter here below

Note: This note “Aragon” in the margin of the letter – also by the hand of T’ang - may give us the beginning of an explanation concerning the emotion and lyricism of T’ang’s letter. Louis Aragon (1897-1982) was an important communist writer and poet but was also deemed a “liberal” by the east European communist regimes for the support he was giving to many “non orthodox” writers. In August 1968, Aragon publishes a preface to the novel of the Czechoslovakian novelist Milan Kundera “the joke” at the time when Czechoslovakia is invaded by the forces of the Warsaw pact;

Will be included under number S21-LMC-6 in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné now being prepared by Mr. Philippe Koutouzis Catalogue Note: S21-LMC-6 is reminiscent of the above oil painting dated 1964: “Untitled“. It is slightly smaller at 61x50 cm and somewhat less abstracted from reality even though it demonstrates the newfound interest of T’ang for Chinese tradition. T’ang after experimenting in oil painting with different degrees of success finds his voice in a very modern, and here systematic, use of the traditional Chinese atmospheric perspective.


English translation

Thank you for your letter, For the last ten days I have been back from London, before I was in Belgium. I regret not having been in Paris during your visit. The events that had turned in great tragedy have completely upset the last illusion of the totalitarian regime. We are left, in our collective memory, with the bloody horror of Tienanmen (Tien instead of Tian and accents on e and n). Now the Iron Curtain fell, lies and persecution continue. It is impossible to suppress the just aspiration of an entire people and there is, according to a widespread opinion, hope for a radical change within 5 or 6 years? (“Aragon” is written in the left margin)



自畫像﹣躍起的雄獅 Untitled

1964 Oil on canvas 61.8 x 50.5 cm Signed in pinyin and Chinese and dated 64 lower right


Private collection Sotheby’s, Hong Kong, 20th Century Chinese Art, October 6, 2013 Private collection, Hong Kong Will be included in the forthcoming catalogue raisonné now being prepared by Mr. Philippe Koutouzis


1965 Ink and watercolor on Kyro card 70 x 50 cm Signed dated lower right


The artist Private collection, Europe

約1922年 油畫 畫板(雙面) 37.5 x 32 公分 簽名在右下方

來源: 香港佳士德,2002年4月28日 私人收藏,亞洲



裸體 1967年 水墨及水彩紙本 60 x 90.5 公分 簽名在右上方

來源: 私人收藏,亞洲

展覽: 潘玉良的藝術,國立歷史博物館,台北,1995年

著錄: 潘玉良的藝術,國立歷史博物館出版,台北,1995 年,圖錄115,頁118




漁村 約1960年代 油畫 畫布 77.5 x 77.5 公分 簽名:以中文簽於右面正中

著錄: 香港佳士德:星期日,1994年10月30日,拍賣品 8 私人收藏,亞洲



黑底花豹 1931年 油畫 畫布 93 x 116 公分 簽名以中文及法文和日期1931簽於左下方

家藏,家畫廊出版社,台北,1992年 常玉,淡水藝文中心出版,台北,1994年,頁36 華裔美術選集﹣常玉,陳炎鋒著,藝術家出版社, 台北,1995年,圖版62,頁119 常玉畫集,國立歷史博物館出版,台北,1995年, 圖版26,頁36 中國巨匠美術周刊﹣常玉,錦繡出版社,台 北,1997年,頁7 常玉油畫全集,衣淑凡,國巨基金會、大未來藝術 出版社,2001年,圖版256,頁383

吳大羽 1903-1988 無題 第28號 油畫 畫布 約1970年代 53 x 37.9 公分

來源: 私人收藏



昂利.皮野.侯謝,巴黎 尚.克勞德.希耶戴,巴黎 私人收藏,亞洲

吳大羽油畫展覽,國立歷史博物館,台灣台 北,2001年3月9日至4月8日 吳大羽,耿畫廊,台灣台北,2007年11月7日至12 月30日

著錄: 〈常玉油畫全集〉,衣淑凡,國巨基金會 、大未來 藝術出版社,2001年,圖版213,頁335

電線上的麻雀 1931 油畫 畫布 50 x 80 公分 簽名以中文及法文簽於右上方 簽名Sanyu和日期20.4.1931在背面

來源: 昂利.皮野.侯謝,巴黎 尚.克勞德.希耶戴,巴黎 家畫廊,台北

展覽: 常玉,淡水藝文中心,台北,1994年8月18日至9 月4日 常玉,家畫廊,台北,1995年8月12日至9月3日 雙玉爭輝,國立歷史博物館,台北,1995年10月14 日至11月26日



著錄: 吳大羽油畫展覽,國立歷史博物館,台灣台 北,2001年,頁59

朱沅芷 1906-1963 吹笛者(自畫像) 1928年作於巴黎 油畫 畫布 58.5 x 48.3 公分 簽名:Yun Gee

來源: 朱海倫的沅芷世界,台北蘇富比,1999年10月17日 私人收藏,亞洲

展覽: 博翰珍畫廊,巴黎,1929年 布魯克林美術館,紐約,1931年

巴爾扎克畫廊,紐約,1932年 安德遜畫廊,美國藝術協會,1933年 連瑪各畫廊,巴黎,1938年 蒙卓斯畫廊,紐約(為中華婦民賑濟會籌款) ,1940年 波斯頓現代美術學院聯展,1941年 兒童藝術中心,紐約(為賑濟中國募款),1942年 妙珠畫廊,紐約,1943年 禮廉斐爾德畫廊,紐約,1945年 魯先拉博特畫廊,紐約,1946年 華美協進會,紐約,1947年 羅伯.蕭科夫特畫廊,紐約,1968年 威廉班頓美術館,康乃狄克州大學,史托爾 斯,1979年 衛德史本美術館,北卡羅萊那大學,格林斯博 羅,1980年 奧克蘭美術館,加州奧克蘭,1980年 波多因學院美術館,緬因州,1980年 凡德伍德.邦那塔畫廊,紐約,1983年 朱沅芷作品展,台北市立美術館,1992年3月25日 至6月14日

著錄: 羅伯.蕭科夫特畫廊目錄,1968年,封面作品 美國藝術家,1954年1月 雄獅美術月刊,台灣, 1975年2月號,頁82 威廉班頓美術館展覽目錄,1979年,封面作品 新土月刊第16期,紐約,1979年12月號,頁56 藝術家雜誌第57期,台灣,1980年2月號,封面 作品 雄獅美術月刊第108期,台灣,1980年2月號,頁 130 凡德伍德.邦那塔畫廊展覽目錄,紐約,1983年, 封面作品 朱沅芷作品展目錄,台北市立美術館,1992年, 頁117 朱海倫的沅芷世界,台北蘇富比,1999年10月17 日,頁61



女人體 1932年 油畫 畫布 49.5 x 29.5 公分 簽名在右下方




吳冠中畫選,人民美術出版社,北京,1979年4 月,頁3 求知雅集珍藏近代中國書畫,香港中文大學文物 館,1987年7月,圖版124 吳冠中全集第五卷,湖南美術出版社,2007年8 月,頁75 緬懷吳冠中先生經典作品收藏大展 ﹣來自全球華 人珍藏 展覽目錄, 保利博物館,北京,2010年10 月,頁42- 43 吳冠中 展覽目錄,亞洲協會博物館,紐約,2012 年,圖版8 春如線 ﹣吳冠中精品集,香流蘇富比,2013年10 月,圖版1

展覽: 吳作人藝術生活60年畫展,1986年,中國美術館 吳作人藝術大展,1999年,中國美術館 學院與藝術—吳作人百年藝術展,2008年,中國 美術館 素描基礎:新中國畫的革命? ,2010-2011,北京農 業展覽館、常熟美術館、上海徐匯藝術館、深圳關 山月美術館 國風——中國油畫語言研究展,2013-2014年,北 京大都美術館開館展

吳冠中 展覽目錄, 亞洲協會博物館,紐約,2012 年,頁30及圖版45 春如線 ﹣吳冠中精品集,香港蘇富比,2013年10 月),圖版6 「白牆黛瓦、小橋流水、湖泊池塘,水鄉水鄉,白亮 亮的水鄉。黑、白、灰是江南主調,也是我自己作品 銀灰主調的基石,我藝術道路的起步。而蘇聯專家 說,江南不適宜作油畫。銀灰調多呈現於陰天,我 最愛江南的春陰,我畫面中基本排斥陽光與投影, 若表現晴日的光亮,也像是朵雲遮日那瞬間。我一 輩子斷斷續續總在畫江南,在眾多江南題材的作 品中,甚至在我的全部作品中,我認為最突出、最具 代表性的是〈雙燕〉。

著錄: 吳作人作品集•油畫,遼寧美術出版社,1995年 , 頁10 吳作人研究與追念,北京出版社,1999年 ,頁355 百年作人——吳作人百年誕辰紀念文集,廣西師範 大學出版社,2008年,頁 183 學院與藝術——吳作人百年誕辰紀念展,中國美術 館展覽畫冊,2008年,頁53 造化天工——吳作人寫生作品集,文化藝術出版 社,2009年,頁6 素描基礎:新中國畫的革命,中國文藝出版 社,2010年, 頁 55

吳冠中 1919-2010 鼓浪嶼

「我愛老樹,不是為了珍視它的年輪,說穿了是愛 其形象蒼勁之美。我跑到海南島、鼓浪嶼、西雙版 納、南寧……尋找大榕樹,那虯曲的軀幹,層層垂 掛的氣根,可以讓寫實的畫家無窮無盡的探索,可 以予抽象派繪畫以不盡的啟發。」 有一回我在鼓浪嶼用油彩表現大榕樹,榕樹幹枝 虯曲,披掛著層層氣根,那密密垂線正與無際海濤 的橫臥波狀線對照成趣。但我在油畫中遷就了色彩 的變幻、虛實、呼應……偏偏繞過了那稠密的線之迷 宮,詞不達意,畫面徹底失敗了。幾年後,改用水墨 移植這幅油畫,改弦易轍,捨色層而強調線結構, 結果倒差強人意,畫也得到了較多觀眾的共鳴。」


〈雙燕〉著力於平面分割,幾何形組合,橫向的長 線及白塊與縱向的短黑塊之間形成強對照。蒙德 里安(Mondrien)畫面的幾何組合追求簡約、單純 之美,但其情意之透露過於含糊,甚至等於零。 〈 雙燕〉明確地表達了東方情思,即使雙燕飛去,鄉 情依然。橫與直、黑與白的對比美在〈雙燕〉中獲得 成功後,便成為長留我心頭的藝術眼目。……近乎 抽象的幾何構成,纏綿糾葛的情結風貌,其實都遠 源於具象形象的發揮。不同時期作品揭示了作者數 十年來奔忙於何事,心靈的隱私被示眾了。」

趙無極 1920-2013 02.04.59

1977年 水墨和水彩韓紙 102 x 103 公分 簽名和蓋印在右下方

1980s 水墨和水彩紙本 69.3 x 137 公分 簽名和蓋印在左下方

1959年 油畫 畫布 91 x 132 公分 簽名:簽名和日期59年在右下角 背面題名








求知雅集珍藏近代中國書畫,中文大學文物館,香 港,1987年8月29日至10月4日 緬懷吳冠中先生經典作品收藏大展,保利博物館, 北京, 2010年8月30日至9月6日 吳冠中, 亞洲協會博物館,紐約, 2012年4月25 日至8月5日

八家山水畫展,香港展覽中心, 1990年5月9日至 12日 吳冠中,紐約,亞洲協會博物館,2012年4月25日 至8月5日

法蘭西畫廊,法國巴黎 私人收藏,美國加洲 沃丁頓畫廓,英國倫敦 1989年3月31日拍賣,Chayette-Calmels,拍 賣品88 德薩畫廊, 香港 私人收藏,亞洲



八家山水畫選集, 集古齋,香港,1989年8月,圖 版54

趙無極,法蘭西畫廊,法國巴黎,1960年 趙無極回顧展,網球場國家美術館,法國巴 黎,2003年


趙無極,石橋美術館﹣石橋基金會,日本東 京,2004年 趙無極油畫1950s-1960s,德薩畫廊,香港,2011 年3月18日至4月29日

著錄: 趙無極,尚﹒雷馬利,馬克文獻研究,法國巴黎及 Ediciones Polígrafa西班牙巴塞隆拿,1978年, 圖版76, 頁126 趙無極,尚﹒雷馬利,Rizzoli,美國紐約,1979年, 圖錄76,頁126 趙無極,尚﹒雷馬利,藝術圈出版社,法國巴黎及 Ediciones Polígrafa西班牙巴塞隆拿,1986年, 更新版本,圖錄76,頁126 趙無極,華﹒克羅德,藝術圈出版社,法國巴 黎,1988年,圖錄08,頁95 (也在1992年第二更 新版和在1996年第三更新版) 趙無極,網球場國家美術館,法國巴黎,2003年, 頁97 趙無極,石橋美術館﹣石橋基金會,日本東 京,2004年,圖版27,頁88至89 趙無極油畫1950s-1960s,德薩畫廊,香港,2011 年3月18日至4月29日,頁22至23

熊秉明 1922-2002 水牛 1969年 青銅 8個版本 35 x 68 x 26 公分 簽名和日期69

來源: 私人收藏,亞洲



龍的誕生 1970年 水墨在Kyro 卡,雙幅 70 x 100 公分 簽名:右下角 背面刻畫: “Naissance du Dragon, catalogue N°3 diapo”


朱德群 1920-2014

藝術家 私人收藏, 法國

無題 第195號


1965﹣66年 油畫 畫布 146 x 114 公分 簽名和日期於左面正中 1966 簽名和日期1965﹣66於畫的背面

來源: 私人收藏,巴黎 德薩畫廊,香港 私人收藏,亞洲

展覽: 朱德群:隱藏於抽象中的自然,德薩畫廊,香 港,2012年10月5日至11月3日

著錄: 朱德群:隱藏於抽象中的自然,德薩畫廊,香 港,2012年10月5日至11月3日,第20 ﹣21頁


曾海文,坎佩爾美術館,法國坎佩爾,1983年 曾海文,維特雷美術館,法國維特雷城堡,1984年 天安門六月四日至十二月四日,我永遠牢記,龐畢 度中心,法國巴黎,1989年

著錄: 天安門六月四日至十二月四日,我永遠牢記 , 龐畢度中心,1989年,法國巴黎。以冊子形式印 刷,由伊麗莎白·巴丹德撰序。 “T’ang Haywen Lavis et aquarelles”, 維特雷城堡博物館,1984年。以冊子形式印刷, 由法國羅浮宮學院總監多米尼·波諾撰序。 背面題詞: “Naissance du Dragon, catalogue N°3 diapo” 是由1983 年和1984 年在坎佩爾和維特雷舉行的〈曾海文〉展覽策劃人 尚·保羅·迪荷西先生題詞。 我們會在即將面世的目錄全集中囊括此作品,圖 版為S10-LDI-11,目錄目前正由菲利普·科陶西斯 準備中。

無題 1964年 油畫 畫布 61.8 x 50.5 公分 簽名以中交拼音和日期64簽於右下方

來源: 私人收藏 香港蘇富比,20世紀中國藝術,2013年10月6日, 拍賣品 私人收藏 我們會在即將面世的目錄全集中囊括此作品, 目錄目前正由菲利普·科陶西斯準備中。

無題 1965年 水墨和水彩在Kyro 卡 70 x 50 公分 簽名和日期在右下方

來源: 藝術家 私人收藏, 歐洲

著錄: 將會包括在製作中的目錄全集,圖版為S21LMC-6。 目錄備註: S21-LMC-6 是一幅1964年油畫《無題》 的紀念。畫布略小於61 x 50 公分。這幅畫儘管是 曾海文對中國傳統的全新關注點的一個展示,並非 十分抽象。 在試驗油畫之後,取得了不同程度的 成功,他能夠以非常現代(在這幅畫中尤其非常系 統性地)運用中國傳統意境角度來表達自己的聲音 (風格和意念)。

中文翻譯 謝謝你的來信,我從比利時回到倫敦已經十日了。 很後悔沒能去巴黎為你送行。一系列最終釀成悲 劇的事件,破滅了我對這極權主義政權的最後一 絲幻想。 我們已經離開,帶著集體的回憶,離開血色恐怖 的天安門。 如今鐵幕已然降下,謊言和迫害繼續肆虐。但整個 民族對正義的嚮往是不可能鎮壓得了的,並且,據 廣為流傳的看法,五六年之內有希望發生劇變?! Aragon(阿拉貢)字樣寫於信紙左沿

Published on the occasion of de Sarthe Gallery exhibition: Pioneers of Modern Chinese Painting in Paris May 13 – June 21, 2014

香港中環雪廠街16 號西洋會所大廈 8樓 8/F Club Lusitano 16 Ice House Street Central Hong Kong T. 852 21678896 F. 852 21678893 E. Catalog: © 2014 de Sarthe Gallery Essay: © Lao Zhu and Wu Ning Design: Franky Yuen, de Sarthe Gallery Printing: Asia One Printing Limited Catalog notes: Page 21. Lu Peng, A Pocket History of 20th Century Chinese Art, P.121 Page 29. Courtesy Shi Nan, Soul of Art,Times Literature & Art Press Page 41. Rita Wong 衣淑凡 , Author, Sanyu: Catalogue Raisonné Oil Paintings Vols I & II, Chairman, The Li Ching Cultural and Educational Foundation Page 44. Yun Gee’s essay titled “East and West Meet In Paris” courtesy Li-Lan Page 61. Courtesy Wu Ning , Secretary-General, Wu Zuoren International Foundation of Fine Arts Page 75. Autoportrait, Zao Wou-Ki and Françoise Marquet, Published by Fayard Page 81. Courtesy Atelier Chu Teh-Chun Page 95, 108, 109. Courtesy Philippe Koutouzis, author of the forthcoming catalogue raisonné of T’ang Haywen (1927-1991) Photo credits: Figure 2. Collection of the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts Figure 6, 11, 12, Page 42, 60, 63 Courtesy Wu Ning, Secretary-General, Wu Zuoren International Foundation of Fine Arts Figure 7, 8, 10, Page 74 Courtesy of the Zao Wou-Ki Foundation, Reserved rights Figure 13. Reserved rights Page 23, 25, 31, 37, 39, 43, 45, 51, 57, 69, 71, 77, 83, 89, 90, 91, 97, 99, 101 photo Laurence Tam Page 40. Courtesy of The Li Ching Foundation 財團法人立青文教基金會 Page 48,54. © Lin & Lin Gallery Page 57. © Li-Lan Page 80. © Atelier Chu Teh-Chun Page 86. Courtesy 雄獅美術提供 Page 94, 97, 99, 101. © A.D.A.G.P - Paris