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HANS HARTUNG

HANS HARTUNG PAINTINGS: 1960’s - 1970’s

de Sarthe Gallery


HANS HARTUNG


HANS HARTUNG

PAINTINGS: 1960’s - 1970’s

de Sarthe Gallery


Professor Lao Zhu Hans Hartung’s series of work is about to be exhibited in China like contemporary

in abstract art and calligraphy as a medium, i.e. the relationship with Chinese

calligraphy.

characters. The second is to find out the relationship between art and writing behaviors.

It does not necessarily be a subjective statement made by Chinese. In an article from “Brushtroke”, Calligraphy and Others published in 1981, André Kneib took

At the first level, none of abstract artist has any relationship with calligraphy7. Levi-

three pieces of Hartung’s work as example to discuss the relationship between

Strauss had made clear demonstration on this assumption. Hartung also expressed

western abstract art and calligraphy1. And in 1992, André released a thesis titled A

his own perspective on the issue.

Contemporary Discussion of Chinese Calligraphy and Others by the West in Eastern Aesthetic and Contemporary Arts Forum held in Taiwan. He mentioned that Hartung

At a second level, none of abstract artist could escape from the relationship with

claimed himself “knowing Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy and found himself

calligraphy. A number of artists, like Tobey and Motherwell8, absorb or appropriate

into it”2 that opened the study of the relationship between Hartung, abstract art and

the method of writing to develop their own abstractionist styles. Another group of

calligraphy.

artists do not recognize themselves in relationship with calligraphy, or even selfproclaimed that there is no influence at all, however, on the other hand, inspired by

In fact, Hartung’s lyric abstractionist works received the recognition from Japanese

behaviors or methods from elsewhere that implanted subtly from calligraphy. Hartung

that they are “directly originated from Japanese ancient art”3 and thus Hartung was

is one of the artists regard himself without any relationship with calligraphy.

invited to have a tour around Japan to meet eminent monks.

In reality, the core discussion should not lie on whether Hartung is influenced by calligraphy directly or unintentionally. We should focus on how to take Hartung’s

In an article from Jean-Charles Agboton-Jumeau, accordingly to the hints provided

Chinese exhibition as an opportunity to lead us for a progressive discussion on the

by Hartung, the origin of Hartung’s abstractionist presentation had been further

relationship between calligraphy and ordinary abstract art, or in a deeper manner, is

discussed more in depth4. As concrete as it seems, this is the bricks building up

there any higher art principles for calligraphy and abstract art. Yet, should there be an

Hartung’s exhibition in China5. He regarded the origin of abstract art as “such a long

existence of such principle, it is still impossible to analyze, imply or explain only from

story, starting from Da Vinci, Rembrandt, Goya, Van Gogh, Munch, der Blaue Reiter

the perspective abstract art or calligraphy separately.

and German Expressionists, especially the expressionists’ Woodcut”6. This article will be confined to the demonstration of the first issue and the second So, shall we believe in André’s theory on the relationship between Hartung’s abstract

issue will be elaborated in the analysis of works.

art between calligraphy, or to go for Agboton’s investigation to define the correlation of Hans’ abstract art and calligraphy, or to sympathize the “Japanese friends”

As a German painter, Hartung’s work not only influenced by Da Vinci to expressionist

(according to Hans) for recognizing the similarity of abstract art and calligraphy, or

Woodcut, but also by French Picasso or even his good friend Soulages or Schneider

shall we stick to Hans’ personal experience proofing Abstractionism was brought

in the same division (three important figures in French abstract art), that he had

about by the tradition of western art?

mentioned a couple of times. Nonetheless, we might bear in mind that Hartung had never denied the influence of calligraphy. He just kept the influence at a limited extent

The mission of this article is to identify to relationship between Hartung’s art and

and time9. Then how is the influence? We studied Hartung’s case carefully and found

calligraphy.

some news clips that were clear evidence that he was influence by calligraphy at an “extremely limited” level not because of the content of the news clips, but the fact that

We may start the discussion in two ways.

those news clips were being cut and kept. It is undeniable that Hartung paid attention to the content of calligraphy and acted to preserve his attention.

Firstly, is Hartung influenced by calligraphy? Did Hans purposely get himself into calligraphy or not?

Referring to Saint-Agraphe’s report L’Ecriture Chinoise, Ou L’art du Signe (Chinese Calligraphy – The Art of Symbols) on Art published on 23rd of May in 1956, general

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And the Second way is to study the relationship between Hartung’s representation

knowledge on Chinese Calligraphy had been subtracted and two works of Japanese

of western contemporary abstract painting and calligraphy. We may comprehend

Contemporary Calligraphy with just a few words had also been released. The

calligraphy in two different levels. The first is to look into the presentation mechanism

relationship between calligraphy and abstraction had been stressed repeatedly in


this article (at least as a choice of words). “This week, Saint-Agraphe will show us

not? We still have no direct evidence to make a judgment. But some situations did

how a most practical calligraphy win a great success in a most abstract calligraphy

have some connections with this issue. There was a change in Hartung’s style after

art in Japan.”

mid-1950’s. According to Vogt, Hartung could use “strokes” to record down the state of existence of a human at that time10. In 1960, while Hartung received an honor in

Another four pieces of news clips from Hartung were about the reporting and

Venice, he also received a compliment in a commentary on direct expressive style.

discussion on Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy. His name were mentioned on

Could these events associate with the aforementioned evidence? Not yet.

these materials. The aforementioned news clips provided a series of evidence to prove that Hartung 1. Michel Courtois’ article De La Calligraphie Orientale A L’art Abstrait. Published on

did have a touch on calligraphy, not limited to participating calligraphy exhibitions

Arts in Paris. 4 April 1956

or seeing the commentaries from journals, but being linked up with calligraphy by

2. Anonymous article L’ecriture Chinoise Ou L’art Du Signe. Published on Le Coq

the public. No matter how he treated this issue, at least he “preserved” the records

Bugiste Belley in Paris. 4 August 1956

of this issue, explaining that he treasured those recognitions than merely knowing

3. M-T Maugis’ article Calligraphies Japonaises. Published on Art-Paris in Paris.

it. Therefore, we may draw a conclusion on the first issue: Hartung did touch on

9 May 1956

calligraphy and further developed a relationship with it intentionally or spontaneously.

4. Raoul Michau’s article La Calligraphie Dans L’art Japonais Contemporain. Published on Le Peintre in Paris. 15 May 1956 In Reference to the material dated “4 April 1956”, a montage painting of calligraphy and abstract art had been published. Japanese calligraphy artist Taiko Yamasaki’s work was on the left on canvas and Mathieu’s abstract painting was on the right. The text described that “Symbol is changing…… Japanese calligraphy artists intended to treat calligraphy as a self-sufficient art form. Writing for them is now longer just about text and as a presentation medium, the readability of words has been put into a lesser priority. A majority of calligraphy artists started to see it as a realization of ‘Dao’…… Their instant goal is to express the passion of live from inner heart, not on a graphic presentation but on the reincarnation of live by nature. Pushing this progress to a limit, the Japanese artists (progressiste) had reached to the extreme of form in hope of a unified success and absoluteness. Their exploration coincided with the inclination of abstract painters in the west that they were all devoted to extend the horizon of symbol or simply indulged in its fantasy, trying to unwrap the misery. Their behaviors echoed with Action painters, Tobey and Pacific painters. And those who shared the same view and active in France: Hartung, Mathieu, Soulages, Alechinsky and Alcopley.” One more piece of evidence was English news clips owned by Hartung. This is a Denys Sutton’s article Arts and Entertainment published in The Financial Times in London on 16 December 1958 which stated the influence of Chinese art on Hartung. The “Chinese art” mentioned here was the “China” described in the article published in Arts on 23 May 1956 which focused on the elaboration of Chinese Calligraphy and the images of Japanese Contemporary Calligraphy in The Art of Symbols. Did Hartung agree with the commentaries made on the news clips that he kept? Or Roberta Gonzalez and Hans Hartung, Arceuil, France, 1948

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The reason why we searched for evidence is to prove. In one single case, the person

(1) Referring to Andre Kneib’s “Brushstroke”, Calligraphy and Others, published

involved always turns into ignorant or tends to cover up the facts by purpose or by

in Chapter 42 in Shupu. The article reminded us “it is a mistake to put calligraphy

chance. In judiciary case, though the person involved denied on the accusation, he/

as a part of abstract art”. The example of Hartung is from a background of his

she might still be convicted if there were enough evidence. Academically, need not

Lyric Abstractionism.

a clear-cut in right or wrong as advocated in legal area (or acquitted of a charge due

(2) Published in Essays on Oriental Aesthetics and Contemporary Arts Forum by

to the lack of evidence) but there is still partial presumption. In artists’ autobiography,

especially concerning the facts after a certain period of time on in details, it is always

(3) Referring to P.168 of Hartung’s Selbstportrait. Hartung raised out counter

easy to make up a story by rearranging the details intentionally. This is the rule of

argument as a disagreement against this statement to confirm there was such

Hermeneutics and a real side of human. We are not here to prove there is a room

comment at that time.

to decide whether Hartung had been reluctant to connect his works with calligraphy.

(4) Referring to this publication on the essay of Jean-Charles Agboton and the

The fact is that, in 1976, Hartung had mentioned he was influenced by calligraphy in

author’s essay titled Hartung: Not from Neighborhood but Like a Good Friend –

a “extremely limited extent”. But on the other hand, this is twenty years from 1956,

About the Fantasy of Hartung’s Works Exhibiting in China

while there were a certain number of evidence, or might be at least for “the moment”,

(5) This exhibition is divided into two parts. One part is a theme constituted by the

his change of style was full of traces of calligraphy. It is only when he kept on evolving

point of view from Chinese art on the mergence of Hartung’s works with

his style as a whole in the coming twenty years, the fact of “the moment” seemed

Chinese Calligraphy and the most renowned works over years. The other

unimportant to him.

part is in reference to Hartung’s claim on the origin of western abstract art as a

theme, showing the realization of his important works as evidence. Hence,

André Kneib used the terms “Shi” (impact) and “Bishi” (the impact of stroke) in

Hartung in China exhibition is full of unique value on academic discussion. It is a

Chinese Wei-jin Era’s calligraphy to explain “Gestare”. Charles Estienne described

breakthrough on the study of abstract art around the globe.

abstract art as action painting or even moving painting. Hartung also was pleased

(6) Refer to P.168 in Hartung’s Selbstportrait.

with his induction of “Shi”11. F. Kline once declared that his works originated from

(7) Apart from a few exceptions: Julius Bissier (1893-1965) started to incorporate

architectural construction while there is no connection with calligraphy, Kneib

calligraphy meaning into his “creation” of abstract paintings because he met an

provided a strong evidence on this “submergence” of calligraphy. And this article will

expert in Chinese Studies, Ernst Grosser, since 1928.

end with the following quote to round up the investigation of the relationship between

(8) Tobey was eager to learn Chinese Calligraphy from others. In 1959, he named

calligraphy and abstraction with Hartung as an example.12

his work as Calligraphic (Galerie Jeanne Bucher). And Motherwell also learned

the methods of Calligraphy in Japan and drafted painting sketch before scaling up

“For Hans Hartung (1904-1989), we may find that from this work dated in 1937, the

his works. There were a series of splashing of ink and wash in late days.

hidden power of his strokes and lines is the main characteristics of this German

(9) Hartung said “Ich bin der Meinung, da es sich eher um eine solchen Einflu_

painter. Early in the dawn of 20’s, Hartung imitated Rembrandt’s drawings and

teilweise gegeben hat, aber in weit geringerem ma_e, lassie es gerne glauben. In

evolved into brand new works with power of lines and motions. Criticism on him at

Wirklichkeit handelt es sich eher um eine zufallige Annaherung von stromungen

that time was almost the same as the criticism on calligraphy in the past. His friend

verschiedenen U rsprungs,m die im brigen im der Geschichte der abstrakten

Gonzalez who was also a painter blamed him for “inventing something not coming

Kunst nu rein paar Jahre gedauert hat.”

from nature or the form not coming from the creation by God”. Doesn’t this statement

(10) Referring to P.396 of Paul Vogt’s Geschichte der deutschen Malerei im 20.

bring our memories back to the time that Zhaoyi’s blaming on the advocates of

Jahrhundert

cursive style in calligraphy, claiming that cursive style is “not given by nature”?

(11) Referring to P.140-141 of Hans Hartung autobiography Selbsportrait. Dieser

Ausdruck ging dann bis in die Vereinigten Staaten, wo er zum “action painting”

Hartung had raised out a point that the trend of “gestural” in the west is not the same

oder spatter zum “gestual painting” wurde (die Malerei durch Gesten), auf die

as the evolution trend of Far East, “we should talk about mergence but not influence”.

sich danach die amerikanischen Maler Pollock, Franz Kline, Sam Francis, und in

He also mentioned “everybody is studying the same painting style around the world”

Frankreich Georges Mathieu und noch viele andere berufen sollten.

and claiming that he knew Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy with great interest.

(12) P.6 of Essays on Oriental Aesthetics and Contemporary Arts Forum by Taipei

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Taipei Fine Arts Museum

Fine Arts Museum.


Hans Hartung, 1975

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T1962 - H24 Vinylique on canvas 1962 100 x 162 cm

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T1962 - H28 Vinylique on canvas 1962 111 x 180 cm Exhibitions 1963, Dusseldorf, Germany, Kunstverein, “Hans Hartung” 1963, Zurich, Switzerland, Kunsthaus, “Hans Hartung” 1963, Vienna, Austria, Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, “Hans Hartung” 1963, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Stedelijk Museum, “Hans Hartung”

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朱青生 北京大學教授 哈同中國展的這批來華作品, 就像是一批現代書法。

關鍵, 問題關鍵在於如何借助哈同在中國的這次展覽, 引起我們進一步討論書法與一般 的抽象藝術的關係, 或者, 更進一步說, 在書法和抽象藝術之上, 是否存在著更高的藝術

這也未必是中國人的偏見。在柯廼柏1981年的文章 <<“筆勢”、書法及其他>>中, 論証

原則, 而這種藝術原則單獨從抽象藝術角度或單獨從書法角度出發都不能分析、揭示和

西方抽象藝術與書法的關係時, 就引用了哈同的三幅作品作為例証。1992年柯廼柏在台

解釋。

灣東方美學與現代美術的研討會上發表論文<<現代西方對中國書法的論述及其他>>, 提 到哈同“聲稱他知道中日書法, 而且也很有興趣。”, 並進一步討論了哈同以及抽象藝術

本文先行論証第一問題, 第二問題則在作品分析中逐步論述。

與書法的關係。 作為一個德國出身的畫家, 哈同的藝術除了受到西方藝術史上從達芬奇到表現派木刻之 日本人也認為哈同的作品的抒情性抽象“直接來源於日本的古典藝術”,並因此請他周遊

外, 還受到法國的Picasso, 甚至好友Soulages, 同行Schneider (三人同為法國抽象藝術

日本,會見高僧。

代表) 的影響也多次為其本人提到。但是, 值得注意的是哈同本人並沒有完全否定受到 書法的影響, 只是將這種影響限制在一個極其有限的程度上和有限的時段中。那麼這些

在Jean-Charles Agboton-Jumeau的文章中, 根據哈同自己的提示, 詳細論証了哈同的

影響是怎樣的呢? 我們仔細檢查了哈同的檔案, 找到了一批剪報。其中透露出哈同受到

抽象藝術風格的起源。看起來證據確鑿, 也構成了本次哈同中國展的一個部份。哈同本

的“極其有限”的書法的影響。不是因為報紙內容, 而是這些報紙被剪切、保存這件事本

人認為抽象藝術的根源“相當深遠, 來自於達芬奇、倫勃朗、戈雅、凡高、蒙克、青騎士

身, 証明哈同不僅看到有關書法的這些內容, 而且注意這些內容, 並保存著這種注意。

諸家和德國表現派, 尤其是表現派的木刻版畫”。 見圖1956年5月23日巴黎的《 Ar ts》報上刊登了Saint-Agraphe的報導L’Ecriture 那麼, 到底應該相信柯廼柏從理論上聯係哈同抽象藝術與書法, 還是應該相信Agboton

Chinoise, Ou L’art du Signe(中國書法一符號之藝術)。文中介紹了中國書法的常識, 並

從藝術史考証上劃清哈同抽象藝術與書法的牽連?到底應該同情“日本朋友”(哈同語)

附了兩幅日本少字數現代書法作品。文中提示強調了書法與抽象的關聯(至少在用詞上

對抽象藝術與書法的意向上的淵源, 還是應該堅信哈同本人的經驗即抽象來自於西方藝

是如此)。 〝本周,Saint-Agraphe向我們展示了一種最為具體的書法怎樣在日本, 在最抽

術的古老傳統?

象的書法藝術中獲得了成功。〞

現在本文的任務是求証哈同藝術與書法的關係。

另外還有四份剪報被哈同保存, 這四份材料全部是關於中國和日本的書法的報導和討 論。而且都提到哈同本人的作品與此有關聯。

問題可以從兩個方面展開。 1. 巴黎出版的《Arts》, 1956年4月4日。載Michel Courtois 的文章《De La Calligraphie 第一, 哈同是否接觸過書法? 進而是否有意無意地與書法發生關係?

Orientale A L’art Abstrait》。

第二, 哈同所代表的西方現代抽象繪畫與書法的關係。書法有兩個層面的意義可以分別

2. 巴黎出版的《Le Coq Bugiste Belley》, 1956年8月4日。載無署名文章《L’ecriture

理解。第一層面是抽象藝術與書法作為表達意義的系統之間的關係,即是與漢字這個意

Chinoise Ou L’art Du Signe》。

義系統之間的關係;第二層面是藝術與書寫行為之間的關係。

3. 巴黎出版的《Arts-Paris》, 1956年5月9日。載M-T Maugis的文章《Calligraphies Japonaises》。

在第一個層面上, 任何一個西方抽象藝術家都與書法無關。在這個問題上, Levis-Strauss

4. 巴黎出版的《Le Peintre》, 1956年5月15日。載Rauol Michau的文章《La Calligraphie

作了論証。哈同本人對這個問題也有自己的理解。

Dans L’art Japonais Contemporain》。

在第二層面上,任何一個西方抽象藝術家都不能擺脫與書法的糾纏。有些藝術家直接學

在〝1956年4月4日〞的那份證據上, 刊登了一幅書法與抽象的合畫作品, 作品布上左邊是

習和借取了書寫的行為方法,創作出自己的抽象風格如Tobey和Motherwell。還有一種是

日本書家Taiko Yamasaki的書法, 右半邊是馬修Mathieu的一幅抽象畫, 而文字中是這麼

藝術家並不完全意識到自己與書法有甚麼關係, 甚至自認為與書法沒有師承、影響關係,

表述的:〝 符號的變化……日本書法家逐漸將書法視作一種自足/自成的藝術, 此時書

但是他從“別處”得來的行為和方法, 暗合了書法。哈同本人就認為自己的藝術與書法沒

寫對他們而言不再僅僅是文本和載體, 文字的可讀性也下降到次要地位。許多書法家開

有甚麼關係。

始把它當作〝道〞的實踐。……他們當下的首要目標是要表達內心的生命激情,不是從圖 形表現上,而是從本質上再現生命。將這一過程推向極致的日本藝術家們(progressiste

實際上, 哈同是不是直接受書法的影響或者是否暗合了書法的行為方法, 並不是問題的

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派), 到達了形式的底線,想往成就統一與絕對,他們在探索中與西方的一些抽象畫家不


謀而同,這些畫家像日本藝術家們一樣致力於符號的探索,為它的魅力所吸引,想要了解

的畫家朋友岡薩雷斯(Gonzalez) (1978-1942年) 指責他〝發明出不屬於自然、非出於上帝

符號的神祕,他們讓人想到所有的〝潑彩派畫家〞、Tobey和〝太平洋畫派〞,以及那些活

創造的形體〞,這豈不讓人回想到趙壹責備他那些喜好草書的同時代人, 說草書〝上非天象

躍在法國,秉承同樣精神的畫家:哈同、Mathieu、Soulages、Alechinsky 和 Alcopley。〞

所垂〞的話嗎?

還有一條証據是英國報紙剪報,為哈同專門保存。倫敦出版的《The Financial Times》1958

哈同本人曾經指出, 西方的〝行動派〞(“gestural”) 潮流和遠東的發展潮流並不相同; 〝我

年12月16日載Denys Sutton的文章《Arts and Entertainment》。其中專門提到哈同受

們應該談遇合, 並非談影響。〞他還提到〝在世界四隅正同時進行著同樣畫風的研究〞, 並

到中國藝術的影響。這裏所說的中國藝術是1956年5月23日《Arts》的文章中的那個中

聲稱他知道中日書法, 而且也很有興趣。

國,即對於中國書法所作的〝符號之藝術〞的解釋和日本現代書法的圖像。 哈同剪切和保留了這幾份報紙,他到底是認同報上的這個討價呢,還是不認同?

我們還

沒有直接的証據判斷。但是有一些情況跟此事不無聯係, 即在50年代中期之後, 哈同的風 格發生過一些改變。按照Vogt的說法, 此時的哈同能用〝筆劃〞來記錄瞬間的人的存在的 狀態。1960年當哈同獲得威尼斯大獎的時侯, 他所得到的評價也是對一種直接表達的風 格的表彰。這些事情是不是上述証據有關呢? 我們也不能判斷。 以上的保存剪報的行為提供的一組証據証明哈同接觸過書法。哈同不僅看到過書法展覽, 看過報刊評論, 並且本人也被報刊認定與書法有某種關聯。無論他自己怎麼認定此事, 至 少他〝保存〞了報刊上對此關係的認定, 說明他不僅知道這些認定, 而且重視這些認定。 所以, 對第一方面的問題的結論是:哈同接觸過書法, 進而有意無意地與書法發生關係。 我們所作的論証無非是在揭示事實証據, 在一個個案中,當事人常常出於人性的特點和心 理傾向的引導, 會有意無意地遺忘和掩蓋事實。在司法案例中雖然當事人否認, 但有足夠 的証據, 可以定案。在學術上,不需要像在法律中一樣去作是非有無的非此即彼、二者必居 其一的定論(或者在無足夠証據的定罪時, 應視為無罪),但卻可以部分地認定。藝術家在自 述中,尤其是對隔了許多年事實的個人敘述中, 更容易設想出一套故事, 而且會主動地誤取 細節和改編細節, 這是闡釋學的規律, 也是人性的真實狀態。我們並不是一定要証明哈同 會有意無意否認自己的藝術與書法的關係, 而是1976年哈同自述中說到自己受到書法的“ 影響極其有限”,而這個事情是20年前的1956年, 是有一定的事實証據的,也許在〝當時〞 卻相當重要, 對當時他的藝術風格的轉變頗有影響,只是20年從他不斷繼續發展的藝術整 體來看, 20年前的〝當時〞的事實對他巳不重要了。 柯廼柏(A.Kneib)用中國魏晉時代的書法術語“勢”、 “筆勢”來解釋Gestare, Charles Estienne 將抽象藝術說成行動繪畫,

進而動勢繪畫。哈同自己也欣賞關於“勢”的歸納。F.Kline自

己也曾經聲明其作品來源於建築的結構,與書法無關, 歸入書法完全由於〝暗合〞, 柯廼柏 作了有力的論証。以哈同為例考察書法與抽象的關係, 引出如下以結束本文。 〝至於漢斯∙哈同(Hans Hartung)(1904年-1989年), 我們在這幅日期標示為1937年的作品 中可以看出, 這個德國畫家一生的畫風特色就在其筆法和線條所內蘊的力量。早在20年 代初期, 哈同即臨摹荷蘭畫家倫勃朗(Rembrandt)的素描作品, 借此而發展出線條和動勢 的實質力量的創新畫作。當代所給與他的批評, 幾乎就是昔日書法界所獲批評的回聲;他 Hans Hartung, Antibes 1975

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T1965 - H31 Vinylique on canvas 1965 130 x 81 cm Exhibition 1997, Taiwan, Taiwan Museum of Art, “Hans Hartung”

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朱青生 北京大学教授 哈同中国展的这批来华作品, 就像是一批现代书法。

关键,问题关键在于如何借助哈同在中国的这次展览,引起我们进一步讨论书法与一般的 抽象艺术的关系,或者,更进一步说, 在书法和抽象艺术之上,是否存在着更高的艺术原则,

这也未必是中国人的偏见。在柯乃柏1981年的文章<<“笔势”、书法及其他>>中, 论证

而这种艺术原则单独从抽象艺术角度或单独从书法角度出发都不能分析、揭示和解释。

西方抽象艺术与书法的关系时,就引用了哈同的三幅作品作为例证。1992年柯乃柏在台 湾东方美学与现代美术的研讨会上发表论文<<现代西方对中国书法的论述及其他>>,

本文先行论证第一问题,第二问题则在作品分析中逐步论述。

提到哈同“声称他知道中日书法,而且也很有兴趣。”,并进一步讨论了哈同以及抽象艺 术与书法的关系。

作为一个德国出身的画家,哈同的艺术除了受到西方艺术史上从达芬奇到表现派木刻之 外, 还受到法国的Picasso, 甚至好友Soulages, 同行Schneider (三人同为法国抽象艺

日本人也认为哈同的作品的抒情性抽象“直接来源于日本的古典艺术”, 并因此请他周游

术代表)

日本,会见高僧。

到书法的影响, 只是将这种影响限制在一个极其有限的程度上和有限的时段中。那么这

的影响也多次为其本人提到。但是,值得注意的是哈同本人并没有完全否定受

些影响是怎样的呢? 我们仔细检查了哈同的档案,找到了一批剪报。其中透露出哈同受 在Jean-Charles Agboton-Jumeau的文章中, 根据哈同自己的提示,详细论证了哈同的

到的“极其有限”的书法的影响。不是因为报纸内容,而是这些报纸被剪切、保存这件事

抽象艺术风格的起源。看起来证据确凿, 也构成了本次哈同中国展的一个部份。哈同本

本身, 证明哈同不仅看到有关书法的这些内容,而且注意这些内容, 并保存着这种注意。

人认为抽象艺术的根源“相当深远,来自于达芬奇、伦勃朗、戈雅、凡高、蒙克、青骑士 诸家和德国表现派,尤其是表现派的木刻版画”。

见图1956年5月23日巴黎的《Arts》报上刊登了Saint-Agraphe的报导L’Ecriture Chinoise, Ou L’art du Signe(中国书法一符号之艺术)。文中介绍了中国书法的常识, 并附了两幅日

那么,到底应该相信柯乃柏从理论上联系哈同抽象艺术与书法,还是应该相信Agboton从

本少字数现代书法作品。文中提示强调了书法与抽象的关联(至少在用词上是如此)。 〝本

艺术史考证上划清哈同抽象艺术与书法的牵连?到底应该同情“日本朋友”(哈同语)对抽

周, Saint-Agraphe向我们展示了一种最为具体的书法怎样在日本,在最抽象的书法艺术中

象艺术与书法的意向上的渊源,还是应该坚信哈同本人的经验即抽象来自于西方艺术的

获得了成功。〞

古老传统? 另外还有四份剪报被哈同保存,这四份材料全部是关于中国和日本的书法的报导和讨论。 现在本文的任务是求证哈同艺术与书法的关系。

而且都提到哈同本人的作品与此有关联。

问题可以从两个方面展开。

1. 巴黎出版的《Arts》, 1956年4月4日。载Michel Courtois 的文章《De La Calligraphie Orientale A L’art Abstrait》。

第一, 哈同是否接触过书法? 进而是否有意无意地与书法发生关系?

2. 巴黎出版的《Le Coq Bugiste Belley》, 1956年8月4日。载无署名文章《L’ecriture

第二, 哈同所代表的西方现代抽象绘画与书法的关系。书法有两个层面的意义可以分别理

Chinoise Ou L’art Du Signe》。

解。第一层面是抽象艺术与书法作为表达意义的系统之间的关系,即是与汉字这个意义系

3. 巴黎出版的《Arts-Paris》, 1956年5月9日。载M-T Maugis的文章《Calligraphies

统之间的关系;第二层面是艺术与书写行为之间的关系。

Japonaises》。 4. 巴黎出版的《Le Peintre》, 1956年5月15日。载Rauol Michau的文章《La Calligraphie

在第一个层面上, 任何一个西方抽象艺术家都与书法无关。在这个问题上, Levis-Strauss

Dans L’art Japonais Contemporain》。

作了论证。哈同本人对这个问题也有自己的理解。 在〝1956年4月4日〞的那份证据上, 刊登了一幅书法与抽象的合画作品, 作品布上左边是 在第二层面上, 任何一个西方抽象艺术家都不能摆脱与书法的纠缠。有些艺术家直接学

日本书家Taiko Yamasaki的书法,右半边是马修Mathieu的一幅抽象画, 而文字中是这么

习和借取了书写的行为方法,创作出自己的抽象风格如Tobey和Motherwell。还有一种是

表述的:〝 符号的变化……日本书法家逐渐将书法视作一种自足/自成的艺术, 此时书

艺术家并不完全意识到自己与书法有甚么关系,甚至自认为与书法没有师承、影响关系,

写对他们而言不再仅仅是文本和载体, 文字的可读性也下降到次要地位。许多书法家开

但是他从“别处”得来的行为和方法,暗合了书法。哈同本人就认为自己的艺术与书法没

始把它当作〝道〞的实践。……他们当下的首要目标是要表达内心的生命激情, 不是从图

有甚么关系。

形表现上,

而是从本质上再现生命。将这一过程推向极致的日本艺术家们(progressiste

派),到达了形式的底线,想往成就统一与绝对,他们在探索中与西方的一些抽象画家 实际上, 哈同是不是直接受书法的影响或者是否暗合了书法的行为方法, 并不是问题的

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不谋而同,这些画家像日本艺术家们一样致力于符号的探索,为它的魅力所吸引,想


要了解符号的神秘,他们让人想到所有的〝泼彩派画家〞、Tobey和〝太平洋画派〞,以

的画家朋友冈萨雷斯(Gonzalez)

及那些活跃在法国,秉承同样精神的画家:哈同、Mathieu、Soulages、Alechinsky和

创造的形体 〞, 这岂不让人回想到赵壹责备他那些喜好草书的同时代人, 说草书〝上非天

(1978-1942年)指责他〝发明出不属于自然、非出于上帝

Alcopley。〞

象所垂〞的话吗?

还有一条证据是英国报纸剪报,为哈同专门保存。伦敦出版的《The Financial Times》1958

哈同本人曾经指出, 西方的〝行动派〞(“gestural”) 潮流和远东的发展潮流并不相同; 〝我

年12月16日载Denys Sutton的文章《Arts and Entertainment》。其中专门提到哈同受到中

们应该谈遇合, 并非谈影响。〞他还提到〝在世界四隅正同时进行着同样画风的研究〞, 并

国艺术的影响。这里所说的中国艺术是1956年5月23日《Arts》的文章中的那个中国,

声称他知道中日书法, 而且也很有兴趣。

即对于中国书法所作的〝符号之艺术〞的解释和日本现代书法的图像。 哈同剪切和保留了这几份报纸,他到底是认同报上的这个讨价呢,还是不认同? 我们还没 有直接的证据判断。但是有一些情况跟此事不无联系, 即在50年代中期之后, 哈同的风格 发生过一些改变。按照Vogt的说法, 此时的哈同能用〝笔划〞来记录瞬间的人的存在的状 态。1960年当哈同获得威尼斯大奖的时侯, 他所得到的评价也是对一种直接表达的风 格的表彰。这些事情是不是上述证据有关呢? 我们也不能判断。 以上的保存剪报的行为提供的一组证据证明哈同接触过书法。哈同不仅看到过书法展览, 看过报刊评论, 并且本人也被报刊认定与书法有某种关联。无论他自己怎么认定此事, 至 少他〝保存〞了报刊上对此关系的认定, 说明他不仅知道这些认定, 而且重视这些认定。 所以, 对第一方面的问题的结论是: 哈同接触过书法, 进而有意无意地与书法发生关系。 我们所作的论证无非是在揭示事实证据, 在一个个案中,当事人常常出于人性的特点和 心理倾向的引导, 会有意无意地遗忘和掩盖事实。在司法案例中虽然当事人否认,但有足 够的证据, 可以定案。在学术上,不需要像在法律中一样去作是非有无的非此即彼、二者必 居其一的定论(或者在无足够证据的定罪时, 应视为无罪),但却可以部分地认定。艺术家在 自述中,尤其是对隔了许多年事实的个人叙述中, 更容易设想出一套故事, 而且会主动地误 取细节和改编细节, 这是阐释学的规律, 也是人性的真实状态。我们并不是一定要证明哈 同会有意无意否认自己的艺术与书法的关系, 而是1976年哈同自述中说到自己受到书法 的“影响极其有限 ”, 而这个事情是20年前的1956年, 是有一定的事实证据的,也许在〝当 时〞却相当重要, 对当时他的艺术风格的转变颇有影响, 只是20年从他不断继续发展的艺 术整体来看, 20年前的〝当时〞的事实对他巳不重要了。 柯乃柏(A.Kneib)用中国魏晋时代的书法术语“势”、 “笔势”来解释Gestare, Charles Estienne 将抽象艺术说成行动绘画, 进而动势绘画。哈同自己也欣赏关于“势” 的归纳。F.Kline自 己也曾经声明其作品来源于建筑的结构,与书法无关, 归入书法完全由于〝暗合〞, 柯乃柏作 了有力的论证。以哈同为例考察书法与抽象的关系, 引出如下以结束本文。 〝至于汉斯∙哈同(Hans Hartung)(1904年-1989年), 我们在这幅日期标示为1937年的作品 中可以看出, 这个德国画家一生的画风特色就在其笔法和线条所内蕴的力量。早在20年 代初期, 哈同即临摹荷兰画家伦勃朗(Rembrandt)的素描作品, 借此而发展出线条和动势 的实质力量的创新画作。当代所给与他的批评, 几乎就是昔日书法界所获批评的回声;他 Hans Hartung, 1975

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T1966 - H32 Vinylique on canvas 1966 111 x 180 cm

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T1973 - H42 Vinylique on canvas 1973 111 x 180 cm Exhibition 2006, Angers, France, Musée des Beaux-arts, “Hans Hartung”

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T1974 - E10 Acrylic on canvas 1974 111 x 180 cm Exhibitions 1997, Taiwan, Taiwan Museum of Art, “L’exposition du peintre Hans Hartung” 2004, La Haye, The Netherlands, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, “Hans Hartung Conceptualisme “avant la lettre”” 2006, Dunkerque, France, Musée de Dunkerque, “Hans Hartung “Conceptuel avant la lettre”” 2008, Madrid, Spain, Circulo de Bellas Artes, “Hans Hartung “Esencial”

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T1975 - E18 Acrylic on canvas 1975 97 x 130 cm Exhibition 1999, Monte Carlo, Monaco, Salle d’exposition du quai Albert 1er, “Hans Hartung “Le champ des oliviers”

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BIOGRAPHY


Hans Hartung, 1914

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HANS HARTUNG 1904

Hans (Heinrich Ernst) Hartung is born in Leipzig, Germany, on 21 September. He has a sister older than him by three years. His father is a doctor, like his maternal grandfather who, in addition to his professional life, was an amateur painter and passionate musician.“Thanks to him, due to the influence he had on my mother,we were infected with painting and music.… At home music was part of the air that we breathed.” As a child Hartung fills his exercise books with drawings. He is fascinated by flashes of lightning and reproduces them in huge numbers with energetically drawn zigzags. “Before the arrival of a storm I was filled with both fear and attraction, I trembled beneath their strength and power. My school exercise books were filled with pages and pages of lightning bolts. My father called them ‘Hans’s Bliztbücher’ [lightning books]. I am sure that those childish bolts influenced my artistic development, the way I paint.They gave me the sense of speed in drawing a line, the desire to capture the instant with a pencil or brush.”

1912-1915

The family moves to Basle where Hartung’s father works for CIBA pharmaceutical company.The young Hans is enchanted by astronomy and photography and he builds himself a telescope to which he fits a simple camera. During holidays in the mountains around Bern he draws landscapes. In 1914 the family returns to Leipzig due to the outbreak of war.

1915-1924

Hans’s father works as a head physician in a military hospital in Dresden. “I no longer drew flashes of lightning. Even my exercise books fought the war.Dresden was the construction centre of the Zeppelins, I learned to draw their large threatening bellies very quickly.” He attends secondary school in Dresden where he studies the arts. For a period he is obsessively interested in nature and religion. He loves the painting of Rembrandt, Goya, Hals, El Greco and, from 1921, is enthused by Slevogt, Corinth and the German Expressionists, as well as Kokoschka and Nolde. He makes copies of works by the Old Masters in which, as is his nature, he replaces objects with lines and patches of colour (taches).“I loved my taches. I loved the fact that they were enough to create a face, a body, a landscape.Time after timethose taches won their complete autonomy and freedom.The first times I used them to outline the subject, but this gradually turned negative, white, empty, and finally they were a simple pretext for playing with areas of colour. What joy to let them free to interact, to take on their own expressiveness, to define their own relationships and dynamism without them being enslaved by reality.” In 1922 he creates a series of 33 watercolours on which Will Grohmann will write a monograph in 1966.Without having the faintest understanding of the abstract art of the avant-garde, particularly the “psychic improvistations” Kandinsky paints in 1913–14, Hartung creates compositions of dense lyricism with aniline paints whose dazzling surfaces are mixed together, and in which colour exists exclusively for its own sake. In 1923–24 Hartung produces a series of charcoal and sanguine drawings in which he experiments with the possibilities offered by free strokes. In these early abstract works we already see much of his aesthetic vocabulary. Hans Hartung, 1922

1924-1925

He studies philosophy and the history of art at university, and attends the course given by Wilhelm Pinder at the Akademie für Graphische Kunste und Kunstgewerbe in Leipzig. In 1925 he attends a course given by Kandinsky that gives him the chance to compare his thoughts on art with other non-figurative trends, but he refutes them due to their dogmatism. “I didn’t find Kandinsky’s talk on the use and symbolism of circles, ovals and rectangles convincing. I had no intention of painting coils and zigzagging lines to give form to eternity.” Following the death of his mother on 23 March 1924, Hartung returns to Dresden, where he enrolls at the Akademie der Kunste in autumn 1925. Hans Hartung at the Akademie für Graphische Kunste und Kunstgewerbe in Leipzig, Germany, 1924

1926

The international exhibition in Dresden is an opportunity for Hartung to see modern painting originating outside Germany, in particular French Impressionism, Fauvism, and Cubism. He is particularly interested in the works of Rouault, Matisse, Braque, and Picasso. “That search for plasticity, order, precision, and that simplification of colours gave me the impression of a completely new attempt to create for eternity.” He makes copies of works by Goya, Hals, El Greco, Picasso, and Matisse. During the summer he makes a bicycle trip through France and Italy, reaching Paris in October. He visits museums, exhibitions and private art academies, though not making contact with other painters. 31


1927-1929

While on holiday in Barcarès and on the beach of Leucate (near Perpignan) in the south of France,Hartung takes the chance to study the art of Cézanne,Van Gogh and, later, the Cubists in more depth. The latter’s influence will be apparent in his work up to 1932. Following this he studies the relationships between aesthetics and mathematics. “I lived in a fisherman’s hut by the beach. I drew unceasingly from every angle. In ‘my’ Cubism I introduced lines, sections and rhythms. Gradually I worked my way back to abstract art assisted by antithetical experiences. But I was lacking points of reference and certainties. I found them in the Golden Section, whose mysteries I stubbornly attempted to penetrate and of which I analysed every possibility.… The Golden Section is a search for harmony and balance. … Through that study I had the feeling I was part of the forces that regulate nature.” Hartung’s study of the laws that govern the Golden Section are to continue for many years and its influence will later be evident in many of his paintings. For the summer term in 1928 he goes to Munich, where he attends the courses given by Max Dorner on painting materials and techniques. He studies different formats with the help of blank canvases cut to the dimensions prescribed by the Golden Section. He returns to France but also makes study trips to Holland and Belgium. In September 1929 he marries the young Norwegian painter Anna-Eva Bergman, whom he met in May at a party in Paris. Hans Hartung at Leucate, France, 1927

1930-1932

The couple spend winter on the Côte d’Azur. In November 1931, at the Galerie Heinrich Kuhn in Dresden, Hartung’s works are exhibited for the first time. The collector Fritz Bienert buys one. Will Grohmann is interested in Hartung’s work.

1932

He participates in the exhibition of ‘Young Artists’ at the Galerie Flechteim in Berlin. He later exhibits with Anna-Eva Bergman in the Blomqvist Gallery in Oslo. The unexpected death of his father affects Hartung deeply and causes him serious nervous problems.“His death represented the end of our sense of irresponsibility and light-heartedness. The black years began. … Till then I had lived like a child, without worrying about the future, counting on my father’s help, as though it had been granted to me for ever.” Due to family upsets and the increasingly apparent rise of National Socialism in Germany, Hartung decides to leave the country. He lends several paintings to the Galerie Jeanne-Bucher in Paris. At the end of 1932 he moves with Anna-Eva to the Balearics; near the fishing village of Fornells on the north coast of Minorca the couple build a simple, very austere house that they designed themselves. “We lived humbly but life smiled on us again. My moods improved and I rediscovered the desire to paint.” Hans Hartung and Anna-Eva Bergman, 1932

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1933-1934

He ends his attempts at Cubism and turns again towards painting guided by instinct. “I had had enough. One fine day I said to hell with it all, pulled out all my old drawings and returned to the colour taches I had been using in the years 1922–24. … And I found myself painting and drawing in a totally different manner but with the freedom of the earlier years. It was a great moment.” With his assets in Germany blocked and his savings invested in the construction of his house, his financial resources dry up. In 1934 the couple are forced to leave Minorca and move to Paris, then later to Stockholm.

1935-1937

He returns to Berlin with the hope of resolving his financial situation. He comes into open conflict with the Nazi regime and is watched and interrogated by the police, in particular due to his contacts with the Jewish and Communist members of his former painting studio. Thanks to the assistance of Will Grohmann and Christian Zervos, in October he succeeds in leaving Germany for good and settles in Paris. He strikes up friendships with Jean Hélion and Henri Goetz, and meets Kandinsky, Mondrian, Magnelli, Domela, Miró, and Calder. With the latter he exhibits one of his paintings at the Galerie Pierre Loeb in 1936. His first Paris studio is at 19 Rue Daguerre. From 1935 until the start of the war he shows each year at the Salon des Surindépendants.“I had become a firm tachiste. My taches spread to invade the entire surface of the canvas. It was a dark, restless type of painting that reflected my worry, my extreme pessimism about the future, a series of drawings and canvases that would later be called the ‘ink taches.’ ” In the international exhibition organised by Christian Zervos at the Jeu de Paume in 1937, Hartung shows a large painting covered with black bands: T1936–14. Here he discovers the sculptures of Julio González, which impress him deeply. Under the pressure exerted by poverty and lacking materials, he makes more use of a


procedure he had already experimented with in Minorca: the transfer of spontaneously created drawings into oil paintings on canvas. He was encouraged to do this by his friend Hélion:“ ‘Listen’, he said to me,‘if you have the chance to buy a canvas and to paint the sketch you have already made, reproduce it faithfully. Don’t change anything. Even copy the mistakes and the unexpected effects resulting from the use of watercolours, pastels, Indian ink, or wax.Try to keep the drawing’s freshness and naturalness. It is very difficult but your painting will be the better for it.’ ” Hartung will use this technique in different ways until 1960.

1938

ith his financial circumstances ever more difficult, Hartung moves to a smaller studio at 8 Rue François Mouton. His morale is at its W lowest ebb and a long and serious illness suffered by Anna-Eva only worsens the situation.The couple divorce at Anna-Eva’s instigation. The German embassy withdraws his passport, and his existence becomes increasingly difficult. He is represented at the anti-Nazi exhibition ‘Twentieth Century German Art’ at the New Burlington Galleries in London. He is offered refuge for a year in Henri Goetz’s apartment and works in the studio of Julio González, whose close friend he has been since 1937. In this studio he works in threedimensional art for the first time, producing two sculptures, one of which is shown at the Salon des Surindépendants. Hans Hartung at Julio Gonzalez’s studio, 1938

1939 In the company of Roberta González, the daughter of his sculptor friend, in spring he organises an exhibition of pastels and drawings

at the Galerie Henriette in Paris. Under pressure from his friend Hélion, the organisers of the first Salon des Réalités Nouvelles accept one of Hartung’s drawings though it is not mentioned in the catalogue. Recognising that war is about to break out, Hartung registers on the list of volunteers in opposition to the Nazi regime. In July he marries Roberta González. In December he is assigned to the French Foreign Legion and sent to North Africa for military training.

1940-1941

Following demobilisation after the armistice in the unoccupied Free Zone, Hartung returns to France and lives with the González family in the Lot region. He works as a farm labourer and only paints occasionally.

1942-1944

In March 1942 Julio González dies suddenly. Following the occupation of southern France, Hartung seeks asylum in Spain but he is imprisoned successively in Figueras, Gerona, and at Miranda de Ebro prisoner-of-war camp. He turns down a visa for the United States offered to him by an American friend. After seven months of prison he enrols in the regular French army through a sense of duty, but his German nationality means he is obliged to rejoin the Foreign Legion. During an attack on Belfort in 1944 he is seriously wounded and his right leg has to be amputated. “I had been placed in the room for desperate cases where each day screens were placed around those who were dying. … The most difficult thing to put up with was the pity we inspired. … My right leg was amputated just below the knee, but, as the days passed and no-one took the trouble to check my state, the pain became intolerable. I prayed and beseeched them to stop the medication and examine my leg. Finally, a nurse decided to do so. An enormous amount of pus oozed out of the wound.‘I am afraid your knee has also gone,’ she told me. … They operated without a full anaesthetic, with all the horror that that involves, due to the obvious lack of drugs.” Following his transfer to Toulouse hospital, all the drawings he has made since his arrival in Spain go missing. Hans Hartung, 1943

1945-1946

In 1945 Hartung returns to Paris and starts painting again. “My drawings were filled with contorted, tangled lines, as desperate as scratches… It was vehement, rebellious painting, like me. I felt I had been cheated.Apart from a few Frenchmen who had been mobilised, the other artists had all passed the war hidden somewhere or other. They had never stopped working and making progress. … I had so wanted to be a hero but not then to be taken for a fool.” Hartung is given French nationality and the government awards him several honours: the Military Medal, the Croix de Guerre and (in 1952) the Legion of Honour. He takes part in several exhibitions, including those in Rue Cujas with Domela and Schneider, and the group shows at the Galerie Denise René and Galerie Colette Allendy. His works are noticed by critics like Charles Estienne, Madeleine Rousseau, Léon Degand, and Wilhelm Uhde. He produces a series of watercolours in 1946–47.To earn a living for a few years he works as a modern art dealer. 33


Hans Hartung, 1956

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1947

Following the opening of the Galerie Lydia Conti in February, Hartung is given his first solo exhibition in Paris. The catalogue has a preface by Madeleine Rousseau. He gets to know critics, collectors and painters like Soulages, Schneider, Mathieu, Baumeister and Rothko. The director Alain Resnais makes a film about him but, due to a lack of money, there is no sound track. During an interview with Charles Estienne, this is Hartung’s reply to a question on what underlies his painting: “It is an emotional state that prompts me to draw, to create certain forms to try to transmit and stimulate a similar emotion in the observer. Besides, I like to work on the canvas. It is this desire that stimulates me to make a mark on the canvas or paper. It is the act of painting, drawing, scratching or scraping.” Hans Hartung, 1947

1948

Hartung is given another show of old and new drawings at the Galerie Lydia Conti. He is represented in the travelling show of French abstract art in Germany organised by Ottomar Domnick.The preface of the catalogue is written by James Johnson Sweeney.

1949

Publication and presentation by Domnick Verlag in Stuttgart of the first monograph on Hans Hartung, with texts by Madeleine Rousseau and Ottomar Domnick and a preface by James Johnson Sweeney. He also has exhibitions of his drawings at the Moderne Galerie Otto Stangl in Munich, and the Hanover Gallery in London.

1951

To mark the ‘Advancing French Art’ exhibition organised by Louis Carré, several works by Hartung are exhibited for the first time in the United States. There is an exhibition of his pastels at the Galerie Louis Carré in Paris, shared with Schneider and Lanskoy, and then he participates in the exhibition ‘Véhémences confrontées’, organised by Michel Tapié at the Galerie Nina Dausset.

1952

Hartung is made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.A retrospective is dedicated to his works in February and March at the Kunsthalle in Basle. Several of his paintings are shown at the Venice Biennale. For the first time following their separation in 1937, Hartung meets Anna-Eva Bergman again following her return to France.“Between us the attraction was always very intense.… So we decided to get back together.The hardest thing was to tell our respective partners of our decision.” During these years Hartung’s paintings gain in clarity and serenity, and the bitterness and spirit of revolt of the post-war period slowly disappear. Hans Hartung’s studio at Arceuil, France, 1952

1953

Hartung moves with Anna-Eva to a new studio in Paris at 7 Rue Cels. He has solo exhibitions at the Lefevre Gallery in London and the Galerie Marback in Bern. During winter 1952/53 he creates a new series of engravings.

1954

An exhibition of 50 paintings, 20 pastels and 15 graphic works is held at the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels; participation at the Venice Biennale and the School of Paris exhibitions at the Galerie Charpentier. In 1954–55 a new distinctive motif appears in Hartung’s work: it is a gentle, rapid brushstroke that gives the impression of fleetingness. “In the years that followed (1954–58) we were lucky enough to be able to spend the springs and autumns in a villa on the Mediterranean. I took many photographs of stones, but most of all I made hundreds and hundreds of Indian ink drawings.These had a strong influence on my painting of the time, in which large black signs stand out against grounds of a rather pale, cold green, red lead, or other colours.” Hans Hartung in his studio at Arceuil, 1954

1955

Participation at the first Documenta exhibition in Kassel, and at the first International Biennial of Graphic Arts in Ljubljana in Yugoslavia, where he will participate regularly until 1979.

1956

He is awarded the Guggenheim Prize for the Europe-Africa selection and made an honorary member of the Akademie der Kunste in Berlin. An exhibition of new paintings is held at the Galerie de France which puts him under contract. A retrospective of drawings (1921–38) is held at the Galerie Craven in Paris. 35


Galerie de France, Paris, France, 1956

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1957

He produces a third series of lithographs and engravings, and begins a series of pastels that will continue until 1961. Shows are held at the Kestner-Gesellschaft in Hanover, the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, the Haus am Waldsee in Berlin, the Kunsthalle in Hamburg, the Kunstverein in Cologne, and the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg for which Werner Schmalenbach writes the catalogue preface. In March and April solo exhibitions are dedicated to Hartung at the Kleeman Gallery in New York. Hans Hartung and Anna- Eva Bergman remarry.

1958

Hartung is the winner of the first Rubens Prize instituted by the city of Siegen in Germany. He is made an honorary member of the Bayerische Akademie der Schönen Kunste in Munich. Hartung and Anna-Eva design and have a new studio built in Paris in Rue Gauguet, close to Parc Montsouris.They are to move in the following year. Hartung has works shown at the world exposition in Brussels and other international events. Hans Hartung, Paris, France, 1958

1959

Participation at the second Documenta, a retrospective at the Musée d’Antibes, and a show of pastels at the Kleeman Gallery in New York.Towards the end of the 1950s Hartung begins building a catalogue of his own works for private use, thanks to which it will become easier to find his way around his own growing output. On his death, the catalogue will include dozens of collectors and contain references to almost all his works. Each entry is made up of a photograph, a sketch and numerous notes. Hans Hartung’s home and studio, 1959

1960

Hartung unanimously wins the Gran Premio for painting at the Venice Biennale, and an entire section of the French pavilion is devoted to his work. This tribute is the confirmation and recognition of his artistic development:“ In 1960 the conferment of this honour filled me with pride greater than all the military medals I had been awarded. … I had at last come out of the darkness of the black years.” Publication of a monograph on Hans Hartung by R.V. Gindertael, and nomination as an Officer of the Order of Arts and Letters in France.A fundamental change takes place in his creative technique: now he uses vinyl paints which dry quickly and can also be diluted.This method allows him to achieve with more spontaneity the form he is after, without having to pass through the stage of sketching, thus he works directly on large format canvases. “From 1960 I set to improvise directly, even on large canvases, without making use of preliminary sketches. … I often leave oversights, erasures, or contradictions that have influenced the creation of the painting, thereby giving the work greater vitality.”

1961

This year marks the start of a new phase in Hartung’s work, which now incorporates the scraping of graphic lines on the fresh paint. “In my youth (between 1928 and 1938) I had made several etchings and others in 1953.The engraving of copper or zinc is just the kind of work I like and this passion has followed me to the point that—twenty or thirty years later—it still influences my painting, particularly during the period from 1961 to 1965, when I used to scratch the fresh impasto of colours, often dark, with different tools.”This stage marks the start of systematic experimentation with a large number of different pieces of equipment which he uses to paint and scrape.The experimentation leads to the classification of different groups of tools used to create a particular effect. Exhibition of his works (1922–39) at the Galerie de France and nomination as an Officer of the Legion of Honour. His works are present in exhibitions of French art organised in Moscow and Paris, the ‘Crossroads of Painting between 1945 and 1961’, an exhibition held at the Stedelijk van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven. Presentations of his pastels in Milan, Rome, Madrid, Cordoba and Beirut.

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1962

Exhibition of new paintings at the Galerie de France.The lines he makes through scraping more often become scratches on surfaces he has sprayed.“During the ‘scraping’ period, I gradually moved towards the use of large surfaces sprayed with colour. My work at that time was the result of the combination of the two techniques that allowed me to create forms and signs that I was trying to exteriorise. I had found a method to spray the canvas with colour—first using an inverted vacuum-cleaner and later with a compressor—and I used both techniques simultaneously.” Hans Hartung , 1962

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1963-1964

Erker-Presse in St Gallen (Switzerland) publish a new series of lithographs. A travelling retrospective brings together 120 canvases, 150 drawings and pastels, and a sculpture and presents them at the Kunsthaus in Zurich, the Museum des 20 Jahrhunderts in Vienna, the Kunsthalle in Düsseldorf, the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels and the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

1964

During the summer Hartung and Anna-Eva take a boat trip along the Norwegian coast, past North Cape as far as the Soviet border. They return from the trip with approximately 1,000 photographs. Since his childhood Hartung has been a photography fanatic: “I am obsessed by photographing everything because photos are like a second memory for me. Once fixed on film, the memory maintains all its power, all its sharpness, it awakens my memories.”The Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh invites Hartung to become a member of its jury, and this gives him the chance to make his first trip to the United States. He is decorated with the Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. “That honour proved to me that certain of my compatriots understood the reasons that had pushed me to fight against my own country in the struggle against Nazism. And since in France I was decorated with the Croix de Guerre and Military Medal, and I have been made a Commander of the Legion of Honour, I think I must be one of the few civilians to have received decorations from both sides!” Participation in Documenta III and at the exhibition ‘54–64. Painting and Sculpture of a Decade’ at the Tate Gallery in London.The Galerie de France devotes another solo exhibition to him of new paintings.

1965

Exhibition of his complete graphic works at the Stadtisches Museum in Braunschweig (Germany) to mark the publication of the catalogue raisonné of his graphical output (1921–65) by Galerie Rolf Schmücking.

1966

He paints his first works using the spray technique; mostly they are large-format works without supplementary graphical signs. The life in these works is engendered entirely by the dark areas that dominate the picture, set against a ground of another colour. Hartung achieves (here he refers to the glazing used by the Old Masters) “the miracle of those almost imperceptible shifts in which the purity of the colour remains intact but in which the colours blend… Using these large brownish or black areas, I tried to grasp hold of the atmospheric and cosmic tensions from the inside, those energies and radiations that govern the universe and with which I wanted to identify.” Presentation of the book by Will Grohmann entitled Hans Hartung.Watercolours 1922 at the La Hune bookshop in Paris, and then at the Galerie im Erker in St Gallen, where Hartung also created a new series of lithographs. Retrospective of approximately 200 works at the Museo Civico in Turin; exhibition of new canvases at the André Gallerich Gallery in New York; second trip to the USA. At UNESCO’s invitation he visits Japan to take part in the International Symposium of Fine Arts in the East and West. He is one of the 20 painters in the ‘Vingt peintres français’ exhibition held in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Denmark, and is represented at the show ‘10 années d’art vivant 1955–1965’ at the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Vence in France.

1967

Publication of the book by Umbro Apollonio on Hartung’s painting. He is awarded the Honorary Prize at the seventh International Biennial of Graphic Arts in Ljubljana and is made a Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters.With Arp, Magnelli and Anna-Eva Bergman he exhibits at the museum in Saint-Paul-de-Vence.The same exhibition is replicated in the French pavilion at Expo ’67 in Montreal, at the International Exhibition in Pittsburgh and, to mark the presentation of ‘10 années d’art vivant 1955–1965’, also at the Fondation Maeght.


Hans Hartung, May Choo (Zhu Ying), Zao Wou-Ki, Anna-Eva Bergman, 1962

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1968

With his wife, Hartung begins building a house and two art studios designed by himself in an old olive grove near Antibes. Construction will take a full six years. “For me the house is a cube. White cubes with simple lines like fishermen’s houses on the island of Minorca or the south of Spain, like the one we built at Fornells. Our house in Antibes is similar. … The play of light and shade, the light reflected on the walls and ceilings by the whiteness of the carefully angled slats of the blinds are of greater value to a painter than curtains. And then the windows were like paintings. Their every rectangular panel contained an unchanging yet always different landscape, with the sky vibrating through the silvery leaves of the olives.” Retrospective at the City Museum and Art Gallery in Birmingham and exhibition of graphic works at the Hollar Gallery in Prague. He is also represented in the group show ‘Painting in France from 1900 to 1967’ that is mounted in several museums in the USA and Canada, and at the exhibition ‘L’art moderne 1965–1968’ at the Fondation Maeght. He makes a number of ceramic reliefs in the studios of the Foundation. “That slow, meticulous kind of work was not really for me, but I saw in the lumps of malleable clay the possibility of working in depth. … I could press, scratch, or cut deeply or with delicacy. It gave me real joy to lump together, knead, invent irregular forms, and mistreat the clay to mark its surface!” Hartung is elevated to the rank of Commander of the Legion of Honour.

1969

The Musée National d’Art Moderne in Paris devotes a large retrospective to him (featuring more than 250 works). Most of this show will later be transferred to the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, the Musée de Québec and the Musée d’Art Contemporain in Montreal. He exhibits his engravings at the Galerie de France in Paris and the Sala d’Onore at the eighth Engraving Biennial in Ljubljana.

1970

He is awarded the Grand Prix des Beaux-Arts in Paris and is present in the international exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts in Osaka at Expo ’70.

1971

Hartung illustrates the book of poetry, Farandole, by Jean Proal with 15 lithographs (Ediciones Poligrafa, Barcelona). Also in Barcelona he produces an album of 5 copper engravings for the publisher Gustavo Gigli; it is called Las estampas de la cometa. Exhibition at the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Vence called ‘Grands Formats 1961–1971’. Exhibition at the Lefebre Gallery in New York of paintings on canvas and card. He is present at the ‘Hommage à Christian et Yvonne Zervos’ at the Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais in Paris.

1972-1973

Construction of “Le Champ des Oliviers”, his house and studios in Antibes, is completed. Hartung and his wife will live from now on in this property with the exception of a few stays in Paris. Georges Pompidou, the President of France, installs some of Hans Hartung’s works in the salons of the Palais de l’Élysée.

1974

Several events and publications celebrate Hartung’s 70th birthday. There is a show at the Galerie de France entitled ‘Hartung 1971– 1974’, a retrospective at the Wallraf Richartz Museum in Cologne to mark the 150th anniversary of the founding of the museum, and the publication of a special issue of the magazine Cimaise dedicated to the artist.The publisher Albert Skira publishes Un monde ignoré vu par Hans Hartung, featuring poems and stories by Jean Tardieu accompanied by photographs of stones taken by Hartung.

1975

A retrospective is held at the Nationalgalerie in Berlin and at the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus in Munich.The Metropolitan Museum in New York exhibits 27 recent large works by Hartung in three of its rooms. Hans Hartung studio, Antibes, France

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1976

Grasset publishes Hartung’s memoirs, Autoportrait, written in collaboration with Monique Lefebvre. He is made an honorary citizen of the city of Antibes.

1977

He is made a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and decorated with the Order of Merit for the Sciences and Arts in Bonn.The first exhibition of his photographs is held at the Cercle Noroit in Arras. For some time photography has been of increasing importance to Hartung, though he has been interested in it since his childhood. The Centre Georges Pompidou organises a travelling exhibition of Hartung’s lithographs and engravings that tours France for four years.


Hans Hartung in his studio, Antibes, France, 1975

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1979

Exhibition mounted at the Musée Picasso in Antibes entitled ‘Tofles 1962–1979 et céramiques’.

1980

Retrospective devoted to his pre-war works is opened at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris by the Mayor Jacques Chirac, who awards Hartung the city’s Médaille Vermeil. In December a French postage stamp is printed in Hartung’s honour. On the same occasion, the Musée de Poste de Paris mounts an exhibition of all the tapestries and wood engravings that Hartung and Anna-Eva Bergman have made.

1981

A year after the death of Oskar Kokoschka, the Austrian government sets up a prize in his honour; the first one is awarded to Hans Hartung.The Städtische Kunsthalle in Düsseldorf and Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst in Munich organise a large retrospective. Another retrospective is held by the HenieOnstad Kunstsenter in Norway. Autoportait is translated into German and presented to the Akademie der Kunste in Berlin. Hans Hartung painting with a broom, Antibes, France, 1981

1982

The Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst in Munich devotes a permanent room to paintings donated by Hartung with others purchased by the museum. Inauguration of a travelling exhibition of photographs at the Centre Pompidou, which has been touring for several years and presented, among other sites, at the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna.

1983

In rooms of the the Musée d’Antibes, the Conseil Régional Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur inaugurates an exhibition of photographs that will tour for the next two years. Exhibition at the Kupferstichkabinett der Staatlichen Kunstsammlungen in Dresden of 61 lithographs and engravings donated by the artist.

1984

Inauguration of a permanent Hartung Room at the Hessisches Landesmuseum in Darmstadt, the new modern art museum.The room has 11 canvases, almost all very large, some donated by the artist. Hans Hartung is made a member of the Order of Maximilian of Bavaria for Science and Art. On the same occasion Hartung is awarded the Great Cross with Star of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.

1985

He receives the large bimillenary plate of the city of Paris on occasion of the exhibition ‘Grand Formats 1971–1984’, organised by the Association for the Promotion of the Arts in the Salle de Saint-Jean in Paris City Hall.

1987

Exhibition at the Musée Picasso in Antibes,‘Premières peintures 1922–1949’. Anna-Eva dies on 24 July. Hartung is made an honorary citizen of the city of Belfort.

1988

Four large exhibitions are held of Hartung’s work: at the Palazzo dei Diamanti in Ferrara, the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Carcassonne, the chapel at the Sorbonne in Paris, and the Abbey des Cordeliers at Châteauroux. Hartung is made an honorary citizen of the municipality of La Gaude.

1989

Hans Hartung is elevated to the rank of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour by President François Mitterand. On 21 September he celebrates his 85th birthday in the rooms of the exhibition dedicated to his work at the Musée d’Unterlinden in Colmar. On the same occasion he visits his old house in Basle, where he lived from 1912 to 1914, and which has remained the same. On 7 December he dies in Antibes. Hans Hartung painting, Antibes, France, 1989

1994

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The Fondation Hans Hartung et Anna-Eva Bergman, recognised as an institution for the public good, is created.


Hans Hartung, Antibes, France, 1984

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Selected Exhibitions Dresde, Germany 1931 Hans Hartung, Kunstausstellung Kühl, Dresde, 25 november - 20 décember Paris, France, 1936 Des oeuvres récentes de : Arp, Ferren, Giacometti, Hartung, Hélion, Kandinsky, Nelson, Paalen, Tauber-Arp, La Galerie Pierre, 2 – 14 may Paris, France, 1937 Origines et développement de l’art international indépendant, Musée du Jeu de Paume, Paris, France, 30 july - 31 october London, England, 1938 20th century German art, New Burlington Galleries, London, England, july, text by Herbert READ Paris, France, 1947 Hans Hartung, Galerie Lydia Conti, Paris, France, 14 february, 8 march, text by Madeleine Rousseau London, England, 1949 Hans Hartung. Abstractions, The Hanover Gallery, London, England, 25 january - 19 february, Essay by Denys Sutton. Erlangen, Germany 1951 Hans Hartung, Fritz Winter, Das Amerika-Haus, Erlangen, Erlangen Basel, Switzerland 1952 Hans Hartung, Kunsthalle Basel, 23 february - 23 march 1 London, England 1953 Paintings by Hans Hartung, Lefevre Gallery, january-february Bruxelles, Belgium 1954 Hartung, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Bruxelles, 3 - 21 april Bern, Swittzerland 1954 Tendances actuelles de l’école de Paris, France, Hartung et al. Kunsthalle

Bern, 6 february - 7 march Basel, Switzerland 1956 Abstrakte Maler, Bazaine, Bertholle, Bissière, Eble, Estève, Hartung, Jan, Lanskoy, Louttre, Manessier, Le Moal, Nallar, Palazuelo, Vieira da Silva, Singier, Spiller, de Staël, Ubac, Galerie Beyeler, June - July Hanover, Germany 1957 Hans Hartung, Kestner-Gesellschaft, 26 january - 3 march, catalog by Werner SCHMALENBACH, exhibition traveling to Württembergische Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart; Haus am Waldsee, Berlin, Germany; Kunsthalle, Hambourg; Koinischer Kunstverein, Koln; Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. New York, USA 1957 Hans Hartung: paintings, Kleemann Galeries, New York, 11 march - 20 april Munich, Germany 1958 Hans Hartung: Ausstellung, 35 Pastelle und Pinselzeichnungen, Moderne Galerie Otto Stangl, Munich, 10 april -30 may Siegen, Germany 1958 Hans Hartung: Rubenspreis der Stadt Siegen, Rathaus, Siegen, 28 june - 27 july Liège, Belgium 1958 Léger - Matisse - Picasso - Miro - Laurens- Magnelli - Arp - Hartung – Jacobsen, Musée de l’Art wallon, June - September New York, USA 1959 Hans Hartung: pastels 1958, Kleemann Galleries, march London, England, 1960 Hans Hartung, Gimpel Fils, London, England, november Paris, France, France 1960 Hans Hartung, Galerie de France

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Paris, France, France 1961 Hans Hartung, Works from 1920 à 1939, Galerie de France, Paris, France,July - september

Birmingham, England 1968 Hans Hartung: a retrospective exhibition of paintings and drawings, City of Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, 13 march - 21 april

Paris, France, France, 1962 Cinquante oeuvres nouvelles de Hans Hartung, Galerie de France, Paris, France, 26 october - 24 décember

Paris, France, France 1968 Hartung, Musée national d’Art moderne, Paris, France,11 june - 15 september, text by Bernard DORIVAL

Düsseldorf, Germany 1963 Hans Hartung, Kunstverein für die Rheinlande und Westfalen, catalog by Karl-Heinz HERING

Houston, USA/Québec/Montréal, Canada 1969 Hans Hartung, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 24 april - 6 july Musée du Québec, 10 september -6 october Musée d’art contemporain, Montréal, 14 october - 7 décember Préface by Bernard DORIVAL

Munich, Germany 1963 Hans Hartung, Galerie Günther Franke, Munich, Beginning of November - 21 décember Vienne, Autria 1963 Hans Hartung, Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, 11 april - 12 may, catalog by Werner HOFMANN Zurich, Switzerland 1963 Hans Hartung, Kunsthaus Zürich, 9 february - 17 march, catalog by Eduard HÜTTINGER Amsterdam, Holland 1963-1964 Hartung, Stedelijk Museum,12 December 1963 -26 january 1964), text by Hans HARTUNG et Werner HOFMANN

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Prague, Czechoslovakia 1969 Hartung, Tàpies, Johns, Hozo: Z VIII. mezinàrodni grafické vYstavy v Lublani, Galerie nationale, Prague, october-décember, Texts by Raymond COGNIAT, Werner HOFMANN and William S. LIEBERMAN Brunswick, Germany 1969-1970 Hans Hartung:Bilder, Pastelle, Graphik, for the artist’s 65th birthday, Kunstverein Braunschweig, 2 December 1969 -4 january 1970), catalog by Rolf SCHMÜCKING Saint-Paul, France 1971 Hartung: grands formats 1961-1971, Fondation Maeght, Saint-Paul-deVence, 6 june - 6 july

Munich, Germany 1965 Hans Hartung:kleine Druckgraphik, Galerie Günther Franke,

Paris, France 1971-1972 Hans Hartung: 1971, Galerie de France, Paris, France,19 november 197112 february 1972

Turin, Italy, 1966 Hans Hartung, Galleria Civica d’Arte Maderna, May - June, introduction by Giuseppe MARCHIORI, catalog by Luigi MALLÉ

Paris, France, France 1974 Hans Hartung :1971-1974, Galerie de France, 11 june - 12 october, Catalog by François LE TARGAT

Turin, Italy, 1967 Hartung, Galleria d’Arte Narciso, 26 may - 26 june

Koln, /Berlin, /Munich, Germany 1974-1975 Hans Hartung: Werke aus fünf Jahrzehnten, Wallraf-Richortz-Museum, Koln, Germany, 21 september- 3 november 1974; Nationalgalerie Berlin, Germany, Stiftung Preuischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, Germany, 25 January-


16 March 1975; Stâdtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich,16 May - 29 June 1975) New York, USA 1975-1976 Hans Hartung: paintings,1971-1975, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,16 October 1975 -4 January 1976), introduction by Henry GELDZAHLER

Munich, Germany 1984 Hans Hartung zum 80. Geburtstag: Gemâlde und Lithographien, 19641984, Galerie Wolfgang Ketterer, Munich, 5 October - 26 October, Text by Jorn MERKERT Antibes, France 1987 Hans Hartung :premières peintures, 1922-1949, Musée Picasso, Antibes, July-September, Catalog by Danièle GIRAUDY

Paris, France, 1977 Hartung, Musée national d’Art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France

Ferrare, Italy 1988 Hans Hartung, Galleria Civica d’Arte Maderna, Ferrare, 28 May - 4 September

Kruishoutem, Belgium 1978 Hans Hartung, Fondation Veronneman, 3 October - 25 November

Nice, France 1989 Hartung: peintures 1988, Galerie Sapone, Nice, Bebruary-April 1989)

Paris, France, 1979 Hans Hartung : peintures et oeuvres sur papier 1976-1977, Galerie de France, Paris, France, 27 March - 28 April, Catalog by Gildo CAPUTO

Colmar, France 1989 Hans Hartung: premières recherches abstraites, 1922-1938, Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, 24 June - 15 October

Antibes, France 1979 Hans Hartung, Musée Picasso, Antibes, 5 July - 16 September

Montbéliard, France / Ludwigsburg 1992 Hans Hartung: oeuvres extrêmes, 1922 et 1989, Musée de Montbéliard, 15 June 28 October 1991; Villa Franck, 12 January- 29 February

Paris, France, France 1980 Hartung: oeuvres de 1922 à 1939, Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris, France, 31 March - 21 September, Catalog by Bernadette CONTENSOU, André BERNE-JOFFROY et Daniel ABADIE London, England/Berlin, Germany 1981 Hans Hartung: a vision into abstraction (1923-1964). A 75th birthday tribute, Fischer Fine Art Limited, London, England, January-February Düsseldorf/Munich, Germany 1981-1982 Hans Hartung: Malerei, Zeichnung, Photographie, Stddtische Kunsthalle, Düsseldorf, 12 September - 11 October; Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, Munich, 16 December 1981- 28 February 1982), Nice, France 1983 Hartung: peintures 1980-1983, Galerie Sapone, Nice,July - September

London, England 1996 Hans Hartung: Works on paper, 1922-1956,Tate Gallery, 16 July - 27 October, Catalog by Jennifer MUNDY Taichung, Taiwan 1997 Hans Hartung, Taiwan Museum of Art Nagoya, Japan, 1998 Hans Hartung, Aichi Prefectural Museum of Art, 9 October - 13 December Berlin, Germany 1999 Gesten, Flecken, Lineaturen... Hans Hartungs Erforschung... in seinen Arbeiten auf Papier 1922-1985 und in seinen sechs letzten Bildern, Kunstforum in der Grundkreditbank, 29 January- 25 April, Text by Jârn MERKERT

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Turin, Italy 2000 Hans Hartung, Galleria d’Arte Moderna, 28 January 2 April Belfort/Montbéliard, France 2003 Hans Hartung, Musée d’art et d’histoire, Belfort; tour 46, Musée du château des ducs de Wurtemberg, Montbéliard, 17 May - 28 September, Catalog by Christophe COUSIN, Bernard FAUCHILLE, Bernard LAFARGUE Koln, Germany 2004 Hans Hartung: So beschwor ich den Blitz. Arbeiten auf Papier, 1922-1938; greformatige Bilder, 1980-1989. Werkschau im kleinen Format,1922-1989, Museum Ludwig, 26 June - 19 September La Haye, Holland 2004 Hans Hartung: conceptualisme avant la lettre, Gemeentemuseum, La Haye, 18 September - 21 November Beijing/Nankin, China 2005 Hartung in China, Palais des beaux-arts, Beijing, 29 July - 18 August National Museum, Nankin, 29 August - 18 September; Organized by Feng Yuan, Xu Huping and François Hers; Curated by André Kneib, LaoZhu, Jean-Charles Agboton-Jumeau, with the contribution of de FENG Yuan, Jean-Charles AGBOTON-JUMEAU, LAOZHU (ZHU Qingsheng), XU Huping, Antibes, Fondation Hartung-Bergman Leipzig/Kiel, Germany 2007-2008 Hans Hartung: Spontanes Kalkül. Bilder, Fotografien, Film 1922-1989, Museum der Bildenden Künste, Leipzig, 4 November 2007 10 February 2008; Kunsthalle zu Kiel, 15 March - 18 May 2008), Edited by HansWerner SCHMIDT and Dirk LUCKOW, with the contributions of Annie CLAUSTRES, Robert FLECK and Jan NICOLAISEN Madrid, Spain 2008 Hans Hartung: esencial, Circula de Bellas Artes, Madrid,12 February- 21 May, organise by Bernard Derdérian, Franz-W. Kaiser, Nicolas Morales, text by Franz-W. KAISER, Juan Manuel BONET

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Saint-Paul-de-Vence, France 2008 Hans Hartung: le geste et la méthode, Fondation Marguerite et Aimé Maeght, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, 3 July - 16 November, text by Michel ENRICI, Daniel ABADIE, Jean CLAIR and Dora VALLIER Paris, France 2009-2010 Deadline: Martin Kippenberger, Absalon, Hans Hartung, James Lee Byars, Felix Gonzalez-Torres,Joan Mitchell, Robert Mapplethorpe, Chen Zhen, Gilles Aillaud, Willem de Kooning, Hannah Villiger, Jiirg lmmendorff, Musée d’Art moderne de la Ville de Paris, 16 October 2009 10 January 2010 New York, USA 2010 Hans Hartung, The Last Painting 1989, Galerie Cheim & Read, New York, 29 October 30 December, text by Joe Fyfe Madrid, Spain 2010 La guerra ha terminado ? Arte en un mundo divido (1945-1968), Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, 23 November London, England 2011 Hans Hartung, The Final Years 1980-1989, Timothy Taylor Gallery, London, England, 10 March 9 April, text by Odile Burluraux Wiesbaden, Germany 2011 The Art of Writing : Cy Twombly, André Masson, Georges Mathieu, Hans Hartung… (Art forum- Wiesbaden, 23 May) Geneva, Switzerland 2011 Les sujets de l’abstraction : Simon Hantaï, Gérard Schneider, Georges Mathieu, Pierre Soulages, Hans Hartung …Musée Rath, 6 May – 4 August Hong Kong, China 2012 Hans Hartung Paintings 1960’s – 1970’s, de Sarthe Gallery, February 16 – March 30


Museums and Public Collections Australia

Musée des Augustins,Toulouse.

Australian National Gallery, Canberra.

Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon. Musée Fabre, Montpellier. Musée des beaux-arts, Nantes.

Austria

Musée des beaux-arts, Rouen.

Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Wien.

Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence.

Museum Moderner Kunst,Wien.

Musée municipal, Saint-Paul-de Vence. Musée Nicéphore Niépce, Chalon-sur-Saône. Musée Picasso, Antibes.

Belgium

Musée Princeteau, Libourne.

Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Antwerpen.

Musée des beaux-arts, Lille.

Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Bruxelles. Germany Brazil

Akademie der Künste, Berlin.

Museu da Universidade, Sâo Paulo.

Foundation Domnick, Nürtingen.

Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro.

Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg. Heimatmuseum der Stadt Witten, Witten. Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt.

England

Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld.

City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham.

Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf.

Tate Gallery, London.

Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf. Kunsthalle, Bremen. Museum Folkwang, Essen.

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France

Museum Ludwig, Köln.

Centre national d’art et de culture Georges Pompidou, Paris.

Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin.

Fondation Maeght, Saint-Paul-de-Vence.

Pfalzgalerie, Kaiserslautern.

Fonds départemental d’art contemporain du Val-de-Marne, Créteil.

Schleswig-Holsteinisches Landesmuseum, Schleswig.

Fonds régional d’art contemporain Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Marseille.

Sprengel Museum, Hannover.

Musée Cantini, Marseille.

Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Kupferstichkabinet, Dresden.

Musée d’art contemporain, Dunkerque.

Staatsgalerie Moderner Kunst, München.

Musée d’art et d’industrie, Saint-Étienne.

Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart.

Musée d’art moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris.

Stâdtisches Kunsthalle, Mannheim.

Musée d’art moderne, Strasbourg.

Stâdtisches Kunstmuseum, Bonn.

Musée de Châteauroux, Châteauroux.

Stâdtisches Museum Simonstift,Trier.

Musée de peinture et de sculpture, Grenoble.

Suermondt-Ludwig Museum, Aachen.

Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Gemâldegalerie Neue Meister, Dresden.


Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Kôln.

Netherlands

Wilhelm-Hack Museum, Ludwigshafen.

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam.

Wilhelm-Lehmbruck Museum, Duisburg.

Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven.

Iceland

Sweden

Listasafn Ifslands (National Gallery of Iceland), ReykHovikkoden.

Moderna Museet, Stockholm.

Israel

Switzerland

The Israel Museum,Yerushalayim.

Kunsthaus, Zürich.

The Municipal Museum of Modem Art, Haifa.

Kunstmuseum, Basel.

Italy

United States of America

Collezione Vaticana d’Arte Religiosa Moderna, Roma.

Albright-Knox Art GalKöln, Buffalo.

Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna,Torino.

Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore.

Galleria Comunale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Roma.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna, Roma.

Museum of Modem Art, New York. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia. Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Harvard.

Japan

Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix.

The Museum of Modem Art, Kamakura.

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

The Museum of Modem Art,Toyama. The Ohara Museum of Art, Kurashiki.

Kenya Kenya National Museum, Nairobi.

Macedonia Musée d’Art Contemporain, Skopje.

Norway Sonja Henie-Niels Onstad Foundations, Hôvikkoden.

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Published on the occasion of the de Sarthe Gallery exhibition HANS HARTUNG: PAINTINGS 1960’s – 1970’s February 16 – March 30, 2012 With the kind support of the Fondation Hartung - Bergman, Antibes, France

de Sarthe Gallery

香港中環雪廠街16號西洋會所大廈8樓 8/F Club Lusitano 16 Ice House Street Central Hong Kong T: +852 2167 8896 F: +852 2167 8893 E: hongkong@desarthe.com

www.desarthe.com

Catalog: ©2012 de Sarthe Gallery Design: cohn & wolfe impact asia Printing: Charming Art corporation, Taipei, Taiwan © Fondation Hartung - Bergman Photographic credits: p. 7 Walch, p. 13 (both photos) Walch, p. 17 Walch, p. 31 (1938 photo) Marc Vaux, p. 38 (photo on left) Walch, p. 40 (1981 photo) Alkis Voliotis (1989 photo) Andre Villers Warmest thanks to: William Berard, Esther Chiu, Bernard Derderian, the Fondation Hartung - Bergman, Francois Hers, Antonio Sapone, Jean-Luc Uro, Jennifer Warner and Professor LaoZhu (Zhu Qingsheng)

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53 Hans Hartung, self-portrait with Minox, 1977


Profile for de Sarthe Gallery

Hans Hartung Paintings: 1960's - 1970's  

Hans Hartung Paintings: 1960's - 1970's

Hans Hartung Paintings: 1960's - 1970's  

Hans Hartung Paintings: 1960's - 1970's

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