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Luctor et Emergo

‘An island without an island’


North Sea: Landscapes of Coexistence Delta Interventions Graduation Studio 2017-2018

Graduation Project by Deniz Ăœstem TU Delft, Delta Interventions Graduation Studio North Sea: Landscapes of Coexistence Mentors: Dr.ir. Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin dr. ir. Nicola Marzot ir. Sjap Holst All drawings and images in this booklet were made by Deniz Ăœstem. Exceptions and collaborations are indicated.

June 2018

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Contents

07 The North Sea 23 The Wadden Sea 39 Archhetypal Struggle Against Water 65 Dynamics of the Island Schiermonnikoog 73 Struggle against Salinisation and Droughts Island as a source of Water 85 Representation of the Struggle Against Water How the Struggle Against Water is Represented in Visual Arts in the Netherlands 105 Scale and Typology Etudes & Early Proposals 117 Luctor et Emergo An island without an Island

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Introduction

The Delta Interventions theme for this year is landscapes of coexistence, which focuses on transitional spaces, infrastructure and power in the North Sea. Within the context of the North Sea, I depicted the Netherlands as a battleground, with the Dutch in a constant struggle against it. Thus, the project is an interpretation of the long-standing tradition of the Dutch battle against water. This led me to choosing my site, the Wadden Sea, where this battle between the land and the sea is at its most extreme. The varied research presented here gives an insight into the dynamic and extraordinary morphology of this landscape. The project traces the myth of “making new land” by investigating four major themes adopted from a recent publication ‘Sweet and Salt: The Water and The Dutch’. These four themes are perceived as a thematic backbone of the Dutch waterscapes. Therefore, the intention was to analyze the Wadden Sea and the island of Schiermonnikoog by using the themes: conflict, concord, profit and pleasure. After the investigation of these four themes, the motive here is to project them into the future by using the scenario method. This scenario envisions a future when the West Frisian island of Schiermonnikoog is left to nature and risks slowly disappears into the currents of the North Sea. The design intervention narrates a new myth: “guarding the water” by using the typology of a fort.

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The North Sea

| The North Sea: The Dutch and The German Coast | Preliminary Group Research


The North Sea: The Dutch and the German Coast

North Sea Field Trip with Delta Intervention Studio October 2017 The group’s focus is the 600km long strip of North Sea coast in Germany and the Northern part of the Netherlands. What make this part of the North Sea special and certainly interesting for us is its natural conditions of the Wadden Sea, the Frisian Islands and the related natural dynamics. This special part of the North Sea is strongly influenced by the tides and offers one of the biggest protected UNESCO habitats in the whole world with a rich flora and fauna. Water currents and the sediment streams are forming this naturally very vulnerable landscape and are creating dynamic interaction of water and ‘moving’ land.More extreme weather events, stronger water currents, heavier waves and especially the rising sea water level threaten this necessary sediments dynamics. The sea demands more space to expand and to refine the natural balance.This balance is difficult to maintain, be-

cause the territory is occupied with farming land, urbanization, flood protection systems and energy facilities. Static human systems, like dikes, walls and buildings, act as a buffer and protection. These processes are determined by the loss of salty marshlands as well as by the distinction of numerous types of animals. On the one hand the static human elements are threatening the natural system, on the other hand is flooding protection essential for the hinterland of the German and Dutch North Sea coast, because the coast territory is mostly under sea level or slightly above. Different Future scenarios are stating that huge parts of the countries hinterland, including the major cities, would be flooded. Also the human system is threatened by these conditions. The rising

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North Sea Field Trip Sketches, October 2017

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Island Schiermonnikoog April 2018 space, transform dikes and integrate more natural and dynamic flood protection. One suitable example is ‘The Hondsbossche New Dunes’ by West 8 in the west of the Netherlands.

sea level will gradually increase the amount of salt in the farmlands ground. Farmers are loosing their traditional way of growing plants and need to reconsider new ways of farming. Also human leisure areas might be lost and flooded as well as the tourism industry might suffer from it.

By giving space to the water certain function on land might be replaced and transformed. Algae production can be used for example as a resource for energy and food as well as the natural system is benefiting from it. An additional positive effect might be the creation of more leisure areas and attractive sites for tourists.

Future scenarios of climate change will threaten both the natural system and the human system. They need be interrelated rather than existing next to each other. Our vision of the future coastal edge is of an adaptive and dynamic nature, which responds to the dynamics of the sea and predicted future scenarios. The key element is ‘building and working with nature’; maintaining the natural conditions; its systems and the flora and fauna of the North Sea, by giving the water more

Another challenge might be of strategically nature. By giving more space to the water the actual Sea might become even more occupied by production facilities and infrastructure than it is today. Even if we

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North Sea Field Trip Sketches, November 2017 find a way to balance human and natural demands and needs, managing different interests of the surrounding countries need to be taken in to account, for example using the idea of macro regional strategies and transnational agreements.The overall aim is that both the natural system and the human system are mutually benefiting from each other. The key idea is, that ‘building with nature’ means not just the increase the adaptiveness of a system but to ‘delegate back to the biosphere, what she does well […]’ (Saskia Sassen, A Third Space: Neither Fully Urban nor Fully of the Biosphere’). Deniz Üstem, Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland 04 November 2017

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Preliminary Group Research

LEGAL BORDERS AND ENERGY NETWORK The North Sea consists of 5 Exclusive economic zones. Each country holds exclusive rights in their zone to explore and exploit resources.

Oil fields Gas fields Potential oil and gas fields Condensate Coal power plant Nuclear power plant Oil pipeline Gas pipeline Landing point pipeline Existing wind farm Planned wind farm Border Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) (200nm) Territorial zone (12nm) Contigous zone (12nm) Territorial waters ‘mare liberum’ 17th century (3nm)

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LANDS RISIAN IS EAST F

Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

53°N

Emden

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IEL VL

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Leeuwarden

Groningen Oldenburg Bremen

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Main and secundairy roads

GERMANY

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Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

Legal Borders and Energy Network 6°E Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland, Deniz Üstem, November 2017

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NATURAL DYNAMICS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Since North Sea is a swallow sea, where the water gets deeper the shipping routes gets denser. On the European costs there are three biggest major ports: Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Antwerp. These three majors pull the entire traffic to themselves.

Water depth Very large harbor Medium Large harbor Small harbor International airport airport Non-terminal airport Major highways EEZ borders Current stream Shipping route Protected areas

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Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

53°N

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Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

Natural Dynamics and Infrastructure 6°E Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland, Deniz Üstem, November 2017

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THE NORTHERN NETHERLANDS AND THE NORTHERN GERMANY: A SEDIMENT SHARING SYSTEM Since North Sea is a swallow sea, where the water gets deeper the shipping routes gets denser. On the European costs there are three biggest major ports: Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Antwerp. These three majors pull the entire traffic to themselves.

A Sediment Sharing System Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland, Deniz Ãœstem, November 2017 16


10 m/s 1010 m/s m/s

9,5 m/s 9,59,5 m/s m/s

9 m/s 9 m/s 9 m/s

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Shore line Shore line Shore line Sand and dunes Sand and dunes Sand and dunes Dikes Dikes Dikes Salt marshes Salt marshes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Shore line seasea level riserise 1 meter Shore line level 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume 0 -00,5 mln m3m3 Increase of sand volume - 0,5 mln Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 -00,5 mln m3m3 Decrease of sand volume - 0,5 mln Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln Urbanization Urbanization Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Tidal current along thethe coast and rivers Tidal current along coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels Sediment moving through tidal channels Sediment moving through tidal channels Wind speed Wind speed Wind speed Main and secundairy roads Main and secundairy roads Main and secundairy roads Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland Soil of clay, farmland Soil of clay, farmland

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EVENTS HAPPENING IN THE NORTH SEA: A SECTIONAL TIME STUDY Wadden sea is a sediment basin due to corresponding sea and river flows. Also, it has tidal movements on the surface which forms a tidal base on the sea floor and later causes the salt marsches to grow with its movement. And there is many more events happening in different frequences. All these natural and infrastructural events happening on the grid terrain that we defined on the first image. We tried to symbolise the continuity of these simultaneous changes with a time capsule. In every piece of these capsule, a diverse event is happening. And the overlap of all of these events defined the natural and cultural landscape of the Wadden Sea

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sediment decrease

sediment increase

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high tide low tide

Events Map Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland, Deniz Ãœstem, November 2017 19

COAST


CIVIL GUARDS OF THE WADDDEN SEA The terrain which has defined in the first image is placed as a terrain which is a palimphest of diverse events. This terrain is dynamic and regulates the border conditions between dynamic north sea and static coastal line in contrast. The two civil guards in the image represents the laws and policies in terms of protecting the wadden see and respectively the north sea. But in contrast to original, because normally civil guards were protecting the land against ivasions especially against the Spanish invasions, by putting these guards on to sea, in front of the wadden sea border we tried to highlight a new position is to be taken in terms of protecting and regulating the borders in the North Sea.

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Civil Guards of the Wadden Sea Jan Cyganski, Julia Holtland, Deniz Ăœstem, November 2017 21

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The Wadden Sea

| The Wadden Sea as a Transitional Border | Interscalar Research | Morphological Development of the West Frisian Islands in the Holocene


6°E

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The Wadden Sea as a Transitional Border

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6°E GERMANY 6°E A DYNAMIC LANDSCAPE

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Wadden Sea is a transitional border between the North Sea and the North Frisian cost of the Netherlands. This waterscape is a unique example of where natural and human systems intervening each other in an exquisite way. The tides, water currents and sediment streams creating a dynamic landscape. Barrier islands are eroding, moving or sometimes disappearing in this dynamic landscape. 24

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The large coherent system of Wadden Sea tidal flats is protected towards the open North Sea by a long chain of barrier islands of different geological origin. In the innermost part of the German Bight, characterized by macrotidal conditions (tidal range >3.5 m), open tidal flats and ephemeral sand bank islands occur. Dashed lines indicate mean tidal ranges. Highly dynamic islands: Rottumeroog (1), Kachelotplate (2), Mellum (3), Scharhörn / Nigehörn (4), Trischen (5), Norderoogsand (6), Kjeldsand (7).

6°E

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THE NETHERLANDS GERMANY 8°E 6°E Dynamic Islands in the Wadden Sea, Source: Waddden Sea Ecosystem No. 33 Common Wadden Sea Secretariat 2014, Ulrich Hellwig, Martin Stock

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RAMSAR SITES The Convention on Wetlands, called the Ramsar Convention, is an erlands: North Sea Coastal Area (Ramsar Site n°1252), Waddenintergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national zee ( Ramsar Site n°289), Duinen en Lage land Texel ( Ramsar Site RAMSAR action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise n°2213), Duinen Vlielan ( Ramsar Site n° 2216), Duinen Terschelling useThe of Convention wetlands and their resources. TheRamsar Governments of Denmark, ( Ramsar Site n°2215), Duinen Ameland ( Ramsar Site n°2212) and on Wetlands, called the Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that Germany the Netherlands haveaction formally the cooperation Secretari- for the conservation Duinen Schiermonnikoog ( Ramsar Site n°2214). provides and the framework for national andrequested international and at wise of the Ramsar Convention, use of wetlands and their through resources.a joint letter dated 1 December 2015, to list the Wadden Sea as a Transboundary Ramsar Site. With Source: Dynamic Islands in the Wadden Sea, Theformal Governments Denmark,Sea Germany andthe thebiggest Netherlands have formally requested the Secretarthat request,of Wadden became transboundary Waddden Sea Ecosystem No. 33 iat of the Ramsar Convention, through a joint letter dated December 2015, to listCommon the Wadden Sea Sea Secretariat 2014, Ulrich Hellwig, Martin Stock RAMSAR site. There are 7 designated RAMSAR sites1in the NethWadden as a Transboundary Ramsar Site. With that formal request, Wadden Sea became the biggest transboundary RAMSAR site.

6°ESea Coastal Area (Ramsar Site There are 7 designated RAMSAR sites in the Netherlands: North N n°1252), Waddenzee ( Ramsar Site n°289), Duinen en Lage land Texel ( Ramsar Site n°2213), Duinen Vlielan ( Ramsar Site n° 2216), Duinen Terschelling ( Ramsar Site n°2215), Duinen Varde Ameland ( RamsarE Site n°2212) and Duinen Schiermonnikoog ( Ramsar Site n°2214). 6°E 8°E W

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RAMSAR SITE 289 WADDEN SEA RAMSAR SITE 1252 NOORDZEEKUSTRZONE

Rømø

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RAMSAR SITE OF DUNES 2214,2213,2216,2215,2212

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* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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UNESCO SITES The outstanding qualities of geology, hydrology, morphology, ecology and biodiversity have led to the entire Wadden Sea being declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2009, the Dutch and German parts of the Wadden Sea were inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List and the Danish part was added in June 2014. The landscape is representing major stages of Earth’s history: including the record of life, significant ongoing geological processes in the development of landforms, and significant geomorphic or physiographic features. More importantly, Large scale examples of continuous geological processes and

Source: Dynamic Islands in the Wadden Sea, Waddden Sea Ecosystem No. 33 Common Wadden Sea Secretariat 2014, Ulrich Hellwig, Martin Stock

6°E

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morphological interactions are on public view in the Wadden Sea. Among the most spectacular are the: creation, continual shifting and changing, and ultimate disappearance of many of the region’s uninhabited natural islands, along with all the biota they support.

8°E

In6°E 2009, the Dutch and German parts of the Wadden8°E Sea wereVarde inscribed on UNESCO's World W Blavands Huk Heritage List andEthe Danish part was added in June 2014. S 55°N

Esbjerg

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Fanø Ribe

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FRISIAN ISLANDS H T R NO

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* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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In 2009, the Heritage List

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Interscalar Research

Wadden Sea is an ebb tidal delta, where the sediment sharing system causes the Wadden islands to demonstrate a highly dynamic morphological pattern. According to Hellwig and Stock “Large scale examples of continuous geological processes and morphological interactions are on public view in the Wadden Sea. Among the most spectacular are the creation, continual shifting and changing, and ultimate disappearance of many of the region’s uninhabited natural islands, along with all the biota they support.” They also remark that the highest mean shifting rates are reported from The Netherlands . This lead me to map the morphological transformations of the territory in three different scales, with each scale posing different problems. The first scale is the Wadden Sea Area (from The Netherlands as the westernmost extremity to Denmark as the northernmost). The second scale is the West Frisian Islands and Northern Netherlands, with the third scale being the island Schiermonnikoog.

Scale 1

SCALE I

3. Moving Islands Large amounts of the Wadden islands are moving, causing them to demonstrate a highly dynamic morphological pattern. The direction of their movements is changing in time and their moving rates are proving to vary differently. Importantly, the highest mean shifting rates are reported from the Netherlands. The current land reclamation policies of the Netherlands are against mobilisation of the islands of Texel, Vlieland, Ameland, Terschelling and Schiermonnikoog. For that purpose, sand nourishment on the beaches, dikes and sand drift dikes are implemented against the dynamic nature of the islands. But in the future, especially with the contribution of the sea level rise, these implementations may not be enough to keep the islands in their static state.

WEST FRISIAN ISLANDS & NORTHERN NETHERLANDS 1. Coastal Squeeze In the current state, the densification of urban, industrial and agricultural areas on the coast threaten this naturally very vulnerable landscape with coastal squeeze. Coastal squeeze is another threat to Wadden’s unique habitat than sea level rise and gas extraction. Unlike the sea level rise and the gas extraction, the coastal squeeze is a problem developed over centuries during the Holocene development of the Northern Netherlands. Starting form 500 BC, the ebb-tidal delta of the Wadden Sea was getting smaller during centuries. And finally, with the effect of the land reclamation processes it is taken todays shape. 2. Drought & Salination Threat Climate change, land subsidence and new water demands may lead to droughts in the Netherlands, despite it being a relatively wet country. Additionally, climate change leads to salination of the fresh water as well, which may lead shortage of fresh water for houses, agriculture and factories in the near future. 28


Scale 2 Scale 3

SCALE II

SCALE III

The problems posed in that scale are problems which directly relates with its legislative status of the Wadden Sea. The major problems posed by these authorities are:

1. Most Dynamic Island Island Schiermonnikoog is the most dynamic island among all other West Frisian Islands. This implies that the Dutch Government must allocate a higher budget for the sand nourishment than they spend for other islands. Especially with the effect of sea level rise, this situation may create a conflict between immobilisation of the island and the sand budget.

THE WADDEN SEA

ISLAND SCHIERMONNIKOOG

1. Loss of Habitat The Wadden Sea is a unique habitat for mammals and birds. The loss of its habitat is threatening the species living around this heavenly habitat. Sea level rise and gas extraction around the Wadden Sea is a serious threat to its unique habitat.

2. Highly Affected by Tidal Changes Since the island is a part of an ebb-tidal delta, the sea level is changing twice a day. From Den Helder to Bremen, the water level difference goes from 1,4m up to 4,4m. Thus, the daily tide difference in the island is between 2 - 2,5 meters. However, during the storm surges the maximum recorded setup in the water is about 3,4 - 4 meters. These numbers are expected to get higher with the effect of climate change.

2. Need for a Sustainable Tourism The area is also a favourite destination for tourists, especially for the bird watchers since it is on the flyway of numerous bird species. Some also use the islands and sandbanks to leave their eggs and to breed. Thus, tourism is an important source of income but these activities should meet sustainability criteria.

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MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT Development of OF THEMorphological WEST FRISIAN ISLANDS

100 AD

The West Frisian Islands in the Holocene

ORIGINS OF TIDAL BASINS AND INGRESSION SYSTEMS (100 AD)

Origins of tidal basins and ingression systems Geological processes and human interventions induced major changes

in the Holocene coastal landscape. a result ofinterventions the global Holocene induced major changes in the Holocene coastal Geological processes and As human sea-level rise, northern Netherlands changed into a marine environlandscape. a result of the Holocene sea-level rise, northern Netherlands changed into a ment. Tidal As channels locally eroded the global subsoil and the lower parts of the Pleistocene valleys were flooded. These valley systems turned marine environment. Tidal channels locally eroded the subsoil and the lower parts of the Pleistocene into tidal basins and where Eems debouched into the sea they became valleys wereTheflooded. These systems an estuary. Wadden Islands, tidalvalley basins and estuaries turned migrated into tidal basins and where Eems debouched into landward as a result of ongoing sea-level rise. During the Late Iron the sea they became an estuary. The Wadden Islands, tidal basins and estuaries migrated landward Age and Roman times, at increasingly more locations in the Dutch as aWadden resultSea, ofmarine ongoing sea-level sedimentation in therise. marginal peat lands took place. Then the border zones of peat areas started drowning. Human reclamations and continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the During Iron Age and Roman at increasingly border the zones Late of the peat areas. (The average sea level times, rose by about 5–10 cm per century)

more locations in the Dutch Wadden Sea, marine sedimentation in the marginal peat lands took place. Then the border zones of peat areas started drowning. Human reclamations Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction ofand the continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal border zones of the peat areas. (The average sea level rose by about 5–10 cm per century) of Geosciences, 2015 m -NAP +5 EHW EHW MHW 0 MHW MLW MLW

-5

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Schematic Section EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high water MLW: mean low water Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal COASTAL DUNES of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructred by Deniz Üstem

water MLW: mean low water

TIDAL LANDSCAPE INTERTIDAL AREAS: SAND & MUD FLATS

DUNE, BEACH, SAND 30

PEAT BOG

SUPRATIDAL AREAS: SALT-MARSH AREA&


areas started drowning. Human reclamations and continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the border zones of the peat areas. (The average sea level rose by about 5–10 cm per century)

JUIST

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PLEISTOCENE

53°45’N

RECLAIMED TIDAL AREAS

HIGHER PLEISTOCENE GROUNDS

FORMER LAKES

OUTLINE OF THE PRESENT DAY

Origins of

Geological pr landscape. As marine enviro valleys were fl the sea they be as a result of o

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URBAN AREAS CITIES

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* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3

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Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

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Main and secundairy roads

* Source: H evolution a

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Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

The Netherlands in 100 AD Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructred by Deniz Üstem

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MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST FRISIAN ISLANDS

800 AD

MIGRATION PERIOD (800 AD)

the Migration Period (400–500 AD) the occupation intensi800During AD

ty in the salt-marsh area of the northwestern Wadden Sea reduced sharply and so did the reclamation activities. The occupancy of salt marshesthe at the seaward margin of the peat(400–500 area in the northern During Migration Period AD) Neththe occupation intensity in the salt-marsh area of the erlands and northwestern Germany increased strongly again during northwestern Sea reduced sharply started, and so did the reclamation activities. The occupancy of the Early MiddleWadden Ages when the large-scale peat reclamations leading to full cultivation of the coastal peat bog and the adjacent salt marshes at the seaward margin of the peat area in the northern Netherlands and northwestern peat-moor area on the Pleistocene soils. They caused a significant subGermany strongly again during the Early Middle Ages when the large-scale peat reclamasidence in increased the surface of the seaward margin of the peat area. Because of subsidence the seaward margin of the peat area was flooded during tions started, leading to full cultivation of the coastal peat bog and the adjacent peat-moor area on storms.Concomitantly, the tidal currents to the hinterland strengt the ened, Pleistocene soils. causedof athesignificant in the surface of the seaward margin of the which in turn led toThey an enlargement tidal channels. subsidence The Lauwerszee reached its maximum extent in the Early Middle Ages. peat area. Because of subsidence the seaward margin of the peat area was flooded during Because, the subsidence resulting from peat reclamation enabled the storms.Concomitantly, tidal currents to the hinterland strengthened, which in turn led to an tidal system of the Lauwerszee the to enlarge.

enlargement of the tidal channels. The Lauwerszee reached its maximum extent in the Early Middle Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Ages. Because, the subsidence resulting from Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journalpeat reclamation enabled the tidal system of the of Geosciences, 2015 Lauwerszee to enlarge.

m -NAP +5 EHW EHW MHW 0 MHW MLW MLW

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Schematic Section EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high water MLW: mean low water Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal COASTAL DUNES of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructred by Deniz Üstem

water MLW: mean low water

TIDAL LANDSCAPE INTERTIDAL AREAS: SAND & MUD FLATS

DUNE, BEACH, SAND 32

PEAT BOG

SUPRATIDAL AREAS: SALT-MARSH AREA&


areas started drowning. Human reclamations and continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the border zones of the peat areas. (The average sea level rose by about 5–10 cm per century)

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53°45’N 52°45’N

PLEISTOCENE

53°45’N

RECLAIMED TIDAL AREAS

HIGHER PLEISTOCENE GROUNDS

FORMER LAKES

OUTLINE OF THE PRESENT DAY

800 AD

9 m/s

URBAN AREAS CITIES

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* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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During the M northwestern salt marshes a Germany incr tions started, the Pleistocen peat area. Be storms.Conco enlargement o Ages. Because Lauwerszee to

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Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3

52°45’N

SE

IJ S

4°E

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Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

EE

Wind speed

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Main and secundairy roads

* Source: H evolution a

6°E

Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

The Netherlands in 800 AD Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructred by Deniz Üstem

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MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST FRISIAN ISLANDS

1500 AD

ARTIFICIAL 1500 AD SUBSIDENCE AND DIKES (1500 AD)

The Zuiderzee enlarged during the Middle Ages, erosion during major the sea during low water through a system of dikes and sluices. In this storms playing a major role. For example, during the great storm of way almost the major entire marsh area of playing the northwestern, Wadden Sea The1170 Zuiderzee enlarged during the Middle Ages, erosion during storms a major role. AD a large piece of land, seaward of the current dike at Stavoren, area of the Netherlands and Germany was diked between 1200 and Forwas example, stormAsof AD piece land, thenocurrent lost and theduring Marsdiep the camegreat into existence. the1170 inland sea in-a large 1300. As a of result of thisseaward diking waterofcould longer bedike stored at in the salt marshes during storms, leading to the impoundment of water creased in size, wave attack on the shorelines became stronger. The Stavoren, was lost and the Marsdiep came into existence. As the inland sea increased in size, wave Marsdiep tidal inlet became increasingly important during the Middle against the dikes and an increase in maximum storm water levels in attack the shorelines became stronger. ThelandMarsdiep tidal Sea. inlet became increasingly important Ages. on The effects of anthropogenic interventions in the coastal the Wadden scape became dramatic in the Late Middle Ages, when the major part during the Middle Ages. The effects of anthropogenic interventions in the coastal landscape became of the salt-marsh area was embanked. In the course of the 11th century the construction of dikesMiddle had becomeAges, necessary in areasthe withmajor strong part of the salt-marsh area was embanked. In the dramatic in the Late when subsidence. In the previous periods the water flowed back to the sea Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the course of the 11th century the construction of dikesSource: had P.C. become necessary in areas with strong in a natural way after a flood. However, after the artificial subsi ence Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal of the land, water remained present and could only discharged to of Geosciences, subsidence. In the previous periods thebe water flowed back to the2015 sea in a natural way after a flood.

However, after the artificial subsidence of the land, water remained present and could only be discharged to the sea during low water through a system of dikes and sluices. In this way almost the entire marsh area of the northwestern, Wadden Sea area of the Netherlands and Germany was diked between 1200 and 1300. As a result of this diking water could no longer be stored in the salt marshes during storms, leading to the impoundment of water against the dikes and an increase in maximum storm water levels in the Wadden Sea. m -NAP +5 EHW EHW

MHW MHW

0

MLW

MLW -5

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Schematic Section EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high water MLW: mean low water Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal COASTAL DUNES of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructed by Deniz Ăœstem

water MLW: mean low water

TIDAL LANDSCAPE INTERTIDAL AREAS: SAND & MUD FLATS

DUNE, BEACH, SAND 34

PEAT BOG

SUPRATIDAL AREAS: SALT-MARSH AREA&


areas started drowning. Human reclamations and continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the border zones of the peat areas. (The average sea level rose by about 5–10 cm per century)

JUIST

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53°45’N 52°45’N

PLEISTOCENE

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RECLAIMED TIDAL AREAS

HIGHER PLEISTOCENE GROUNDS

FORMER LAKES

OUTLINE OF THE PRESENT DAY

9 m/s

URBAN AREAS CITIES

8 m/s JUIST

* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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The Zuiderzee For example, d Stavoren, was attack on the during the Mi dramatic in th course of the subsidence. In However, afte discharged to entire marsh diked between marshes durin maximum sto

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BOALSERT SNEEK

IEP MARSD

KOUDUM

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WORKUM HINDELOOPEN

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SE

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Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 ASSEN Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3

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Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

BAKHUIZEN

Wind speed

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Main and secundairy roads

MEDEMBLIK

* Source: H evolution a

6°E

Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

The Netherlands in 1500 AD Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructed by Deniz Üstem

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MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST FRISIAN ISLANDS

TODAY (2000 AD)

200o AD

The northern 2000 AD part of Noord-Holland silted up strongly and the silted-up salt marshes were diked in stages. From the 19th century onwards the intertidal coastal zone along the embanked mainland has

been reclaimed using structures along the dike inup which Thealso northern part ofwooden Noord-Holland silted strongly and the silted-up salt marshes were diked in silt was trapped.When such reclamation areas had silted up to the levstages. From thethey 19th onwards intertidal coastal zone along the embanked mainland has el of the salt marsh werecentury diked. In the 20th centurythe the Zuiderzee and the Lauwerszee were cut off from the Wadden Sea by large also been reclaimed using wooden structuresdikes. along the dike in which silt was trapped.When such Thus the Wadden Sea area has been reduced. In particular, the saltreclamation areas silted upthey to once the were. levelAfter of the marsh areas are only ahad fraction of what 1500 salt marsh they were diked. In the 20th century the AD the peat area also decreased considerably. The coastal peat and the Wadden Sea by large dikes. Thus the Wadden Zuiderzee and the Lauwerszee were cut off from the peat areas on the higher Pleistocene grounds have largely disapSeapeared areadue has been reduced. theand salt-marsh areas are only a fraction of what they once to large-scale peat-cuttingIn forparticular, fuel (turf) and salt, by oxidation of peat due to exploitation. were. After 1500 AD the peat area also decreased considerably. The coastal peat and the peat areas on the higher have largely disappeared due to large-scale peat-cutting for fuel Source: P.C. Vos,Pleistocene E. Knol, Holocenegrounds Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal (turf) and salt, and by oxidation of peat due to exploitation. of Geosciences, 2015

m -NAP +5 EHW EHW

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Schematic Section EHW: extreme high water MHW: mean high water MLW: mean low water Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands COASTAL DUNES Journal of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructed by Deniz Ăœstem

TIDAL LANDSCAPE INTERTIDAL AREAS: SAND & MUD FLATS

DUNE, BEACH, SAND 36

PEAT BOG

SUPRATIDAL AREAS: SALT-MARSH AREA&


areas started drowning. Human reclamations and continuous sea level rise caused subsidence in the border zones of the peat areas. (The average sea level rose by about 5–10 cm per century)

JUIST

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53°45’N 52°45’N

PLEISTOCENE

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RECLAIMED TIDAL AREAS

HIGHER PLEISTOCENE GROUNDS

FORMER LAKES

OUTLINE OF THE PRESENT DAY

2000 AD

The northern stages. From t also been recl reclamation a Zuiderzee and Sea area has b were. After 15 on the higher (turf) and sal

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8 m/s JUIST

* Source: Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Explanation of the coastal evolution and visualisation of the landscape developmen, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015

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Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 ASSEN Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3

DRACHTEN

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Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

BAKHUIZEN

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Wind speed Main and secundairy roads

MEDEMBLIK

* Source: H evolution a

6°E

Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

The Netherlands in 1500 AD Source: P.C. Vos, E. Knol, Holocene Landscape Reconstruction of the Wadden Sea Area Between Marsdiep and Weser, Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 2015 - Reconstructed by Deniz Üstem

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Archetypal Struggle Against Water

| Demise of Jordsand: Creation, Continual Shifting, Changing and Ultimate Disappearance | The Last One Hundred Seventy-five Years of the Island Schiermonnikoog


Demise of Jordsand: Creation, Continual Shifting, Changing and Ultimate Disappearance

The observation hut on Jordsand on fire Photo: Svend Tougaard. The island Jordstand is one of the most extreme islands of these disappeared ones. The island, which used to be an island on the Danish border of the Wadden Sea was destroyed in a series of storm tides. However, in 1971, it was as big as the island Schiermonnikoog‭. ‬Since it was not protected by dikes and wasn’t nourished by‭ ‬sand‭, ‬it has disappeared in the currents of the North Sea‭. Today it is just a shallow sandbank and not more than a google landmark on the map. Studying the case of Jordsand carried my morphological research into reconsidering the island Schiermonnikoog which is also threatened by disappearance because of tidal changes and its dynamic morphology. By taking the Jordstand case into account, I aimed to project a future scenario by asking the question “What if the island Schiermonnikoog slowly disappears in the currents of the North Sea.” Jordsand Today Photo: Google 40


1988 1807

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Jordsand’s degradation from 1807 to 1994 The delineation shows the area’s with vegetation coverage. After Jespersen and Rasmussen, 1996 Modified by Svend Tougaard, remodified by Deniz Üstem.

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The Last One Hundred Seventy-five Years of the Island Schiermonnikoog

Migration Pattern of the Island & Lessons taken from the Badhotel Case Barrier islands consist of five large-scale morpho ecological units. The island Schiermonnikoog contains each of these units within itself. And, each of these units behave differenty within the complex sedimentary system. While the island head (1) is corroding over the years, with the effect of sand nourishment supplied by the Dutch authorities, the shape of the tail remained almost same during the 175 years. The Badhotel case demostrates the effects of the corrosions on the island head (1) without implying sand nourishments. On the other hand, the same authorities did not interfere to natural accumulation of the sand on the island tail (4), Beach and shoreface (5). Thus, the island tail (4) and the beach and the shoreface (5) got longer and longer over the years.

Badhotel Case Badhoter 1924, From the archieve of Eddie Bakker In 1887, the owner of the island I.E.Banck has built a large bathhouse which has its own light house and pump installation which provides water to the hotel. In 1916 the sands underneath of the hotel slowly began eroding and eventually in 1924 the hotel was damaged by the sea water. At that time, there were 80 guests in the hotel which proved that teh resort was quite populer among Dutch community. And then in the same year that it was damaged, it was completely demolished.

The sand nourishments prevents the mobilisation of the island to the North-east. As a result, the island looks like it stands on its place but getting longer on the North-east border.

Prototype Island The prototype West and East Frisian barrier island is characterized by the presence of five large-scale morpho-ecological units: (1) island head; (2) dune arc; (3) washover complex; (4) island tail; (5) Beach and shoreface Source: Lรถffler et al., 2011 42


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Migration Pattern of the Island Schiermonnikoog A series of Maps were reconstructed and overlapped to understand the migration pattern of the island

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Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1840

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Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1930

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Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1960

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NSZ AND

BOSC

HPL A A

T

E N G E L S M A N P L A AT

15

10

05

00

90

80

70

49

60

15

10

00

20

10

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 10

20

10

19

70 19

60 30 Years

20

90 Years

19

30 19

18

40

VOORMALIGE L AU W E R S Z E E


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

ENG

ELSMA

NNIKO

N P L A AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1970

VOORMALIGE L AU W E R S Z E E

30

40

50

OG


ROT

BO

SI

SCH

ROT T UM E RO O G

TUM

ERPL

A AT

P L A AT ZU IDE

NSZ AND MO

R DU I N

N W

ROT

E

TUM

ERPL

S BO

RMO SCHIE

ENG

ELSMA

NNIKO

OG

SI

MO

SCH

P L A AT

NSZ AND

N P L A AT

15

10

05

00

90

80

70

51

60

15

10

00

20

10

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 10

20

10

19

70 19

60 30 Years

20

90 Years

19

30 19

18

40

VOORMALIGE L AU W E R S Z E E

A AT


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

E ENG

LSM

NNIKO

A N P L A AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1980

30

40

52

OG


ROT

SIM

ONS

TUM

ROT T UM E RO O G

ERPL

A AT

ZUID ER DU IN

ZAND

N

ROT

W

TUM

E S

SIM

SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

15

10

20

00

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 10

20

10

19

80 19

70 19 10

20

30 Years

53

70

19

19

18

60

A N P L A AT

90 Years

60

ZAND

NIKO O G

30

ELSM

40

ENG

RMON

ONS

ERPL

A AT


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

SIMON

ENG

NNIKO

SZ AND

ELSMA

N P L A AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 1990

30

40

54

OG


ROT

TUM

ERPL

ROT T UM E RO O G

A AT

ZUID ER DU IN SIM

ONS

ZAND

N

ROT

W

TUM

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SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

15

10

20

00

05

10

20

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 10

20

10

19

70 19

60

19

18

30 Years

55

70

ZAND

N P L A AT

30

ELSMA

90 Years

60

ONS

SZ AND

40

ENG

SIM

OG

19

SIMON

NIKO RMON

ERPL

A AT


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

E

E NG

LS

M

AN

PL A

NNIKO

AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 2000

30

40

56

OG


R

O

TT

UM

ERP

ROT T UM E RO O G

L A AT

ZUID ER DU IN

O SIM

N

NSZA

ND R

O

W

TT

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RMO SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

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15

10

20

00

05

10

20

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 10

20

10

19

70 19

19

19

18

30 Years

57

70

ONS

AT

90 Years

60

SIM

60

PL A

OG

30

GE

AN

40

EN

M LS

NNIKO

UM

ERP

L A AT


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

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LS

M

AN

PL A

NNIKO

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Schiermonnikoog in the year of 2005

30

40

58

OG


RO

T T U M E R P L A AT ROT T UM E RO O G

O SIM

NSZA

ZUID ER DU IN

ND

RO

N W

T T U M E R P L A AT

E S

SIM

SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

70

15

10

00

20

10

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 19 10

20

10

20

30 Years

59

60

19

19

18

90 Years

70

AT

19

PL A

60

AN

ZAND

NIKO O G

30

G

M

40

EN

S EL

RMON

ONS


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

E

E NG

LS

M

AN

PL A

NNIKO

AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 2010

30

40

60

OG


RO

T T U M E R P L A AT ROT T UM E RO O G

O SIM

NSZA

ZUID ER DU IN

ND

RO

N W

T T U M E R P L A AT

E S

SIM

SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

70

15

10

00

20

10

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 19 10

20

10

20

30 Years

61

60

19

19

18

90 Years

70

AT

19

PL A

60

AN

ZAND

NIKO O G

30

G

M

40

EN

S EL

RMON

ONS


N W

E S

RMO SCHIE

E

E NG

LS

M

P AN

NNIKO

L A AT

Schiermonnikoog in the year of 2015

30

40

62

OG


RO

T T U M E R P L A AT ROT T UM E RO O G

SIM

ONS

RDUIN IDE ZU

ZAND

RO

N W

T T U M E R P L A AT

E S

SIM

SCHIE

15

10

05

00

90

80

70

60

63

15

10

00

20

10

05

10

5

5

5

20

90 19

80 19 10

20

10

20

30 Years

19

19

18

90 Years

70

AT

60

PL A

19

AN

ZAND

NIKO O G

30

G

M

40

EN

S EL

RMON

ONS


Dynamics of the Island Schiermonnikoog

| Complex Sedimentary Systems | Tide Conditions and Shoreline Vegetation | Prevailing Winds


Complex Sedimentary Systems

Subenvironments Complex sedimentary systems with a variety of subenvironments. Source: Reinson, 1992

66


MICRO TIDAL

TIDAL RANGE 0-2 METERS Micro-tidal environments are those in which the tidal range is 0-2 m. These Island tend to be long and thin with few inlet channels. In micro- tidal environments that tidal surge is not large enough to top the island in many places. Without continual overtopping by tidal surges there is not the opportunity for many tidal inlets to form. Barrier islands in micro-tidal environments are considered to be wave dominated barrier islands.

0

4

8 km

MACRO TIDAL

TIDAL RANGE >4 METERS Macro-tidal environments are in areas where the tidal range is > 4m. Macro-tidal areas are considered to be barrier island free. Barrier islands exist in macro-tidal environments only very rarely when fluvial input is the dominant factor.

0

4

8 km

MESO TIDAL

TIDAL RANGE 2-4 METERS Meso-tidal barrier islands form in area in which the tidal range is from 2-4 m. The island systems which form in these environments tend to be shorter in length by slightly wider. The reason for the shorter length is continual overtopping by the tidal surge. This allows the formation of many inlet channels and hence the formation of many distinct islands. Meso-tidal barrier islands are considered to be tidally dominated barrier islands.

0

4

8 km

Source: Prothero,1990

67


Tide Conditions and Shoreline Vegetation

N E

W

S

T S

N E

Thes in S niko erla niko These are t in Schierm nikoog Bea erlands can nikoog Bea

W

S

3m

2m

2m

0m

1m

0m

1 km

3m

1m

1 km

1 km

Water Level (m) 3.5

1 km

Water WaterLevel (m) Level (m) 3.0 3.5

3.0

2.5

2.5

2.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.5

0

0

Mar 31 TIME & WATER LEVEL

Mar 31

05:23 0.11 m 11:37 2.80 m TIME & 17:41 0.23 m WATER LEVEL 23:41 2.99 m 05:23 0.11 m 11:37 2.80 m 17:41 0.23 m 23:41 2.99 m

Apr 1

Apr 2

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 1

06:09 0.10 m 12:18 2.81 m TIME & 18:23 0.18 m WATER LEVEL 00:22 2.99 m 06:09 0.10 m 12:18 2.81 m 18:23 0.18 m 00:22 2.99 m

Apr 3

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 2

06:46 0.11 m 06:47 0.11 m TIME & 12:54 2.81 m WATER LEVEL 18:58 0.14 m 06:46 0.11 m 06:47 0.11 m 12:54 2.81 m 18:58 0.14 m

Apr 4

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 3

01:00 2.96 m 07:17 0.14 m TIME & 13:26 2.81 m WATER LEVEL 19:27 0.12 m 01:00 2.96 m 07:17 0.14 m 13:26 2.81 m 19:27 0.12 m

Apr 4

Apr 6

Apr 5

TIME & WATER LEVEL

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 5

Apr 6

Apr 7

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 7

Apr 8

TIME & WATER LEVEL

Apr 8

TIME & WATER LEVEL

01:37 2.89 m 02:11 2.77 m 02:43 2.63 m 03:15 2.49 m 03:55 2.37 m 07:43 0.18 m 08:11 0.25 m 08:41 0.34 m 09:13 0.44 m 09:50 0.56 m TIME & TIME & TIME & TIME & TIME & 13:57 2.78 m 14:27 2.72 m 14:59 2.64 m 15:33 2.57 m 16:18 2.50 m WATER LEVEL WATER LEVEL WATER LEVEL WATER LEVEL WATER LEVEL 19:56 0.14 m 20:27 0.20 m 21:00 0.31 m 21:36 0.43 m 22:21 0.57 m 01:37 2.89 m 07:43 0.18 m 13:57 2.78 m 19:56 0.14 m

Tide predictions are taken from the nearest tide station in Schiermonnikoog, Netherlands 4,97km South-east of the Schiermonnikoog Beach.

68

02:11 2.77 m 08:11 0.25 m 14:27 2.72 m 20:27 0.20 m

02:43 2.63 m 08:41 0.34 m 14:59 2.64 m 21:00 0.31 m

03:15 2.49 m 09:13 0.44 m 15:33 2.57 m 21:36 0.43 m

03:55 2.37 m 09:50 0.56 m 16:18 2.50 m 22:21 0.57 m


N E

W

S

Beac Scre

N E

W

S

1 km

Bea Scre

1 km

1 km

1 km

Dune

De n s e l y Ve g e t a t e d

Lo w l y Veg eta ted

Vegetated Area Upl a nd

Dune

30 m

Dune

158 m

B a c k s h oLo re wly

Veg eta ted

Lo w l y Veg et a t ed

Be a c h P l a i n

93 m

80 m

Vegetated Area Upl a nd

Dune

30 m

Bea ch Pla in Dry Beach Plain

158 m

Dry BeaF ch o r e sPla h o r ein

For e s ho re

Fo re s hoNre earshore

H i g h W a t e r L e ve l & Lo w Wa t e r Le v e l

10 9 m

180 m

Bare Soil / Non-Vegetated Area Backshore

D e n se ly Ve g et a t ed

Dry Bea ch Pla in

Bare Soil / Non-Vegetated Area

De n s e l y Ve g e t a t e d D e n se ly Ve g et a t ed

Bea ch Pla in

Foreshore

Lo w l y Veg et a t ed

Be a c h P l a i n

93 m

80 m

Dry Beach Plain

10 9 m

Nearshore

H i g h W a t e r L e ve l & Lo w Wa t e r Le v e l

High Wat

180 m

Low Wat

High Water Level Low Water Level

69

High Wa

Low Wat


Ko

bb

ed

en

Koo

idu

en

in

ui

ne

n Ko

en Koo

rd

ui

n

Wes

te

rd

ui

n

Oosterduinen

idu

in

bb

ed

ui

ne

the ge The s most plex the di the g and t most dunes the d and dune

n

en

1 km

1 km

Wes

te

Prevailing Winds

1 km 1 km

Vegetation Cover

Ve get a t i o n C o v e r

N

NNW NNW

Ve ge tatio n Cover

N

NNE NNE NE NE

NW NW WNW WNW 10 m/s

ENE ENE

W W

EE

WSW WSW

ESE ESE

9,5 m/s

SW SW 40

40 1 0 0

2 0100 0

200 5 0 0

150 0 000

1000

5000

50 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0W 00 Woin ind P w de rP(ower D P ) ( DP )

Hy d at n o gces han s i ndwpi ower nd po w e r H y st ere s ister s cues r vise cu r e lrave terdela tot ech ing ewin n dtaveg et a t ion ve r. r(ce: S o uH. rc eT: soa H. T a n d v eage ti o n co ve r .c o(Sou r )s o a r) Hysteresis curve related to changes in wind power and vegetation cover: Source: H. Tsoar

Wind Power

SESE SSW SSW

9 m/s

S S

SSE SSE

8 m/s

Wind D is trution ib ution Year ( %) Wind D istrib in in Year(%) in thisland e island ier m onnik oog in the Sc Sch hiermonnik oog Prevailing Winds Wind Distribution in Year (%) in the island Schiermonnikoog

N E

W

S

The s plex the g most the d and dune

2 3 1

Shore line Sand and dunes Dikes Salt marshes Shore line sea level rise 1 meter Increase of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Increase of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume 0 - 0,5 mln m3 Decrease of sand volume > 0,5 mln m3 Urbanization Tidal current along the coast and rivers Sediment moving through tidal channels

4

Wind speed Main and secundairy roads Soil of sediment and sand, often recreation Soil of clay, farmland

10

20

N

50 km

1 km

0

1 km

MODIFICATION OF DUNES (1) Westerduinen (2) Oosterduinen (3) Kobbeduinen (4) Kooiduinen The size and morphology of coastal dunes is dependent on the complex interaction between controlling winds, sediment supply, and the geomorphology of the nearshore and beach environment. At the most basic level, dunes can be divided into those that form from the direct

supply of sediment from the beach face (primary dunes), and those N that form from the subsequent modification of NNE primary dunes (secNNW ondary dunes).

Ve ge tatio n Cover

NW WNW 70

NE

ENE


Island Schi ermo nni ko o g

3,50 - 4,00

0

2

50 km

5,50 - 6,00

ANNUAL WIND SPEED AVERAGES With the aid of a wind map you can read what the average wind speed is at a certain place in the Netherlands. The average wind speed in the Netherlands varies from 3.5 to 4.0 m / s in the East to 7.0-7.5 m / s on the coast. Below a wind map of the Netherlands . The values relate ​​ to an axle height of 10 meters in open grassland.Source: KNMI

71

4,00 - 4,50 6,00 - 6,50

4,50 - 5,00

5,00 - 5,50

6,50 - 7,00

7,00 - 7,50


Struggle Against Salinisation & Droughts Island as a Source of Water

| Island as a Source of Water | Conventional Systems and Water Maps of the Netherlands


Island as a Source of Water

Water Production Facility in the Island Schiermonnikoog April, 2018 74


The island is a natural source of water. Nowadays, the island contains two surface water extraction facilities. One of them is located on the South-east of the Westerduinen. This production facility contains considerable amount of water wells around the duins in order to collect the fresh water which is naturally collected under the dunes.

S.W. m 10 8 6 4

landsurface pumping station

well-ďŹ eld

2 phreatic surface

N.A.P. -20 -40 -60 -80

fresh/salt groundwater interface

-100 0,5

0

Schematic Section of the water well in the island Schiermonnikoog Source: Th. J. Beukeboom, The Hydrology of the Frisian Islands, 1976 75

1 km


Conventional Systems & Water Maps of The Netherlands

Wind Conditions & The Dunes of Schiermonnikoog

spray aeration

cascades

pre-filter

clear water storage

post-filter

water pump

abstraction well Schematic Impression of a conventional ground water treatment system in the Netherlands with submerged sand filters. (Source: W. W. J. M. de Vet, C. C. A. van Genuchten, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, J.C. van Dijk)

Schematic Section of a conventional ground water treatment system in the Netherlands with submerged sand filters Source: W. W. J. M. de Vet, C. C. A. van Genuchten, M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, J.C. van Dijk - Reconstructed by Deniz Ăœstem

76


0

25

50 km

* Supply and discharge in m3/s at a Rhine flow rate of 1200 m3/s

FRESH WATER DISTRIBUTION SUPPLY FROM RIVERS

DISCHARGE THROUGH MAIN WATER SYSTEM

DISCHARGE THROUGH REGIONAL SYSTEM

WATER SUPPLY FROM RHINE, IJSSEL AND WAAL

WATER SUPPLY FROM THE MAAS

NO SUPPLY FROM MAIN SYSTEM

WATER SUPPLY FROM IJSSELMEER

WATER SUPPLY FROM LEK, BRIELSE MEER AND AMSTERDAM RHINE CANAL

FRISIAN ISLANDS: NO WATER SUPPLY

15 140 10 75 215

2 1000

35 950

1200

15

100 0 * Supply and discharge in m3/s at a Rhine flow rate of 1200 m3/s

Fresh Water Distribution Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ãœstem

FRESH WATER DISTRIBUTION SUPPLY FROM RIVERS

DISCHARGE THROUGH MAIN WATER SYSTEM

WATER SUPPLY FROM RHINE, IJSSEL AND WAAL

WATER SUPPLY FROM THE MAAS

WATER SUPPLY FROM IJSSELMEER

WATER SUPPLY FROM LEK, BRIELSE MEER AND AMSTERDAM RHINE CANAL

DISCHARGE THROUGH REGIONAL SYSTEM

NO SUPPLY FROM MAIN SYSTEM

77

FRISIAN ISLANDS: NO WATER SUPPLY

25

50 km


0

0

25

25 50 km50 km

EFFECT EFFECT OF OF WATER WATER SHORTAGES SHORTAGES

1 1 2 2 3 3

Northern Northern Netherlands Netherlands

SalinisationSalinisation along the Wadden along the Sea Wadden coast, Sea coast, drought-related drought-related problems on problems the islands. on the islands.

Northeastern Northeastern Netherlands Netherlands

Dry areas due Drytoareas a lack due ofto water a lack supply of water supply infrastructure. infrastructure.

Centraleastern Centraleastern Netherlands Netherlands

Groundwater Groundwater related drought. related drought. Supply from Supply the IJssel fromand thethe IJssel Vecht andinthe Vecht in cases of drought. cases of drought.

4 4 5 5 6 6

Eastern Netherlands Eastern Netherlands

7 7 8 8 9 9

WesternWestern Netherlands Netherlands

Presence ofPresence hilly areas of where hilly areas where water supply water is impossible. supply is impossible.

SalinisationSalinisation and small-scale and small-scale water supply. water supply.

Central Netherlands Central Netherlands

Shortage ofShortage cooling water of cooling in thewater in the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal/ Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal/ Noordzeekanaal, Noordzeekanaal, no other drought-related no other drought-related problems. problems.

Northwestern Northwestern Netherlands Netherlands

Few drought-related Few drought-related problems, occasional problems, occasional deficienciesdeficiencies of the waterofsupply the water system. supply system.

10 10

SouthernSouthern Netherlands Netherlands

Water shortage Water in hilly shortage areas where in hillywater areassupply where iswater impossible. supply isDependent impossible. onDependent on water supply from waterBelgium, supply from though Belgium, no agreements though noexist agreements to that end. existIntodry that end. In dry periods, therefore, periods, the therefore, water supply the iswater significantly supply islimited. significantly limited.

Southwestern Southwestern Netherlands Netherlands Salinisation. Salinisation.

Southeastern Southeastern Netherlands Netherlands Presence ofPresence hilly areas of where hilly areas where water supplyis water impossible. supplyis impossible.

11 11

Area around Area the around major therivers major ofrivers the Netherlands of the Netherlands Few drought-related Few drought-related problems, occasional problems, occasional deficienciesdeficiencies of the waterofsupply the water system. supply system.

1 2 6

3 5

7

8

4

11 10 9

0

25

50 km

Effects of Water Shortages Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ăœstem

EFFECT OF WATER SHORTAGES

1 2 3

Northern Netherlands

Salinisation along the Wadden Sea coast, drought-related problems on the islands.

Northeastern Netherlands

Dry areas due to a lack of water supply infrastructure.

Centraleastern Netherlands

Groundwater related drought. Supply from the IJssel and the Vecht in cases of drought.

4 5 6

Eastern Netherlands

Presence of hilly areas where water supply is impossible.

Central Netherlands

Shortage of cooling water in the Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal/ Noordzeekanaal, no other drought-related problems.

Northwestern Netherlands

Few drought-related problems, occasional deficiencies of the water supply system.

7 8 789

Western Netherlands Salinisation and small-scale water supply.

10

Southern Netherlands

11

Area around the major rivers of the Netherlands

Water shortage in hilly areas where water supply is impossible. Dependent on water supply from Belgium, though no agreements exist to that end. In dry periods, therefore, the water supply is significantly limited.

Southwestern Netherlands Salinisation.

Southeastern Netherlands Presence of hilly areas where water supplyis impossible.

Few drought-related problems, occasional deficiencies of the water supply system.


0

25

50 km

CATCHMENT AREA OF LARGE RIVERS RHINE

SCHELT

MAAS

EMS

EMS

RHINE

MAAS

SCHELT 0

Catchment Areas of Large Rivers Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ãœstem

CATCHMENT AREA OF LARGE RIVERS RHINE

SCHELT

MAAS

EMS 79

25

50 km


0

25

50 km

EFFECTS OF HEAT AND DROUGHT ON THE WATER SYSTEM RIVERS

cult diffi els lev l a

Maint ena nce

of ca n

Surface water deficit

at e c r r ne op ed s fo s r

Increased water needs for special crops

w e d i sl e a s ec Incr sp

vels d

ifficult

in

g de

p ht s p ro

blem

nance of c inte an al l Ma e

S hi p

Shippin

in

wa

ng

iti

es a

vels

difficu

ks t loc

l le

luice water ns

t im

of ca na

ave rag es um me r cti an disc o d i ha s e rge fr xt ops re m om the Rhine dr ely low

u

Increased water needs for special crops

ase

red

Soil moisture deficit, irrigation limited

ground water deficit in summer

m roble g dephts p i n c re

Main tena nce

p

lt

ground water deficit in summer

0

Effects of Heat and Drought on the Water System Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ãœstem

EFFECTS OF HEAT AND DROUGHT ON THE WATER SYSTEM RIVERS

80

25

50 km


0

25

50 km

EFFECTS OF SALINISATION ON THE WATER SYSTEM CROP SUSPECTIBLE FOR SALINATION

SALT INTRUSION 2008-2050 COLLECTION IMPOSSIBLE IN THE LONG TERM

SALT INTRUSION 2050-2100 COLLECTION IMPOSSIBLE IN THE LONG TERM

fre shw ate rs up p

FRESH-SALT TRANSITION/ SALINISATION UNDER RESEARCH

ly

m fro

s Ijs

ess r str nde u eer elm

fre sh w

frequently low ply sup er at fresh water supply frequently low

f re q

quently low fresh water supply fre ntly low ue

fresh water suppl y

0

Effects of Salinisation on the Water System Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ãœstem

EFFECTS OF SALINISATION ON THE WATER SYSTEM FRESH-SALT TRANSITION/ SALINISATION UNDER RESEARCH

CROP SUSPECTIBLE FOR SALINATION

SALT INTRUSION 2008-2050 COLLECTION IMPOSSIBLE IN THE LONG TERM

SALT INTRUSION 2050-2100 COLLECTION IMPOSSIBLE IN THE LONG TERM

81

25

50 km


0 0 00

252525

5050km 50km km

WATER EXTRACTION WATER WATER WATER EXTRACTION EXTRACTION EXTRACTION GROUND WATER EXTRACTION GROUND GROUND WATER WATER GROUND WATER EXTRACTION EXTRACTION EXTRACTION INFILTRATION, INFILTRATION, INFILTRATION, EXTRACTION EXTRACTION EXTRACTION

SURFACE WATER EXTRACTION

INFILTRATION, SURFACE SURFACE SURFACE WATER WATER WATER EXTRACTION EXTRACTION EXTRACTION RIVERBANK GROUND WATER EXTRACTION

RIVERBANK GROUND RIVERBANK RIVERBANK GROUND GROUND WATER EXTRACTION WATER WATER EXTRACTION EXTRACTION

0

Water Extraction Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Ãœstem

WATER EXTRACTION GROUND WATER EXTRACTION

SURFACE WATER EXTRACTION

INFILTRATION, EXTRACTION RIVERBANK GROUND WATER EXTRACTION

82

25

50 km

25


Maastricht 0

25

50 km

BATHING WATER LOCATIONS BATHING WATER LOCATIONS ACCORDING TO 2009

Groningen

Leeuwarden

Assen

Lelystad Zwolle

Amsterdam Enschede

Utrecht

The Hague

Arnhem

Rotterdam Nijmegen

‘s-Hertogenbosch

Middelburg

Eindhoven

Maastricht 0

Bathing Water Locations Source: Water Atlas of the Netherlands, 2013 Reconstructed by Deniz Üstem

BATHING WATER LOCATIONS BATHING WATER LOCATIONS ACCORDING TO 2009

83

25

50 km


Represantation of the Struggle Against Water How the Struggle Against Water is Represented in Visual Arts in the Netherlands

| Ravenous Water Wolf | How the Struggle is Represented in Visual Arts in the Netherlands | Conflict | Concord | Profit | Pleasure | Territory as a Project


Ravenous Water Wolf

86


The long-standing battle between the Dutch and against water became the central tenet of my research. The heraldic motto of Zeeland, ‘Luctor et Emergo’ means ‘I struggle and Emerge’ in Latin, and is the name given to the project. During my research, I scanned numerous maps from archives and books to investigate this battle and how it is represented. The representative image on the cover is a symbolic depiction of this battle as an animalization of the Netherlands, an orange lion, battling with a grey sea wolf. This depiction is originally comes from a map of Harlemmermeer planned by Jacob Bartelsz in which you recognize the lion and the wolf above the poem of Joost van den Vondel who calls it the ‘Ravenous Water Wolf ’.

Detail from the map An orange lion battling with a grey sea wolf

Map of the Harlemmermeer with its surrounding Waters and Places, 1641 Drawing on parchment, 65X97,5 cm, University Library, Leiden

87


How the Struggle is Represented in Visual Arts in the Netherlands

The project traces the myth of “making new land” by

the scenario method mentioned above. This scenario en-

investigating four major themes adopted from a recent

visions a future when the West Frisian island of Schier-

publication ‘Sweet and Salt: The Water and The Dutch’.

monnikoog is left to nature and risks slowly disappears

These four themes are perceived as a thematic backbone

into the currents of the North Sea. The design interven-

of the Dutch waterscapes. Therefore, the intention was to

tion narrates a new myth: “guarding the water” by using

analyze the Wadden Sea and the island of Schiermon-

the typology of a fort. The scenario has four chapters and

nikoog by using the themes: conflict, concord, profit and

each of them narrates a different time period of the is-

pleasure. After the investigation of these four themes, the

land’s future.

motive here is to project them into the future by using

JA N U S Janus Like Gods Since each of these four themes perceived as a thematic backbone of the Dutch waterscapes, they conceived as Janus like gods in the myth of “making new land”. Because Janus is the god of beginnings, gates, transitions, time, duality, doorways, passages, and endings. He is usually depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past.

88


Cover of the “Sweet and Salt” Tracy Metz & Maartje van den Heuvel, NAi Publishers, 2012 89


Conflict

De doorbraak van de Sint Anthonisdijk bij Amsterdam Willem Schellinks, 1651, Amsterdam Museum

90


The conflict means the conflict between the wet and dry. The disastrous floods, breaking dikes, sunken ships are representing the conflict between the solid and liquid states. Intervening the nature with heroic structures are also part of this conflict. For example, the Afsluitdijk which turned the Zuiderzee into a lake, changed the dynamics of water and split the sweet and salt.

91


Concord

Siege of Leiden Jan Maire, Henrick Haestens, Jan Jansz Orlers. 1614

92


The amphibious life of the Dutch means concord. Concord comes to life where the water management behave the enemy – the water - as an ally. When the Dutch give a room to the enemy by the canals, but also combining it with dams and locks, they somehow proved that they concord with the water. The Siege of Leiden occurred during the Eighty Years’ War is a beatiful example for the theme of concord.

93


Profit

Departure of a Number of East Indiamen from the Marsdiep Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, c.1600-1630, Rijksmuseum

94


Profit means, profiting by this amphibious life. It sometimes comes into life with ships which were like some small replicas of little Dutch towns. By this way, with a strong navy and seafaring they prosper by harvesting the seas. But in the mainland, they also prosper by the utilitarian landscape that they have designed. Windmills are the most beautiful examples of how to keep the land dry, by pumping the water out but also profit from it by using it for production and habitation.

95


Pleasure

Winter Landscape with Skaters Hendrick Avercamp, 1608, Rijksmuseum

96


Pleasure means to cherish the dynamics of this landscape and the states of water. Pleasure is about the lifestyle. For instance, taking your boat at the weekend and sailing with your boat or skating on a frozen lake is pleasure of this amphibious life.

97


my t h CONFLICT

1

2

3

CON

P r o fi t b y p r e s e r v i n g

P r o fi t b y r e l e a s i n g

“Protect and Prosper” PROFIT

PLE

Implementation of the Four Themes The four themes were implemented on to project site. 98


S

meerboei belboei stompe

top teken kogelton

spits lichtboei drijfbak

Nav i gat i on i n t he Net herl ands

CONCORD

“Cyclical L ife” PLEASURE

99

im

onszand


Territory as a Project

“Territory As a Project� is a one-day symposioum and exhibion held at TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment. The students of Delta Interventions Graduation Studio 2017-2018 were asked to join the exhibiton with a representative image of their proj-

ects and a representative physical model. The exhibiton convened by Dr. Arch. Taneha Kuzniecow Bacchin and Dr. Arch. Hamed Khosravi and curated by Geert van der Meulen, Elise van Herwaarden and Gerben van den Oever.

Exhibition Day The Day finished by opening of the exhibition. 100


Exhibition Model Territory as a Project, 2017 101


LUCTOR ET EMERGO

NI EU WE RK ER K DR EI SC HO R 6 ZIE RIK ZE E BR OU WE RS HA VE REN ESS E N

OU WE

RK ER

K3

Exhibition Poster Territory as a Project, 2017 102


The Exibition poster was an opportunity to answer the research question “What would be the new myth of water defence which response and works with the accelerated dynamics of the Wadden Sea in the future?” with a drawing etude. It is also an attempt to answer the question “How these four themes: conflict, concord, profit and pleasure can be implemented in future designs and what would be the spatial consequences of interpretation of these four themes?”

103


Scale and Typology Etudes & The Early Proposals

| Fortifications: Walls as Rooms | Cisterns: Learning from Archetypes | Infrastructure of Dead Souls | Compositions


Fotifications: Walls as Rooms

After the implementation of the four themes, some typology research about the forts and fortifications around Europe became a necessity. Because the theme conflict was projecting an idea about to protect the North-west of the island with a fort and conflict with the dynamic nature of the Wadden Sea. Like fortifications, British castles as well were worth to investigate because of their similar typology to forts. Because both forts and castles were composed of “wall as rooms”. Louis Kahn was known for his interest in Scottish castles. With an ode to Kahn’s work and interest, Fort Boyard and Hedingham castle were studied to understand their organisational principles in plan and section. Fort Boyard Photo Source: Anthony Penel Fort Boyard was built on a sandbank which is also called “Boyard” on the West coast of France. The construction was begun in 1801 and the fort was finally completed in 1857. But, the original project was proposed as early as the 17th century.

Section of Fort Boyard Reconstructed

106


Hedingham Castle Photo Source: Radical Essex Hedingham Castle, in the village of Castle Hedingham, Essex, is arguably the best preserved Norman keep in England. The castle fortifications and outbuildings were built around 1100, and the keep around 1140. (Source: Wikipedia)

Section of Hedingham Castle Reconstructed

107


Cisterns: Learning from Archetypes

After the implementation of the four themes, it was decided to learn from a major archetype, cistern. Because the theme profit was projecting the idea of protecting the the North-west of the island with its natural sources of water. Yet, the island has the source and extraction facilities for it but preserving it in a type of construction had never even been thought of before. Three infrastructure selected from three different cultural backgrounds. They also date back to different times in the history. But one common typological characteristics of them are the same: a forest of columns. Basilica Cistern Photo Source: Unknown The Basilica Cistern is a Byzantinium cistern that lies beneath the city of Istanbul. This cathedral-size cistern is an underground chamber capable of holding 80,000 cubic metres of water. The ceiling is supported by a forest of 336 marble columns, each 9 metres high, arranged in 12 rows of 28 columns each spaced 5 metres apart.

130 m 270 m

Basilica Cistern Plan Reconstructed 108


Dada Harir Stepwells Photo Source: Wikipedia

Filtergebouw is a drink water storage in Rotterdam. The project designed by Peter van Zoest. The construction of the building has completed in 1965.

Dada Harir is a stepwell constructed in Ahmedabad, India in 1485. The structure is five stories deep. It is octagonal in plan at the top, built on intricately carved large number of pillars.

125 m

12 5 m

2 10 m

210 m

Filtergebouw Photo Source: Unknown

100 m

20 m

100 m

20 m

Filtergebouw Plan Reconstructed

Dada Harir Stepwells Plan Reconstructed 109


Infrastructure of Dead Souls

The theme concord was projecting an idea about to mark the landscape like the navigation marks on the sea. It means behaving the dynamic seascape of the Wadden Sea as if it is like the land. So the fortification of the island can concord the landscape and remain still, while the malleable habitat around it constantly changes. This gives a second function to the fort, the infrastructre of dead souls, rather than being an infrastructure of water.

Isola di San Michele Photo Source: Unknown

370 m 450 m

Plan of the Isola di San Michele Reconstructed 110


City of Angels Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

Kumbh Mela Photo Source: The Atlantic, Photo by Manish Swarup / AP

NAVIGATION IN THE NETHERLANDS Source: Spiegel van de Zuiderzee

Spitse

Meerboei

Stompe-

Kogeltonnen

Lichtboeien

1

2

7

8

Belboei

3

4

5

6

9

10

11

12

Drijfbakens

Topteekens

Navigation in the Netherlands Reconstructed. Source: Spiegel van de Zuiderzee

Verkenningstonnen

CONCORD

111


Compositions

Section Sketch / P3 Cisterns under the sand dunes.

112


Aquaduct

* Sand catchment

Fort Salt

Salt Fresh Bath

Cistern

Fresh Water Lens

Section Sketch / P2 Composition of the typologies: Embedding the idea of a cistern in a fortification. Later, the aquaduct was added to composition as well.

113


A Cistern Under a Sand Dune / P3 Plan and a layout Plan

114


Axonometric Drawing of a Cistern Under a Sand Dune / P3 An aquaduct is connnecting one cistern to the other

115


Luctor et Emergo An Island Without an Island


Decay of the Island

Decay of the Island

Chapter 1 - The Pontoon

Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine 118


Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine

Chapter 4 - Inhabited Infrastrcuture

0

119

1

2

5 km


The Pontoon (Building the Hydraulic Machine) Chapter 1 Decay of the Island

Chapter 1 - The Pontoon

The island has no concrete industry to build solid and durable constructions with concrete and the logistics Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

are quite problematic due to a lack of proper roads for vehicles and the limited weight capacity of only 30 tons per day that can be carried to the island. Because of these problems, the construction was decided to be made Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine

by pontoons and the dredging of a canal on the island. After constructing the canal, pre-cast pieces of concrete are carried onto the site. After the construction of the hydraulic machine is completed, part of the dredged Chapter 4 - Inhabited Infrastrcuture

0

1

2

canal is again closed by natural forces and the sand. And the rest of the canal is used for transportation of people and goods.

120

5 km


N W

E S

Layout Plan of Chapter 1 Sscale 1:5000 121


Decay of the Island

The Hydraulic Machine Chapter 2 Chapter 1 - The Pontoon

Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

The Hydraulic Machine consists of eight major components to produce fresh water by using freshwater lenses Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine

that are formed under the dunes of Schiermonnikoog. At first, the water is collected by water wells and sent to the water towers. After being collected in the tower, the water is pumped to be filtered. After the water is Chapter 4 - Inhabited Infrastrcuture

0

1

2

purified, it is sent to the cistern with the aqueduct. The Cistern is placed at the end of the Hyrdraulic Machine which remains on the south-west of the fort. The Cistern has a massive body and an underground ‏space where the final processed water is collected below the ground surface. As the island changes within the forces of the Wadden Sea, the dunes get lower and the water lenses below them get smaller. At that moment, the fort starts to pump the salt water inside and begins the desalination process.

122

5 km


N W

E S

Layout Plan of Chapter 2 Sscale 1:5000 123


Chapter 1 - The Pontoon

Sand Machine Chapter 3 Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine

As the island becomes extremely dynamic, the Hydraulic Machine has a secondary function to resist the forces Chapter 4 - Inhabited Infrastrcuture

0

1

2

of the sea. The machine starts carrying sand from the East to the West to keep the ground safe and rigid. In other words, from where the sediments are deposited by sedimentary systems to where the sediments are eroded. Some more people are charged with filling the river barges with sand, crossing the canal and leaving it in the places exactly where the erosion is hazardous.

124

5 km


N W

E S

Sand Inlet

Sand Outlet

Layout Plan of Chapter 3 Sscale 1:5000 125


Chapter 2 - The Hydraulic Machine

The Dead Souls (The Inhabited Infrastructure) Chapter 4 Chapter 3 - The Sand Machine

Chapter 4 - Inhabited Infrastrcuture

0

1

2

One day, during the dredging processes of the sand from the Eastern peninsula they discovered the archaeological remains of an old monastery which was built and disappeared hundreds of years ago. This creates huge enthusiasm among the public and the archaeologists. Initially, only a group of archaeologists arrive at the fort to preserve and reconstruct the remains of the old monastery. They inhabit the abandoned parts of the hydraulic machine as a workspace and a shelter. After the reconstruction of the monastery, they find some other remains around the territory of the fort. Other artefacts were also found in the remains of the buildings which were created on parts of the island that had become submerged. Then the archaeologists completely colonize the submerged territory, to find and reconstruct the remains of lost artefacts from the disappeared island. Eventually, the fort becomes an infrastructure for the dead souls of the island Schiermonnikoog.

126

5 km


N W

E S

F9

F2

F1

F6

F 5/7

F 11

F8

Layout Plan of Chapter 4 Sscale 1:5000 127


Site Plan Components of the Design Working Principle of the Machine

et)

N W

E

E A

S E (Erosion): The direction of the where the sand is eroding. A (Accumulation: The direction of the where the sand is accumulating.

Scale 1:2000

Sand Pipes (Outlet)

The Aquaduct

Cistern

PuriďŹ ction Works

E (Erosion): The direction of the where the sand is eroding. A (Accumulation: The direction of the where the sand is accumulating. Scale 1:2000

128


H

Sand Pipes (Inlet)

N W

S Water Well Network

E (Erosion): Th

A (Accumulatio accumulating.

129


The Hydraulic Machine

1.Water Wells (Collection of Ground Water) 2.The Aquaduct (Transfer of the Water) 3.Purification Works (Purificaton of the water) 4.The Aquaduct (Transfer of the Water) 5.The Cistern (Storing the water) 130


131


The Sand Machine The Aquaduct carries also the sand. The sand is carried from where it is depositing to where the island is eroding.

1.Sand Pipe (Inlet) 2.Sand Pipe (Outlet) 132


133


Purification Works +09 Level Plan

B

A

1

2

3

B

1.Main Water Channel 2.Rain Water Pool 3.Post Filter (Slow Sand Filters) 4.Post Filter (Rapid Sand Filters) 5.Post Filter (Rapid Sand Filters) 6.Cascades 134

A


4

5

6

135


Purification Works +21 Level Plan

B

2

3

A

4

5

5

1

B

1.Main Water Channel 2.Workers Lounge 3.Courtyard 4.Courtyard 5.Change Rooms 6.Caustic Soda Softening 7.Cascades 136

A


7

137


Section C-C

3 1

8 2

1.Main Water Channel (Inlet) 2.Main Water Channel (Outlet) 3.Caustic Soda Softening 4.Cascades 5.Post Carbon Dosage 6.Cascades 7.Post Filter (Rapid Sand Filters) 8.Post Filter (Slow Sand filters) 138


4 5

6 7

139


Section B-B

PuriďŹ cation Works

Cross Section B-B Scale 1:200

140


Section A-A

PuriďŹ cation Works

Cross Section A-A Scale 1:200

141


The Aquaduct Ground Level Plan

142


143


The Aquaduct -6.00 Level Plan

144


145


The Aquaduct +21 Level Plan

146


147


The Aquaduct Cross Section

The Aquaduct

Cross Section C-C Scale 1:200

148


The Water Well Cross Section

Phe ratic Surfa ce

The Water Well

Scale 1:200

149


Calm in the midst of wild waves. Long live the Geux.*

* Translation from Latin and French text: Saevis tranquillus in undis. Vive les Guelx. Taken from the engraving of the emblem of the Geuzen resistance movement against Philip II of Spain in The Netherlands during the Eighty Years’ War.

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Luctor et Emergo, an Island Without an Island I Master Graduation Thesis  

The Netherlands is often depicted as a battleground, with the Dutch in a constant struggle against the water that surrounds them. This proje...

Luctor et Emergo, an Island Without an Island I Master Graduation Thesis  

The Netherlands is often depicted as a battleground, with the Dutch in a constant struggle against the water that surrounds them. This proje...

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