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The Vertical Millennial Village Mumbai, India

Architectural Association School of Architecture Graduate School MArch Sustainable Environmental Design Dissertation Project 2016 - 2018

Deep Kiran Gala January 2018


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Authorship Declaration Form

Sustainable Environmental Design Architectural Association School of Architecture

PROGRAMME:

MArch Sustainable Environmental Design 2016 - 2018

SUBMISSION:

Dissertation Project

TITLE:

The Vertical Millennial Village

NUMBER OF WORDS:

12,780 words (excluding footnotes and references)

STUDENT NAME:

Deep Kiran Gala

DECLARATION: “I certify that the contents of this document are entirely my own and that any quotation or paraphrase from the published or unpublished work of others is duly acknowledged.” SIGNATURE:

DATE: 12th January 2018

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Abstract Mumbai is known to be one of the densest city in the world. As the migration continues to drive the growth of the city, number of highrises are increasing to accommodate new migrants, as the availability of land is limited in Mumbai. The growing population are seeking jobs because of which global companies are seeking new approaches to the urban workplace. Co-working offices is one of the new approaches which is growing rapidly and attracting the young generation to promote new start-ups and entrepreneurships. At the same time, these offices operate in the same manner as the conventional offices, which are very dependent on air-conditioning systems to provide comfort to the occupants and artificial lighting. Residential houses are implementing air-conditioning systems as a luxury status symbol. Majority of these buildings are ignoring some of the most fundamental passive design strategies that were quite evident and successfully used in the tropics. Some of these strategies include introducing natural ventilation, solar protection and high thermal envelope. With the development of new cities as well as the transformation of existing downtowns, the key ingredients of housing, retail, dining, and walk-to-work offices combine to enliven urban cores, spur investment and development, and raise the quality of life for urbanities. This is embraced by both the millennial generation’s desire to work and live there. As a result, cities throughout the world are embracing an increasingly dense future based upon leveraging vertically and integrating modern workplace models and residential models into the high-rise typology. The paper studies notion of building a high-rise for an ideal live and work place, which includes flexibility and agility, efficiency and effectiveness, and most importantly, occupant comfort in the dense city of Mumbai under tropical climate. Keywords: Mumbai, High-rise, Co-working, Co-living, Passive strategies, Flexibility

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Acknowledgements Firstly, I would like to thank my tutor and the director of the course, Simos Yannas, for his invaluable feedback, insights, support, and guidance throughout the academic year, which guided me to complete my dissertation to its full potential. He consistently allowed this paper to be my work but steered me in the right the direction when he thought I needed it. I would also like to thank Paula Cadima, Jorge Rodriguez, Mariam Kapsali, Herman Calleja and all other SED tutors for providing great insights, engaging discussions and critiques which has contributed a lot and not just during the dissertation but also all through the course. Thanks are also due to Artem Oslamovskyi, Tinting Gao, Naitik Patel, Gunveer Singh, Kanishk Bhatt, Daniel Ibarra and all other fellow SED colleagues for their unflinching support and encouragement and for bringing out the potential in me. I really appreciate all the good times we shared together in the studio and outside the studio. I am also indebted to my friends Krupalu Mehta, Dhruv Lapsia and Rishab Manghwani for their participation and support during fieldwork and for providing access and data from various offices and residential units. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my family for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them. Thank you.

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Contents

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1

2

3

Introduction to the city

State of the Art

Climate and Context

03 Mumbai: The compact megacity 05 Rise of a new workplace 05 Objective and scope of the Dissertation 06 Methodology

09 Who are Millennials? 10 Millennials are Tech-Savvy 11 Why are millennials gravitating towards working remotely in co-working spaces? 13 Rise of co-working space in India 15 Survey 17 Design Brief

21 Location 21 Temperature 21 Humidity 23 Solar Radiation 25 Wind 25 Rain 27 Comfort Band 29 Pollution 30 Passive cooling stratergies

4

5

6

Precedents & Fieldwork

Analytic Work

Design Application

39 Kanchanjunga Apartments 41 Moulmein Rise 43 MET building 45 Co-working office Togglehead 48 Residential unit - Balaji

53 Daylight analysis 59 Thermal analysis

71 Site 74 Dealing with wind load 76 Building Functions 77 Public Plaza 81 Massing form 93 Residential units 100 Breakout terraces 106 Co-working office

7

8

9

Conclusion

References

Appendix

119

123

129

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List of Figures and Tables Figures 1. Introduction Figure 1.1: Driving factors for migration from rural areas to metropolis. Figure 1.2: Traffic on busy roads of Mumbai. Figure 1.3: Peak population density of Mumbai and some major cities in the year 2013

03 03 04

2. Overview of Millennials and Co-working offices Figure 2.1: Description of millennials Figure 2.2: Millennials widely using different gadgets Figure 2.3: Reasons for millennials to choose co-working spaces Figure 2.4: Spaces with bean bags in a co-working office Figure 2.5: Events organised to enhance networking Figure 2.6: The growth in the number of co-working spaces worlwide Figure 2.7: The growth in the number of co-working members worldwide Figure 2.8: Concentration of co-working spaces in Indian cities Figure 2.9: Late night socializing by the millennials Figure 2.10: Using laptops allows the user to work from anywhere Figure 2.11: Open plan layout would allow interaction between members Figure 2.12: Clo values of different attire Figure 2.13: Generalised lifestyle schedule of the millennials for a week been assumed from the survey

09 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 15 15 15 16 16

3. Climate and Passive Cooling Stratergies Figure 3.1: Map of Mumbai Figure 3.2: Location of Mumbai on the map on India Figure 3.3: Climate of Mumbai Figure 3.4: Solar radiation on vertical planes Figure 3.5: Sun angles for Summer and Winter Solstice on the site in Mumbai Figure 3.6: Seasonal Wind Rose of Mumbai Figure 3.7: Vertical Wind Profile Figure 3.8: Precipitation in Mumbai Figure 3.9: The increase in comfort temperature for different air speeds Figure 3.10: Effect of fan use on comfort temperature Figure 3.11: Annual mean air quality index for Mumbai for the year 2017 Figure 3.12: Vertical and horizontal shading devices on different orientation planes Figure 3.13: Perforated horizontal shading devices on the south facade of the Newton Suites builidng by WOHA Figure 3.14: Wind pressure distribution. Airflow takes place between openings at different pressures Figure 3.15: Temperature difference between inside and outside creates a pressure difference across the envelope driving airflow in through openings at the base and out the upper part of the building Figure 3.16: U-values of different frame materials compared to those of glazing Figure 3.17: Wind flow through different stratergies. Inlet and outlet sizes are the same Figure 3.18: Typical monsoon window in Moulmein Rise, Singapore by WOHA architects. When it is raining, the window could be closed and the panel could be opened to allow ventilation and keep the inside cool but stops the incoming rain Figure 3.19: Performance of lightweight and heavyweight buildings in warm-humid climate Figure 3.20: Balconies with shrubs and plants at Newton Suites by WOHA architects Figure 3.21: Morphological feature of plant leaves for dust capture efficiency Figure 3.22: Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema Crispum ‘Deborah’)

21 21 22 24 24 25 26 26 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 35

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Figure 3.23: Aloe vera plant Figure 3.24: Trees can be an excellent buffer in controlling noise

35 36

4. Precedents & Fieldwork Figure 4.1: East Elevation of Kanchanjunga Apartment, Mumbai Figure 4.2: Interlocking of floor units with terrace gardens Figure 4.3: Passive stratergies of Kanchanjunga Apartments Figure 4.4: CFD analysis of different units of Kanchanjunga Apartments Figure 4.5: Different unit typology of Kanchanjunga Apartments indicating the living rooms and terraces studied for CFD Figure 4.6: Moulmein Rise, Singapore by WOHA architects Figure 4.7: Section through the west facade of the Moulmein Rise, Singapore Figure 4.8: Plan of Moulmein Rise showing single sided ventilation and cross ventilation stratergy Figure 4.9: Monsoon Window incorporated at Moulmein Rise Figure 4.10: Diagrammatic sketch of the Monsoon Window which shows how the handle winder is allowing to control ventilation Figure 4.11: Detail mechanism of the the handle winder to control ventilation Figure 4.12: MET building, Bangkok by WOHA architects Figure 4.13: Staggering of the residential blocks to enhance ventilation and improve light quality Figure 4.14: Water gardens used at ground level and recreational floors to provide evaporative cooling and store rainwater Figure 4.15: Vertical green wall covering the stilt parking floors Figure 4.16: Co-working area of the office Figure 4.17: Daylight lux levels measurements were conducted in the office at 9 AM in the morning Figure 4.18: Datalogger reading between 12th Sep to 14th Sep of Togglehead office Figure 4.19: Balaji Towers, Mumbai showing occupant’s bedroom Figure 4.20: Floor plan of the bedroom Figure 4.21: Datalogger reading between 1th Sep to 5th Sep of millennial bedroom

39 39 39 40 41 41 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 44 45 46 47 48 48 49

5. Analytic Work Figure 5.1: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office Figure 5.2: Configuration of varying w/w ratios Figure 5.3: Mean daylight autonomy at 300 lux with varying w/w ratios and orientation along with UDI>2000 lux Figure 5.4: Total global solar radiation during the summer period between March to May for all the directions Figure 5.5: Configuration of the solar protection, 3D-view and shading mask of the applied projection for north and south orientation Figure 5.6: Mean daylight autonomy and UDI>2000 for 40% and 50% W.W.R. single opening Figure 5.7: Dayligth Autonomy results on plan with 40% and 50% W.W.R. for north and south orientation Figure 5.8: Mean daylight autonomy and UDI>2000 for 20%, 40% and 50% W.W.R. double opening Figure 5.9: Dayligth Autonomy results on plan with 40% and 50% W.W.R. for north-south orientation Figure 5.10: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office Figure 5.11: Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends Figure 5.12: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the base case Figure 5.13: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with 31°C as the cooling setpoint and provision of ceiling fans and compared with base case Figure 5.14: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different occupant density and compared with previous case of cooling setpoint Figure 5.15: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office with north and south orientation Figure 5.16: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different orientation and compared with previous case 1 of occupant density Figure 5.17: 40% W.W.R. for south facade and 50% W.W.R. for north facade

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53 53 54 55 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 63 64


Figure 5.18: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different W.W.R. and compared with previous case of different orientation Figure 5.19: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office with double side openings Figure 5.20: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with cross ventilation and addition of thermal mass and compared with previous case of south 40% W.W.R. Figure 5.21: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case of energy effecient scenario and compared with previous case of cross ventilation Figure 5.22: Temperature charts for the typical hot summer week of May and warm sinter week of January for the case of energy effecient scenario and cross ventilation plus thermal mass Figure 5.23: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case of energy effecient scenario and compared with the base case

64 65 65 66 67 68

6. Design application Figure 6.1: Growing high-rise buildings in the Lower Parel area during the year 2013 Figure 6.2: Development of the surrounding area to the site since 2012. Number of high-rises above 100m and below 100 m have increased making the site dense Figure 6.3: Shadow study of the block on the site Figure 6.4: Wind pattern on a tall building Figure 6.5: Illustrations of different corners shapes Figure 6.6: IIllustrations of the hypothetical block on the site having sharp corners and rounded corners Figure 6.7: Additional openings in the block alongwind direction Figure 6.8: CFD analysis of the hypothetical block at 25m height along with an opening perpendicular to the west winds Figure 6.9: IIllustration of the hypothetical block on the site having a vertical opening perpendicular to the west winds Figure 6.10: List of building functions segregated into co-working, co-living, shared and public spaces Figure 6.11: Site boundary dimensions and area along with offset limits of 3m from the main pedestrian pathway Figure 6.12 : Extrusion of plinth of public plaza by 1.2m to safeguard the occupants during floods. Pedestrian access, handicap access and vehicular access from the road is provided Figure 6.13 : Addition of landscaped areas to add up to the green plot ratio index, reduce urban heat island effect and pollution from the motorway and surroundings Figure 6.14 : Plaza would host food markets, micro exhibitions and platform for perfomances Figure 6.15 : UTCI analysis of the plaza at noon for a typical hot day in summer Figure 6.16 : Rendered view of the plaza hosting food stands during lunch break Figure 6.17 : The reception and the main event space block is sited above the plaza Figure 6.18 : Built mass with bridges between the two blocks Figure 6.19 : Daylight factor analysis to determine the distance between the two blocks Figure 6.20 : Daylight factor analysis for a distance of 10 m between the two blocks with 80% reflectivity Figure 6.21 : False color view to determine the light levels between the two blocks Figure 6.22 : Staggering the refuge floors to improve wind conditions Figure 6.23 : Matrix chart with different environmental paramters for different spaces for the proposed design Figure 6.24 : Built mass of the two towers incorporating residential units and co-working offices as primary spaces Figure 6.25 : Fragmentation of the village from 1st to 5th level with different spaces Figure 6.26 : Fragmentation of the village from 6th to 11th level with different spaces Figure 6.27 : Superimposing all the levels to form a village Figure 6.28 : Breakdown of occupant desnity of different spaces Figure 6.29 : Floor plan of level 3 at 1:250 scale Figure 6.30 : Floor plan of level 4 and level 11 at 1:250 scale Figure 6.31 : Section of level 5 and 6 in the south block Figure 6.32 : Section of level 5 and 6 in the north block Figure 6.33 : Plan of a typical residential unit Figure 6.34 : Axonometric view of the residential unit

71 72 73 74 74 74 75 75 75 76 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 81 81 82 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

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Figure 6.35 : CFD analysis of the unit with double side openings Figure 6.36 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week Figure 6.37 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week Figure 6.38 : Location of the units which has been studied Figure 6.39 : Annuanl comparison of both the cases with hours above comfort out of 8760 hours Figure 6.40 : Daylight illuminance analysis during sunny and overcast sky conditions the units above and below Figure 6.41 : Rendered view of the units Figure 6.42 : Floor plan of level 11 at 1:250 scale Figure 6.43 : Layout of the breakout terraces in the north block Figure 6.44 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends Figure 6.45 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week Figure 6.46 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week Figure 6.47 : Monthly comparison of both the cases for hours above comfort Figure 6.48 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends during the hot summer period Figure 6.49 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends during the monsoon and warm winter period Figure 6.50 : Rendered view of the terrace Figure 6.51 : Use of aluminium louvers to protect the breakout spaces during rains Figure 6.52 : Plan of the co-working office in the south block Figure 6.53 : Exploded axonometric view of the monsoon window Figure 6.54 : CFD analysis of the office with the use of monsoon window Figure 6.55 : Rendered view of the office Figure 6.56 : Annual radiation result on the north and the south facade of the south block without solar protection Figure 6.57 : Annual radiation result on the north and the south facade of the south block with solar protection Figure 6.58 : Daylight autonomy at 300lux and UDI <100 and UDI>2000 lux for the occupied hours in office on a upper and a lower floor Figure 6.59 : False color view of the interior of the office on the lower floor simulated for the sunny sky and over cast sky conditions Figure 6.60 : Occupancy pattern for the co-working office Figure 6.61 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week Figure 6.62 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week Figure 6.63: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the proposed design development Figure 6.64: Occupancy pattern for the proposed model with flexibility options to work in breakout spaces Figure 6.65: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the proposed design development with flexibility scenario given to the users to work in breakout terraces during comfortable periods Figure 6.66: Plants added near the ledge to filter pollutants Figure 6.67: Rendered view of the north facade of the north block which contains residential units Figure 6.68: Rendered view of the south facade of the south block which contains co-working offices Figure 6.69: Rendered view of the sky court above the plaza Figure 6.70: Rendered view of the event space Figure 6.71: Rendered view of the east elevation highlighting the core

94 96 96 97 97 98 99 100 101 101 102 102 103 104 104 104 105 106 107 108 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 118 119 119 120

Tables Table 2.1: Interpretations of brief study of 12 co-working offices in Mumbai based on the occupancy density and additional features provided by the offices Table 3.1: Monthly weather data of Mumbai Table 3.2: Comfort Band for Mumbai Table 3.3: Air velocity and effect on thermal comfort Table 4.1: Key facts of Kanchanjunga Apartment, Mumbai Table 4.2: Key facts of Moulmein Rise, Singapore

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14 23 27 31 39 42


Table 4.3: Key facts of MET building, Bangkok Table 4.4: Key facts of Togglehead co-working office, Mumbai Table 4.5: Calculation of the total appliance gains of the conditioned area Table 4.6: Key facts of Balaji Towers, Mumbai Table 4.7: Calculation of the total appliance gains of occupant 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom Table 5.1: Base case description which is used for thermal analysis Table 5.2: Benchmark for energy consumption for hot and humid climate in India with air conditioning by Bureau of Energy Efficiency Table 5.3: Case description with cooling setpoint at 31°C which is used for thermal analysis Table 5.4: Case description with different occupant densities which is used for thermal analysis Table 5.5: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of different orientation study Table 5.6: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of different W.W.R. study Table 5.7: Case description which is used for thermal analysis with cross ventilation and thermal mass Table 5.8: Case description which is used for thermal analysis with energy effecient scenario where laptops are used instead of computers Table 5.9: Calculation of the watts generated by each of the above devices Table 6.1: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of the unit with brick and thermal mass envelope Table 6.2: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of the terraces with brick and thermal mass envelope Table 6.3: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of the co-working office

43 45 45 48 48 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 95 101 113

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1 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Mumbai: The compact megacity Rise of a new workplace Objective and scope of the Dissertation Methodology

02


1.1 Mumbai: The compact megacity Philipp Rode (2009) states that the area of Greater Mumbai is equivalent to or more than twice the population of Denmark sharing 450 sq.km of land. According to Parasuraman (2009), the city has evolved from a being a fishing village to a colonial node, subsequently to be the foundation of textile civilization and in contemporary times it has become the hub of Indiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commerce and finance. It has become the city of opportunity for people from across South Asia, and now even beyond. In this megacity, the population growth has occurred both due to migration from the rural areas and due to the natural increase in population. Figure 1.1.1 explains the driving factors for the people to migrate from rural areas to megapolis. As the population has increased from 8 million in 1980 to 25 million in 2015, Mumbai has now become the second most congested city in the world and it is currently plunging into a cycle of urban development and expansion without the experience or the ability to protect itself from the consequence (Bingham-Hall, 2016). Figure 1.1.3 demonstrates the inhabitants of the city per square kilometre of Mumbai and some major cities around the world in 2013. The city assumes that the total population within the metropolitan region will increase to 34 million by 2031. (Rode, 2009). Around 7.5 million commuters cram themselves into local trains every day. In the last eight years, number of private owned vehicles have increased by 57% along with growth of public buses by 23%. The government authorities are indirectly encouraging private vehicle ownership by adding flyovers and expressways. Number of cars on the road are around 700,000 (Karkaria, 2014). The increase in number of private owned cars has led to traffic jams (Fig. 1.1.2), which is one of the major issue in the city. With increase in motorization, which leads to increase in landscape of urban motorways, flyovers and tunnels that has a negative impact on the quality of the urban environment, causing physical severance and acoustic and air pollution (Burdett R. and Rode.P, 2011).

Economic Growth

Industrialization

Speculation about the Future Growth

Geography

Public Regulations

Transportation

Networking

Personal Aspiration Figure 1.1: Driving factors for migration from rural areas to metropolis.

In Mumbai, transport energy consumption accounts for 36% of the total end energy use (Reddy B. S. and Balachandra P., 2012). Jenks et al. (1996) emphasized that vehicle emissions could be reduced in dense cities if a development of socially sustainable mixed uses is concentrated together in compact forms. By reducing emissions, which would curb global warming, urban residents would enjoy the benefits of lower transport expenditures, less pollution and better social and healthy lifestyle.

03

Figure 1.2: Traffic on busy roads of Mumbai.(Source: www.rbth.com)

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Mumbai

Peak Density 121,300 inh/km2

Hong Kong

Peak Density 111,100 inh/km2

Istanbul

Peak Density 77,300 inh/km2

New York

Peak Density 59,150 inh/km2

Rio de Janerio

Peak Density 42,300 inh/km2

London

Peak Density 27,100 inh/km2

Figure 1.3: Peak population density of Mumbai and some major cities in the year 2013 (Source: www.urbanage.lsecities.net).

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04


1.2 Rise of a new workplace In many of the major Indian cities, there has been a rising demand for flexible, innovative and collaborative workspace designs for the young generations due to growth of Information Technology Sector. However, these new workplaces are implementing air conditioning systems to control the environment as a last resort and to sell it as a luxury status symbol. Along with intensive use of computers and electronic devices as a medium of communication and operation in these new co-working places, continuous use of air conditioning systems would eventually increase the electricity demand, which ultimately affects the performance of the building and causing environmental problems associated with global warming and indoor air-quality problems.

1.3 Objective and scope of the Dissertation The main objective of this dissertation project is to develop an energy efficient mixed-use typology for the millennials by merging contemporary workplace concepts with housing units into a high-rise building in a dense district of the city. The goals of the project are to provide adaptive and flexible opportunities to occupants to live and work in the same vertically stacked model and to reduce energy demands. Can the flexible lifestyle of the new millennials be a sustainable solution to curb down the demand in electricity consumption? How can passive cooling strategies be incorporated in high-rise buildings, which would eventually create a free-running scenario for the most time of the year to provide comfortable environments for both indoor and outdoor spaces? These are the research questions that this dissertation will try to answer, summarising the conclusions on a design application.

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1.4 Methodology Introduction: Understanding dense context of the city and need for the research on offices which require air-conditioners to maintain internal conditions. Overview of Millennials and Co-working Offices: Theoretical study of behaviour of Millennials and the rise co-working offices and the applicability to the design. Climate and Passive Cooling Strategies: Understanding and Theoretical of the climate type of Mumbai and literature review of passive cooling strategies that are applicable to the climate type. Precedents and Fieldwork: Study existing tall building precedents in hot and humid climates and understand how they incorporate various strategies to comfortable environments. Fieldwork of office and residential unit conducted to understand the trend occurring in these spaces. Analytic Work: Analysis of the various elements of the co-working offices and addressing key issues arrived upon through fieldwork, which thus establishes design guild lines. Design Application: Application of learning from all the above to arrive upon a design driven by adaptability and passive strategies Conclusions

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07

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2 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Overview of Millennials and Co-working offices 2.1 Who are Millennials? 2.2 Millennials are Tech-Savvy 2.3 Why are millennials gravitating towards working remotely in co-working spaces? 2.4 Rise of co-working space in India 2.5 Survey 2.6 Design Brief

08


2.1 Who are Millennials? According to Smola and Sutton(2002), Millennials are born between 1979 and 1999 and have been described by popular literature and press as “Look at Me” generation. They are overly self-confident and selfabsorbed (Pew Research Centre, 2007). They lack work ethic and loyalty (Marston, 2009)(Fig. 2.1). Popular perceptions suggests that Millennials are impatient, selfimportant and disloyal (Howe and Strauss, 2007) (Fig. 2.1). Some organizations believe that to thrive and fully utilize Millennials’ unique abilities, they may need to alter their rules and policies (Gursoy et al., 2008). Many suggest that Millennials are not entirely negative. Many organizations believe that they are more accepting of diversity than the other past generations, have capabilities with advanced communication and information technologies, have the ability to see problems and opportunities from fresh perspectives, and are more comfortable working in teams than were past generations (Howe and Strauss, 2000; Gorman et al., 2004; Tapscott, 1998; Zemke et al., 2000) (Fig. 2.1).

Who Are

Millennials ? 1979

400

Million in India

Born Between GEN Y

Largest Generation Yet

2.5 Billion Worldwide

1999

Most Ethnically Racially Diverse

&

Grew Up

Alongside Technology

Dominance of

Social Networks

DO THEY MATTER

?

% of Worldwide

75%

By 2030

50%

By 2020

In the Coming Years

Aspire to

MAKE A

Difference with their

WORK

Confident Tech-Savy Self-Absorbed Impatient Flexible Disloyal

Figure 2.1: Description of millennials (Source: after www.horizonresourcesinc.com).

09

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2.2 Millennials are Tech-Savvy Millennials are the first generation to have been born into households with computers and to have grown up surrounded by digital media (Gorman et al., 2004; Raines, 2002). They are very much comfortable with new interactive and networked media than the older generations are (Pew Research Centre, 2007). Millennials bring benefits to the workplace in relation to the use of communication and information technologies (CITs), such as the Web and instant messaging due to their excessive use of new media technologies (Gorman et al., 2004; Tapscott, 1998)(Fig 2.2). Millennials have an attraction for CITs and computer mediated communication (CMC); they see work in flexible terms (especially where and when work is done); and they desire flexible work schedules to accommodate their desire for work-life balance (Randstad Work Solutions, 2007; SHRM, 2009; Simmons, 2008). As globalization and development of technology increases, millennials are especially likely to take advantage and extend the use of CITs and especially CMC to interact with other organizational members, customers, and suppliers. CMC breaks down social boundaries by reducing the limitations of physical boundaries on peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social contacts (Postmes et al., 1998), increasing group participation (Fulk and Collins-Jarvis, 2001), and flattening organizational hierarchies (Walther, 1995). Thus, the millennials are getting more and more attracted towards CMC. Some organizations suggest that the bring-your-own-device trend (BYOD), is at least in part a reaction to the Millennialsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; near-addiction to mobile devices. Workplace satisfaction matters more to Millennials than monetary compensation and work-life balance is often considered essential.

Figure 2.2: Millennials widely using different gadgets (Source: after www.newsmediaalliance.org).

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2.3 Why are millennials gravitating towards working remotely in co-working spaces? Following are the several reasons why millennials choose to start their own business, join an up-and-coming tech firm, or become a freelance writer or graphic designer, which in turn causes them to look for a coworking community (Everts, 2017)(Fig. 2.3):

Advanced Technology After recently graduating from college, most millennials may not be able to afford the technology and equipment they need to start a business, beyond a computer, a printer and Wi-Fi. At a co-working office, millennials will find all the advanced technology they need, copying services, professional printing services, whiteboard walls and conference telephones.

Advanced Technology

A Casual, Laid-Back Environment

Independence and Flexibility Community, Camaraderie and Communication

A Casual, Laid-Back Environment Millennials are eager to work hard to bring their vision to life, they also thrive on creating and revelling in experiences. A casual co-working environment allows them to make memorable work experiences each day as an extension of their creativity and professional passion (Fig. 2.4).

Independence and Flexibility

Affordability

Figure 2.3: Reasons for millennials to choose co-working spaces (Source: after Everts,2017).

Millennials are very flexible. They want to come and go as they please, so they can focus on working when it fits their schedule, as well as when inspiration strikes them. This generation places a special emphasis on creating and having a strong work/life balance, so that they can actively seek out working environments that foster this priority.

Community, Camaraderie and Communication As many millennials share co-working space, chances are good that these independent workers will meet seasoned professionals and mentoring relationships during events (Fig.2.5). Many of these young solopreneurs will create their own community.

Figure 2.4: Spaces with bean bags in a co-working office (Source: www. i.pinimg.com).

Affordability Like many independent professionals, most millennials cannot afford all the costs that go into renting an entire office space. Most co-working spaces offer everything young solopreneurs need with several tiers of pricing plans to let them choose the type of desk and schedule that fits within their budget. According to Global Co-working Survey (2017), the number of co-working spaces worldwide has increased from 1130 in 2011 to 13800 in 2017 (Fig. 2.6) and the number of co-working members has increased from 43,000 in 2011 to 1.18 million in 2017 (Fig. 2.7). Figure 2.5: Events organised to enhance networking (Source: www. lifeedited.com).

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2012 2012

2013 2013

2014 2014

2015 2015

2016 2016

13,800 13,800

11,300 11,300

8,700 8,700

5,800 5,800

2,070 2,070

2011 2011

3,600 3,600

1,130 1,130

Number of Co-Working Spaces Worldwide Number of Co-Working Spaces Worldwide

2017 2017

Figure 2.6: The growth in the number of co-working spaces worlwide (Source: after global co-working survey,2017).

2014 2014

2015 2015

2016 2016

11,80,000 11,80,000

2013 2013

8,35,000 8,35,000

1,51,000 1,51,000

2012 2012

5,10,000 5,10,000

81,000 81,000

2011 2011

2,95,000 2,95,000

43,000 43,000

Number of Members Worldwide Number of Members Worldwide

2017 2017

Figure 2.7: The growth in the number of co-working members worldwide (Source: after global co-working survey,2017).

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12


bai

Delhi

2.4 Rise of co-working spaces in India Colliers Radar (2017), suggested that technology sector dominated office sector demand in India. However, in the year 2016, Information Technology (IT) industry represented about 58% of the total office demand and around 41.6 million sq.ft of office area space was leased. IT industry usually prefers to occupy large office spaces mainly in Tier 1 cities like New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai. The new mobile technology has enabled a need of new workplace designs, work styles and work culture. There is now a greater focus on creating more efficient and cost-effective solutions such as flexible and specialised workspaces. Co-working spaces, start-up incubators and accelerators are a few examples of such specialised workspaces.

Pune

About half a decade ago, co-working operators materialized alongside the start-up boom in India. Currently, more than 160 operators facilitate Hyderabad co-working offices with over 350 operational centres across various Tier I and Tier II cities in India (Fig. 2.8).

Delhi

Mumbai

Pune Hyderabad

Bengaluru

Chennai

Co-working spaces in Mumbai Bengaluru Chennai A brief study of 12 offices was conducted (Table 2.1). These offices vary from large-scale offices to small-scale offices. Most of the offices have occupant density between 5 m2/person to 8 m2/person. Most of them have private offices, conference rooms, printing rooms, pantries and cafeterias, social spaces and parking spaces. A very few offices operate 24/7. In addition, none of them are provided with showers. However, it would be an adaptive behaviour to cool down the body in case the occupant is feeling hot or uncomfortable in the tropical climate.

13

>100 51 - 100 10-50 Figure 2.8: Concentration of coworking spaces in Indian cities (Source: Colliers Radar, 2017).

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Table 2.1: Interpretations of brief study of 12 co-working offices in Mumbai based on the occupancy density and additional features provided by the offices. Office

Total Co-working No. of Area (sq.m) co-working members

Density (m2/per)

Private Office

Conference Rooms

Printing Room

We Work

17651.6 sq.m

2200

8 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Work Loft

2865 sq.m

450

6.4 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

The Playce

511 sq.m

60

8.5 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Ministry of New

743 sq.m

120

6.1 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Bombay Connect

582 sq.m

100

5.8 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Our First Office

632 sq.m

75

8.4 m2/per

No

Yes

Yes

Awfis Andheri

929 sq.m

130

7.1 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Awfis Powai

766.4 sq.m

127

6 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

91 Springboard

972 sq.m

180

5.4 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

I Share Space

511 sq.m

100

5.1 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Toggle Head

132 sq.m

65

2 m2/per

No

Yes

Yes

Riddl

350 sq.m

50

7 m2/per

Yes

Yes

Yes

Office

Pantry Cafeteria

Showers

Social Spaces

Parking Space

Event Space

Fabrication Room

24/7

We Work

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Work Loft

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

The Playce

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Ministry of New

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Bombay Connect

Yes

No

No

Yes

No

No

No

No

Our First Office

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Awfis Andheri

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Awfis Powai

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

91 Springboard

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

I Share Space

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Toggle Head

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Riddl

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

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2.5 Survey To have insights on the behaviour of millennials working in co-working offices and the existing conditions of the co-working offices in Mumbai, an online survey was conducted and 117 co-working millennials responded to the survey (Appendix A). From the survey, following points are summarized: • Most of the members working in co-working offices are in the age group of 18-35, which is considered as millennials. • They usually prefer air-conditioned cars in form of private cars and taxis. Some do prefer to use public transport. None of them chooses to cycle because of the hot climate.

Figure 2.9: Late night socializing by the millennials (Source: www. consumerhealthdigest.com).

• Most of them prefer to spend between 5-8 hrs at the coworking office. Working hours can get affected due to the amount of workload, because of which some people prefer working from home and completing it as an alternative option. • Millennials prefer sleeping post-midnight as they spend the night hours either working, stream videos or online socializing. Because of sleeping late in the night, most them often arrive to office post 11 am. • Many of these young energetic millennials desire to have worklife balance because of which they would prefer working at co-working space, which would allow them to engage into sports and physical activities post office hours.

Figure 2.10: Using laptops allows the user to work from anywhere (Source: www.xtorm.eu).

• Due to wide and intense use of social media, all the millennials have a smartphone in order to stay connected to the world. • Most of them prefer owning a laptop as it would allow them to be more flexible and work from anywhere. Compared to computer, laptops are much cheaper and light in weight (Fig. 2.10). • Because of the hot climate, the users usually prefer having light casual attire at the work place with clo values between 0.4 -0.6 . Since co-working offices do not have any dress code policies, it provided users with freedom to dress as per their need (Fig. 2.12). • Most of the co-working offices use to air-conditioners to regulate the internal environment during the occupied hours. None of them uses ceiling fans at all.

Figure 2.11: Open plan layout would allow interaction between members (Source: www.knowledgeleader.colliers.com).

• In order to encourage interaction between co-working members, the offices would prefer having open plan layout (Fig. 2.11).

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Figure 2.12: Clo values of different attire From the survey, an occupancy lifestyle schedule of the millennial has been created. It can be seen that the millennials are awake till 1-2 am in the night while working on laptops or streaming videos. They would head to the office by 11 am and would finish working by 6pm after which they would spend time socializing or engaging in physical fitness activies (Fig. 2.13).

Millennial schedule - Week 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

weekday 1

2

3

weekend 1

2

3

sunday Sleeping Texting / streaming / working on laptop

Commuting to office

Lunch break

Family commitments

At co-working office

Fitness /Sports

Socializing

Figure 2.13: Generalised lifestyle schedule of the millennials for a week been assumed from the survey.

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2.7 Design brief For the design brief, â&#x20AC;˘ A mixed used high-rise development to be proposed incorporating co-working spaces and residential units in a dense urban site. â&#x20AC;˘ The additional features like gymnasium, communal kitchen, communal area, breakout spaces are to be provided which would suit their flexible lifestyle. â&#x20AC;˘ Millennials usually stay with parents if living in the same city, thus the units would mostly cater to migrating millennials from neighbouring small towns and cities. The migrating millennials would be smaller in number than the millennials from Mumbai. Therefore, the number of units proposed will be lower than the co-working desks.

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19

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3 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Climate and Passive Cooling Stratergies 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9

Location Temperature Humidity Solar Radiation Wind Rain Comfort Band Pollution Passive cooling stratergies

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3.1 Location Mumbai (also known as Bombay until 1995) is a peninsular city situated on the west coast of India. It is located 19.07°N latitude and 72.88°E longitude (Fig. 3.2) and it is situated at elevation 8m above sea level. It is surrounded by sea on the South, West and East side (Fig. 3.1). Mumbai has a tropical climate. Under Köppen climate classification (Mcknight et al., 2000), it is classified as a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw).

3.2 Temperature The weather data used originates from Meteonorm, particularly from the Mumbai International Airport Weather Station, which is located in the heart of the city.

Mumbai experiences high humidity because of its proximity to the sea. The relative humidity throughout the year ranges between 60% - 80% (Fig 3.3) (Table 3.1). During the monsoon period, the relative humidity can rise up to 100%. It is known that high humidity limits evaporation, increasing skin wetness and causing discomfort. One of the most effective ways to deal with humidity is ventilation and air motion since these enable convective cooling of the skin.

21

Latitude 19.07° N Longitude

3.3 Humidity

Figure 3.1: Map of Mumbai (Source: after google earth).

72.88° E

The city has three different seasonal periods: Hot Summer Period, Monsoon Period and Warm Winter Period. Because of the tropical climate and its proximity to the sea, Mumbai has mild temperatures throughout the year and the average mean dry-bulb temperature ranges from 24.5°C to 30°C. During the hot summer Period, the maximum temperature can rise up to 35°C and the diurnal temperature differences ranges between 4K - 8K. In monsoon period, the mean daily maximum temperature drops to 30°C due to the ambient effect of high rainfall. During the warm winter period, the maximum temperature can range between 30°C to 33°C and the lowest temperature drop up to 18°C. The diurnal temperature differences during this period range between 8K - 16K, this suggests the potential for use of thermal mass as one of the passive cooling strategies (Fig 3.3) (Table 3.1).

Figure 3.2: Location of Mumbai on the map on India (Source: after google earth).

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Warm Period

Hot Period

Monsoon Period

Hot Period

Warm Period

40°C 36°C 32°C 28°C 24°C 20°C 16°C

8kWh/m2

12°C

6kWh/m2

8°C

4kWh/m2

4°C

2kWh/m2

0°C

0kWh/m2

20K 16K 12K 8K 4K 0K 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Average Monthly Mean Temperature

Average Daily Direct Horizontal Radiation

Average Monthly Min & Max Temperature

Average Daily Diffuse Horizontal Radiation

Hourly Diurnal Temperature Range

Average Monthly Relative Humidity

Figure 3.3: Climate of Mumbai (Source: after Meteonorm).

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3.4 Solar radiation Mumbai receives high solar radiation annually (Fig. 3.3). During the hot summer period, the average daily direct solar radiation reaches up to 6kWh/m2 and the average daily diffuse solar radiation ranges between 2.5 – 3kWh/m2. During the monsoon period, the sky conditions in Mumbai is overcast because of which the average daily direct solar radiation reduces to 1.5kWh/m2 but the average daily diffuse solar radiation increases up to 3.5kWh/m2. Figure 3.4 illustrates the solar radiation on vertical planes. The solar radiation on East and West vertical planes is high throughout the year, ranging between 2 – 3.6kWh/m2. The solar radiation in peak during the winter period because of the low sun angle, reaching up to 4.7kWh/ m2. Whereas it reduces in summer and monsoon period due to high sun angle (Fig. 3.5). The solar gains on the north elevation is comparatively lower than the other planes throughout the year, except for the peak summer period, when the sun is slightly facing the north façade (Fig. 3.5), thus the gains increase up to 2.2kWh/m2. This suggests that the North Facades would also need solar protection and the orientation of the building should be north and south in order to minimise the solar gains from the east and west.

Month Ta (°C) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

24.5 25.4 27.4 28.9 29.7 28.9 27.9 27.7 27.9 28.8 27.9 25.9

Ta dmin Ta dmax (°C) (°C) 18.4 19.5 22.3 24.5 26.7 25.5 25.3 25.1 24.6 24.3 21.8 19.7

31.4 31.9 32.9 32.7 33.2 31.2 30.1 29.9 30.4 32.7 32.8 32.9

RH (%)

RR SDd (hrs/day) (mm)

54 54 57 62 66 74 79 78 76 62 54 55

8.7 9.2 8.8 9.5 9.5 5 2.4 2.5 5.5 7.7 8.2 8.2

0 0 1 0 39 504 852 570 284 63 10 1

Ta: Air temperature (Dry Bulb) Ta dmin: Mean daily minimum Ta dmax: Mean daily maximum RH: Relative humidity SDd: Sunshine duration per Day RR: Precipitation RD: Days with precipitation FF: Wind speed DD: Wind Direction

FF RD (days) (m/s)

DD (°)

0 0 0 0 1 17 25 25 15 5 2 0

315 315 315 315 270 270 270 270 270 315 315 315

1.8 2 2.3 2.5 3.2 3.6 4.1 3.7 2.4 1.9 1.9 1.8

Warm Period Hot Period Monsoon

Table 3.1: Monthly weather data of Mumbai (Source: after Meteonorm).

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Warm Period

Hot Period

Monsoon Period

Hot Period

Warm Period

5kWh/m2 4.5kWh/m2 4kWh/m2 3.5kWh/m2 3kWh/m2 2.5kWh/m2 2kWh/m2 1.5kWh/m2 1kWh/m2 0.5kWh/m2 0kWh/m2

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

North Vertical Facade

East Vertical Facade

South Vertical Facade

West Vertical Facade

Dec

Figure 3.4: Solar radiation on vertical planes (Source: after Meteonorm). N 330

10 20 30 40

N

50

300

330

30

70

80

80

E

120

240

150

210

60

60

70

W

30

50

300

60

60

10 20 30 40

W

E

120

240

150

210

S

S

Site Winter Solstice - 21st Dec Solar Altitude - 47.5°

Summer Solstice - 21st July Solar Altitude - 85.5°

Figure 3.5: Sun angles for Summer and Winter Solstice on the site in Mumbai (Source: after Ladybug).

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3.5 Wind As the sea lies on the west of Mumbai, the prevailing winds dominate from the North â&#x20AC;&#x201C; West direction. Figure 3.6 shows seasonal wind rose. The wind speed would increase during monsoon season obtaining speed between 6-9 m/s. Szokolay (2008) suggest that the mean wind increases with the height. Figure 3.7 explains that the wind speed has increased to 4.7m/s at 60m height from 1.5m/s at 4m height in a city terrain.

3.6 Rain During the four months of Monsoon, south-west rains lash the city. In the peak month of July, the city receives around 800mm of rainfall (Fig. 3.8). During rainfall, the outdoor temperature drops (Fig. 3.3), which can help to achieve thermal comfort by natural ventilation. In addition, care must

m/s 9 NNW

N

NNW

NNE

NW

W WSW SW

SE SSW S

SSE

Hot Period 1st Mar to 31st May

NNW

NNE

NW

NE

WNW

N

ENE WNW

ENE WNW

E W

E W

ESE WSW

ESE WSW

SSW S

NE

SE SSW

SSE

S

Monsoon Period 1st June to 30th Sep

7.2 ENE

SW

SE

8.1

NNE

NW

NE

SW

N

SSE

Warm Period 1st Oct to 28th Feb

6.3

E

5.4

ESE

4.5 3.6 2.7 1.8 0.9 0

Figure 3.6: Seasonal Wind Rose of Mumbai (Source: after Ladybug).

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2.46 SW

SE SSW

N NW

1.23

SSE

0.00

S

WNW

W

m/s

Height (Meters)

4.70 60m 56m 52m 48m 44m 40m 36m 32m 28m 24m 20m 16m 12m 8m 4m 0m

WSW

4.38

SW

4.07

SS

3.75 3.43

N

3.12

NW

2.80 WNW

2.48 2.16 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

W

1.85

9

Wind Speed (m/s)

WSW

1.53

SW

Figure 3.7: Vertical Wind Profile (Source: after Ladybug).

Warm Period

Hot Period

Monsoon Period

Hot Period

Warm Period

1000mm

30days

900mm

27days

800mm

24days

700mm

21days

600mm

18days

500mm

15days

400mm

12days

300mm

9days

200mm

6days

100mm

3days

0mm

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Days with Precipitation

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

0days

Average Rainfall Days

Figure 3.8: Precipitation in Mumbai (Source: after Meteonorm).

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3.7 Comfort band Ghosh (2015) suggests that the ASHRAE comfort band, which used in India doesn’t comply with the adaptive behaviour of the local and can cause unnecessary consumption of energy resources when used by the architects and engineers. Nicol (2004) explains that people in tropics will take necessary actions like changing their clothing or their activity, opening windows, closing blinds or switching on the fan to change the environment to suit themselves if felt uncomfortable. He thus discusses Humphreys equation: Tc = 0.534To + 12.9 where Tc is comfort temperature and To is outdoor temperature. The equation was studied in Islamabad, Pakistan which has a subtropical climate. The comfort zone where 90% of the people find it acceptable can be taken 2°C on either side of the optimum comfort temperature. Nicol (1973) suggests that presence of air movement can be equivalent to a temperature reduction as much as 4°C (Fig. 3.9). Figure 3.10 shows the analysis of the effect of fan use on indoor comforts in offices in Pakistan and demonstrates that use of fans will allow building occupants to be comfortable at about 2°C above the comfort temperature and occupants even feel comfortable at temperature around 31°C. Thus, Humphrey’s equation which adapts with the provision of wind velocity for localised comfort is being used to derive comfort band for this dissertation (Table 3.2). Month Ta (°C) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

24.5 25.4 27.4 28.9 29.7 28.9 27.9 27.7 27.9 28.8 27.9 25.9

Thermal Neutrality Tn (°C) 25.9 26.4 27.5 28.3 28.7 28.3 27.7 27.6 27.9 28.2 27.7 26.7

+/- for 90% acceptability (°C) (+/- 2.5°C) 23.4 - 28.4 23.9 - 28.9 25 - 30 25.8 - 30.8 26.2 - 31.2 25.8 - 30.8 25.2 - 30.2 25.1 - 30.1 25.4 - 30.4 25.7 - 30.7 25.2 - 30.2 24.2 - 29.2

Ta: Air temperature (Dry Bulb)

Comfort Band (°C) 23 24 25 26 26 26 25 25 25 26 25 24

-

28 29 30 31 31 31 30 30 30 31 30 29

Warm Period Hot Period Monsoon

Table 3.2: Comfort Band for Mumbai (Source: after Nicol,2004).

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Increase in comfort temperature ( oC)

Increase in comfort temperature (°C) Increase in comforttemperature temperature ( oC)(°C) Increase in comfort o Increase in comfort temperature ( oC

4

3

2

1

0

3

2

1

0 0

633 633

F. Nicol / Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 628–637 F. Nicol / Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 628–637

0

Increase in comfort temperature ( C)

44 44

4

33 33

Comfort Temperature allowance for air movement Comfort Temperature allowance Comfort allowance movement 0.2 temperature 0.4 0.6 for air for 0.8air movement 1

1.2 1.2

Comfort allowance 0.2 temperature 0.4 0.6 for air movement 0.8 1 Air velocity (m/s) Air velocity (m/s) Fig. 7. The increase in comfort temperature for different air speeds. Fig. 7. The increase in comfort temperature for different air speeds.

these assumptions. This relationship is demonstrated in the value suggested by Eq. (1). This effect is demonstrated these relationship is demonstrated in suggested Eq.fan (1).use Thisincreases effect is the demonstrated Fig. 7. assumptions. This in the Fig.value 8 which showsbythat comfort 22 Fig. 7. in Fig. 8 which shows that fan use increases comfort ◦ 2 2the hot dry climates of NorthNicol [6] showed that in temperature by about 2 C◦ over a wide range oftheoutdoor Nicol [6] showed that in the hot dry climates of Northtemperature by about 2 C over a wide range of outdoor ern India and Iraq, the presence of air movement can be temperatures. ern India and Iraq, the presence of air movement can be temperatures. ◦ 1 temperature of as much as 4 , equivalent to a reduction1 in 1 temperature of as much as 4◦ , 1 in equivalent to aorreduction 4.2. Humidity and this is more less in line with theoretical expectation. 4.2. Humidity and this is Ali more less ina line witheffect. theoretical Sharma and [7]orfound similar At hotexpectation. times of 0 0 a similar effect. At hot times of Sharma and Ali [7] found It is more difficult to account for the effect of humidity. year ceiling fans are used 0in0 almost all public buildings in 0in almost 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.2 for the effect of humidity. 11 to account 1.2 It ishumidity more difficult ceiling all public buildings in 0.6 Whilst has been in a number of field theyear tropics, andfans this are can used be assumed to allow higher comfort 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 11 investigated 1.2 Air velocity (m/s) Air Velocity (m/s) Whilst humidity has been investigated in a number effect of field the tropics, and this can be assumed to allow higher comfort surveys in hot climates, and found to have a significant temperature (Tc ) than those given by Eq. (1). velocity (m/s) AirAirVelocity (m/s) in hot climates, and found to have surveys a significant effect temperature (T ) than those given by Eq. (1). c from PakistanFig. on comfort temperature, Analysis of data [11] suggests for in-temperature 7. The increasethat in comfort for different air speeds. the size of the effect is generally on comfort temperature, the size of the effect is generally Analysis of data from Pakistan [11] suggests that for in◦ Fig.air 7. The increase comfort temperature speeds. is needed. The first problem for small, for anddifferent furtherairresearch door temperatures over 25 C,◦ mean velocity ininrooms small, further researchof is humidity needed. The first problem door temperatures over 25asin C, mean air velocity in rooms Figure 3.9: The0.45 increase comfort temperature for different airand speeds (Source: Nicol,2004). the analysis of the to decide howfor with fans is about m/s, opposed to about 0.1m/s for these assumptions. This relationship is demonstrated in for the the valueanalysis suggested byeffects Eq. (1). of Thishumidity effect is is isdemonstrated of the effects to decide how with fans is about 0.45 m/s, as opposed to about 0.1m/s these assumptions. This relationship in the value suggested bythat Eq.fan (1).The This effect humidity is the demonstrated should be measured. relative of the those fans running. Using Eq. is (2)demonstrated and Fig. 7 this Fig. 7. without inhumidity Fig. 8 which shows use increases comfort humidity should be measured. The relative humidity of those without fans running. Using Eq. (2) and Fig. 7 this Fig. 7. [6]in showed in Fig. which shows that fanand increases comfort air is the8 best known has been used in mostthe suggests dry conditions normal of fansofwill allow ◦C Nicol that in that the hot dryuse climates Northtemperature by about 2measure over a use wide range ofthe outdoor air is the best known measure and has been used in most suggests in dry conditions that normal use of fans will allow ◦ ◦ Nicol and [6] showed in the of hotair dry temperature by about 2 C RH overisa awide range of outdoor studies of thermal comfort. relative measure and building occupants to that be comfortable atmovement aclimates about 2 of C◦ Northabove ern India Iraq, the presence can be temperatures. studies of thermal comfort. RH is a relative measure and building occupants to be comfortable at a about 2 C above ern Indiatoand Iraq, the inpresence of airofmovement temperatures. equivalent a reduction temperature as much ascan 4◦ ,be ◦ equivalent to aorreduction in temperature of asexpectation. much as 4 , 34 theoretical 4.2. Humidity and this is more less in line with 34 theoretical expectation. 4.2. Humidity and this is more or less in line with Sharma and Ali [7] found a similar effect. At hot times of Sharma and Ali [7] found a similar effect. At hot times of It is more difficult to account for the effect of humidity. year ceiling fans are used in almost all public buildings in 32 It ishumidity more difficult to investigated account for the of humidity. ceiling in almost all public buildings in Whilst has been in aeffect number of field theyear tropics, andfans this are can used be assumed to allow higher comfort 32 Whilst humidity has been investigated in a number of field the tropics, and this can be assumed to allow higher comfort surveys in hot climates, and found to have a significant effect temperature (Tc ) than those given by Eq. (1). surveys in hot climates, and found to have a significant effect temperature (T ) than those given by Eq. (1). c on comfort temperature, the size of the effect is generally Analysis of data from Pakistan30 [11] suggests that for inon comfort temperature, the size of the effect is generally Analysis of data from Pakistan [11] suggests that for in◦ 30air velocity in rooms small, and further research is needed. The first problem for door temperatures over 25 C,◦ mean and further needed. The first problem door temperatures over mean air velocity in rooms thesmall, analysis of the research effects ofis humidity is to decide howfor with fans is about 0.45 m/s,25as C, opposed to about 0.1m/s for the analysis of the effects of humidity is to decide how with fans is about 0.45 m/s, as opposed to about 0.1m/s for 28 Eq. (2) and Fig. 7 this humidity should be measured. The relative humidity of the those without fans running. Using 28 Eq. (2) and Fig. 7 this humidity should be measured. The relative humidity of those without fans running. Using air is the best known measure and has been used in mostthe suggests in dry conditions that normal use of fans will allow air is of thethermal best known measure has beenmeasure used inand most suggests in dry conditions that normal use of fans will allow ◦ studies comfort. RH isand a relative building occupants to be comfortable at a about 2 C◦ above 26 studies of thermal comfort. RH is a relative measure and building occupants to be comfortable at a about 2 C above 26

34 34 24 24

TC TC

32 22 32 22 20 20 30 TOUT 30 TOUT

F

F

1 0

25 25

30 30

35 35

1 0

Fig. 8. Effect of fan use on comfort temperature (Tc ) in offices in Pakistan. The dashed line shows the dependence of comfort temperature on outdoor Fig. 8. Effect of fan usefans comfort temperature (Tc )solid in offices The dashed linenot shows the (0). dependence of comfort temperature on outdoor (F) are the line isinforPakistan. offices where fansoffices are running temperature 28running OUT ) when Figure (T 3.10: Effectonof fan use on(1),comfort temperature (Tc) in in Pakistan. The dashed line shows the temperature (TOUT ) when fans (F) are 28running (1), the solid line is for offices where fans are not running (0).

dependence of comfort temperature on outdoor temperature (TOUT) when fans (F) are running (1), the solid line is for offices where fans are not running (0) (Source: Nicol,2004). 26 26

F

TC TC

24 24 22 22 20 20

TOUT TOUT

F

1 0

25 25

30 30

35 35

1 0

Fig. 8. Effect of fan use on comfort temperature (Tc ) in offices in Pakistan. The dashed line shows the dependence of comfort temperature on outdoor Fig. 8. Effect of) fan usefans on (F) comfort temperature (Tc )solid in offices The dashed linenot shows the (0). dependence of comfort temperature on outdoor when are running (1), the line isinforPakistan. offices where fans are running temperature (TOUT temperature (TOUT ) when fans (F) are running (1), the solid line is for offices where fans are not running (0).

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3.8 Pollution Air pollution in Mumbai is a major issue. The Central Pollution Control Board for the Government of India and the Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai regularly monitor and publicly share real-time air quality data. The Figure 3.11 shows the annual air quality index chart for Mumbai for the year 2017 with average values of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM/PM10), oxides of Nitrogen (No2) and sulphur dioxide (So2) provided by The Central Pollution Control Board . It can be seen that the sulphur dioxide levels are under the permissible limit of 50 ug/ m3. Oxides of nitrogen levels are moderate which has mild impacts for extremely sensitive groups. The respirable suspended particulate matter are border levels of unhealthy conditions, which restricts heavy outdoor activity. This infers of providing pollution control strategies in the design development, which would filter out certain harmful compounds in the air and make it much healthier to breathe.

200 180

Air quality index

160

148

140 120

201- 300 151-200

100 82

80

101-150

60 40 20

51-100 9

0

0-50

Very Unhealthy -

Outdoor activity should be restricted and exposure should be limited for sensitive groups

Unhealthy -

Heavy outdoor activity should be limited

Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups -

Sensitive groups (young children, the elderly) should limit heavy outdoor activities

Moderate -

Potential mild impacts for extremely senstive groups

Good -

No health impacts

SO2 NOx RSPM µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3

Figure 3.11: Annual mean air quality index for Mumbai for the year 2017 (Source: after www.mpcb.gov.in).

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3.9 Passive cooling stratergies Krishan (2001) defines passive cooling as the dissipation of excess heat by natural methods. It depends on two circumstances: the availability of a heat sink, which is at a lower temperature than indoor air and promoting heat transfer towards the sink. In hot and humid climate, the two primary methods of improving thermal comfort are reduction of heat gains by radiation and the utilization of air movements to remove the heat from the building (Krishan, 2001). Ventilation and its implication on the orientation of the building façade should be the primary consideration (Givoni 1994). However, in the dense city like Mumbai, when dealing with high-rise and its surrounding, Figure 3.12: Vertical and horizontal Figure 3.1 Shading device with horizontal and vertical planes (Source: Koch-Nielson, 2002) flexibility in terms of orientation of the building may be limited due to shading devices on different site constraints. Thus, it would be necessary to prioritise reduction in orientation planes (Source: Kochheat gains through solar control. Nielson,2002).

Solar control According to Yannas (2000), the solar control is needed when the admission of solar radiation is likely to lead to: •

Higher indoor temperatures which is unacceptable to occupants.

• Occupant thermal discomfort and disruption of screen occupant Figure 3.2 Perforated walling which can admit light and breezes while keeping activity due to direct contact with incoming(Source: solar radiation. Littlefield ed., 2008) •

Damage to sensitive objects and furnishings.

Glare and visual discomfort.

Unwanted illumination.

A larger cooling load and air-conditioning plant.

It is important to avoid the use of universal shading devices for all the orientation of the buildings. Design of shading devices should reflect the orientation and prevailing climatic conditions. Care should be taken to avoid compromising of the views and the natural daylight and ventilation while designing shading devices. Warm humid climatic region receive a huge amount of diffuse solar radiation, thus the shading devices should not only cater to direct radiation but also to diffuse radiations (Koch – Nielsen, 2002).

Figure 3.13: Perforated horizontal shading devices on the south facade of the Newton Suites builidng by WOHA (Source: www. world-architects.com).

Yannas (2000) suggests that external shading would be a preferable and more effective way of solar control than internal shading, as it would obstruct the incident radiation before it reaches the building and admitted indoors. Even when highly reflective latter is used, it will allow more radiation inside leading to a higher rise in indoor temperature. If the sun is at a high angle, then horizontal shading devices would be effective. This is very useful for North and South Orientation (Fig.3.13). If the sun is at a low angle, then vertical shading devices would be effective. This is very useful for East and West direction (Koch – Nielsen, 2002) (Fig 3.12).

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out


area. present simultaneously. The problem is that both are highly variable. Overall air change rate These purposes make very different demands openings in thevariable. buildingOverall envelope, 2. rate both are highly air figure change The driving forces of natural on a cold windy day will be many times that on on The the building. In winter, the problem is to • Temperature difference between inside and driving forces of natural ventilationon a cold windy day will be many timesa that on warm calm day, unless the openings respond exchange just enough air to maintain sufficient causes a vertical pressure gradient aoutside warm calm day, unless the openings respond ventilation to change the flow resistance, figure 4. air quality. “Build Tight – Ventilate Right” implies which causes air toresistance, flow vertically to change the flow figure(upwards 4. • Wind generates pressure differences across that• the idealgenerates is to havepressure an airtight envelopeacross if building is warmer than outside). This is Wind differences the building which cause air to flow through rules for winter ventilation with purpose made controllable ventilation known for as buoyancy or more commonly the building which cause air to flow through rules winterflow ventilation openings, positioned to give the best mixing as the stack effect, figure 3. Natural ventilation and openings • Openings should be small and controllable and minimise discomfort from cold draughts. • Openings should be small and controllable Figure 2 to account for different wind strengths and Openings may be windows, or closable grilles The control offorventilation rate to account different strengths and Ventilation is useful to supplywind fresh air, physiological and removing Wind pressure distribution. Airtemperature cooling differences. Air- or trickle vents. If they are windows only, they temperature differences. heat from, on adding it to, the thermal mass inshould the building structure flow takes place between open• Openings be high up in the external For•much of the time both of these forces are en- must be able to be set at a very small opening Openings should high up in the external (Roaf, 2001). Fresh airbe provides oxygen, removes odour dilutes the and ings at different pressures. wall of the room to and encourage mixing area. presentwall simultaneously. The problem mixing is that and of the roomof to encourage concentration levels carbon dioxide produced by users. minimise draughts. both are highly variable. Overall air change rate minimise draughts. The driving forces of natural on a cold windy day will be many times that on Following are the driving forces for ventilation 2016): If only fixed(Baker, trickle vents are provided, they a warm calm unless theare openings respond ventilation If only fixedday, trickle vents provided, they ▼ Figure 3 have to be large enough to cope with the worst to change flow resistance, figurewith 4. the worst have generates to the be large enough to cope • Wind pressure differences across–the building, which Temperature difference between conditions i.e. no wind and smallcause temperature • Wind generates pressure differences across een – i.e. no wind and small air toconditions flow through the openings intemperature the building This (Fig.will 3.14). inside and outside creates a presdifferences. lead to over-ventilation theFigure building which air to flow through rules for winter 3.14: cause Wind pressure presdifferences. This willventilation lead to over-ventilation sure difference across the envein conditions of significant wind and large distribution. Airflow takes place vein conditions of significant wind and large • A temperature difference between insidedifferences, and outside causes a lope driving airflow in through temperature and hence wasted • temperature Openings should be small and controllable between openings at different gh differences, hence wastedair to flow vertically (upwards if vertical pressure gradient,and which causes openings at the base and out the energy, for much of the time. Automatic vents to account for different windAutomatic strengths and pressures (Source: Baker,2016). the energy, for much of theis time. vents the indoor temperature warmer than temperature). upper part of the building. areoutside now becoming available, This whicheffect close up as temperature differences. are now becoming available, which close up as (Fig. 3.15). is known as the buoyancy flow or stack theeffect pressure differences get greater, thereby • the Openings should be highget upgreater, in the external pressure differences thereby stabilising the air-flow rate. Or active ventilators wall of the room to encourage mixingventilators and stabilising the air-flow rate. Or active Air movement helps lower the perception of control temperature, but at the under BMS can be modulated in minimise draughts. BMS control can be modulated sameunder time, excessive ventilation caninresponse be uncomfortable 3.3). At or to temperature(Table and wind speed, response to temperature andpaper wind speed, or an air velocity above 1m/s, and lightweight objects could start indoor air quality (IAQ). If only fixed are provided, they indoor airtrickle qualityvents (IAQ). swaying (Reynolds, 1992). have to be large enough to cope with the worst rules for summer ventilation n conditions – i.e. summer no wind and small temperature ruleshumid for ventilation In warm climates, larger openings are suitable to promote sdifferences. This will lead to over-ventilation ventilation (Givoni, 1994). Cross ventilation may improve windand speed by • Openings should be large easily in conditions of significant wind and and easily large • inlet Openings should be large having and outlet openings of different sizes. However, Baker (2016)stays, controllable (good access to handles, temperature differences, and hence wasted stays, controllable (good access to handles, states that best results are achieved when the total area of inlet and locks etc) e energy,locks for much of the time. Automatic vents etc) outlet are the same (Fig. 3.17). It is also to avoid fixed windows • important Openings should be well distributed are•now becoming available, which close up as Openings should be well distributed in case of failure in electricity, as it will lead to uncomfortable indoor the pressure differences get greater, thereby environment. stabilising the air-flow rate. Or active ventilators under BMS control can be modulated in In relation to opening type, Sobin (1980) suggest that a landscape window response to temperature and wind speed, or (a window that is wider than its height) create greater wind speeds than indoor air quality (IAQ).

+

+

+

+

NatVent figxx windpress

dpress

−+

+

+

Figure 3.15: Temperature difference between inside and outside creates a pressure difference across the envelope driving airflow in through openings ress at the base and out the upper part of the building (Source: Baker,2016). NatVent figxx temp:press

the portrait one.

rules for summer ventilation

Yannas (1994), suggests that window frames do not benefit from the compensating effect of solar gains and are the weakest component of a • Openings should be large and easily window. The u–values of windows are a composite of frame and glazing controllable (good access to handles, stays, properties. Frame materials with higher a high thermal conductivity lead locks etc) to a higher U-value, thus timber and vinyl frames have a better thermal • Openings should be well distributed resistance than double-glazing: steel and aluminium frames are thermally very poor, even with their thermal break between sections (Fig. 3.16). Air speed (m/s) 0.05 0.2 0.4 0.8 1

Equivalent Temperature Reduction (K) 0 1.1 1.9 2.8 3.3

Effect on comfort Stagnant air, slightly uncomfortable Barely noticeable but comofortable Noticeable and comfortable Very noticeable but acceptable Upper limit for air conditioned space, good air velocity for natural ventilation

Table 3.3: Air velocity and effect on thermal comfort. (Source: Lechner,2009).

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When designing openings in building envelopes it is also important to consider safety and privacy, and protection from noise, pollution and biting insects. Insect netting may reduce airflow by 30%, even using the best, smooth nylon screen (Szokolay, 2008). He also suggests that ventilation through an opening can be compromised in areas receiving high rainfall as the opening of windows may also admit sprays inside the habitable space. The optimum suggestion for this is the provision of large overhangs or the placement of windows under corridors, verandas or balconies. Woha architects have developed a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;monsoon windowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Fig 3.18). In the tropics, it is coolest and breeziest during the rainy monsoon season. To take advantage of the weather and reduce the use of air-conditioning, this horizontal window allows breeze into the house while keeping the rain out (www.woha.net). A ceiling fan can provide additional localised air movements by circulating large volumes of air. They are efficient and economical and way of creating cool breezes (Anderson, 2012). Frame only

Glazing only

12W/m2K 10W/m2K 8W/m2K 6W/m2K 4W/m2K 2W/m2K 0W/m2K

1

2

3

4

1- Aluminium frame without thermal break 2- Aluminium frame with thermal break 3- Wood 4- Vinyl

5

6

5- Single glass pane 6- Double glazing

Figure 3.16: U-values of different frame materials compared to those of glazing (Source: Yannas,1994).

Figure 3.17: Wind flow through different stratergies. Inlet and outlet sizes are the same (Source: Baker,2016).

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Figure 3.18: Typical monsoon window in Moulmein Rise, Singapore by WOHA architects. When it is raining, the window could be closed and the panel could be opened to allow ventilation and keep the inside cool but stops the incoming rain (Source: www.woha.net).

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Thermal Mass

Traditionally, it was believed that the use of thermal mass did not have a subtropical or warm-humid climates. According to Szokolay (2000), up to th considered preferable to have elevated, lightweight, cross-ventilated buildin However, these traditional design principles were being questioned by researchers and Soebarto (1999) who have investigated the role played by thermal mass in w Their studies suggested that the debate between the performance of heavywe buildings in such climates was futile as both constructions performed equally w performing slightly better than lightweight buildings (see Figure 1).

Thermal mass can perform as a climate moderator as massive building envelopes can decrease the temperature fluctuation and reduce indoor peak temperature. Yannas (1994) has defined thermal mass as the capacity of the building to store and release heat at different times of the day. Thermal capacity is expressed as the energy required to raise the temperature of a layer of material. It is often believed that using thermal mass is a universally ‘good thing’ (Baker & Steemers, 2000). The effect of thermal mass depends on several factors such as building thermal properties, ventilation, climatic conditions, occupancy and internal heat gains.

Traditionally, the role of thermal mass in humid subtropical climate has always been questioning. Up to mid-80s, it was preferable to have Figure 3.19: Performance of Figure 1 Performance of lightweight andand heavyweight buildings in heavyweight lightweight, elevated and naturally ventilated structures (Szokolay, 2008). lightweight Source: Szokolay, 1985 cited by Baker & Steemers, 2000 However, studies by researchers like Szokolay (2008) and Soebarto (1999) buildings in warm-humid climate have shown investigation on the role of thermal mass in hot and humid (Source: Szokolay,1985 cited by climate. Their studies described that the debate between lightweight Baker & Steemers,2000). and heavyweight structures demonstrated that heavyweight buildings performed better (Fig.3.19). Although much work has been done till date, more studies need to be cond

effects of the much debated use of thermal mass in humid subtropical climate. F study, an exapmlar building (using high thermal mass), located in humid sub selected. Balconies can provide a thermal buffer space to reduce heat gains in the for Sustainable adjacent living space with help of good shadingThe andCentre ventilation (Oliveti et Energy Technology (CSET) building is situate al, 2005). Balconies can protect from incoming rain, solar radiation and which is located on the eastern coast of China 30˚33'N and 120˚55'-122˚16'E) reduce incoming noise and dust from outside. They can provide privacy Yangtze River Delta (see Figure 2.1) (Lau et. al. 2006). According to the mo when situated in dense urban surroundings (Tsichritzis, 2014). If the floor classification done bythe Köppen-Geiger (Kottek et. al. 2006), Ningbo lies in of the balcony is finished in reflective climate materials or light colours, zone. The levels building is developed resulting reflections can increase interior daylight (assuming the as an exemplar building which displays var construction of the front of the balcony allows light to pass through, e.g. techniques increase user comfort and reduce energy demand. The building inco glass or open railings). Balconies can also mass house shrubs in pots and other i.e. it is thermally heavyweight. planting that can provide shade and other benefits as done by WOHA The climatic analysis of Ningbo revealed a diurnal range of about 10°C and architects in Newton Suites, Singapore (Fig 3.20) 65-95%. Due to the small diurnal swing and high humidity in summer, it was felt may not perform as expected. Lau et al. (2006) also suggested that night ventila effective in providing pre-cooling in summer. Due to these reasons, it was co analyse the role of thermal mass in CSET building. Through this analysis, it was the role of thermal mass in humid subtropical climate zone so that this study designers designing in similar climate all over the world.

Balconies

CSET BUILDING, NINGBO

The CSET building, developed as a climate integrated design, promot generates its own energy from renewable sources, uses locally available materia 30th INTERNATIONAL PLEA CONFERENCE 16-18 December 2014, CEPT University, Ahmedabad

Figure 3.20: Balconies with shrubs and plants at Newton Suites by WOHA architects (Source: www. woha.net).

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Thick plantations – small filtering effects

Loose plantations – good filtering effects

Figure 3.21: Morphological feature of plant leaves for dust capture efficiency (Source: Kumar et al., 2012).

3.10 Use of plant species in controlling environmental pollution There are various types of pollution e.g. air, water, soil, sound and mental pollution. With rapid industrialization and random urbanization in Mumbai, environmental pollution has become a serious problem over past few years. Over utilization of open spaces, ever-increasing number of vehicles and demographic pressure has further intensified the problem. Planting of trees and shrubs for reduction of pollution and improvement of environment is an effective way and well recognized throughout the world (Kumar et al, 2012). Earlier, the purpose of planting trees in urban areas was purely aesthetic (Anon., 1981). The incessant increase of urban environmental pollution has necessitated to reconsider the whole approach of urban landscaping and its orientation in order to achieve duel effect i.e. bio-aesthetics and vindication of pollution. While selecting the species for pollution control the following are the important characteristics should be considered. Plants should be evergreen, large leaved, rough bark, indigenous, ecologically compatible, low water requirement, minimum care, high absorption of pollutants, resistant pollutants, agro-climatic suitability, height and spread, canopy architecture, growth rate and habit (straight undivided trunk), aesthetic effect (foliage, conspicuous and attractive flower colour), pollution tolerance and dust scavenging capacity (Kumar et al., 2012). It is suggested to have loose plantation to have good filtering effects than thick plantation (Fig. 3.21). Indoor plants have a great potential in controlling pollution as they can improve air quality and remove impurities. They can add a focal point to your work environment, which thus enhance the visual comfort of the office environment. Since they would be small in size, the maintenance wouldn’t be a huge deal.

Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema Crispum ‘Deborah’)

Figure 3.22: Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema Crispum ‘Deborah’) (Source: www.pinterest.com).

This easy-to-care-for plant can help filter out a variety of air pollutants and begins to remove more toxins as time and exposure continues (Fig. 3.22). Even with low light, it will produce blooms and red berries (Knapp, 2016). Because they are tropical, they like humid air which would be suitable in Mumbai.

Aloe vera plant Aloe plants are small enough and easy to fit on most desks in offices (Fig. 3.23). They also have qualities to filter pollutants from the air with the ability to remove pollutants like formaldehyde and benzene from the air. The gel inside the plant can also be used to treat cuts and burns (Janowiak, 2015).

Figure 3.23: Aloe vera plant(Source: www.bakker.com).

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Noise pollution Noise pollution is not a local issue but a global issue. Sound pollution continues to expand with an increasing number of complaints from the residents. Most people are usually exposed to more than one source of noise of which motorway noise is the main source (Kumar et al, 2012). Planting of shrubs and trees along motorways helps to reduce noise to considerable extent (Fig. 3.24). Trees having thick and fleshy leaves with petioles flexible and capacity to withstand vibration are suitable. Heavier branches and trunk of the trees also deflect or refract the sound waves. Emphasis should be given to the native plant species which are comparatively well acclimatized, and stress and pollution tolerant. Figure 3.24: Trees can be an excellent buffer in controlling noise (Source: www.cityoftacoma. org).

Conclusion The year round hot and humid climate of Mumbai, with high levels solar radiation, presents significant but not impossible challenges in achieving acceptable levels of thermal comfort. Ceiling fans can provide comfort to the occupants even at 31°C, which would useful in reducing cooling loads. Air speed and relative humidity are major factors influencing thermal comfort, and both are strongly influenced by ventilation. Ventilation is therefore a key issue, but reducing initial heat gain through solar controls will reduce the thermal problems that ventilation needs to address. Solar controls in turn need to address solar radiation. Cross ventilation would improve the internal condition through enhanced wind flow with an additional benefit of much improved levels of daylight compared to single opening design. Designing buildings for cross ventilation has to be the preferred option wherever possible. Thermal performance of the can be improved by additional mass which can absorb heat gain during the day and dissipate it at night. Balconies need to be considered not as independent design elements but as integrated part of an overall design strategy encompassing solar shading, daylighting and ventilation. Vegetation can deliver worthwhile benefits.

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4 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Precedents & Fieldwork 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Kanchanjunga Apartments Moulmein Rise MET building Co-working office - Togglehead Residential unit - Balaji

38


Built Precedents This section explores built high-rise buildings as precedents, which have same climatic conditions and have incorporated some of the strategies explored under passive techniques. Kanchanjunga Apartment by Charles Correa and Moulmein Rise by WOHA architects have been chosen as precedents.

4.1 Kanchanjunga Apartment Architect Charles Correa designed the Kanchanjunga Apartment (Fig. 4.1). It was inspired by several housing experiments, Corbusierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s skip level sections and Moshe Safdieâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Montreal Habitat. It is a 28 storeyed building (Table 4.1), which follows a sectional displacement appropriately accompanied by changes in the floor surface. A combination of interlocking floor units can be seen in the high rise, which occupies 32 apartments (Fig. 4.2). Deeper terrace gardens are provided to minimize solar gains. The building is oriented towards the east and the west to catch the prevailing wind as well as take advantage of the view to the Arabian Sea on the west (Fig. 4.3).

Figure 4.1: East Elevation of Kanchanjunga Apartment, Mumbai (Source: www.dome.mit.edu).

Kanchanjunga Apartment City Architect Constructed Climate

Mumbai Charles Correa 1983 Hot & Humid

Footprint Height No. of floors No. of apartments

441sq.m 85m 28 32

Table 4.1: Key facts of Kanchanjunga Apartment, Mumbai (Source: after www.archdaily.com).

Figure 4.2: Interlocking of floor units with terrace gardens (Source: after www.archdaily.com). Figure 4.3: Passive stratergies of Kanchanjunga Apartments (Source: www.identityhousing.wordpress.com).

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The CFD analysis of different units through the livng room and the terrace was conducted by Mohanty (2010) (Fig. 4.4 & Fig. 4.5). It concludes all the floors are having indoor air velocity of nearly 2m/s, which seems it can be possible to achieve indoor thermal comfort during daytime. In case of unit type A, the wind flows through a smaller inlet on the windward side and flows out through the larger opening on the leeward side. During this cross ventilation, the air is well distributed to both the lower and upper floors. In case of flat B, wind flow is exactly the opposite pattern of unit type A. Pressure is created because of the double storeyed terrace garden, which facilitates the air to flow towards the leeward side. In case of unit type C, very little variation is occurring due to the presence of study room on the windward side, which is having similar size opening. In case of unit type D, greater airflow is achieved compared to other units due to the presence of the large openings on both windward and leeward side. However, air is being funnelled on the lower floor, which can be solved by controlling the window openings or by having same window opening sizes. m/s 3.73 3.54

TYPE A

3.36 3.17

TYPE B

2.98 2.80

TYPE C

2.61 2.42

TYPE D

2.24 2.05 1.86

TYPE A

1.68 1.49

TYPE B

1.31 1.12

Figure 4.4: CFD analysis of different units of Kanchanjunga Apartments (Source: Mohanty,2010).

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CFD Section

Figure 4.5: Different unit typology of Kanchanjunga Apartments indicating the living rooms and terraces studied for CFD (Source: www.identityhousing.wordpress.com).

4.2 Moulmein Rise WOHA architects have designed the Moulmein Rise, a 28-storey residential building. It occupies 50 apartments. Architects have the designed the structure by focusing on the provision of privacy and environmental comforts to its occupants while responding to marketable requirements and developing a contemporary high-rise. With the rising awareness of energy consumption, Moulmein Rise is considered an innovation. With the sleek design and look, it is a building suited to its time and responsive to its users. The building incorporates passive elements like bay windows, monsoon windows, sunshades and planters. Originally, the tower was planned to be much lower in height and wider in the plan. However, the architects were keen on implementing passive strategies and therefore suggested the current design which is much more slender and tall (Fig. 4.7). Because of this decision, the design allowed for deeper light penetration and natural cross ventilation between facades. The building is oriented towards North-South direction and has overhangs to minimise heat gains.

Figure 4.6: Moulmein Rise, Singapore by WOHA architects (Source: www.akdn.org).

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Moulmein Rise City Singapore Architect WOHA architects Constructed 2003 Climate Hot & Humid Footprint Height No. of floors No. of apartments

230sq.m 102m 28 50

The architects wanted to minimise the solar gains and provide singlesided and cross ventilation strategy (Fig. 4.8) to maximise the cooling potential of the rooms. The modern interpretation of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;monsoon windowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is the most innovative feature of the building (Fig. 4.9). It is a bay window with a sliding aluminium panel, this horizontal panel allows continuous ventilation while preventing the rains to enter. In the case when it is not raining, the occupants can use the panel along with the window to control the required ventilation in the night and day. During the night, both the panel and the window can be opened to allow maximum ventilation and during the day, the ventilation can be controlled to prevent excess hot air to enter (Fig.4.10 & Fig. 4.11). The frame of the monsoon windows are composed of timber which has better thermal resistance (Yannas, 1994)

Table 4.2: Key facts of Moulmein Rise, Singapore (Source: after www.woha.net).

Single Sided Ventilation

Cross Ventilation Figure 4.8: Plan of Moulmein Rise showing single sided ventilation and cross ventilation stratergy (Source: after www.woha.net).

Figure 4.7: Section through the west facade of the Moulmein Rise, Singapore (Source: www.woha.net).

Figure 4.9: Monsoon Window incorporated at Moulmein Rise (Source: www.woha.net).

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the

l of

ided

most

dern

The

have

ghly the Figure 4.10: Diagrammatic sketch of the Monsoon Window which shows how the handle winder is allowing to control ventilation (Source: www.woha.net).

this

while

Figure 4.3-16, showing Monsoon window, (Source:WOHA Architects)

pace.Figure “A4.11:winder operates and(Source: a perforated Detail mechanism of the the handle the winder topanel, control ventilation www.woha.net). 4.3 MET Building

Met Building cts from falling through. The device is well used, and The MET is a 66-storey residential high rise in Bangkok (Fig. 4.12) (Table

4.3). The whole skyscraper is divided into three individual towers linked by sky gardens and breezeways on every five floors. The staggered arrangement of the apartments was decided upon so that all sides of the apartments would get light and air (Fig. 4.13).

City Bangkok Architect WOHA architects Constructed 2009 Climate Hot & Humid

ants sleep without air-conditioning.”[2] The tower is

230.6m nder form, which helps to minimize theHeight intense solar Green Plot Ratio No. of floors 66 Footprint

Woha Architects have created a social and ecological rating system for all city developments (Bingham – Hall, 2016). Green Plot ratio is one of the rating systems. It is termed as the amount of landscaped surfaces compared to a development’s site area. The measurement includes all new and preserved vegetation, vertical and horizontal landscaping, water features, lawns and trees, raised planters, and urban farms.

No. of apartments

4630sq.m

370

and east façade and maximize the airflow through Table 4.3: Key facts of MET building, Bangkok (Source: after www.woha.net).

tion strategy almost during the summer months.

AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design ural 43ventilation strategies are applied in the tower


The building is planted on every horizontal surface, including private balconies that have planters with full-sized Frangipani trees, creating almost 130% of the green plot ratio. The building is horizontally shaded by overhang ledges and perforated metal screens that protect all external walls from heat from sunshine on one hand and vertically shaded by creeper screens at the east and west walls. The vertical green wall is planted in the car parking (Fig. 4.15). The big trees in the forecourt are local Ficus and Bodhi trees. Hopea and Ashoka trees are used around the boundaries. On the pool decks and sky terraces, a mix of Hopea and Pandanus are used. The creepers are mostly Thunbergia Grandiflora. All of the trees and plants are native and locally sourced (Ali,2013). The skyrise greenery cools the building through transpiration and shading, and improves air quality through photosynthesis, thereby reducing the urban heat island effect of built-up metropolitan Bangkok. Water gardens are also used at ground level and recreational floors to provide evaporative cooling and store rainwater (Fig. 4.14).

Figure 4.13: Staggering of the residential blocks to enhance ventilation and improve light quality (Source: after www.woha.net).

Figure 4.12: MET building, Bangkok by WOHA architects (Source: www. archdaily.com).

Figure 4.14: Water gardens used at ground level and recreational floors to provide evaporative cooling and store rainwater (Source: Ali,2013).

Figure 4.15: Vertical green wall covering the stilt parking floors (Source: www.woha.net).

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Fieldwork

ToggleHead

In order to understand the performance and quality of the working space, a dense co-working space in Mumbai was chosen for fieldwork. Due to restriction to access the office, the fieldwork was carried out for 3 working days during the monsoon period. A separate fieldwork was conducted for a bedroom occupied by millennial in a tall building in on in Mumbai. The fieldwork was carried out for 5 days.

4.4 Co-working office - ToggleHead Togglehead is a co-working space in Mumbai (Fig. 4.16), which operates from Monday to Saturday between 10 am â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8 pm. The strength of the office is 60 plus 3 office directors and 2 office janitors. The occupant density was 2 m2/ppl which was very dense (Table 4.4). The office has 28 fixed desks with a provision of 15 iMacs and 13 windows workstations and 32 flexible desks where the users are required to get their own laptops. The office also has a provision of 3 meeting rooms. The working area is connected via the wireless server. Table 4.5 shows the total appliances gain of the conditioned area which is 71 watts/m2 which is very high. It is known that everyone owns a smartphone. The power consumption of every appliance has been provided by Amazon marketplace.

City Constructed Climate Total area Conditioned area Occupant density

Mumbai 2016 Hot & Humid 204sq.m 132sq.m 2m2/ppl

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Ceiling U-value 2.74W/m2K (R.C.C 150mm+ plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio 20% Table 4.4: Key facts of Togglehead co-working office, Mumbai.

watts x no. of appliances iMac (217 watts) x 15 = 3,255 watts

Workstation (220 watts) x 13 = 2,860 watts

Figure 4.16: Co-working area of the office.

Laptop (80 watts) x 32 = 2560 watts

Server (850 watts) x 1 = 850 watts

Smartphone (5 watts) x 60 = 300 watts

Tablet (5 watts) x 7 = 35 watts Total = 9,860 watts Total Appliance Gains = 71 watts/m2 Table 4.5: Calculation of the total appliance gains of the conditioned area (Source: after www.amazon.in).

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The Window Wall Ratio of the working area was 20%, which is very low for providing natural daylight to a depth of 12m plan. The glazing was only provided on the east side. Daylight spot measurement was conducted on 14th September 2017 at 9 AM (Fig. 4.17). The lux levels were less 100 on the work desk to the end of the plan. The lux levels were sufficient only in the first half of the office plan towards the windows ranging between 300 to 2200 lux. Thus, there was a need for artificial lighting throughout the day as you can see in the Figure 4.16. The exterior wall has been constructed in 300mm brick with white plaster layer on it and having an U-value of 1.92W/m2K. The ceiling is constructed in 150mm R.C.C. with 10mm plaster layer on it and having an U-value of 2.74W/m2K. The fenestration had a 6mm single window which had an U-value of 5.7W/m2K (Table 4.4). The datalogger was placed in the working area for 3 working days from 12th to 14th September 2017. During the night of 13th September, the city had received heavy rainfall because of which the relative humidity had risen to 100%. The outside temperature had dropped 7.5K from 32°C to 24.5°C due to cool rains (Fig. 4.18).

14th September 2017 - 9 AM , partly clouded Outside - 54300 lux 11m

2132

2122

601

570

542

466

310

236

247

210

189

100

97

94

76

12m

2148

Figure 4.17: Daylight lux levels measurements were conducted in the office at 9 AM in the morning.

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The office runs on air conditioning systems to cool the interiors during the occupied hours between 10 am to 7 pm. The setpoint temperature is set at 25°C. Post occupied hours, the internal temperature rises up to the outdoor temperature. As seen on the first day, the internal temperature rises to 29.5°C which is still in comfort band when the outdoor temperature is 30°C is still brought down to 25.5°C during the start of the occupied hours with the help of air conditioning systems. However, on the second day, when the outdoor temperature in the night is cooler than the indoor temperature due to rains, the internal temperature does not rise much. Even though the temperature is around 27.5°C, there is still a cooling demand during the start of the occupied hours. This is because the users are habituated to an air-conditioned environments (Fig. 4.18).

40°C 39°C 38°C 37°C 36°C 35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C

Outdoor Air Temperature Datalogger Temperature

7.5K

Outdoor Relative Humidity

4K

Datalogger Humidity Comfort Band - By Humphreys

12 Sep

13 Sep

12:00

06:00

00:00

18:00

12:00

06:00

00:00

18:00

12:00

06:00

00:00

Unoccupied Period

14 Sep

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Figure 4.18: Datalogger reading between 12th Sep to 14th Sep of Togglehead office.

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4.4 Residential unit - Balaji The residential unit is located on the 4th floor (Fig. 4.19) and is oriented towards south (Fig. 4.20). The area of the units is 19.1 m2 (Table 4.6).The room has a balcony. Table 4.7 shows the equipement density of the room.

watts x no. of appliances Laptop (80 watts) x 1 = 80 watts

Smartphone (5 watts) x 1 = 5 watts

Tablet (5 watts) x 1 = 5 watts

Camera (12 watts) x 1 = 12 watts

Total = 102 watts Total Appliance Gains = 5.1 watts/m2

Figure 4.19: Balaji Towers, Mumbai showing occupantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom on 4th floor.

Table 4.7: Calculation of the total appliance gains of occupant 1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom (Source: after www.amazon.in).

Balaji Towers City Constructed Climate Floor area No. of floors No. of apartments Bedroom area

Mumbai 2010 Hot & Humid 321.1sq.m 20 34 19.1sq.m

Table 4.6: Key facts of Balaji Towers, Mumbai.

Figure 4.20: Floor plan of the bedroom.

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The unit was measured with help of data loggers for a period of 5 days (Fig. 4.21). It can be observed from the charts that the user needed air-conditioning every night because the users is habituated to air-conditioned environments. However, the room during nonair conditioned period stayed in comfort band throughout the week because of low internal gains and the solar gains were reduced with the help of balcony.

40°C 39°C 38°C 37°C 36°C 35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C

Outdoor Air Temperature Datalogger Temperature Outdoor Relative Humidity Datalogger Humidity Comfort Band - By Humphreys

01 Sep

02 Sep

03 Sep

18:00

00:00

12:00

06:00

18:00

04 Sep

00:00

12:00

06:00

00:00

12:00

18:00

06:00

00:00

12:00

18:00

06:00

00:00

12:00

18:00

06:00

00:00

Unoccupied Period

05 Sep

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Figure 4.21: Datalogger reading between 1th Sep to 5th Sep of millennial bedroom.

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Conclusion The precedents show efficient techniques in terms of the building layouts and adaptive opportunities provided to the occupants in order to improve ventilation and internal conditions. There appears to be evidence that air conditioning is sometimes used out of habit rather than need, and perhaps because occupants personal thermal comfort zones have been distorted by spending a lot of time in air-conditioned environments elsewhere. Ways should be explored to encourage occupants to avoid using air conditioning, primarily by improving the free-running thermal environment, but perhaps also by live display of energy use and related costs.

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5 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Analytic Work 5.1 Daylight analysis 5.2 Thermal analysis

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The analysis work is conducted based on insights outlined in previous chapters to create appropriate simulations to improve the performance of the co-working office and bedroom units. The outcomes of the analysis, in turn, will inform the design development of the millennial village in a hot and humid environment. Softwares like DIVA for daylighting and Archsim + EnergyPlus for thermal analysis have been used. The Togglehead office layout from the fieldwork (Chap. 4.4) is considered as the shoe box base case on which the analytic studies have been conducted in order to mainly define the strategies to be used for the actual design, however, the form itself doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t represent any or part of the design concept. The configuration and parameters obtained here will then be implemented in the actual design, which will be addressed in the next chapter. Analysis of the residential unit is being carried out in the next chapter chapter.

5.1 Daylight analysis The fieldwork showed that the office had poor daylighting conditions and thus was relying on artificial light throughout the year. Adequate daylight provision by having a shallow plan can significantly reduce the primary energy costs per square meter compared to a deep plan with air-conditioning and extensive artificial lighting (Baker, 2002). Good daylighting conditions can be achieved in tall buildings by maintaining a shallow floor plate depth of 9-12m from the external facade (Strelitz, 2005).

Window Wall Ratio (W.W.R.) The aim is to start by defining the window wall ratio along with solar protection needed for the office to achieve a good daylight distribution. Daylight Autonomy has been calculated for daylighting studies because it gives the percentage of annual work hours during which all or part of a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lighting needs can be met through daylighting alone. It also has the power to relate to electric lighting energy savings if the user-defined threshold is set based upon electric lighting criteria. The depth of the plan is 12 m, width is 11 m and height is 4 m which have been borrowed from the existing layout. The window orientation of the existing layout is towards the east direction, but for the analytical work, all different orientation (North, South, East, West, North-East, North-West, South-East and South-West) have been studied. The existing base case has 20% Window Wall Ratio(W.W.R.) but the ECBC(2016) states that office buildings should have at least 40% W.W.R. Thus, 20%, 40% and 50% W.W.R. have been analyzed with a single side openings as shown in the base case (Fig. 5.2). 20% W.W.R.

40% W.W.R.

Figure 5.1: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office.

50% W.W.R.

60% W.W.R.

4m 11m

Figure 5.2: Configuration of varying w/w ratios.

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% of Time the Daylight Autonomy for the occupied hours is 300lux 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% East

SouthEast

South

SouthWest

West

NorthWest

North

NorthEast

% of Time the UDI >2000 lux 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 20% W.W.R. 40% W.W.R. 50% W.W.R.

Figure 5.3: Mean daylight autonomy at 300 lux with varying w/w ratios and orientation along with UDI>2000 lux (Source: after DIVA for daylighting).

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From the figure 5.3, it can be observed that the daylight autonomy of the base case with 20% WWR was below the minimum target of 50% of the occupied hours having 300 lux (Reinhart et al., 2006). Due to this, the coworking office needed artificial lighting. As the Window Wall Ratio of the base case increased from 20% to 40% and 50%, more than 60 % of the time, the office received 300 lux, which has met the target. UDI>2000 lux (Useful Daylight Illuminance) is also been calculated where the amount of light would be considered excessive and a source of glare. Since the base case did not have any solar protection, the analysis showed that 40% and 50% W.W.R. case is receiving glare between 10% to 25% time of the year, which needs can provide discomfort to the occupants. Thus, a further study of solar protection with respect to orientation has been conducted.

Orientation and Solar protection During the hot summer period, the east and west direction receives the maximum amount of solar radiation compared to north and south (Fig. 5.4). At the same time, east and west will need a significant amount of protection due to low solar altitude, which will greatly diminish the amount of daylighting penetrating. Therefore, the orientation of the co-working space would be towards north and south direction and the east and west direction will be blocked by opaque walls or service cores depending on the design and will be assumed to have no openings. As Yannas (xxxx) suggests that external shading would be a preferable and more effective way of solar control than internal shading, as it would obstruct the incident radiation before it reaches the building and admitted indoors. If the sun is at a high angle, then horizontal shading devices would be effective. This is very useful for South Orientation. If the sun is at a low angle, then vertical shading devices would be effective (Koch â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nielsen, 2002).

330

340 350

N

10

20

kWh/m2

30

320

40

310

269.3 50

300

242.3

60

290

215.4

70

280

80 E

W 260

100

250

110

240

120

230

130

220

140 210

200

160

150

188.5 161.5 134.6 107.7 80.8 53.8 26.9 0

170 S Figure 5.4: Total global solar radiation during the summer period between March to May for all the directions kWh/m2 (Source: after Ladybug). N N 350 350 10 20 10 20 148.9 340 340 330 30 330 30 320 40 320 40 134 310 50 310 50 55 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design 119.1 300 60 300 60 290 70 290 70 104.2 190


21st Jun (Summer Solstice) 21st Dec (Winter Solstice) 0.5 m 84° 2m

71°

6 pm

41°

8 am

0.5 m In

4m

Configuration of horizontal projection on south facade

Configuration of vertical fins on north facade

South Facade with horizontal louvers

North Facade with vertical fins

N 330

N 30

300

330

60

W

300

E

240

60

W

120

210

30

E

240

150

120

210

S

150 S

Shading mask with optimized external shading for South facade

Shading mask with optimized external shading for North facade

N

N

Figure 5.5: Configuration of the solar protection, 3D-view and shading mask of the applied projection for 330 30 330 30 north and south orientation (Source: after Ladybug and Climate Consultant). 300

60

300

60

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E

56 W

E


After obtaining the solar azimuths and altitudes from Climate Consultant (Appendix A), a hypothetical configuration of horizontal louvers for south faรงade and vertical fins for north faรงade have been used (Fig. 5.5). The horizontal projections for south faรงade have been calculated to prevent direct radiation even during the warm winter period by having 0.5 m deep louvers with 0.5 m spacing between them. The north faรงade receives direct radiation from the low angle sun in hot summer and monsoon period. Vertical fins would be a suitable strategy to block the incoming solar gains. The shading mask diagrams for the horizontal louvers and vertical fins for south and north orientation respectively could provide a good solution (Fig. 5.5), but introduce other challenges such as cost, maintenance and control issues which must be carefully considered.

100%

% of Time the Daylight Autonomy for the occupied hours is 300lux

90% 80%

26%

70%

24%

29%

Single side opening

61

60%

After the use of solar protection for north and south facades, the daylight levels have reduced compared to the ones without shading (Fig. 5.6). Levels of UDI>2000 lux have dropped down below 4% for all the cases. For the case of 40% W.W.R., daylight autonomy for north orientation is reduced to 43%. From the daylight autonomy results in the plan (Fig. 5.7), it can be seen that because of the 12m depth, light is not able to reach the deepest spaces. It suggests a solution to increase the W.W.R. % or decrease the depth of the plan for the north orientation. As for 50% W.W.R., the daylight autonomy for north orientation is achieving the minimum target of 50% which is suitable. For the south orientation, the daylight autonomy is achieving more than the minimum target of 50% in both the cases which is suitable for the working environment. Thus for north orientation is 50% W.W.R. and for south 40% W.W.R. would be suitable for good daylight conditions for an office environment.

24% 51 43

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% South

12 m

% of Time the Daylight Autonomy > 300lux 100% 90% 80% 40% W.W.R.

50% W.W.R.

70%

0%

Figure 5.7: Dayligth Autonomy results on plan with 40% and 50% W.W.R. for north and south orientation (Source: after DIVA).

57

4%

0%

10% 50% W.W.R.

6%

50%

20%

40% W.W.R.

8%

2%

30%

North

% of Time the UDI >2000 lux 10%

60%

40%

51

50%

40% W.W.R. no shade 50% W.W.R. no shade 40% W.W.R. 50% W.W.R. Figure 5.6: Mean daylight autonomy and UDI>2000 for 40% and 50% W.W.R. single opening (Source: after DIVA).

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% of Time the Daylight Autonomy for the occupied hours is 300lux 100% 90%

85 83

80% 70% 60% 50%

Double side opening A scenario of double side opening has been tested, as it would be beneficial for daylight levels improvement and thermal improvement because of cross ventilation as studied in chapter 3.9 of passive cooling strategies. The opening sizes of different sides are the same for analysis. After the use of double side opening for north and south facades, the daylight levels have improved for the 40% and 50% W.W.R. cases, but 20% W.W.R is still below 50% on account of shading used which hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been used in the base scenario (Fig. 5.8 % Fig. 5.9). Levels of UDI>2000 lux has increased for 40% W.W.R. case to 7% and 50% W.W.R. case to 10% which is acceptable. But for the further analytical development, the case of 40% W.W.R. is being considered as it received more than 50 % of the daylight autonomy levels for the occupied hours and the levels of UDI>2000 lux is lower than 50% W.W.R. case.

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40% 30% 20% 10% 0% NorthSouth % of Time the UDI >2000 lux 10%

12 m

% of Time the Daylight Autonomy > 300lux

8%

100% 90% 80%

6%

70%

20% W.W.R.

4%

60% 50%

2%

40%

0%

30%

20% W.W.R.

20%

40% W.W.R.

10%

50% W.W.R. Figure 5.8: Mean daylight autonomy and UDI>2000 for 20%, 40% and 50% W.W.R. double opening (Source: after DIVA).

40% W.W.R.

50% W.W.R.

0%

Figure 5.9: Dayligth Autonomy results on plan with 40% and 50% W.W.R. for north-south orientation (Source: after DIVA).

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5.2 Thermal analysis Identifying the base case From the previous fieldwork study, it indicated that the office needed air conditioning and artificial lighting during the occupied hours. The simulations for improving thermal performance were guided by the inferences generated through the fieldwork. The base case (Fig. 5.10) was generated using data from fieldwork and literature review of the climatic context. The characteristics of the base case are illustrated in table 5.1, while the dimensions of 12 m depth and 11 m width and orientation towards east remain the same from the base case layout. The occupancy pattern was generated from the interviews during the fieldwork (Fig. 5.11). It can be seen that the users arrive the office by 10 am and leave the office by 7 pm. The office operates from Monday to Saturday. Occupants usually leave for the lunch break in the afternoon between 1 pm to 3 pm. Usually, the max occupancy of the office is around 80% during noon. Before outlining any parameters for thermal studies of a test model, it was important to understand the performance of the base case. The base case having east orientation, air-conditioning throughout the year set at 25°C and 20% W.W.R. with no solar control was modelled in a hypothetical environment. The internal gains were based on the existing scenario of high occupant density levels with the use of artificial lighting and appliance gains generated from the table 4.5. Only time night-time ventilation is being incorporated into the model, as the windows would be shut during the occupied hours of air-conditioning (Table 5.1). The weather data used for all simulations was obtained from Meteonorm.

Figure 5.10: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office.

Table 5.1: Base case description which is used for thermal analysis. ToggleHead - Base case Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

132m2 2m2/ppl 528m3 65

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio 20%

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Cooling Setpoint

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

infiltration 0.1 ach

Weekday Occupancy

25°C

day vent 0 ach

night vent 10 ach

Unoccupied Period int. gains 71W/m2

Weekend Occupancy

light gains 10.7W/m2

Figure 5.11: Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends.

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Table 5.2: Benchmark for energy consumption for hot and humid climate in India with air conditioning by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Source: after www. beeindia.gov.in). EPI (kWh/m2/year) Star Label 200 - 175 175 - 150 150 - 125 125 - 100 Below 100

1 Star 2 Star 3 Star 4 Star 5 Star

300kWh/m2

Table 5.2 outlines the benchmark for annual energy consumption per m2 in India, where consumption levels above 1-star label which is above 200 kWh/m2 annually is considered as an inefficient scenario and 5-star label as a very efficient scenario. In the case of annual consumption by the base model as shown in Fig. 5.12, the cooling load of 268 kWh/m2 is significantly very high. Due to high density, the occupant gains reach up to 83 kWh/m2, which is very high. The high-density occupancy has an effect on the high appliance gains. Based on this, the parameters were outlined in the following sections for optimising the building form and envelope. -

Cooling setpoint

-

Occupant density

-

Orientation and Solar protection

-

Window Wall Ratio (W.W.R.)

-

Cross ventilation + Thermal mass

-

Energy Conscious Scenario

268

250kWh/m2 200kWh/m2 150kWh/m2

112

100kWh/m2

83 51

50kWh/m2 13

0kWh/m2 Cooling Equipment Lighting Occupant Demand Gain Gain Gain

Solar Gain

Figure 5.12: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the base case (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Cooling setpoint As the base case had great demand for cooling load because the users are habituated to an air-conditioned environment. From chapter 3.7, it can be observed that occupants in warm and humid climate would be comfortable at 31°C under the influence of ceiling fans (Nicol, 2004). Since the millennials are most likely to wear shorts and t-shirts during the hot days as a part of adaptive behaviour, having clo level of xxxxxxxx, it would be possible to consider the cooling setpoint temperature at 31°C.

Table 5.3: Case description with cooling setpoint at 31°C which is used for thermal analysis. ToggleHead - Cooling setpoint Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

For the model, equipment density has increased to 78 w/m2 due to the use of ceiling fans. As the cooling set point temperature is at 31°C, the use of daytime ventilation is needed to provide fresh air to 80% of the occupants with 3.5 ACH. The night-time ventilation is provided with 10 ACH (Table 5.3).

132m2 2m2/ppl 528m3 65

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio 20%

After running the simulations with cooling setpoint at 31°C, it can be studied (Fig. 5.13) that the annual cooling demand has reduced by 34% to 176 kWh/m2, which is still a higher figure. Appliance gains have increased by 9% because of incorporation of ceiling fans in the model compared to the base case. Meanwhile, the occupant, lighting and solar gains remain the same as from the base case.

Cooling Setpoint

infiltration 0.1 ach

31°C

day vent 3.5 ach

int. gains 78W/m2

night vent 10 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

300kWh/m2 250kWh/m2 200kWh/m2

34%

176 9%

150kWh/m2

121

100kWh/m2

83 51

50kWh/m2 13

0kWh/m2 Cooling Equipment Lighting Occupant Demand Gain Gain Gain

Solar Gain

Figure 5.13: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with 31°C as the cooling setpoint and provision of ceiling fans and compared with base case (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Table 5.4: Case description with different occupant densities which is used for thermal analysis. ToggleHead - Occupant density Working area Volume

132m2 528m3

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio 20% Cooling Setpoint

31°C

Case 1 - 5m2/ppl No. of occupants 26

infiltration 0.1 ach

day vent 1.3 ach

int. gains 35W/m2

night vent 10 ach

Occupant density From the previous cases, the occupant density is very dense at 2 m2/ppl. The density range affects deeply the amount of inter gains as occupancy and appliances gains are linked with the density. British Council for Office (2013) shows, that density between 8-13m2 is an effective density. Thus, a scenario having 8 m2/ppl and a mid-range of 5 m2/ppl is being modelled. In the scenario of case 1 for 5 m2/ppl occupant density, the number of people reduced to 26 from 65 (Table 5.4). Because of this, the equipment density was reduced to 35 w/m2. For the case 2 of 8 m2/ppl occupant density, the number of people was further reduced to 17 and equipment density to 28 w/m2. For fresh air supply during the occupied hours was reduced to 1.5 ACH in the case 1 and 0.9 ACH in the case 2. The nighttime ventilation remains same at 10 ACH. Change in occupant density has made a big difference in the cooling demand and internal gains (Fig. 5.14). From the cooling setpoint case, the annual cooling demand has been reduced by 57% (case 1) and 64% (case 2), so has the equipment gains and occupant gains. Equipment gains were reduced by 49% (case 1) and 53% (case 2). Since case 2 performs slightly better than case 1, case 1 of 5 m2/ppl occupant density is taken for further thermal improvement cases, as the case 2 will eventually perform better.

light gains 10.7W/m2

Case 2 - 8m2/ppl No. of occupants 17

300kWh/m2 250kWh/m2

infiltration 0.1 ach

day vent 0.9 ach

int. gains 28W/m2

night vent 10 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

57% 64%

49% 53%

55% 66%

200kWh/m2 150kWh/m2 100kWh/m2

76

64

63

57 37

50kWh/m2

28

0kWh/m2 Cooling Demand Case 1

Equipment Occupant Gain Gain Case 2

Figure 5.14: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different occupant density and compared with previous case of cooling setpoint (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Orientation and Solar protection As observed before that north and south orientation would be having low solar gains compared to east and west (Fig. 5.4). After the addition of solar protection, the gains can be reduced further. For the current analysis, the model with occupant density of 5 m2/ ppl has been considered with north and south orientation (Fig. 5.15) (Table 5.5). Solar protection has been added to the thermal model. The dimensions of the solar protection have been adapted from the daylight study section of this chapter (Chapter 5.1 and Fig. 5.5). Because of the change in the orientation, solar gains on the windows have reduced significantly, which ultimately lowered the cooling demand (Fig. 5.16). However, because of the reduction in solar gains, the demand for artificial lighting has increased. In the south facing office, the solar gains were reduced by 56% from the base case and the cooling loads were reduced by 14% from the Case 1 of occupant density, however, the lighting gains were increased by 28%. The performance of the north facing office was slightly better than the south office. Solar gains were further reduced to 65% and cooling loads were further reduced to 30% on comparing to the Case 1. Lighting gains are increased by 35%. As studied in daylight section (Chapter 5.1), 20% W.W.R. isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t adequate to provide good daylight. For the south orientation 40% W.W.R. was needed and for the north orientation 50% W.W.R. was needed (Fig. 5.6 and 5.7). Thus, these new W.W.R. will be analyzed in the next scenario.

100kWh/m2

14% 30%

28% 35%

Table 5.5: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of different orientation study. ToggleHead - Orientation Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

132m2 5m2/ppl 528m3 26

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio 20% Cooling Setpoint

infiltration 0.1 ach

31°C

day vent 1.5 ach

int. gains 35W/m2

night vent 10 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

55% 65%

80kWh/m2 66

60kWh/m2

54

40kWh/m2 18

20kWh/m2

20

23

18

0kWh/m2 Cooling Demand South

Lighting Gain

Solar Gain North

Figure 5.15: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office with north and south orientation.

Figure 5.16: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different orientation and compared with previous case 1 of occupant density (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Table 5.6: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of different W.W.R. study. ToggleHead - W.W.R. Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

132m2 5m2/ppl 528m3 26

Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 5.7W/mwK (6mm single glazing) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio (W.W.R.) North 50% South 40% Cooling Setpoint

infiltration 0.1 ach

0% W.W.R.

For the current analysis, the model from the orientation and solar protection have been considered with changes in W.W.R. The north façade is implemented with 50% W.W.R. and south with 40% (Fig. 5.17). By the changing the W.W.R. (Fig.5.18), the demand for lighting has reduced significantly but has led to a rise in solar gains due to diffuse radiation, which eventually increased the cooling demand compared to the orientation and solar protection case. For south façade, the lighting gains were reduced by 73% and the solar gains were increased by 46% and cooling demand by 7%. For the north block, the lighting gains were reduced by 75% and the solar gains were increased by 54% and cooling demand by 10%.

31°C

day vent 1.5 ach

int. gains 35W/m2

Window Wall Ratio (W.W.R.)

night vent 10 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

40% W.W.R.

50% W.W.R.100kWh/m2 60% W.W.R. 7%

80kWh/m2

73% 75%

46% 54%

71 60

11m

% W.W.R.

10%

60kWh/m2 50% W.W.R.

60% W.W.R.

42

40kWh/m2

39

20kWh/m2 4

5

0kWh/m2 Figure 5.17: 40% W.W.R. for south facade and 50% W.W.R. for north facade.

Cooling Demand South

Lighting Gain

Solar Gain North

Figure 5.18: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with different W.W.R. and compared with previous case of different orientation (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Cross Ventilation + Thermal mass A further case of addition of cross ventilation along north and south orientation and improvement of the office envelope has been examined. Double side opening of 40% W.W.R. that was studied under daylight analysis has been applied to the model (Fig. 5.19). The wall construction has been changed to heavy thermal mass with u-value of 0.41 W/m2K and double glazing loe2 with u value of 1.8 W/m2K has been applied to the model. As cross ventilation increases the internal wind condition, the night-time ventilation has been changed to 20 ach (Table 5.7). Because of the change in the glazing, solar gains on the windows have reduced significantly by 31%, which ultimately lowered the cooling demand (Fig. 5.20). Also because of the use of thermal mass, the cooling demand reduced. The total cooling demand was reduced by 14 % from the previous case of south 40% W.W.R. Having opening on both the sides increased the daylight levels thus decreasing the lighting gains by 66%. Thus the current scenario proves to be very effective in terms reducing the cooling demands, solar gains and lighting gains.

Table 5.7: Case description which is used for thermal analysis with cross ventilation and thermal mass. ToggleHead - T.Mass + Cross Ventilation Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

Wall U-value 0.41W/m2K (Concrete 200mm + insulation) Glass U-value 1.8W/mwK (Double glazing Loe2) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio (W.W.R.) North 40% South 40% Cooling Setpoint

infiltration 0.1 ach

14%

66%

31°C

day vent 1.5 ach

int. gains 35W/m2

100kWh/m2

132m2 5m2/ppl 528m3 26

night vent 20 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

31%

80kWh/m2 60kWh/m2

52

40kWh/m2

27

20kWh/m2 1.7

0kWh/m2 Cooling Demand

Lighting Gain

Solar Gain

Figure 5.19: Plan of the working area of Togglehead co-working office with double side openings.

Figure 5.20: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case with cross ventilation and addition of thermal mass and compared with previous case of south 40% W.W.R. (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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Table 5.8: Case description which is used for thermal analysis with energy effecient scenario where laptops are used instead of computers. ToggleHead - Energy effecient scenario Working area Occupant density Volume No of occupants

132m2 5m2/ppl 528m3 26

Wall U-value 0.41W/m2K (Concrete 200mm + insulation) Glass U-value 1.8W/mwK (Double glazing Loe2) Floor to floor height 4m Window wall ratio (W.W.R.) North 40% South 40% Cooling Setpoint

infiltration 0.1 ach

In the base case, almost half of the co-working members were allocated with workstations and iMacs (Table 4.5) which would limit the flexibility of the millennials. Thus a further case has been developed from the previous case of cross ventilation and thermal mass where laptops are allocated to all the members, which would allow more flexibility to the users and lower appliance gains as it consumes less energy than workstations and iMacs. Moreover, most of the millennials own laptop than a computer as studied from the survey in chapter 2.5. The equipment density is reduced to 25 W/m2 (Table 5.8). Because of the use of the laptops, both the cooling demand and the appliance gains is reduced further by 29% from the previous case (Fig. 5.21).

31°C

day vent 1.5 ach

int. gains 25W/m2

Energy effecient scenario

night vent 20 ach

light gains 10.7W/m2

100kWh/m2

29%

29%

80kWh/m2 iMac (217 watts)

60kWh/m2 40kWh/m2

37

45

20kWh/m2 Workstation (220 watts) 0kWh/m2 Cooling Demand

Laptop (80 watts) Table 5.9: Calculation of the watts generated by each of the above devices(Source: after www. amazon.in).

Equipment Gain

Figure 5.21: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case of energy effecient scenario and compared with previous case of cross ventilation. (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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7.2K

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09 May

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1000w/m2 900w/m2 800w/m2 700w/m2 600w/m2 500w/m2 400w/m2 300w/m2 200w/m2 100w/m2 0w/m2

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35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

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35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

11 Jan

Figure 5.22: Temperature charts for the typical hot summer week of May and warm sinter week of January for the case of energy effecient scenario and cross ventilation plus thermal mass. (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus) (legend on the right page).

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Outdoor Air Temperature Oper. Temperature Energy effecient scenario Oper. Temperature - Cross ventilation + T.Mass Ventilation (ACH) Comfort Band - By Humphreys Additional Comfort achieved with Ceiling Fan

From the temperature chart (Fig. 5.22), it can be overserved that during the typical hot summer period of May, the temperature would be at 31°C, which is the cooling setpoint during the afternoon hours when the outside temperature is between 32 – 33°C. During the summer week, the diurnal variation is around 7.2°C, but in the warm winter week of January, the diurnal range increases to 13.5°C. Thus the thermal mass along with night ventilation for both cases becomes very effective as the temperature during the occupied is below 29°C which is comfortable with the use of ceiling fans. In the case of energy efficient scenario, the temperature is 0.7K lower than the case with computers during the occupied hours. Thus free running conditions are achieved during winter period.

Occupied Period

As result of comparing the final energy efficient scenario (Fig. 5.23), which is the improvement of all the parameters mentioned earlier to the base case, the cooling demand is reduced by 86% to from 268 kWh/m2 to 37 kWh/m2. The equipment gains is reduced by 60% and occupant gains by 56%.

Conclusion Definition of co-working model in the design development: Double sided opening with 40% W.W.R. oriented towards north and south along with horizontal louvers on south facades and vertical fins on north façade to be implemented. Wall u value of 0.41 W/m2K for thermal mass and window u value of 1.8 W/m2K for double-glazing to be considered. Occupant density of 5 m2/ppl should be considered where users would be using laptops as a mode of working. The cooling setpoint would be set at 31°C. 86%

300kWh/m2

60%

90%

56%

48%

268

250kWh/m2 200kWh/m2 150kWh/m2

112

100kWh/m2 50kWh/m2

83 37

45

13 1.2

37

51 27

0kWh/m2 Cooling Equipment Lighting Occupant Solar Demand Gain Gain Gain Gain Figure 5.23: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the case of energy effecient scenario and compared with the base case. (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

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6 AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Design application 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

Site Dealing with wind load Building Functions Public Plaza Massing form Residential units Breakout terraces Co-working office

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6.1 Site Mumbai is considered as the tallest city in India and one of the densest city in the world. Since the project deals with high-rise development, the site has been chosen in Lower Parel area of Mumbai. This area is known to have tall structures occupying large-scale offices and residential units (Fig. 6.1). More than 25 high-rises above 150m in height are constructed and under construction in the area. From figure 6.2, we can observe that in a span of 6 years, the site has developed vertically and number of tall buildings have constructed. The site is oriented north south direction and the total site footprint is 2128 sq.m. The high-rise towers above 100m are located more towards the west of the site, towards the sea whereas, low rises are located more on the north and south of the site. Because of the growing new developments of the towers, the site resembles a concrete jungle because of which there are not any green landscaped patches for the public and more importantly to reduce the urban heat island effect. Thus, it would be vital to provide green landscaped areas in the design development.

Figure 6.1: Growing high-rise buildings in the Lower Parel area during the year 2013 (Source: www.flickr.com).

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2012 >100 m in height

2018 >100 m in height Site

19 70

m2

Figure 6.2: Development of the surrounding area to the site since 2012. Number of high-rises above 100m and below 100 m have increased making the site dense.

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Shadow study The shadow pattern within and around the site was also studied, as shown in Fig. 6.3. Since the site is dense, most of the shallow buildings are being overshadowed by the tall towers. The proposed block receives direct light throughout the year, as there is no obstruction from the nearby buildings. During the morning period, the block overshadows the base of the tall towers to the west of the block. In the evening, adjacent small rise buildings are being overshadowed by the block and the tall towers on the west.

Equinox 9:00

Equinox 12:00

Equinox 15:00

Summer solstice 9:00

Summer solstice 12:00

Summer solstice 15:00

Winter solstice 9:00

Winter solstice 12:00

Winter solstice 15:00

Figure 6.3: Shadow study of the block on the site.

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ay, 2008)

Chapter 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Theoretical background

6.2 Dealing with wind load As velocity of wind increases along with the height of the building (Fig. 3.7), thus tall buildings are more vulnerable to wind loads than short buildings and thus require additional lateral support (Kwok, 2007). Figure 6.4 studies the wind patterns on a tall building. Engineers have discovered that aerodynamic modifications are able to reduce the impacts of wind loads on tall buildings. Shaping corners for rectangular buildings is one of the most efficient aerodynamic modifications (Fig. 6.5). Kwok (2007) suggested that between rounded and chamfered corners, rounded corners are more effective in the terms of reducing the wind loads on the cross section of the buildings. Thus, a hypothetical tall block is placed on site (Fig. 6.6). The dimension and height of the block is yet to be modified in the further parts of this 1 - Horseshoe vortex around the chapter. The corners of the block have been converted into rounded base of the building. Figure 3.7 Wind pattern (Source: shapes. Oedterle, 2001) 2 - Airflow around the cross section of the building. 3 - Approaching wind is partly guided over the building. Figure 6.4: Wind pattern on a tall building (Source: Oesterle, 2001).

sharp

rounded

ns, with and Figure 3.9 Alcoves projecting slightly from the room Source: Givoni, 1994) (Source: Givoni, 1994) chamfered

Figure 6.5: Illustrations of different corners shapes (Source: after Kwok, 2007).

Figure 6.6: IIllustrations of the hypothetical block on the site having sharp corners and rounded corners.

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Compared to corner shaping, the idea of adding openings through buildings is rather new. In fact, only a few types of research have been done to investigate its effects on buildings. Kwok (2007) suggests that the idea of this aerodynamic modification is to introduce openings or gaps through the bodies of buildings. By doing so, it has been proved that the response of buildings and the formation of vortex shedding can be minimized and may improve wind conditions to enhance ventilation. As it can be seen from the above figure 6.7, there are different methods to create openings through the bodies of buildings. Figure 6.8 shows that the block without the opening would form a vortex on the windward direction, which is west, and because of the opening, the conditions have improved. The results have been applied to the hypothetical block (Fig. 6.9) and will be used as a base for further design development. horizontal 3m/s 1.8m/s 0.9m/s 0m/s

Figure 6.8: CFD analysis of the hypothetical block at 25m height along with an opening perpendicular to the west winds (Source: after Autodesk CFD). vertical

both

Figure 6.9: IIllustration of the hypothetical block on the site having a vertical opening perpendicular to the west winds.

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Figure 6.7: Additional openings in the block alongwind direction (Source:after Kwok, 2007).

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6.3 Building functions Figure 6.10 shows the structure of building programs, which are segregated under co-working office, co-living residential and shared spaces. The public plaza adds to the civic generosity index, which is the extent to which a development encourages and facilitates the public life of a city. The index rates the value of a developmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s public attributes, such as urban connections, shared relaxation areas, sheltered walkways, gardens, and artworks (Bingham-Hall, 2016).

Meeting rooms

Printing room

Event spaces

Fabrication workshop

Concentrated spaces

Co-working

Co-working desks

Stationery shop Public Plaza

Common toilets

Communal kitchen

Gym

Showers

Bar & restaurant

Green spaces

Reception

Shared spaces

Circulation

Break-out terraces

Residential units

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Laundry room

Communal area

Co-living

Figure 6.10: List of building functions segregated into co-working, co-living, shared and public spaces.

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6.4 Public plaza The total site area is about 1970 m2. The length of the site is 59.9 meters and the width is 32.9 meters. Local development rules states to propose an offset of minimum of 3 m from all sides. (Fig. 6.11). Offset of 15 m is provided from the sides. The total development area becomes 807 m2. Mumbai witnesses heavy rainfall during the monsoons. Due to poor drainage systems, the city may experience flooding to about 1m in height. Thus, a provision of the plinth is prearranged for the base of public plaza which is extruded 1.2 m from the ground level (Fig. 6.12). This would ensure the safety of the occupants during floods. The plaza has three means of access; pedestrian, handicap and vehicular from the road.

m 32.9 t offse 3m

m

t fse of

m 30 t

se y off athwa p ian str de

3m

pe

m2 70 19 2 7m 80

.9 59

15 m

m 26.9 set off m 15

Figure 6.11: Site boundary dimensions and area along with offset limits of 3m from the main pedestrian pathway. Pedestrian access Handicap access Vehicular access

+1.2m

Figure 6.12 : Extrusion of plinth of public plaza by 1.2m to safeguard the occupants during floods. Pedestrian access, handicap access and vehicular access from the road is provided (Source: after www.voanews.com).

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In addition to the extrusion, landscaped areas is being proposed to reduce the urban heat island effect and control the pollution from the nearby motorway. It would also contribute to the green plot ratio index. By having the plaza open to the wind, the horseshoe vortex at the base of the building can be shredded (Fig. 6.13). The plaza would inhabit temporary food stalls, performances and micro exhibitions to enhance public participation and increase quality of civic life (Fig. 6.14).

Figure 6.13 : Addition of landscaped areas to add up to the green plot ratio index, reduce urban heat island effect and pollution from the motorway and surroundings.

Food market Performances Exhibitions

Figure 6.14 : Plaza would host food markets, micro exhibitions and platform for perfomances.

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From the UTCI analysis during a typical hot day, the temperature below the plaza is about 30.8°C when the outside temperature is 36°C (Fig. 6.15). Most of the people would feel comfortable as the plaza is open to prevailing winds. 12PMof the plaza during afternoon lunch break. Figure 6.16 is a rendered view

UTCI °C 36°C 33.4°C 30.8°C 28.2°C 25.6°C 23°C 20.4°C 17.8°C 15.2°C 12.6°C 10°C

Figure 6.15 : UTCI analysis of the plaza at noon for a typical hot day in summer (Source: after ladybug)

UTCI °C

36°

33.

30

28.

25.

23°

20.

17.8

15.

12.

10° Figure 6.16 : Rendered view of the plaza hosting food stands during lunch break (Source: Rhino and Lumion 8).

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The reception and the main event space block is sited above the plaza and open sky garden is located above the reception and main event space block (Fig. 6.17).

Reception

Event spaces

Sky garden

Figure 6.17 : The reception and the main event space block is sited above the plaza and the sky garden is located above the reception block.

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6.5 Massing form The two towers would be situated above the sky garden, which would be occupying the rest of building functions. As the two block rises high, it is important to study the distance between the two blocks in terms of daylight to prevent dingy and dark spaces on the lower floors, which would eventually affect the sky garden. A hypothetical height of 60 m is been considered for the analysis along with connection bridges which would further obstruct the light (Fig. 6.18). Daylight factor analysis has been conducted on a vertical plane in the center region of the two blocks (Fig. 6.19). Distances of 6, 8 and 10m between the blocks have been considered for the analysis. As seen from the figure, in the case of 6 m distance, the daylight factor deteriorates after 30m and becomes up to 3% until it reaches the bottom which is pretty dark for an outdoor space. In the case of 8 m distance, the results have improved and the lowest area receives around 5% of daylight factor. In the case of 10 m distance, the results have improved significantly, as the lowest point receives around 8% daylight factor. Figure 6.18 : Built mass with bridges between the two blocks.

60m

6m

8m

10m Daylight Factor % >10% 9%

45m

8% 7% 6%

30m

5% 4% 3%

15m

2% 1% 0%

0m Mean DF 7.2%

Mean DF 9.5%

Mean DF 12.5% 30 m

test srf 8m

Figure 6.19 : Daylight factor analysis to determine the distance between the two blocks (Source: after Diva for daylighting).

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The reflectivity value for the exterior surface of the two towers was 35% cause of the use of concrete. By adding a layer of white paint, the reflectivity value increased to 80%, which proved beneficial to improve the light conditions. The mean daylight factor increased from 12.5% to 17.5% and the lower area receives around 500 cd/m2 during cloudy sky (Fig. 6.20 & Fig. 6.21).

60m

10m Daylight Factor % >10% 9%

45m

8% 7% 6%

30m

5% 4% 3%

15m

2% 1% 0%

0m Mean DF 17.5%

Figure 6.20 : Daylight factor analysis for a distance of 10 m between the two blocks with 80% reflectivity (Source: after Diva for daylighting). Cloudy Sky - June 21 - 12 pm

cd/m2 1900 1700 1500 1300 1100 900 700 500 300 100

Figure 6.21 : False color view to determine the light levels between the two blocks (Source: after Diva for daylighting).

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Refuge floors The local development authorities state that any high rises above 24 m or 7 floors should provide a refuge floors after at every 24 m. Refuge areas as the name suggest an area clearly demarked in any commercial or residential building where people can take shelter in case of an emergency. High-rise residential buildings fail to fight emergencies related to the fire. Not only do the firefighting personal have a hard time reaching the central location of the fire in the case it happens on a high floor, it also puts lives of residents especially children and elderly at grave risk (DCR, 2016). These floors have to be completely open and cannot occupy habitable functions. If the floors would arrange evenly as seen (Fig. 6.22) in the case 1 where the openings are on the same floor, the wind would not be diverting because of the direct suction created on the leeward side. However, if the refuge floors would be staggered as seen in the case 2, the wind would be flowing through the blocks thus improving cross ventilation conditions. Thus for further design development, the staggered floor case is considered.

Case 1

Case 2

Figure 6.22 : Staggering the refuge floors to improve wind conditions.

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Matrix chart

Lux levels

Privacy

Views out

Mosquito protection

Individual control

Acoustic isolation

Thermal control

Solar prtection

Natural ventilation

Daylight

ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS

A matrix chart has been created to consider the importance of different environmental parameters for different building spaces and which would help to place these spaces in the built mass based on their requirements. As seen from the chart (Fig. 6.23), for the co-working desks and residential units parameters like natural ventilation, thermal comfort and daylight conditions are to be considered while designing. Acoustic control of the co-working desks, meeting rooms and concentrated spaces is very important. The recommended lux levels have been derived from the CIBSE Concise Handbook (2008).

SPACES Co-working desks Concentrated spaces Meeting rooms Event space Printing room Fabrication room Stationery store

300 300 300 300 300 300 300

Circulation Communal kitchens Gym Bar & restaurant Skycourts Breakout terraces

100 500 300 200 500 300

Residential units Communal areas Laundry room

100 300 300

Critical Desirable Not Important Not Desirable

Figure 6.23 : Matrix chart with different environmental paramters for different spaces for the proposed design.

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Built mass As seen from the figure 6.24, the mass of two towers above open sky garden has been created. Because of the proximity of the road to the north tower, it would be wise to have the co-working offices in the south block, as the north block could buffer the incoming sound waves to considerable levels. Since the residential units would be occupied in the night, the sound levels would be quite low at that time. The mass has been divided into 3 villages of 11 floors (33m) each with each village being repeated above.

Residential units

+90m

Co-working office Village 3

Village 3 +57m

Village 2

Village 2 +57m

Village 1

D ROA +24m

Village 1

K LOC TH B R O N

TH SOU

CK BLO

Figure 6.24 : Built mass of the two towers incorporating residential units and co-working offices as primary spaces.

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Figure 6.25 shows the fragmentation of a village from 1st level to 5th level with the incorporation of different functions. It can be seen that the spaces related to co-working offices have been placed in the south block but the fabrication room is placed in the north block, as the acoustic isolation parameter of it is not important (Fig. 6.23). While the functions related to the residence are located in the north block. Both the block have been provided with breakout terraces. The circulation core has been placed towards the east the and the west block the high gains.

Residential units LE

VE L5

Co-working office

Communal kitchen LE

VE L4

R LOO GE F U F RE

Laundry room LE

VE L3

Restrooms

Gym

LE

Showers K LOC TH B R O N

Fabrication room

Circulation

VE L2

LE

VE L1

TH SOU

CK BLO

Breakout terraces

Print center

Stationery store

Figure 6.25 : Fragmentation of the village from 1st to 5th level with different spaces.

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Figure 6.26 shows the further fragmentation of a village from 6th level to 11th level with the incorporation of different functions. Figure 6.27 shows the superimposition all the levels to form a village. The corridors are placed between the towers as it would enhacne communication between the different co-workers and residents.

LE

Communal kitchen

LE

VE L1 1

VE L1 0

Co-working office

OOR E FL G U REF

Laundry room

LE

VE L9

Restrooms Residential units

LE

VE L8

Concentrated spaces LE

Meeting room K LOC TH B R O N

Common room

Circulation

VE L7

LE

VE L6

CK BLO H T SOU

Event space

Breakout terraces

Figure 6.26 : Fragmentation of the village from 6th to 11th level with different spaces.

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Figure 6.28 is the breakdown of the spaces with occupant density. The occupancy schedule for the same can be found in Appendix B. The number of units is lower than the co-working desks as it was studied that the these units would be only occupied by the members who are from small towns away from the city.

Internal corridors

Figure 6.27 : Superimposing all the levels to form a village. Spaces

No. of Area people (m2)

Co-working office Concentrated spaces Meeting room Event space Print center Fabrication room Breakout terraces Communal kitchen Residential units Laundry room Common room Gym

20 6 12 50 10 20 12 25 1 5 10 25

113 56 32 85 52 178 36 78 19 19 39 178

Occupant Density (m2/ppl) 5.6 9.3 2.6 1.7 5.2 8.9 4.5 3.1 19 3.8 3.9 7.1

No. of units 5 2 2 1 1 1 15 2 30 2 2 1

Figure 6.28 : Breakdown of occupant desnity of different spaces.

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Floor layout The floor layout of level 3, 4 and 11 can be seen from the figure 29 and 30. It can be seen that the edges are being rounded to reduce the wind load. The break out terraces is covered with medium- sized shrubs so as to filter the pollutants from the incoming wind and also to absorb sound. On higher floors where wind speed would be greater, which would cause discomfort to the occupants, these shrubs will be able to reduce the speed. The breakout terraces has been placed strategically to enhance cross ventilation between the two blocks. In the case of level 4, the refuge floor become active.

LEVEL 3

Figure 6.29 : Floor plan of level 3 at 1:250 scale.

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LEVEL 4 LEVEL 4

REFUGE FLOOR REFUGE FLOOR

LEVEL 11 LEVEL 11

Figure 6.30 : Floor plan of level 4 and level 11 at 1:250 scale.

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Figure 6.31 and 6.32 illustrates a section along level 5 and level 6 of the village

Co-working office

Co-working office

Figure 6.31 : Section of level 5 and 6 in the south block.

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Level 5

Level 6

Communal area

Breakout terrace

Figure 6.32 : Section of level 5 and 6 in the north block.

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6.6 Residential units Residential units are located in the north block. Layout of the unit has been derived from the fieldwork unit. Each unit occupies one millennial and has been provided with en-suite bathroom. The area of a unit is 19 m2. The local laws suggest that bedroom should be incorporated with balconies (DCR, 2016) with a minimum offset of 1 m. Thus, the unit has been allocated with a balcony of 0.9 m plus the railing. The distance of the balcony has been kept minimum as it faces north and if distance increases, the daylight levels would reduce considerably. The bathroom block is placed towards the exterior, as it would provide natural daylight and ventilation, which eventually would eliminate the use of exhaust. The angled horizontal louvres for the glass of the bathroom will help to maintain the privacy levels (Fig. 6.34). The bedroom has double openings, one in the balcony and one in the wall facing the corridor to provide cross ventilation. As seen the from the CFD analysis (Fig. 6.35) the wind gets well circulated in the room with an average wind speed of 1 m/s.

0.9 m

5.7 m 4.2 m

4.3 m Figure 6.33 : Plan of a typical residential unit.

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Figure 6.34 : Axonometric view of the residential unit.

Wind direction 4. 3

m

2m/s 5. 7

m

1m/s

0m/s

4. 2

m 0. 9

m

Figure 6.35 : CFD analysis of the unit with double side openings (Source: after Autodesk CFD).

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Thermal analysis From the fieldwork analysis, it was understood that the occupant needed air-conditioning during the occupied night hours even though the room would be comfortable without using it, which suggests that occupant is habituated to the air-conditioning environment. For thermal analysis two cases have been studied (Table 6.1), one where the brick wall with u-value of 1.92 W/m2K which existed in the base case and other with the thermal mass wall with u-value of 0.41 W/m2K has been modelled. Since the design deals with a high-rise development and solar gains and wind speed increases as we go higher, an analysis of the unit on a lower floor and one on a higher floor also have been studied (Fig. 6.38). In the summer week (Fig. 6.36), the diurnal variation ranges around 7.2 K. During the week, the case with thermal mass performs better than brick wall during the day with a difference of 0.8k – 1K as it rises to the upper limit of the comfort band except for the case when the outside temperature is 34°C the thermal wall case rises to 32°C. During the night, the difference is around 0.3K. Between the upper and lower unit cases with thermal mass, the lower performs slightly better as than the upper unit does. In the winter week (Fig. 6.37), the diurnal variation rises to 13.5K. Both the cases performs well but the one with thermal mass is cooler than one with brick wall by 1K.

Table 6.1: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of the unit with brick and thermal mass envelope. Residential unit Area (excl. bathroom) Volume Floor to floor height No. of occupants

13.2m2 39.6m3 3m 1

Window wall ratio North ext. wall South corridor wall

60% 10%

day vent 0.8 ach

night vent 15 ach

infiltration 0.1 ach

int. gains 10.7W/m2

light gains 7.9W/m2

Case 1 - Brick wall Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Glass U-value 2.4W/mwK (double glazing) Case 2 - Thermal mass Wall U-value 0.41W/m2K (Concrete 200mm + insulation) Glass U-value 2.4W/mwK (double glazing)

0.9 m

Outdoor Air Temperature Oper. Temperature - Upper unit - Thermal mass 5.7 m 4.2 m

Oper. Temperature - Upper unit - Brick wall Oper. Temperature - Lower unit - Thermal mass Oper. Temperature - Lower unit - Brick wall Comfort Band - By Humphreys Additional Comfort achieved with Ceiling Fan

4.3 m

95

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35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

1K

0.8K 0.3K

0.2K 7.2K

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08 May

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13 May

Figure 6.36 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week. 35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

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13.5K

11 Jan

Figure 6.37 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week.

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On comparing both the cases in terms of the annual hours (8760 hours) above comfort (31°C) (Fig. 6.39), the thermal mass for the upper floor faces only 9% of the time hours above comfort while the one with the brick wall faces 22% of the time above comfort. The % of hours above comfort for the unit with the thermal mass on the lower floor is lowered to 7%. Daylight Illuminance Daylight Illuminance Levels - 21st Mar 12:00 Levels - 21st June 12:00 Thus, the results demonstrate that the thermal mass envelope would be (Sunny Sky) (Overcast) much more efficient in terms of providing comfort than the brick wall envelope.

Village 3

Above

Village 2

Village 1

Below

Below North block

Figure 6.38 : Location of the units which has been studied. 1604 hrs

588 hrs

7156 hrs

8172 hrs

7%

18%

Illuminance Levels (Lux) 2000 1800

Above

1620 82%

1440

93%

1260 Brick wall - Lower unit

Thermal mass - Lower unit 1080 900 720

1962 hrs

760 hrs

540

6798 hrs

8000 hrs

360 9%

22%

78% Brick wall - Upper unit

180

91% Thermal mass - Upper unit

Hours in comfort Hours above comfort (31°C) Figure 6.39 : Annuanl comparison of both the cases with hours above comfort out of 8760 hours.

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Daylight analysis Daylight analysis has been studied for the same units above and below during sunny and overcast sky conditions (Fig. 6.40). It can be observed that during sunny sky conditions, the daylight levels for both the units is adequate. The bathroom also receives a good amount of light. However, during overcast sky condition, the unit on the upper floor receives only fair amount of daylight in the entire room but the lower floor receives daylight only up to the working desk, which is acceptable, as it would not hinder his work task.

Village 3

Daylight Illuminance Levels - 21st Mar 12:00 (Sunny Sky)

Daylight Illuminance Levels - 21st June 12:00 (Overcast)

Below

Above

Village 2

Village 1

Below North block

Illuminance Levels (Lux) 2000 Above

1800 1620 1440 1260 1080 900 720 540 360 180

Figure 6.40 : Daylight illuminance analysis during sunny and overcast sky conditions the units above and below .

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Figure 6.41 : Rendered view of the units.

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6.7 Breakout terraces Breakout terraces have been located on all the floors of the development in both the blocks. However, the terraces in the north blocks are much larger than the ones in the south as it faces the north orientation thus the solar gains would be lower compared to the south block (Fig. 6.42). As breakout terraces are completely under shade by the slabs of the floor above and its open from the sides to allow natural ventilation. It would be useful have shrubs in order to filter the pollutants from the incoming wind and shrubs would also lower the wind speeds. Thermal analysis of the breakout terraces has been conducted to find whether these terraces are comfortable to occupy floating millennials from the co-working spaces and units. Ceiling fans have been added to terraces to achieve further comfort.

LEVEL 11

Figure 6.42 : Floor plan of level 11 at 1:250 scale.

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Thermal analysis For thermal analysis the same two cases have been studied, one where the brick wall for the partition with u-value of 1.92 W/m2K which existed in the base case and other with the thermal mass wall for the partition with u-value of 0.41 W/m2K has been modelled. Since the model is exposed to continuous wind, infiltration has been set to 20 ACH (Table 6.2) (Fig. 6.43). For the occupancy schedule (Fig. 6.44), it can be observed that the occupancy during the day would be lower compared to occupancy in the night in both cases of weekdays and weekend because of the hot outdoor temperature. The motive of the thermal analysis to provide comfortable temperature during the days for most of the time in the year. In the summer week (Fig. 6.45), the diurnal variation ranges around 7.2 K. During the week, both cases would be above comfort band during peak afternoon hours. However, in terms of performance between both the cases, the case with thermal mass performs better than brick wall during the day with a difference of 0.6k – 1.1K. During night, the temperature in both the cases drop below 28°C but the thermal wall case is cooler by 0.5K. In the winter week (Fig. 6.46), the diurnal variation rises to 13.5K. Both the cases performs well throughout the week but the one with thermal mass is cooler than one with brick wall by 1.8K. During the night, the temperature drops down to 21°C which is below comfort band. However, since the millennials would be adaptive to the climate, they would be wearing something thick to make them feel comfortable.

Table 6.2: Case description which is used for thermal analysis of the terraces with brick and thermal mass envelope. Breakout terrace Area Volume Floor to floor height No. of occupants

35.8m2 107.6m3 3m 12

Case 1 Wall U-value 1.92W/m2K (Brick wall 300mm + plaster) Case 2 Wall U-value 0.41W/m2K (Concrete 200mm + insulation)

infiltration 20 ach

day vent null

int. gains 22.3W/m2

night vent null

light gains 10.7W/m2

4.6 m

7.8 m

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

North block

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

Figure 6.43 : Layout of the breakout terraces in the north block

Weekday Occupancy

Night Period

Weekend Occupancy

Outdoor Air Temperature Oper. Temperature Thermal mass Oper. Temperature Brick wall Comfort Band - By Humphreys

Figure 6.44 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends.

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35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

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13 May

Figure 6.45 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week. 35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

1.8K

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1000w/m2 900w/m2 800w/m2 700w/m2 600w/m2 500w/m2 400w/m2 300w/m2 200w/m2 100w/m2 0w/m2

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13.5K

11 Jan

Figure 6.46 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week.

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Figure 6.47 shows a monthly comparison of the hours of the hours above comfort. It can be observed that the case with thermal mass partition wall performs much better than the brick wall case. Except for the hot summer period, the breakout terraces can easily be occupied for the rest of the year during afternoon hours in the case of thermal mass scenario. Thus from the results, different occupancy patterns are generated for different period. Figure 6.48 is the occupancy pattern for the hot summer period, percentage of the occupancy would be low during afternoon peak hours. Figure 6.49 is the occupancy pattern for the monsoon period and warm winter period where the percentage of the occupancy would be around 50% during the afternoon hours. Figure 6.50 shows the rendered view of the terrace during the afternoon hours.

Warm Period

Hot Period

Monsoon Period

500hrs

Hot Period

Warm Period

461

450hrs 400hrs 350hrs

324 296 293

300hrs

254

250hrs 200hrs

142

150hrs 100hrs

126

110

88

78

50hrs 0hrs

193

186

6

28

Jan

28

Feb

30

Mar

73

59

46

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

7

5

Aug

Sep

185

67 8

Oct

Nov

Dec

Thermal mass Brick wall

Figure 6.47 : Monthly comparison of both the cases for hours above comfort.

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00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Weekday Occupancy

Night Period

Weekend Occupancy

Figure 6.48 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends during the hot summer period.

00:00 00:00 01:00 01:00 02:00 02:00 03:00 03:00 04:00 04:00 05:00 05:00 06:00 06:00 07:00 07:00 08:00 08:00 09:00 09:00 10:00 10:00 11:00 11:00 12:00 12:00 13:00 13:00 14:00 14:00 15:00 15:00 16:00 16:00 17:00 17:00 18:00 18:00 19:00 19:00 20:00 20:00 21:00 21:00 22:00 22:00 23:00 23:00 00:00 00:00

100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% 60% 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% 0%

Weekday Occupancy Occupancy Weekday

Unoccupied Night Period Period

Weekend Weekend Occupancy Occupancy

Figure 6.49 : Occupancy pattern generated for the weekdays and the weekends during the monsoon and warm winter period.

Figure 6.50 : Rendered view of the terrace.

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Aluminium foldable louvers is installed in breakout spaces, which can protect the breakout terraces from rains but would still allow the wind to flow. Thus, the breakout spaces can be utilised even in monsoon seasons (Fig. 6.51).

Figure 6.51 : Use of aluminium louvers to protect the breakout spaces during rains.

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6.8 Co-working office The layout of the co-working office has been adopted from the analysis in chapter 5. The office would be operating from Monday to Saturday between 10 am to 8pm. The office would have double side openings for cross ventilation. The occupant density of 5 m2/ppl will be used. So the office will cater to 20 co-working members. Each of the members have been provided with laptops. Ceiling fans also have been provided in the design (Fig. 6.52).

15.8 m

7.2 m

Figure 6.52 : Plan of the co-working office in the south block.

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The office has been incorporated with monsoon windows (Fig. 6.53). The monsoon windows would be able to provide ventilation during rains by preventing the rainwater to enter. Solar protection is been added on the exterior. In order to prevent the mosquitoes to enter, a silicone mesh would be added to the frame. A CFD analysis was simulated to test the effect of monsoon windows in terms of providing ventilation (Fig. 6.54). It can be seen from the result that, wind speed between 0.8 m/s to 1m/s can easily be achieved with the monsoon windows being in operation. Figure 6.55 shows the rendered view of the office.

Solar protection

Double Glazing Loe2 glass U-value 1.8W/m2K

Mosquito mesh

Timber frame to hold the openable lid

Thermal Mass with insulation u-value 0.35W/m2K

Figure 6.53 : Exploded axonometric view of the monsoon window.

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Wind direction

2m/s

1m/s

0m/s

Figure 6.54 : CFD analysis of the office with the use of monsoon window (Source: after autodesk CFD).

Figure 6.55 : Rendered view of the office.

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For the development of the exterior façade of the south block, annual solar radiation results is being simulated on exterior windows. Solar protection is not being considered in the initial study. From the figure 6.56 it can be noted that the south façade receives about 800 kWh/m2 which is very high, thus the complete south facade would needing the solar protection in order to control the gains. For the north façade of the block, only the top few floors would be needing protection as the other floors are being overshadowed by the north block. Thus solar protection is been added to the south façade and the top few floors of the north façade. The solar protection dimensions have been adopted for the analytical studies in chapter 5. From the results (Fig. 6.57) the solar gains were controlled effectively by the solar protection. The south facades receives about 200 kWh/m2 annually because of diffuse radiation. Thus the façade with solar protection have been adopted in the final development.

kWh/m2 1000kWh/m2 900kWh/m2 800kWh/m2 700kWh/m2 600kWh/m2 500kWh/m2 400kWh/m2 300kWh/m2 200kWh/m2 100kWh/m2 <50kWh/m2 South Facade

North Facade

Figure 6.56 : Annual radiation result on the north and the south facade of the south block without solar protection.

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North Facade

South Facade

kWh/m2 1000kWh/m2 900kWh/m2 800kWh/m2 700kWh/m2 600kWh/m2 500kWh/m2 400kWh/m2 300kWh/m2 200kWh/m2 100kWh/m2 <50kWh/m2 South Facade

North Facade

Figure 6.57 : Annual radiation result on the north and the south facade of the south block with solar protection.

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Daylight analysis Daylight autonomy of the office space on a lower floor and office space on a upper floors has been simulated (Fig. 6.58). From the result it can be seen that the lower office floor receives mean daylight autonomy of 300 lux of 62% of the occupied year which is lower than the upper floor because of the overshadowing from of the north block but still above the minimum requirement of 50%. From the false color image of the lower floor (Fig. 6.59), during the overcast sky condition, the daylight levels is lowered to 250 lux.

Above

Mean DA = 62 % Below

Below

% of Time the Daylight Autonomy > 300lux 100% 90%

Below

Above

10% 8%

7.9%

80% 70% Above

Mean DA = 87 %

60% 50% 40% 30%

6%

5.3%

4% 2.2%

3.2%

2% 0%

20%

UDI undelit <100

10%

UDI overlit >2000

0%

Figure 6.58 : Daylight autonomy at 300lux and UDI <100 and UDI>2000 lux for the occupied hours in office on a upper and a lower floor.

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Sunny Sky - Mar 21 - 12 pm

Cloudy Sky - June 21 - 12 pm

cd/m2 950 850 750 650 550 450 350 250 150 50

Figure 6.59 : False color view of the interior of the office on the lower floor simulated for the sunny sky and over cast sky conditions.

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Thermal analysis The inputs for the thermal analysis have been adopted from the energy efficient scenario in the analytical chapter 5.2 (Table 6.3). The occupancy pattern has slightly been varied as the number of occupants is reduced to 20 from 26 as applied in the analytical studies (Fig. 6.60). The case of the office block on the lower floor and the upper floor has been simulated. It can be studied (Fig. 6.61 & Fig. 6.62) that in both the cases the co-working office would require cooling during the afternoon hours of summer period at 31°C cooling set point and during winter period, the free-running conditions can be easily achieved as the indoor temperature is in comfort zones for all the days.

Above

Below

Below

% of Time the Table 6.3: Case description which Daylight analysis of the Autonomy is used for thermal Below Above co-working office. > 300lux 10% 100% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Above 0%

90%

Co-working 7.9% office 8%

80%

Working area Occupant 6% density Volume No of occupants 4%

70% 60% 50%

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

40% 30%

Unoccupied Period

20%

Weekday Occupancy Weekend Occupancy

Figure 6.60 : Occupancy pattern for the co-working office.

10% 0%

2.2%

113m2 5m2/ppl 5.3% 339m3 20 3.2%

Wall U-value 0.41W/m2K 2% 200mm + insulation) (Concrete Glass0% U-value 1.8W/mwK (Double glazing Loe2) Floor to floor UDIheight undelit <100 3m Window wall ratio (W.W.R.) UDI overlit >2000 North 40% South 40% Cooling Setpoint

31°C

Outdoor Air Temperature Oper. Temperature - Lower Co-working office Oper. Temperature - Upper Co-working office

infiltration 0.1 ach

day vent 2.1 ach

night vent 20 ach

Ventilation (ACH) Comfort Band - By Humphreys Additional Comfort achieved with Ceiling Fan

int. gains 17.4W/m2

light gains 10.7W/m2

Occupied Period

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07 May

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20ACH 18ACH 16ACH 14ACH 12ACH 10ACH 8ACH 6ACH 4ACH 2ACH 0ACH

35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

13 May

Figure 6.61 : Temperature charts for a typical hot summer week.

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20ACH 18ACH 16ACH 14ACH 12ACH 10ACH 8ACH 6ACH 4ACH 2ACH 0ACH

35°C 34°C 33°C 32°C 31°C 30°C 29°C 28°C 27°C 26°C 25°C 24°C 23°C 22°C 21°C 20°C 19°C 18°C 17°C 16°C 15°C 14°C 13°C 12°C 11°C 10°C

11 Jan

Figure 6.62 : Temperature charts for a typical warm winter week.

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The proposed design office would require a cooling demand of 19 and 21 kWh/m2 for the lower and upper floors respectively (Figure 6.63). The cooling demand is considerably low and proves the building would having free-running conditions for the most periods in the year. Demand could be further reduced if the occupants would be floating to the breakout terraces during monsoon and winter period. A flexible occupancy schedule is generated where the occupancy during afternoon hours is reduced, as few users would be floating towards breakout terraces (Fig. 6.64). The cooling demand was reduced to 16 kWh/m2 on the lower office floor and 19 kWh/m2 on the upper floor (Fig 6.65).

100kWh/m2 80kWh/m2 60kWh/m2 40kWh/m2 20kWh/m2

34 19

24

21

21

26

4 2

0kWh/m2 Cooling Equipment Lighting Occupant Demand Gain Gain Gain Lower

Solar Gain Upper

Figure 6.63: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the proposed design development (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Weekday Occupancy

Unoccupied Period

Weekend Occupancy

Figure 6.64: Occupancy pattern for the proposed model with flexibility options to work in breakout spaces.

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100kWh/m2 80kWh/m2 60kWh/m2 40kWh/m2 20kWh/m2

32 16

20

19

21

26

4 2

0kWh/m2 Cooling Equipment Lighting Occupant Demand Gain Gain Gain Lower

Solar Gain Upper

Figure 6.65: Annual cooling load and breakdown of heat gains in the proposed design development with flexibility scenario given to the users to work in breakout terraces during comfortable periods (Source: after Archsim and EnergyPlus).

Adding indoor plants near the ledge of the windows would be able to filter the incoming pollutants from the window. Aloe Vera plant and Chinese evergreen to be used as indoor plants (Fig. 6.66).

Figure 6.66: Plants added near the ledge to filter pollutants.

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Figure 6.67: Rendered view of the north facade of the north block which contains residential units.

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Figure 6.68: Rendered view of the south facade of the south block which contains co-working offices.

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Figure 6.69: Rendered view of the sky court above the plaza.

Figure 6.70: Rendered view of the event space.

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Figure 6.71: Rendered view of the east elevation highlighting the core.

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Conclusion

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The continuing rapid growth of the city of Mumbai is driving the construction of high-rise buildings to house new migrants from different parts of the country. Because of this, the city in under chaos. Pollution and traffic further enhance up this pandemonium. All these new developments are very largely dependent on air conditioning to provide acceptable thermal comfort to their occupants. The buildings are either designed as a climatically inefficient glass box or implemented with air conditions, which are later sold as a status symbol and luxury. The resultant architecture not only has debatable design features but also lack basic human concerns. As the city is rapidly growing, it would be important to focus on mix-used on developments, which would be curb down the energy consumption, pollution and loss of green belt and would enhance social interactions between users from different backgrounds. The study demonstrated that the millennials are the future generation, which will have a great impact on working environments. Thus, it was significant to understand the behavioural pattern of the millennials so that spaces could be designed suiting their flexible lifestyle. Hence, the co-working offices are being targeted by the millennials, which suits their flexible pattern. Research into the local tropical climate highlighted the key issues to be addressed. These can be summarised as a need to reduce the impact of solar radiation while maintaining desirable levels of daylight, and providing much-enhanced ventilation and improving the building envelope. Outdoor vegetation and indoor plants proved to be very useful in terms of controlling pollution, which the city faces. Study of precedents was valuable as it provided an insight on how the built high-rise was able to provide comfortable environments by combining passive strategies to their design in the tropics. Fieldwork confirmed the practical issues of totally depending on air-conditioning systems to provide comfort. Solar radiation, the poor potential for ventilation and window sizes also drew attention to concerns over internal layout. Analytical work identified that cross-ventilated office with thermal mass envelope proved to be effective in terms of reducing cooling demand and providing natural daylight. The north-south orientation of the office with vertical fins and horizontal louvres as solar protectors played an important role in curbing down the external solar gains. Controlling the occupant density added up to the reduction of cooling demand. All of the best performing solutions were combined into an optimised model to be used as the basis for the proposal. The proposed design was an outcome of the resolutions highlighted from the passive strategies, precedents and analytic study. The mixed-use development addressed the flexible lifestyle demanded by the millennials. Not only the proposal is having free-running conditions for the most period of the year, but it also enhanced the civic and social life of the millennials occupying the building. The green plot index of the proposal is about 109% of the total plot area, which would encourage bio-diversity, reduce the urban heat island effect, provide shade and cooling, improve air quality, soften the harshness of the cityscape, restore wildlife habitats, and re-connect people with nature. I hope the development would be an example to all the developers in the city and I am looking forward to see something erected like this in the city.

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Green Plot Ratio Index - 109%

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References

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BOOKS AND JOURNALS Ali, Z. (2013). On Site Review Report: The Met Tower, Pebble Bay Thailand Company, Thailand. Baker, N. and K. Steemers (2002). Daylight Design of Buildings. James & James Science Publisher. Bingham-Hall, P. (2016). Garden city mega city: rethinking cities for the age of global warming. Singapore: Pesaro Publishing. Colliers Radar, (2017). Co-working space: The New Kid on the Block, India Fulk, J., & Collins-Jarvis, L. (2001). Wired meetings: Technological mediation of organizational gathering. In F. M. Jablin & L. L. Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 624–663. Ghosh, O. (2014) ‘COMFORT BAND IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES’. Givoni, B. (1994). Passive and Low Energy Cooling of Buildings. 45-48Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp.27-30. Gorman, P., Nelson, T., & Glassman, A. (2004). The Millennial generation: A strategic opportunity. Organizational Analysis, 12(3), pp.255–270. Gursoy, D., Maier, T. A., & Chi, C. G. (2008). Generational differences: An examination of work values and generational gaps in the hospitality workforce. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, pp.458– 488. Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising. New York: Vintage Books. Koch-Nielsen, H. (2002). Stay Cool: A Design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates. James & James (Science) Publishers. Krishan, A. (2001). Climate responsive architecture: a design handbook for energy efficient buildings, TataMcGraw-Hill, New Delhi. Kumar, S. (2012). Use of plant species in controlling environmental pollution – A Review. Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Kwok, R. (2007). Comparison of Three Widely-used Aerodynamic Modifications that Minimize the Impact of Wind Loads on Tall Buildings. University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA. Lechner, N. (2009). Heating, Cooling, Lighting (3rd edition): Sustainable design methods for architects. John Wiley & Son, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA., pp. 60-61, 64-65, 281. Mcknight, L, T., Hess and Darrel (2000) ‘Climate Zones and Types: The Koppen System’, in Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle river, pp. 205–211. Mohanty, P (2010). Effectiveness of Natural Ventilation in Tall Residential Building in Tropical Climate. University of Nottingham, UK. Nicol, F. (2004). Adaptive thermal comfort standards in the hot–humid tropics. Oxford Brookes University, UK. Nicol, F. (1973). An analysis of some observations of thermal comfort in Roorkee, India and Baghdad, Iraq, Annals of Human Biology 1 . pp. 411–426. Oesterle, E. et Al (2001). Double-skin facades: integrated planning. Prestel.

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Oliveti, G. M.D. Simone, S. Ruffolo (2005). Solar contribution evaluation for building attached sunspace in the Mediterranean climate. International PLEA Conference. Passive and low energy cooling for the built environment. Santorini, Greece. Parasuraman, S. (2009) Urban India: understanding the maximum city. London, UK: Urban Age, London School of Economics, 2009, pp. 39-40. Pew Research Center. (2007). How young people view their lives, futures, and politics: A portrait of ‘‘Generation Next.’’ Postmes, T., Spears, R., & Lea, M. (1998). Breaching or building social boundaries? SIDE-effects of computermediated communication. Communication Research, 25(6), pp. 689–715. Raines, C. (2002). Connecting generations: The sourcebook for a new workplace. Berkeley, CA: Crisp Publications. Reinhart, C. F., Mardaljevic, J., & Rogers, Z. (2006). Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics for Sustainable Building Design. Leukos, 3(1), pp.7-31. Reynolds, S. (1992). Mechanical and electrical equipment for building (8th ed). p40. New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc. Rode, P. (2009). Urban India: understanding the maximum city. London, UK: Urban Age, London School of Economics, 2009, pp.45-46. Simmons, K. S. (2008). Intergenerational communication in the workplace. The Online Journal for Certified Managers. May/ June 2008. Smola, K. W., & Sutton, C. D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Sobin, H. J. (1980). Window Design for Passive Ventilative Cooling: An Experimental Study. Passive Cooling Applications Handbook, prepared for the Passive Cooling Workshop Amherst, Massachusetts. Soebarto, V. I. (1999). A “New” approach to passive design for residential buildings in a tropical climate. Sustaining the Future - Energy, Ecology, Architecture, Proc. of PLEA’99. Brisbane. Strelitz, Z. (2005). Tall Buildings: A Strategic Design Guide. RIBA Publishing, London. Szokolay, S. (2008). Introduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable Design (2nd ed). Architectural Press, London. Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tsichritzis, L (2014). Passive Solar Retrofit in Athens: The potential of Glazed Balconies. MSc dissertation project 2013-2014, AA E+E Environment & Energy Studies Program. Architectural Association School of Architecture Graduate School, London. Walther, J. B. (1995). Relational aspects of computer-mediated communication: Experimental observations over time. Organization Science, 6(2), 186–203. Yannas, S. (1994). Solar Energy and Housing Design, Vol1: Principles, Objectives, Guidelines. London: Architectural Association Publications. Yannas, S. (Ed. 2000). Designing for Summer Comfort. EC Altener Programme. Environment & Energy Studies Programme, AA Graduate School, London.

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Zemke, R., Raines, C., & Filipczak, B. (2000). Generations at work: Managing the clash of veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in your workplace. New York: AMACOM American Management Association. LECTURES Baker, N. (19 Nov, 2016) Natural Ventilation. (Lecture to SED MSc & March Students). London, England: Architectural Association. LINKS WOHA architects. www.woha.net (accessed 30th September,2017)

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Appendix

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Appendix A 1. Age - group

2. Mode of commute to work 4%

6%

9%

Bus

9%

Train

17%

Private cabs

20%

Rickshaw 18-35 94%

22%

19%

>35

Car Two-wheeler Walking 0%

3. Hours in co-working office 2% 6% 22%

4. Bed time 8%

< 4 hrs

13%

5-6 hrs 32%

6-8 hrs

Before 12

26%

12 - 1 am

8-10 hrs 38%

133

53%

35%

18%

11%

9-10 am

Sports Socializing

11%

After 2 am

6. Time of arrival to the office Fitness

8% 21%

1 - 2 am

> 10 hrs

5. Activities post office hours

25%

Cycle

10-11 am 22%

19%

Video games Family commitments

11-12 pm 12 - 1 pm

30%

After 1 pm

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7. Working from home 12%

8. Owning a smartphone

5%

100% Often Sometimes

36%

Rarely

47%

Yes

Never

9. Owning computer / laptop

0%

No

10. Attire at workplace 15%

26%

47%

Laptop

62% 12%

Computer

Smart casuals

38%

Both

11. Stratergy to adjust office environ14%

Formal

12. Usage of air-conditioners during the occupied hours 4%

8%

Casuals

11%

Air - conditioners

78% 0%

Shading systems

Full - time

Windows

Partly

Ceiling fan

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85%

When needed

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14. Office layout to encourage interaction between co-working members

13. Seating preference

13% 12% 23%

Near window 47%

36%

Yes 64%

Center Near aisle

No Maybe

15. Office desks layout

21%

79%

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Open plan Cubicle

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Appendix B

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Co-working desks

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Concentrated spaces

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Meeting rooms

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Event spaces

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Printing room

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Workshop

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Stationery store

Weekday Weekend Sunday

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Residential units

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Communal areas

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Laundry room

Weekday Weekend Sunday

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1

137

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Circulation

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Communal kitchen

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Gym

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Bar & Restaurant

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Skycourts

Weekday Weekend Sunday

Breakout terraces

Weekday Weekend Sunday

AA School: Susatainable Environmental Design

Vertical Millennial Village - Mumbai - Sustainable Environmental Design  

Dissertation for Architectural Association School of Architecture, London (2018)

Vertical Millennial Village - Mumbai - Sustainable Environmental Design  

Dissertation for Architectural Association School of Architecture, London (2018)

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