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Dean Williams Part 2 Year 2

Progress Book


We live in an urban world.


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contents _______

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/ urban growth in London

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/ China’s urban multiplication

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/ the shape of arrival

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/ precedent studies

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/ programme development

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/ from programme to form

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/ site analysis

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/ project evolution


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Our Urban Planet The human population has lived a rural lifestyle through most of history. The world’s population, however, is quickly becoming urbanized as people migrate to the cities. Developed nations have a higher percentage of urban residents than less developed countries. However, urbanization is occurring rapidly in many less developed countries, and it is expected that most urban growth will occur in less developed countries during the next decades. In this book I will be looking at how this rapid urbanisation is being handled, with particular focus on China. The growth of China’s cities over the next 15 - 20 years will be historically unprecedented, the way in which it is dealt with will serve as an important example to the rest of the world as it too rapidly continues to urbanise. My proposal posits itself at the heart of the rural to urban migration phenomenon, straddling the border between the urban arrival destination of Tianhe Village and Guangzhou, the city ‘proper’ in which it is located.

The Rural to Urban Crossover 100%

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‘Urbanization is not about simply increasing the number of urban residents or expanding the area of cities. More importantly, it’s about a complete change from rural to urban style in terms of industry structure, employment, living environment and social security.’ Li Keqiang - Premier of the People’s Republic of China.


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Robin Hood Gardens and the City 2010


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A map of the United Kingdom re-sized according to population density in 2012.


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5.45 MILLION

2031

4.68 MILLION

London prepares for the capital’s growth over the next 20 years.

2007

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London will require an additional

45 MILLION SQ FT

2007

2031

1.56 MILLION

1.98 MILLION

of office space by 2031. Business and financial jobs could grow from 1.56 million in 2007 to 1.98 million in 2031.

LONDON JOBS The total number of jobs in London could rise from 4.68 million in 2007 up to 5.45 million in 2031.

£50 MILLION

The number of households in the city is expected to grow by nearly 700,000 in the next 20 years.

The Mayor’s Outer London Fund is set to spend £50 million over three years to grow economic activity in areas that won’t benefit from large-scale infrastructure. The Mayor’s office wants an additional

40,000 hotel beds created by 2031.

£1.8 billion of public funding was secured for housing, unlocking £3.7 billion of private and other investment for affordable London homes between 2011-2015.

By 2031, office based employment is estimated to grow by 25% in inner London.


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London’s Boroughs Today.

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1- The City of London 2- Westminster 3- Camden 4- Islington 5- Hackney 6- Tower Hamlets 7- Southwark 8- Lambeth 9- Wandsworth 10- Kensington & Chelsea 11- Hammersmith & Fulham 12- Brent 13- Haringey 14- Waltham Forest 15- Newham 16- Greenwich 17- Lewisham

18- Croydon 19- Sutton 20- Merton 21- Kingston Upon Thames 22- Richmond Upon Thames 23- Hounslow 24- Ealing 25- Hillingdon 26- Harrow 27- Barnet 28- Enfield 29- Redbridge 30- Barking and Dagenham 31- Havering 32- Bexley 33- Bromley

Knife Injuries Sustained. Greatest numerical increases between 2008-09 and 2010-11 were: 4- Islington 5- Hackney 7- Southwark 8- Lambeth 12- Brent 13- Haringey 15- Newham 17- Lewisham Offences by borough: 553 to 823 414 to 553 300 to 414 183 to 300 0 to 183

Defining London’s boundaries has never been an easy task. In the eyes of the Metropolitan Board of Works and the London County Council, established in 1855 and 1889 respectively, it was an administrative province. To the City Corporation it was the jealously guarded enclave of about one square mile containing almost immeasurable wealth. To the Registrar-General in charge of the census, London was an over-spilling, almost indeterminate urban area. The first example of statistical definition as to the size of Greater London is established in 1875 when placed under the jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Police whose powers covered an area with a radius fifteen miles from Charing Cross. Overall from 1861 to 1911 the population of the administrative county grew by 61 per cent, the Greater London conurbation 125 per cent with England growing as a whole by 80 per cent.


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London’s Population Growth Between 1590- 1990.

Population of London in 1590: 200,000 Population of London in 2011: 8,174,100 1590 1690 1790 1890 1990 Rural land River Thames M25 Motorway London Borough Outline


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London’s Population Growth Between 1986- 2006.

Highest quintile: Lambeth, Southwark, Westminster, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Newham and Barnet. Second highest quintile: Merton, Hounslow, Brent, Haringey, Enfield and Redbridge. Third highest quintile: Camden, Islington, Kensington & Chelsea, Hammersmith & Fulham, Kingston and Lewisham. Fourth highest quintile: Greenwich, Croydon, Sutton, Wandsworth, Richmond, Ealing and Hillingdon. Lowest quintile: Bromley, Bexley, Havering, Barking & Dagenham, Waltham Forest, Harrow and The City.

There is some correlation between the boroughs in which the most knife injuries were sustained between the years 2008-2011 and the boroughs which have increased the most in population. The top 8 boroughs with the highest knife injuries have been indicated with an exclamation mark symbol. Tower Hamlets as an Example of Urban Growth. Total population: 196,193 (2011) 41% of Tower Hamlets inhabitants were born outside of the UK. This makes Tower Hamlets the 8th highest borough in London for the number of non UK born inhabitants. The borough is populated mostly by English and Asian people. 53% of inhabitants are English and 38% are Asian, 30% ( 35,820) of which are from Bangladesh. Tower Hamlets has served as a popular destination for Bangladeshi migrants for the last 60 years and is now home to up to three generations of Bangladeshi families.


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Tower Hamlets Population Age and Ethnicity Distribution

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The Bangladeshi population have a far younger age profile than that of the English inhabitants. 45% of Bangladeshis are 25 years old and younger compared with only 11% of the English population.

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5% of the Bangladeshi population are 65 and over with 10% of the English population this age and over.

Bangladeshi : English aged 65 and over (%)

Tower Hamlets Population Growth 2000-2012

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This reflects the migration patterns of the Bangladeshi community with young workers sending money back to their elders in Bangladesh.

Total Population in 2000: 190,000 33% increase in 12 years Tower Hamlets is still serving as an arrival city and is still growing in population, increasing by a third in the last twelve years. Total Population in 2012: 250,000

Tower Hamlets Population Churn 2009-2010

Net migration figures disguise the significant size of the population flows in and out of the Tower Hamlets. The figures for 2009-10 estimate that there was an inflow of population into Tower Hamlets of around 28,000 which was completely cancelled out by an outflow of 28,300 – giving the marginal migration outflow -300. Three-quarters of all population flows relate to internal migration (the population that moves in and out of borough to and from the rest of the UK). The internal inflows and outflows of around 22 and 21 thousand almost cancel each other out – resulting in a small net inflow of 1,000 from the rest of the UK. The international flows were smaller in size than the internal flows, and more residents left to go overseas (-7,900) than the number who arrived from overseas (+6,500) resulting in a net outflow of -1,400 international migrants.


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Kamal Hossain: migration from Bangladesh to Tower Hamlets

Kamal Hossain came to Britain by ship in 1948, as was common during this period. He was chosen by his parents to migrate to earn money for his family back home. Kamal travelled to Tower Hamlets and worked in numerous slave like roles before starting his own Indian restaurant. He took British citizenship in 1967 and brought his family to the UK in 1970. Because of the lack of a Bengali community at that time, Kamal’s wife and sisters returned to Bangladesh in 1971 and came back to the UK in 1986.

Kamal Hossain: 54 Year Migration Story. 1948 1sqm

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4-6 month boat journey from Bangladesh to London to find work to provide money for those remaining in Bangladesh. House servant for Pakistani family. Passport was confiscated and all earnings sent back to family.

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Family arrive

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Opens own small curry restaurant. Earns enough to rent a flat in an east London tower block. Citizenship awarded.

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Family return to Bangladesh.

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Enough money saved to purchase a small two bedroom house in east London.

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Family return from Bangladesh, moving into the new house.

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Kumal has the first of three daughters Razeema.

Razeema graduates from University, just like her other siblings. Razeema gains employment as parent outreach officer for secondary school.

2007 2008 50sqm 2009

Thanks to her father Razeema begins life with a 50 sqm flat in London, worlds away from where he began in 1948.

Razeema moves from her parents home to her own flat in east London.

Razeema dreams of leaving London and returning to Bangladesh where she can purchase a larger house and live in the countryside. Razeema wears her head scarf even though it is not necessary in London as she wishes to strengthen her identity with her roots.


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Tower Blocks in Hong Kong 2012


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‘A third of the world’s population is on the move this century, from village to city, a move that began in earnest shortly after the Second World War, when South American and Middle Eastern villagers left their homes to build new enclaves on the urban outskirts, and is entering its most intense phase now, with 150 to 200 million Chinese peasants “floating” between village and city, vast shifts under way in India and Bangladesh, and huge numbers of Africans and southeast Asians joining the exodus. In 1950, 309 million people in the developing world lived in cities; by 2030, 3.09 billion will.’ Doug Saunders - Arrival City (2012)


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China’s Internal Migration 1990-2005.

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Since 1978, China has experienced the largest internal migration in human history...

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Nearly 160 million people have left rural areas - 12% of China’s total population.

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1,347,350,000 Population of China in 2012

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Every four years the population of China will grow by around 62 million people- this equates to the entire population of the UK.

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China’s net income per person in 1978. Urban living promised a double in income. 62,000-500,000 500,000-1m 1m-2m 2m-3m

Migration from rural to urban areas over the last 34 years has lead to an increase in the GDP of coastal regions. As these have increased factories and work has moved inland, subsequently improving the GDP there too.


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Annual Population Increase

950 million

675 million

560 million

470 million

Births per Day

45,000 Deaths per Day

12,600 Migrant Workers 2010

Migrant Workers 2011

4.4% increase

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252.78 million


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Shenzhen serves as a glimpse into the future for China. It is vital for China to realise the importance of it floating population formed mainly of migrant workers, without them, much of the Chinese economy would not be sustainable. Urban villages in China are here to stay, and are definitely not something that should be erased in a tabula rasa approach. Although this appears to ‘tidy’ the city, it is in fact destroying the very foundations upon which it was built.


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Doug Saunders is the author of Arrival City, which discusses the implications of mass migration from rural to urban areas and how it is affecting, for better or worse, cities around the world. Arrival cities, a term coined by Saunders, are the essential entry mechanism from rural village life to urban area survival.

Interviewer: Arrival City, lets get our terms straight, means what? Saunders: I use this to describe places where the very large shift of the remaining two thirds of the worlds population from predominantly rural areas to predominantly cities is occurring. These are the neighbourhoods that are the inbetween spaces with one foot still in the village and one foot in the core of the city - they include the slums and the shanty towns and so on of the developing world, but they also include the ethnic arrival neighbourhoods of places like Canada, the China towns, Little Italy’s, the places that have become known as ghettos, some that become thriving middle class ethnic immigrant neighbourhoods. Interviewer: Let me just read an excerpt from the book because the numbers are really quite astonishing. ‘A third of the world’s population is on the move this century, from village to city, a move that began in earnest shortly after the Second World War, when South American and Middle Eastern villagers left their homes to build new enclaves on the urban outskirts, and is now entering its most intense phase now, with 150 to 200 million Chinese peasants “floating” between village and city, vast shifts under way in India and Bangladesh, and huge numbers of Africans and Southeast Asians joining the exodus. In 1950 209 million people in the developing world lived in cities; by 2030, 3.09 billion will. What is driving this massive move from village to city? Saunders: Essentially what happened to Europe and North America in the nineteenth century right up until World War One, is now happening to a very intense degree in Asia and the Indian sub continent, its almost done in South America, and its just getting underway in a big way in sub Saharan Africa now that things are a little more economically and politically stable there. Two Changes. First of all - a realisation among villagers that a life of subsistence agriculture, which has the risk of starvation, three quarters of lethal poverty occur in subsistence rural villages , but also the opening up of economies in the cities and so on. So, its on the whole a beneficial thing, it tends to be a very calculated move by people who are peasants into the bottom rung of a more stable life in the city. If it is managed badly, it can be very bad for them. Interviewer: The significance of the arrival city becomes huge with this kind of level of migration of people, right? Saunders: It becomes the biggest force of change in many parts of the world, I would say that a large number of the political changes, the governments that have overtaken in Turkey and Brazil for example have emerged from these in-between spaces, from arrival cities. In China there are 200 million people right now, what they call the floating population that are living this in-between life. The way that they are handled over the next few years will determine China’s fate.


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Two-thirds of China’s population, an estimated 64%, will live in cities by 2025.

In 2025: 221 cities will accommodate over 1 million Chinese. There will be an additional 400 million city dwellers. This is more than the population of the United States.

Europe only has 35 cities capable of accommodating 1 million people.

China only had 172 million urban residents in 1978 when Deng Xiaoping started economic reform. By 2006, this number mushroomed to 577 million urbanites.

In China, 23 cities will have a population of 5 million by 2025.

8 cities will have a population of 10 million by 2025.

2 of these cities will have a population more than 20 million by 2025.


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Urban area jobs in 2025: 470 million Urban area jobs now: 300 million

China currently has about 145 million migrant workers (or about 11 percent of China’s total population in 2010) This is larger than the entire workforce of the United States.

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60 percent of these migrant workers were born in the 1980s or 1990s.

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Out of Shenzhen’s population of more than 14 million people, only 2.5 million are residents.


Napping Migrant Workers - Tianhe Village 2012.


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Typical migrant story from Guangxi and Yunnan provinces to Guangzhou.

Having travelled from the more rural provinces of Guangxi or Yunnan in search of a better life, most migrant workers spend their first night sleeping on the streets. A popular location for new arrivals is outside the railway station, which serves as a hub for this floating population. Every morning guards send the migrants away and each evening they return.

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Almost all migrants send money back to their villages of origin, some aim to help their elders, others intend on moving back to the village later in their life. To some migrants, being recognised in the Hukou System is the end goal, to others this is something to avoid at all costs. Those that intend on returning to their rural roots send money back to build a better house in the village and do not want to give it up in order to be recognised in the city where they work.

The luckiest of migrants manage to find themselves a place to work where employers provide accommodation, however if migrants lose their job, they also lose their place to sleep.

Those that decide to stay accept enrolment on the Household Register or the ‘Hukou System’ relinquish all rural land but will officially be recognised as a citizen of the area to which they have moved.

Some migrants come to terms with the fact that their home within the city may be pulled down at any point and decide to grow businesses in the city which harness the cheap labour workforce to which they once belonged.

Those that have skills to offer may manage to find a shop or workshop to join. Often these workers sleep where they work or head to the streets, or the railway station for somewhere to sleep.

Those that manage to stay in the city for longer periods of time and are earning enough money are able to move into urban villages. These are full of migrant workers and normally built on cheap land designated for construction. If these are pulled down, the workers will have to sleep on the streets again.


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Key Political Changes which have led to large scale Migration. 1949 1 October The Communist Party of China defeats it’s main rival the Kuomintang (KMT) and assumes full control of mainland China after a lengthy civil war. Mao Zedong In office: 1945- 1976

1958 January ‘The Great Leap Forward’ is launched, a five year plan intended to serve as an alternative model to the Soviet model. Small agricultural organisations were merged into peopled communes and many peasants were ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and on the production of iron and steel. 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution aimed to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society. This led to mass persecution in factional struggles across the country and has been regarded as a negative phenomenon since 1976.

Hua Gu Guofe ofe Guofeng In office: 1976- 19 1981

Deng Xiaoping In office: 1976- 1989

1976- 1989 Working on the Central Advisory Commision of the Communist Party under Mao, Deng redefined the Communist Party ideals in China after the split from the Soviet Union counter part. Deng incorporates principles of market economics which lead to rapid and sustained economic growth. Deng was noted for his mild communist stance compared with Mao. Mao’s death enabled Deng to lead the Communist Party in line with a much milder form of Communism. In this time Deng opened China to foreign investment, the global market and limited private competition. He is generally credited with developing China into one of the fastest growing economies in the world for over 30 years and raising the standard of living of hundreds of millions of Chinese.

Hu Yaobang In office: 1982- 1987

Ziyang Zhao Zha oZ In office: 1987- 1989

Impact on Working Population. The Communist Party instigated a command economy once in power - where production and investment are planned and controlled by the party. Mao used the Hukou System, a form of household register, as a way to control the movement of people between rural and urban areas. Workers were classed as ‘rural’ or ‘urban’ and moving class would require application to the relevant authorities. Both Mao and his predecessor Shaoqi have produced policy dictating the movement of the population. Mao moved privileged urban youth to the rural areas to steer them away from capitalism by experiencing difficult working conditions. Shaoqi redistributed the population after the Great Chinese Famine.

The cities of Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou and Guangzhou were all designated Special Economic Zones in which Deng’s reforms could be tested. Guangzhou is one of the first mainland cities to be opened to the world market with its free trade zone which opened in 1992. These Special Economic Zones quickly started to bring in international capitol to the region, Guandong Province within which all the above cities are located, is home to 60,000 factories, which every day produce some $300 million worth of goods and account for about 30 percent of China’s exports and one-third of the world’s production of shoes, textiles and toys.

Government introduces the ‘one child policy’ in an attempt to curb population growth.

Wen Jiabao In office: 2003- 2008

2003- 2008 Instead of concentrating on GDP growth in large cities and rich coastal areas, Wen advocated for a more balanced approach in developing China’s hinterland regions, and advancing policies considered more favourable towards farmers and migrant workers. Wen is currently overseeing the continuation of China's economic reforms and has been involved in shifting national goals from economic growth at all costs to growth which also emphasizes more egalitarian wealth, along with other social goals, such as public health and education.

Xiaokang Loosely translated as a “basically well-off” society in which the people are able to live relatively comfortably, albeit ordinarily. Deng Xiaoping used the terms Xiaokang society in 1979 as the eventual goal of Chinese modernization. Wen Jiabao’s government attempts to ensure the overall wellbeing of the Chinese population is improved, in line with Deng’s Xiaokang society. The life of the migrant worker, may be about to improve.


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How has the Hukou System served the function of migration Control? The Hukou System as limiting factor for Chinese Urbanisation.

The dominant explanation is economic and it regards the hukou system as unavoidable choice under the “forging ahead” or the heavy-industry-oriented development strategy. China’s resource endowments were characterized as capital-scarce but labour-abundant. The economy was largely agrarian in the early days of the PRC. Influenced by the Soviet model, China placed high priority on heavy industry to speed up its industrialization. In order to finance the expansion of heavy industry, the state underpriced agricultural products and overpriced industrial products to induce an unequal exchange between the agricultural and industrial sectors. To maintain this artificial imbalance under the condition of dual economy, the state had to create a system which blocked free flows of resources (including labour) between industry and agriculture and between city and the countryside. The hukou system was one of the important institutions to create and maintain such a social and economic configuration. Under this perspective, the hukou system has served the function of migration control.

Li Keqiang, vice premier of the Peoples Republic of China working under Wen Jiabao. It is his task to relay the intentions of his party whilst visiting China on Jiobang’s behalf. Keqiang called for the realisation of the “Chinese dream” and has spoken promisingly of Urbanisation. However, most Chinese are not willing to dream as they recognise that promises of urbanisation are propped tentatively on its floating unrecognised worker population. Hukou System reforms will unstabalise the economy and portray a more realistic view of Chinas urban status.


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Shenzhen: An example of Chinese Rapid Urbanisation.

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2000 2011 2003 2001 1996 Shenzhen Merchant Cultural Kingkey Shun 100 Hing Electronics Trade Centre Group Centre Square Plaza

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1979-81 Creation of Special Economic Zone

2015 Ping’an Finance Centre

1991 Bao’an International Airport Opened

2003-4 Shenzhen Metro and Hong Kong Motorway are opened.

2010 Expansion of Special Economic Zone


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The Rise of the Urban Gated Community Aihwa Ong - Professor of Anthropology at Berkeley. Ong researches the interaction between systems of governance, politics, technology and culture, and how the environment formed by these interactions shape the human values and practices in Asia.

The Chinese government have inadvertently welcomed an increase in the diversity of spaces and people within their cities as a result of opening their doors to international trade.

Despite the fact that gated communities are known to segregate and fragment the urban environment, the Chinese Government use them to retain a form of social control and classification in this new age of global market trade and adaptation.

Samer Bagaeen - Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments.

Traditional housing techniques have followed migrants from rural areas and can be found wherever there is a new influx of people in the city.

Over time, the courtyards and alleyways lose the fight with the need for new developments. Courtyards slowly disappear and become very rare whereas the network of pathways becomes much more complicated, especially given the vast increase in the average building height.


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Form follows Power - What is next for 21st Century China?

The Holy Field King Ping of Zhou Ruled: 770 - 720 BC

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Plan of Chengzhou

‘On building a city, rectangular layout with nine by nine lanes, three gates per each side...’ The Rites of Zhou The construction (ying) of capital cities follows a 9 li (~3 km) grid, with three gates; 9 longitudinal and 9 latitudinal lines which divide the interior of the city with north to south road 9 times the carriage gauge in width (9 gui). The city palace is in the middle with the ancestral temple to the left and Sheji altars for the god of land and the god of grains on the right. The palace faces the imperial court and is backed by the market and the courts.

Soviet Perimeter Block Planning Mao Zedong 1950’s

“Learn all the ways from Soviet!” Mao Zedong

People’s Commune 1960’s

“Learn all the ways from Soviet!” Mao Zedong


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Form follows Power - What is next for 21st Century China?

Gated Communities Deng Xiaoping 1980’s

“Let some people be rich first!” Deng Xiaoping

Cultural Quarters Hu Jintao 2000’s

‘The society that we build is a socialist harmonious society with a democracy and law, equality and justice, sincerity and vitality, stability and perfect integrations of human living and nature.’ Hu Jintao

Xi Jinping 2010’s

‘Xi Jinping Values Longtime Development over One-time Fame’ Having completed many urban development projects under Hu Jintao which have been mainly focused around securing sustainable improvements for local areas Xi looks set to continue paying attention to all levels of the community, promoting development that is suited to individual needs. Xi has been reported to approach development from a scientific perspective, and has worked with grass roots initiatives to reform housing policies recently. How will Jinping’s approach affect the future of China’s urban development over the next decade?


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The Point of Arrival

China

Guangdong Area:177,900km ² Capital:Guangzhou Population:104,303,132 GDP:5.3 trillion CNY Density:536/km² Guangzhou Area:7,434km² Population:12,700,800 GDP:1,242.34 billion CNY Density:1,708/km²

Tianhe District Area: 141km² Population: 645,453 Density: 4,600/km²

Tianhe urban village Area:0.029km² Population:40,000 Tianhe Village is an arrival city, located between the rationally ordered tower blocks of Guangzhou. Its dense, irregular form appears as an anomaly in the cityscape, clustered in the shadows of tower blocks.


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Experimenting with the Tianhe Village Morphology

Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation. The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the process of its development. Urban morphology is also considered as the study of urban tissue, or fabric, as a means of discerning the underlying structure of the built landscape. This approach challenges the common perception of unplanned environments as chaotic or vaguely organic through understanding the structures and processes embedded in urbanisation.

Exploring the morphology and form of Tianhe village enabled a deeper understanding of how the village works and its strengths and weaknesses. This knowledge is crucial in making an informed and relevant proposal for the village.

Learning from the village will help to make proposals for the village a result of ‘bottom up’ design, as opposed to the ‘artistic purpose’ referenced here.

We are interested in learning about the opportunities and limitations that the form and composition of the village presents. By analysing the morphology we aim to reveal the true possibilities of the village, without impressing our own preconceived ideas.

By analysing the village syntactically, we are investigating the form of the village, without thought for the people that live in the village and the systems of meaning which the buildings and form support.

We can be said to be learning the language of the village through testing its possibilities and configurations.

Philip Steadman - Architectural Morphology (1983)


Arrival

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Investigation 1. Another Space: Testing the Integrity of the Village Circulation.

A 9 metre grid was overlaid on top of a rationalised plan of Tianhe Village. A 9 metre grid was chosen as this is the average width of buildings in the village. A section of the village was chosen for testing. Rows and boxes were swapped to test the integrity of the circulation.


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Investigation 1. Another Space: Depth Analysis of Re-arranged Circulation.

Once the rows and boxes had been swapped, the pathways were coloured in relation to their depth within the village. This helped to quickly identify whether the circulation was still working and whether connectivity had been strengthened or weakened. Primary thoroughfare

Secondary thoroughfare

Tertiary thoroughfare


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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 1: Identify the void Spaces.

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To begin to identify the void spaces, a 9 metre grid was overlaid on top of a rationalised plan of Tianhe Village. A 9 metre grid was chosen as this is the average width of buildings in the village.

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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 2: Catalogue the void Spaces.

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Each void typology is assigned a colour. When coloured on the map of Tianhe the distribution of voids is revealed.

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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 2: Catalogue the void Spaces.

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The pixelated void spaces are then ordered to reveal the regularity of their occurrence. The pixels were ordered within the border outline of the village.


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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 2: Catalogue the void Spaces.

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The pixelated void spaces are displayed in bar graph format showing the most prevalent void as being the path, or number 4 with 186 occurrences in the village.

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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village. Step 3: A Heterogeneous field of void Spaces.

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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village. Step 4: Increasing the void space at specific locations. The void space surrounding the pathway typologies was increased. Pathways were chosen as they were shown to be the most prevalent within the village. The increase was determined by the number of sides in contact with the void space. In Contact with the Void Space: The Rule

Four Existing Building Typologies in Tianhe Village.

Reduce Buildings to Basic form.

Three new form typologies.

1 side

2 sides

3 sides

Base decrease: 25% Height increase: 25%

Base decrease: 50% Height increase: 50%

Base decrease: 75% Height increase: 75%


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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village. Step 4: Increasing the void space at specific locations.

The rule from the adjacent page was applied to the pathway voids highlighted earlier in the investigation. When applied, three new typologies of form were created. The relationship between these three forms and the existing buildings creates some positive effects on the village and introduces the possibility of a secondary ground plane above street level (indicated in grey).


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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 4: Increasing the void space at specific locations.

The Existing Village

The Existing Village with the new form typologies added.


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Axonometric outline view of part of Tianhe Village after the changes to it’s morphology have been made.

The alteration to the village changes significantly dependent on whether the towers repel or attract one another after the rule has been applied.

Existing section of the urban village.

Towers are pulled together after rule has been applied.

Towers repel one another after rule has been applied.


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Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 5: An object to represent the new morphology.


Investigation 2. Another Space: Investigating the void Spaces Within the Village.

Step 5: An object to represent the new morphology.


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High-end Botanical Research. Project Precedent Study: The Sainsbury Laboratory The Sainsbury Laboratory, an 11,000 sq.m. plant science research centre set in the University of Cambridge’s Botanic Garden, brings together world-leading scientists in a working environment of the highest quality. The design reconciles complex scientific requirements with the need for a piece of architecture that also responds to its landscape setting. It provides a collegial, stimulating environment for innovative research and collaboration. The building is situated within the private, ‘working’ part of the Garden, and houses research laboratories and their associated support areas. It also contains the University’s Herbarium, meeting rooms, an auditorium, social spaces, and upgraded ancillary areas for Botanic Garden staff, plus a new public café. Ground Floor

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4. 5.

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7. 2.

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Key Building Statistics:

Key:

Building name: Sainsbury Laboratory Location: Cambridge Architects: Stanton Williams Client: The University of Cambridge Completed: December 2010 Number of Occupants: 150 Gross Internal Area: 11,300m² Project Cost: £82 million Cost per sq m: £4, 975/sq m for the main laboratory building.

1. Entry court 2. Central court 3. Café terrace 4. Main entrance 5. Lecture theatre 6. Internal street / staff dining 7. Meeting room 8. Public café Scale: 1:500 @ A3


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First Floor

Basement

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12. 14. 7. 9.

Key: 7. Meeting room 9. External terrace 10. Internal street 11. Internal street / ‘study boxes’ 12. Write-up and office areas 13. Laboratory 14. Controlled environment laboratory 15. Controlled environment laboratory Scale: 1:500 @ A3


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1. Exterior view facing west. 2. Study boxes overlooking gardens. 3. West facade, looking into laboratories. 4. View from internal street into laboratories.


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Sainsbury Laboratory GIA Distribution.

Laboratory space Write-up space Meeting rooms Lecture theatre Café External terrace Internal street

Gross Internal areas per use: Laboratory space: 7450m ² Meeting rooms: 265m² Café: 231m² Lecture theatre: 371m² Write-up space: 1235m² External terrace: 358m² Entrance area: 70m² Internal street: 1328m² Total GIA: 11,300m²


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Sainsbury Laboratory GIA Distribution per Occupant.

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Community Orientated Knowledge Dissemination. Project Precedent Example: The Ideas Store, Whitechapel. The Idea Store in Whitechapel, London is the flagship building of a programme based on a new type of information and learning provision being pioneered by The London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Each floor is arranged like a promenade that reveals the services and facilities on offer whilst affording compelling views of the surrounding area. The street level escalator draws people in and up over Whitechapel Road and through the knowledge dissemination resources which include a nursery school, dance studio, seminar spaces, internet facilities and physiotherapy training classrooms as well as more conventional library facilities Ground Floor

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11. 9.

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3. 5. 6.

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4.

Key Building Statistics:

Key:

Building name: The Idea Store. Location: Whitechapel, London. Architects: David Adjaye Associates. Client: The London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Completed: December 2005. Number of Occupants: 150 Gross Internal Area: 4,500m² Project Cost: £16 million Cost per sq m: £3,555/sq m.

1. Entrance 2. Entrance Lobby 3. Help Desk 4. Escalator 5. Children’s Library 6. Escape Stair 7. Classrooms 8. AV Library Scale: 1:200 @ A3

9. Teen Library 10. Corridor 11. Compact Shelves 12. Ancillary Storage / Staff Space.


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First Floor

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5.

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1. 2.

Key: 1. Entrance 2. Atrium 3. Escalator 4. Surfing Area 5. Escape Stair 6. Library 7. Classroom 8. Creche Scale: 1:200 @ A3

9. Dance Studio 10. Complementary Therapies 11. Terrace


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Ideas Store GIA Distribution. Terrace

Entrance Lobby Audio Visual Library

Dance Studio

Teen Library

Classrooms

Escape Staircase Circulation core and toliets Children’s Library Ancillary Storage and staff rooms Complementary Therapies Internet Area

Library

Corridor

Gross Internal areas per use: Terrace: 197m ² Entrance Lobby: 174m² Audio Visual Libray: 163m² Dance Studio: 1860m² Teen Library: 95m² Classrooms: 359m² Children’s Library: 810m² Circulation Core and toilets: 84m² Escape Staircase: 48m² Ancillary storage and staff rooms: 72m² Complementary Therapies: 90m² Internet Area: 409m² Library: 105m² Corridor: 34m² Total GIA: 4500m²


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Ideas Store GIA Distribution per Occupant.

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Audio Visual Library: 1m²

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Dance Studio: 12m² 78725

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Teen Library: 0.6m² 78725

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Library: 0.7m² 78725

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Internet Area: 1.4m² 78725

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1. Exterior view facing north. 2. Overhanging facade and escalator street entrance. 3. Views out over Whitechapel High Street, coloured glass facade. 4. View of the library space.


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High-end Learning Centre. Project Precedent Example: The Rolex Learning Centre. Built on the campus of EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, the Rolex Learning Center will function as a laboratory for learning, a library with 500,000 volumes and an international cultural hub, open to both students and the public spread over one single fluid space of 20,000 sq metres, it provides a seamless network of services, libraries, information gathering, social spaces, spaces to study, restaurants, cafes and beautiful outdoor spaces. It is a highly innovative building, with gentle slopes and terraces, undulating around a series of internal ‘patios’, with almost invisible supports for its complex curving roof, which required completely new methods of construction. Ground Floor 8.

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First Floor 8.

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Key Building Statistics:

Key:

Building name: The Rolex Learning Centre. Location: Lausanne, Switzerland. Architects: SANAA Client: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne. Completed: February 2010. Number of Staff: 250 Number of Students: 710 Gross Internal Area: 20,000m² Project Cost: £76.3 million Cost per sq m: £3,815/sq m.

1. Main Entrance 2. Café / Bar 3. Inclined Lift 4. Bank, Bookshop 5. Office Space 6. Multi Purpose Area 7. Library Space 8. Workspaces 9. Patio 10. Dining with lake view. Scale: 1:200 @ A3


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Ground Floor Axonometric with Approximate GIA’s.

Work Area

Lecture Space

Office Space

Research Collection

Bookshop

Restaurant

Bank

Unprogrammed Space

Main Entrance

Library

Gross Internal areas per use:

Café / Bar

Work Space: 1185m ² Office Space: 820m² Bookshop: 526m² Bank: 370m² Entrance: 368m² Café / Bar: 846m² Library Space: 2798m² Ancient Book Collection: 414m² Lecture Space: 756m² Research Collection: 894m² Unprogrammed Space: 11,000m² Total GIA: 20,000m²

Ancient book collection


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Ground Floor Spatial Relationship Diagram.

Patio 8.

Patio 13.

Patio 14.

Patio 12.

Patio 7. 3.

Patio 9.

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1.

Ground

1.

Patio 1 entrance.

2.

Patio 6. Patio 10. Patio 15.

Patio 11.

Entrances through patios.

Entrances to site.

Touches the ground

Floats above ground

Patio 3.

Patio 2.

Patio 4.

Patio 5.


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The Rolex Learning Centre GIA Distribution per Occupant.

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Office Space: 3.2m² 78725

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Bank: 0.4m²

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Library Space: 4.2m² 78725

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1. Aerial plan orientated north. 2. Main entrance opening. 3. Lecture space making use of undulating floor and roof relationship. 4. Looking through the building reveals the number of spaces created by the undulating form.


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The Chinese foothold for the organisation SPARC.

What is SPARC? SPARC stands for the Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres and is one of the largest Indian nongovernmental organisations working on the issues raised by the largest phase of urbanisation the world has ever seen. SPARC supports the people in organising the people to come together, articulate their concerns and collectively produce solutions to the problems they face. Having grown from scratch in India, SPARC has reached a level where it can transfer its model of development and self help to other critical environments around the world such as the mass urbanisation of China. How can SPARC help? Through the medium of urban agriculture and a learning environment, SPARC intends to bring the migrant worker inhabitants of Tianhe village together with the citizens â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;properâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; of Guangzhou to create relationships of mutual benefit, overseeing the progressive development of both its people as well as the village itself.

Participatory design sessions held in an Area Resource Centre in Mumbai between SPARC, local architects, slum dwellers and government officials.

The dwellers of the slum are the architects - they know best about what works and why in their village, they even know how to source all the materials and will get them for a cheaper price than an outsider architect.


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Area Resource Centres

Exhibitions

Savings and Credit

When SPARC began working with people from the pavements in Mumbai, finding a space to hold meetings was a major problem. There, they constructed the first Area Resource Centre (ARC) – a central point where members could hold meetings, exchange ideas and invite visitors.

Housing and toilet exhibitions give communities a platform to come up with and showcase affordable designs that accommodate their needs, and to discuss these with professionals, government officials, and each other.

The Alliance’s savings and credit system increases the financial assets of the poor and provides affordable credit.

They act as forums for information exchange and the dissemination of innovative ideas about housing, secure land tenure, and essential services.

As federation members say, this activity represents the pulse of the organisation: “when savings are strong, the whole federation is strong.” Upon entering a new community, therefore, the first thing the Alliance does is form saving and credit groups.

Besides being an official space, ARCs give people a place to meet outside of the home to discuss personal and community problems with other people. They are neutral ground where records and savings can be stored, and are accessible 24 hours a day if emergency loans are needed.

Equally importantly, it builds trust and strengthens bonds within settlements.

They offer a starting point for negotiation within and between communities, and between communities and government. Finally, exhibitions are an opportunity to celebrate of the achievements of community organisations and movements.

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Exchanges

Dialogue and Partnership Building

Enumerations, mapping and surveys of slums are critical processes for community mobilisation. Through these information-gathering tools, communities assert knowledge about themselves and the conditions in which they live, and leverage this knowledge into tangible outcomes.

Community exchange programmes rest on a very simple concept: the poor learn best from the poor. Community exchanges, in contrast to development processes that rely on experts as “agents of change,” actively involve slum residents in transforming their own lives.

SPARC believes that negotiation, dialogue and relationship building at various levels is a crucial element of any process that seeks to include various parties and depends on the coordination, agreement and understanding of them all.

In exchanges, federation members and leaders visit each other’s settlements to learn about each other’s conditions, problems and shared experiences. Exchanges take place between poor communities in the same city, across cities and even across countries.

It is only through round-table discussions and long-term partnerships that several precedent setting projects have been possible, which in turn have laid the foundation of future policy making and development models.

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Why urban agriculture?

Village Many research papers speak of the importance of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. AgEcon search recently published a research report where it talks about the importance of managing the assets of poor communities. This is where SPARC is able to help - collecting and sharing the raw agricultural skills of migrant workers to improve their lives and the village environment itself. AgEcon states that activities which help secure and improve any number of the assets listed below should be promoted. The assets of the urban poor: Human Capital: Health status, which determines the poorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity for work, education and skills. Productive Assets: for poor urban households, housing and infrastructure are viewed as more important in this category. Household Relations: a mechanism for pooling income and sharing consumption. Social Capital: this refers to reciprocity within communities and households based on trust deriving from complex social ties, networks and associations. Labour: which is commonly recognised as the most important asset of the poor.

China Traditionally Chinese cities have been known to mix agricultural activities within the urban setting. Due to large and growing population in China, the government supports urban self-sufficiency in food production. Shenzhen serves as an example of how a traditional village structure with sustainable methods can be integrated with new agricultural advancements initiated by the government. The city farms are located about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from city centre in a two-tier system. The first tier approached from city centre produces perishable items. Located just outside these farms, hardier vegetables are grown such as potatoes, carrots, and onions. This system allows produce to be sold in city markets just a few short hours after picking. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The city plans to invest 8.82 billion yuan in 39 agricultural projects, including a safe agricultural base, an agricultural high-tech park, agricultural processing and distribution, forestry, agricultural tourism, which will form an urban agriculture with typical Shenzhen characteristics.â&#x20AC;? Where possible, some of this investment should be spent on developing a third tier of agricultural production - one that is based at community levels, where food produced directly enters local markets and households. There is a social dynamic to food production which must not go ignored and pushed to the outskirts of the city.

Global It is thought that 15 percent of all food consumed within urban areas worldwide is sourced from urban agriculture, and this is set to double over the next twenty years. The role of urban agriculture in the food supply of cities and towns, as a complement to rural agriculture, is becoming an important issue in a globalising world economy. It is estimated that 800 million people worldwide engage in urban agriculture. With there being more and more people to feed and less people seeing rural agriculture as a viable career - urban agriculture is a necessary development, required for the success and continued growth of our urban planet.


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Strengthening the Village Syndicate

Who is funding the Urban Agricultural Learning Centre?

SPARC

SPARC

SYNDICATE

SPARC

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

The university takes agricultural sciences as its priority and life sciences as its highlight, focusing on both research and teaching the University is a forerunner in multi- disciplinaryagriculture. The University is situated within 15 minutes walking distance of the Tianhe urban village.

Initial funding for the early stages of the project would come from the urban village syndicate. These are ex-migrant workers who originally founded the village and currently collect rent from migrant workers. The syndicate is responsible for managing the village at the moment. Once a savings fund has been established by SPARC, this could help pay for the continued running of the center.

Xi Linpingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s preference for long term investments over one time fame projects will mean that the Urban Agriculture Learning Centre is of great interest to his government. Having led the way in housing reform earlier in his career, the location of this proposal and its endeavours run in parallel to his earlier work- setting a precedent for the future of migrant integration and making waves for Hukou reform. Advances in urban agriculture will benefit his growing country and could help to mitigate the pollution of car centric China.

Tianhe Village Syndicate


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Why a learning center? Learning provides a social interface under which the various citizens in and around Tianhe village can come together. Knowledge is not solely disseminated from a source point such as a tutor, but is shared. Everyone involved plays an equal and active role in learning and is a reciprocal experience. Learning is therefore directed by the individual with education pieced together within formal and informal learning sessions, provided by the Urban Agriculture Learning Centre. Lev Vygotsky Soviet psychologist. Vygotsky is the founder of an original holistic theory of human cultural and biosocial development and a pioneer of social development theory, working in Russian at the time of the Russian revolution.

Major themes of social development theory: 1. Social Interaction Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. In contrast to Jean Piaget’s understanding of child development (in which development necessarily precedes learning), Vygotsky felt social learning precedes development. He states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Vygotsky, 1978). 2. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO). The MKO refers to anyone who has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process, or concept. The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers. 3. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZPD is the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently. According to Vygotsky, learning occurs within this zone. 72,/(772,/(7

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Programme Requirements and User Classification.

Intermediate Informal

Randomly Organised

Organised According to user

Formal

Redistributed Programme

Knowledge Library 23%

Knowledge Spine 23%

Multi-use Lecture Space 7% Market 7% S, M, L Unprogrammed Workspaces 2.5% Allotments 7% Eat 3% Urban Food Growing 7% Village Improvement Workshop 9% Gallery 3% Herbarium 2%

Consolidated Programme


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Requires Both Defined Space

Undefined Space

Requires Both Loud

Quiet

Requires Both Public

Private


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Urban Agriculture Learning Centre Areas per use, per user. 72,/(7

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Urban Food Growing: 450m² 3m² 78725

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Village Improvement Workshop: 350m² 2m² 78725 72,/(7

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A Day at The Tianhe Urban Agriculture Learning Centre: User Overlap. Typical Journey Through Building Throughout the day. City Citizen ‘proper’

Migrant Worker

SPARC Empoyee

Visitor

Migrant Worker

9am

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

10am

City Citizen ‘proper’

12am x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x 1pm

Visitor

2pm x

x

x

x

x

x 3pm

SPARC Empoyee

4pm

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

5pm

6pm Knowledge Library

Gallery

Herbarium

Lecture / Multi-use Space

Market

Unprogrammed Workspace

Food Preparation and Management

Eat

Allotments

Urban Food Cultivation

Village Improvement Workshop

Type of Space Required

Time of the Day.

Spaces Accessible to each User

11am


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Urban Agriculture Food Production Methods

There are four urban agriculture methods which are best suited to this proposal. 1.

Aquaponics

1. Fish Produce Waste

3. Plants filter water than returns to fish.

2. Microbes and worms convert fish waste into fertiliser (nitrate).

2.

Hydroponics

Plants grow in nitrate water. A nitrate pump and gravity ensure a constant supply.

3.

Allotments

FERTILISER/ COMPOST


4. Ad-Hoc. Growing anywhere possible. A close up aerial photo of the village reveals quite a lot of rooftop greenery- Tianhe urban village 2012.


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Model for Learning

Expert in growing in small spaces with high yield.

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Expert in technical growing systems and technology. Experience with working with soil and harvesting crops.

All users of the Learning Centre, but especially the agricultural tutors from the University of South China and the migrant workers have skills to offer each other. These skills will be best transferred between users of the building if the architecture provides a canvas which promotes and maintains open learning in line with social development theory and network learning.

An architecture to support agricultural development through proximal learning.

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Proximal Development.

Things I cannot do. Things I can do with guidance.

Things I can do.

Urban Agriculture Knowledge

Rural Agriculture Knowledge

Improved urban ad-hoc growing systems for the village and city with high product yields.

Qualitative Programme Diagram Some initial architectural techniques for proximal learning. 1. Clusters of Learning Clusters of learning will allow activities to spill out between focal points. 2. Accidental Participation Cross programming of activity areas through the use of tilting ground planes, a varying relationship with the ground and lines of sight will help to create the zone- â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;things I can do with guidance.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; 3. Opportunities for Affordance Areas of loose unprogrammed space will allow users to manipulate their surroundings on an ad hoc basis, dependent on the numbers of participants. The structure should promote ad hoc growing opportunities. 4. Playing with Views Views into, over, under and through spaces will lead people to question how they can enter the space they can see, pulling people into and through the building.


/ from programme to form


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From Programme Identification to area Representation and Experimentation.


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Knowledge Library 1000m²

Knowledge Spine 1000m²

Multi Use Lecture Space 300m² Market 300m² S M L Unprogrammed Workspaces 80m² Allotments 300m² Food Preparation and Eat 300m² Urban Food Growing 450m²

Village Improvement Workshop 350m² Gallery 150m² Herbarium 150m²

Undefined Space

Defined Space


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Topological Area Experimentation Manipulating Squared Areas in 2D Procedure.

Step 1. Align initial square area diagrams in the same order as programme bar.

Step 2. Divide area strip in two, through the middle.

Step 3. Double the height of one of the halves.

Step 4. Align the middle of the shorter half with the middle of the longer half.

Step 5. Part the longer programme to make space for the shorter programme.

Step 6. New unexpected relationships are indicated after topological alteration.


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Topological Area Experimentation Manipulating Squared Areas in Plan Result

Step 1.

Step 2.

Step 3.

Step 4.

Step 5.

Step 6.

Topologically altering the squared areas of the programme elements in this manner, leads to unforseen potential relationships between spaces by dividing the elements and placing them randomly within the strip.

Topological The study of geometric properties and spatial relations unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of figures.


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Topological Area Experiment 1. Manipulating Squared Areas in 3D. Procedure.

Raising and shrinking the surface area of each of the programmatic elements whist retaining their vertice connections starts to create differing relationships between spaces and their context These volumes could be further manipulated in many ways to further differentiate spaces.


/ from programme to form

Topological Area Experiment 2. Manipulating the Vertices of Squared Areas. Procedure.

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

1. Take just the outline of the squared programmatic elements.

X X

X

X

X

X

2. Clockwise, shrink each side plane from the corner not connected to another squared area.

X

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3. The resultant contorted planes provide two ground planes that interweave with one another. This is interesting in differentiating programme and creating interesting spaces.

Topologically altering the side faces of the volumes in a clockwise fashion causes the programmatic elements to contort and raise from the ground at points. Raising the programme above the ground plane helps to instate a civic feel to the proposal - the streetscape still belongs to the people.


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Topological Area Experimentation Manipulating the Vertices of Squared Areas. Resultant Contorted Surfaces.

This model shows the contorted programme elements from above in relation to their original shape - shown with the square outline in which it sits. The contorted planes create a potential landscape for the growth of urban agriculture, however once the squares have undergone the manipulation, there is little room for formal manipulation of the remaining surface. Perhaps this method of manipulation could be used later to form roofing or flooring elements.


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Topological Area Experimentation Manipulating the Vertices of Squared Areas. Underside of Resultant Contorted Surfaces.

This model just focuses on the underside plane created by the manipulation process. The raised planes have been cut from the ground plane and folded to create structural rigidity. Removal of the bounding boxes helps to show the raised sections in relation to one another - further expressing the potential of the two interweaving ground planes.


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Topological Area Experimentation Possible Vertice Manipulations. Stretching and Scaling.

The next few pages investigate some of the possibilities of topological manipulation. I have put a cube through a series of formal manipulations and documented the outcome as I more gradually increase the application of the rule.


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Topological Area Experimentation Possible Vertice Manipulations. Pulling on Tangents.

Pulling the cube by its vertices along an axis not only alters the shape of the cube, but also the relationship between the previous manipulated cube. The final manipulation shifts from cube to cantilevered structure to traversable landscape.


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Topological Area Experimentation Possible Vertice Manipulations. Rotation.


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Topological Area Experimentation Possible Vertice Manipulations. Rotation.

Rotating an increasing number of vertices creates a spine like string which can be crossed nearest the middle. Pockets of space are created which are most interesting when compared with bounding objects.


/ site analysis


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Tianhe District is one of the ten districts in Guangzhou. In Chinese, the name Tianhe means a river in the sky or simply “sky river”. It is bordered by Yuexiu District on the west, Baiyun District on the north and Huangpu District on the east. Haizhu District is on its south, though they are separated by the Zhujiang River.

Tianhe became a district in the 1980’s as the city expanded its size. Back then, it was east of another district called Dongshan (which was merged into Yuexiu in 2005) and it was more suburban like if not rural like. Even though a majority of colleges and universities in the city were located in the district, the rest of the district was mostly composed of rice fields.


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Guangzhou East Railway Station

Wushan

Tianhe Sports Centre

Linhexi

Gangding

South China Normal University

Shipaiqiao Tiyu Xilu

Jangji Dongshankou Martyrâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Park

Primary Road Network Bus Station 5 and 10 Minute Walking Distance Metro Station

Zhujiang New Town

Tianhe Urban Village is situated in the middle of an urban block, surrounded by major roads. The Tianhe Village block is part of a much larger patchwork network, divided by roundabouts. This urban layout leads to each block having its own identity and wealth, the surrounding blocks are home to the Tianhe Sports Centre and major shopping centres are a stones throw away.


Pedestrian entrance/exit points

Tiyu Xilo Metro station

Vehicular access

Bus Station 1:2500 @ A3


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Main arterial routes in and around the village.

Retail based shops

Fast food based shops

Service based shops


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South China Climate The Chinese climate differs greatly from the climate of the UK- the lowest annual temperature in China is similar to the maximum annual temperature in the UK. Rainfall is dramatically lower in China, creating a warm and dry/humid climate on average.

32.6 °C

17.5 mm

21.2 °C

59 mm

Summer

Summer

Summer

Summer

Guangzhou

London

Guangzhou

London

Winter

Winter

Winter

Winter

2 °C

-4 mm

18.3 °C

Temperature

Precipitation

Lighting and Ventilation in the Village Within the village, the narrow walkways heavily restrict the amount of light which can penetrate into the village. This means that electrical lighting is heavily depended upon and there are damp problems within the apartments.

2m

2m

2m

Open spaces within the village are very important, as they provide villagers with access to sunlight and ventilation. In addition, open spaces are key in the visible manifestation of community life. They are crucial civic components. Despite China’s high average temperature and sunlight exposure, Tianhe village provides a rare exceptional environment.

39 mm


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Building make-up Each of the residential buildings is comprised of a mix of retail, service or food based shops on the ground floor, with residential flats on the higher floors. The residential floors are split into the maximum number of flats to achieve high rental value and are not connected to surrounding buildings.

100sqm

90sqm

120sqm

90sqm

The space between There are three main types of space between the buildings, which repeat around the village in an organic, irregular fashion.

Linear Space

Linear space through the village promotes movement rather than static congregation. The main arterial routes in and around the site are of this form.

Pointlike Space

These spaces are surrounded by buildings, the larger spaces are connected by narrow alleyways. These spaces are rare and not used as well as they could be.

Planar Space

Large open space is the rarest type of space within the village - created with the destruction of existing buildings.


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Relevant Local and Wider Context

2.

3. 4.

1.

6.

1.

5.

2.

Tianhe Village

4.

3.

South China Agriculture University

6.

5.

Tianhe Canal Network

Grandbuy Shopping Complex and Victory Plaza - High end offices.

High Road Outside Village

Concrete Jungle Motorway Network


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North south section through the village and its immediate context. NTS.

Mainly residential towers ranging between 9 and 12 storeys.

Tianhe urban village buildings between 4 and 7 storeys.

High Street

Mainly residential towers ranging between 9 and 12 storeys. North south axonometric section through village and immediate context.


/ project evolution


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Overall Site Axonometric Facing north east.

Location of site to south west of village.

The site straddles the village boundary wall.

Removal of divisive boundary wall.

Site with total area of 4390m² is revealed.


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+

Site area with main axis determined by the continuation of the existing elevated market porch.

Reshuffled programme is laid on site along central axis defined by market porch.

Defined programme is randomised.

The resultant form is raised to provide a continuous plane from the market porch through the added programme.


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1.

2.

1:500 model 1.

Numerous sectional differences

A.

A.

B.

C.

C.

B.

A.

A. Primary ground plane B. Connecting plane C. Secondary ground plane

2.

A.

B.

C.

A.

The connecting plane can be used for programme which does not require a defined/specific area- perhaps for urban food growing or informal auditorium space. It also serves as a walkway between the primary and secondary ground plane.


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2.

1.

1.

C.

B. A.

2. C.

B.

A.

The rotation and manipulation of the square areas to line the boundary of the site causes certain surfaces to delaminate from one another, creating through routes and covered internal spaces. The connecting plane can be appropriated for programmatic or circulation uses.


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All programme is raised from the ground level to begin with to create a public starting point for the proposal. A porous ground plane is desirable, with and can be used to connect routes through the site.

Programme elements that require a direct connection with the public ground plane with no requirement for controlled occupancy are pulled down to the ground level. Spaces with a controlled occupancy are left elevated above the ground level.

7. 5.

6. 8.

4. 9. 2.

10.

3.

11.

1. 13.

12.

1. Knowledge Library 2. Multi-use lecture space 3. Market 4. Knowledge Library 5. Multi-use lecture space 6. Village improvement workshop 7. S M L Workspaces 8. Village Improvement Workshop 9. Gallery 10. Herbarium 11. Market 12. Workshop 13. Gallery


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The dotted arrows mark the main routes and potential connections which are surround the site. The green squares indicate existing and potential open spaces which may benefit the proposal.

Having wrapped the ‘defined space’ programme around the site, a card model was used to experiment with the proposals interface with the site. In addition, opportunities for the location of the ‘non defined space’ were noted. Specific programme requirements were also used to more accurately position and define spaces around the site.


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The inside of the proposal anchors each part of the building, as it is the only part that is connected to the ground. The outer side of the proposal is raised off the floor, creating an open civic environment which directly connects to the village.

Making this 1:200 card model enabled me to look more closely at the relationship between the inside ground plane, the connecting plane and the ground. The level of the connecting ground plane undulates through the site, crossing over, under and through programmatic elements. This route serves as circulation which enriches cross programming by increasing the intrigue of the users of the building as they are led past areas they can see into but cannot directly enter.


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The inside ground plane and the outside ground plane undulate alongside one another, crossing at specific points. The outer side of the proposal appears to float off the floor, enabling the ground floor to serve a civic, porous purpose. At these points, building users can cross from one path to the other with ease. When on one path, users will be visually connected to the other path as they circulate the building. At cross over points, different programmatic elements will become connected physically, creating interesting nodal spaces.


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Each of the building elements facing the village have flat facades, with the undulating connecting plane to the inside of the proposal. The flat facade relates to the vertical tower nature of the village, this then drops down further away from the village.


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The connecting plane crosses across the front of the library, whilst providing space for food preparation and eating. The connecting plane can house the undefined programmatic elements, which can also spread onto the ground level helping to blend sections of the proposal.

Where the undulating planes meet the ground, entrance into the building is gradual, users will slowly find themselves inside. As they traverse along a plane, they will rise or fall or cross through the proposal and as they do so their relationship with the other planes will begin.


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Defining the undefined space. Which vegetables will be grown at the Urban Agriculture Learning Centre and when?

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Baby Sweetcorn

Flat Leaved Garland Baby Carrots

Tat Soi (Spinach Mustard) Bitter Melon

Snow Peas

Bok Choy (Chinese Cabbage) Mustard Greens Kai Lan(Chinese Brocolli)

Red Mustard

Daikon (Chinese Radishes) Chinese Celery


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Winter

Tsoi Sim (Flowering Cabbage)

Guangzhou location on the globe:

Ong Choy (Chinese Spinach)

Latitude: 23°6’32”N Longitude: 113°15’53”E Similar rules of sunlight apply in China as in the UK, in as far as calculating the optimum angle for sunlight reception goes as it is also situated in the northern hemisphere.

Gua Lou (Chinese Cucumber) Mitsuba Parsley

Using rules derived to calculate the optimum angle for solar panel light absorption, I have worked out the best angles for vegetable growth during each season. These angles will help to further define the angular planes of my proposal. Optimum tilt calculations

Chinese Eggplant

Mint Parsley (is that hardy?) Sage Rosemary Thyme Oregano Chives Lavender

In order to work out the appropriate angle for each season, the following equations must be used: Spring and Autumn: Latitude(23) x 0.98 - 2.3° = 20.2° Summer: Latitude(23) x 0.92 - 24.3° = -3.1° Winter: Latitude(23) x 0.89 + 24° = 44.4° The lower the sun, the higher the required angle. In the summer, it is better that growing vegetables are slightly turned away from the direct sunlight.

Yard Long Beans

5 relevant angles 90°

44.4° Winter

20.2° Spring and Autumn Sweet Melon

5° or 1:12 Pedestrian ramp -3.1° Summer


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Chinese Winter Solstice - Dongzhi Festival December 21 2012 In China, Dongzhi Festival marks the day in the year when sunshine is weakest and daylight is weakest. Studying the path of the sunshine and the resultant shadowing on the site on this day will highlight the worst lighting conditions on the site. If these can be designed around, no other day should be a problem during the rest of the year.

7am

6pm


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1.

2. 20m 23m 3.

26m 27m

1. Even on the darkest day of the year, the rooftops of the buildings in Tianhe Village are still receiving sunlight. The smallest of these buildings is 12 metres tall - this sets the minimum height to receive sunlight all year round at 12 metres. 2. The top/middle of the site receives the most sunlight all year round. This area is an open area in my current proposal and would provide useful and important community space for the village at this time of year. Dongzhi Festival celebrates the reunion of families and communities on the darkest day of the year. On this day, people come together to make tangyuan - balls of glutinous rice to symbolise union. 3. This strip of the site will receive the most problems with overshadowing owing to itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s close proximity to the 27 metre adjacent residential block to the south of the site. In order to receive the most sunlight throughout the year, buildings would have to be taller the closer they were positioned to the residential block as indicated to the right of the image above.


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/project evolution

Mediating the boundary between the Urban Village and the City â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;properâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

1.

1.

2.

2.

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1.Concentrated, restricted light.

1.Diffused, unrestricted light.

2.Informal organisation.

2.Formal organisation.

3.Sporadically busy.

3.Regularly busy.

4.Lower in height.

4.Taller in height.

5.Rare open space.

5.Rare narrow space.

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Taller in height

Informal organisation

Lower in height

People approaching from less busy, closed surroundings.

Concentrated light

Diffused light

Formal organisation

People approaching from busy, open surroundings.

A 1:500 model explores the undulating ground floor plane and looks at the need for a gradual height change across the site and the proposal.

Raising the proposal on the eastern and southern sides of the site and lowering it to the north and west responds to the differing conditions on approach to the site.


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The transition between informal and formal organisation.

Using the rectangle footprint of the adjacent village buildings as a starting form, it can be used to break up and informalise the form of the proposal across the site through tessellation.


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The transition between informal and formal organisation.

If the village footprint were to continue along its existing trajectories it could serve as a method of dissecting the site and further contextualising the proposal. The middle of the site appears to lend itself to more of an open form, with more dense clusters to the north and south west.


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1 Connecting walkway bridge from existing market forecourt. 2 Vertical surfaces are used to heighten the users sense of location and amplify the sense of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;journeyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; through the learning centre. 3 Controlled occupancy spaces are raised from ground level to restrict public use, these rooms are for private booking, and are to be used for education purposes and testing small growing techniques and processes. 4 The relationship between the inside and outside circulation is intended to cause suspense when coupled with intriguing views into and out of spaces. A gentle slope on all circulatory surfaces is one technique employed to subtly cross programme areas. 5 Growing surfaces are angled at either 44.4, 20 or -3 degrees according to the seasonal crop intended for growth. 6 Inside the ground appears to slope upwards, acting as an informal library/ gathering space. This blends at the top with a circulation ramp and is adjacent to the lecture spaces. 7 Circulation ramp wraps around and divides the informal library and the more formal lecture space. 8 Formal and informal lecture spaces. These can be appropriated as needed, however the lower level lecture space is in open air and in the public realm and therefore lends itself more to informal learning and gathering.


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The use of towers to informalise the proposal across the site have been appropriated to suit different programmatic needs. Their relationship to the ground, and the floor plates above determine the lighting and access conditions. Towers that are suspended between floor plates help to cross programme areas and will enable intriguing views through and across the proposal.


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An adaptable ring of structure is proposed in line with the void space created by the tall residential tower to the east of the site. The structural system will accommodate division panels which the users of the building can deploy as needed. Additional enclosed space is provided either side of the workshop space - this will limit noise to adjacent buildings when required and close off the learning centre for safety reasons if deemed necessary. This system also permits an organic element of the proposal to flourish over time and can be used to accommodate whatever the users require such as food preparation and eating, classrooms, market stalls or as mentioned above additional workshop or growing areas.


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The proposal steps up and down in sections, the tallest part being toward the south-eastern entrance to the site. Here, a tower stands alone, its height and use of space more similar to its surrounding â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;properâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; city buildings that of the village buildings.


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Tower concept is worth progressing Height difference across the site makes sense Organic element helps to blend the proposal between the city ‘proper’ and the urban village. Creation of new public squares helps the civic feel of the proposal creating informal gathering spaces which link with the porous ground floor of the proposal. Flat facade to the west and north west works well with more staggered inside of the proposal. Tower concept is shrouded by growing landscape Where parts of the proposal only serve to be a surface, they are weak moments. Ingredients seem to be there, but not being pulled together right just yet. Surfaces shouldn’t be used to grow vegetables, but instead a more mechanical approach should be considered.


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Moving the eastern side of the proposal further into the site, aligns one of the main towers with the entrance from the high streey - presenting a framed view of a growing wall with views straight through the middle open ground into one of the village courtyards.


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1 6. Water flows through the external ETFE panels. These are punctured on the underside, allowing water to drip through and water the plants. Having dripped through the soil, the water flows into a tray and down into the next ETFE panel, watering the next row of plants.

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1. Growing tower. 2. Concrete panel outer wall. 3. Steel I-beam frame. 4. Steel square section frame floor panels with steel mesh walkways allowing light to penetrate through the tower. 5. Steel modular staircase. 6. Growing facade, accessed internally. 1. Steel structure on which each row is hung. 2. Brushed aluminium water tray. 3. ETFE sandwich panel with internal gullies and punctured underside. 4. Plants sit in circular section extruded acrylic piping, filled with water and punctured at the lower end. 5. Aluminium box housing and drip tray. Connected to next row with (1) brushed aluminium water tray.

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Towers are used to house programme and deliver light into the darker areas of the proposal. On sides nearest the village, they overhang the slab delivering a narrow slice of light to the ground level, mimicking the village lighting conditions. Differentiation between programmatic elements whilst ensuring effective cross programming is achieved with the minimal use of walls internally and a continuous tilting slab. Gentle sloping of the floor will aide in the accidental delivery of users of the building to additional learning spaces. Alteration of tower/floor/slab relationship aides in accidental delivery but also helps to mitigate the transition between informal and formal conditions.


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1:50 Section through the north east corner of proposal. A steel truss system supports a learning node- steps which can be afforded into an informal lecture theatre or a casual seating area, whilst covering the internal section of the village improvement workshop and circulation corridors with select views to overlook areas of potential learning interest. The workshop space allows the manipulation of its secondary structure so users of the centre can appropriate space as and when it is required.


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Some moments around the learning loop corridor.


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Steel hollow section beams form the starting structure for expansion. Materials used around the village will most probably also be used in the expansion and stitching of the learning centre between the city and the village. Carefully positioned walkways and access points allow these spaces to be discovered by users of the building, exploration and repeat visits will be promoted as the learning centre will change and evolve over time.


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5. 1. Steel reinforced concrete slab 2. Extended re-bars form hanging structure for hollow bricks. The screen is tied back to the concrete structure at points in line with floor levels. 3. Water pipe work will also fall down alongside the curtain wall. 4. Hollow bricks allow ventilation and a structure which can be adapted by the users of the building - maybe to hand clothes out to dry. Rotating the hollow bricks allows for a screen which controls view corridors and provides a shady corridor as an escape from the sun. 5. Steel re-bars protrude through the bottom of the screen to form seating at lower points.


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Moving in the right direction. Proposal fits much better in the site. Tower concept is clearer. Proposal has become a bit too generic Towers are good, growing is good, not quite brought together correctly yet. Angling the towers for growing is a weak move. Design a mechanical method of approaching food growing. Proposal is not convincing with regards to whether it can produce food on a large scale. Try to refocus on proximal learning, create clusters of learning. Structure is not strong enough to support water. Be more creative with the use of water around the proposal.


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Proximal Agritecture Progress Book  

Year two postgraduate progress book

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