TÀI LIỆU TỔNG ÔN TẬP THI THPT QUỐC GIA NĂM 2020 MÔN TIẾNG ANH DÀNH CHO GIÁO VIÊN DÙNG LÀM GIÁO ÁN

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TÀI LIỆU ÔN TẬP THI THPT QUỐC GIA

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TÀI LIỆU TỔNG ÔN TẬP THI THPT QUỐC GIA NĂM 2020 MÔN TIẾNG ANH DÀNH CHO GIÁO VIÊN DÙNG LÀM GIÁO ÁN GIẢNG DẠY ÔN THI HOẶC DÙNG CHO HỌC SINH ÔN TẬP THI THPT QG WORD VERSION | 2020 EDITION ORDER NOW / CHUYỂN GIAO QUA EMAIL TAILIEUCHUANTHAMKHAO@GMAIL.COM Tài liệu chuẩn tham khảo Phát triển kênh bởi Ths Nguyễn Thanh Tú Đơn vị tài trợ / phát hành / chia sẻ học thuật : Nguyen Thanh Tu Group Hỗ trợ trực tuyến Fb www.facebook.com/DayKemQuyNhon Mobi/Zalo 0905779594


TÀI LIỆU TỔNG ÔN TẬP THI THPT QUỐC GIA NĂM 2020 MÔN TIẾNG ANH DÀNH CHO GIÁO VIÊN DÙNG LÀM GIÁO ÁN GIẢNG DẠY ÔN THI HOẶC DÙNG CHO HỌC SINH ÔN TẬP THI THPT QG (LƯU HÀNH NỘI BỘ)

KHUNG PHÂN PHỐI CHƯƠNG TRÌNH ÔN TẬP MÔN TIẾNG ANH – LỚP 12 Nội dung

TT

Số tiết

Trang

1

Tenses

6

4

2

Subject-verb agreement

3

20

3

Comparison

3

36

4

Passive voice

3

47

5

Cleft sentences

2

58

6

Modal verbs

2

68

7

Infinitives and gerunds

3

77

8

Conjunctions

3

87

9

Transitives and Intransitives

1

93

10

Conditional sentences

3

96

11

Relative clauses

3

104

12

Inversion

2

126

13

Adverbial clauses

3

137

14

Reported speech

3

147

15

Prepositions and articles

3

155

16

Collocations

3

179

17

Tag questions

1

183

18

Phrasal verbs

3

188

19

Pronunciation: Vowels, consnants and stress

6

195

20

Synonyms and Antonyms

3

207

21

Vocabulary and structures related to Education

2

212

22

Vocabulary and structures related to Environment

2

216

23

Vocabulary and structures related to Jobs, hobbies

2

221

24

Vocabulary and structures related to You and me

2

226

25

Vocabulary and structures related to Sports

2

231

26

Vocabulary and structures related to Recreation

2

236

27

Vocabulary and structures related to the topic Community

2

247

28

Vocabulary and structures related to People and Places

2

254

29

Cloze tests

8

261

30

Reading comprehension

20

278

31

Practice tests

2


Tổng

105


1. TENSES Period 1: The Present Simple Tense & The Present Continuous Tense A. PRESENTATION The Present Simple Tense. + “TO BE” * Formation Eg. I am a student. She isn’t a teacher. Are they workers? – Yes, they are. Where is Lan? – She is in the kitchen. (+) S + am/is/are ............. (-) S + am/is/are + not ............. – Yes/No question: Am/Is/Are+ S ..................? Wh- question: Wh- + am/is/are + S? ORDINARY VERBS Eg. (+) They live in Tuyen Quang. (-) They don’t live in Ha Giang. Do they live in Tuyen Quang? – Yes, they do. (+) He works in Hanoi. (-) He doesn’t work in Tuyen Quang. Does he work in Hanoi? – Yes, he does. * Wh-questions: Where do they live? – They live in Tuyen Quang. S (I, We, You, They) + V (infinitive without “to”) S (He, She, It) + V (s/es) (-) S (I, We, You, They) + do not (don’t ) + V(infinitive without “to”) S (He, She, It) + does not (doesn’t) + V(infinitive without “to”) Do + I/we/you/they + V(infinitive without “to”) ? Does + he/she/it + V(infinitive without “to”) ? Wh- + do/does + S + V(infinitive without “to”) ? (Chú ý: Khi từ để hỏi là chủ ngữ thì không áp dụng cấu trúc này mà trật tự từ trong câu ở dạng khẳng định) Eg. Who does it? What makes you sad? Đối với các chủ ngữ là các đại từ nhân xưng I, We, You, They và các danh từ số nhiều thì động từ chia ở dạng nguyên thể không “to”: Eg. They often play volleyball in the afternoon. * Nếu chủ ngữ ở dạng số ít (He, she, it) thì thêm “s” hoặc “es” vào sau động từ: - Cách thêm ‘s, es’ : Thông thường ta thêm "s" vào sau động từ: works, likes, loves, wants, ... Thêm “es” vào sau động từ tận cùng là "ss, x, z, ch, sh, o": misses, kisses, passes, relaxes, boxes, buzzes, teaches, approaches, finishes, washes, goes, does ... Động từ tận cùng là phụ âm + "y", chuyển thành ‘i+es’: cry cries, fly flies, study studies, ...

4


Động từ tận cùng là nguyên âm + "y" thì vẫn tuân theo quy tắc thêm “s” thông thường: play plays, say says, pray prays ... Số ít của “have” là “has”. * Use: Diễn tả một chân lí, một sự kiện khoa học hay một hiện tượng tự o nhiên. Ex : Water boils at 100 C. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. Diễn tả một phong tục, thói quen ở hiện tại, thường có các trạng từ: always, often, usually, sometimes, occasionally, never, generally, forever, rarely, every day/ year/ once/ three times a week/a month, . .. Ex: We always go to school at 6 a.m. He often gets up at 5.30. Một tình huống, công việc lâu dài, hoặc một chương trình, thời khóa biểu, lịch tàu xe... Ex: I’m a teacher. He works in a bank. The train to Ho Chi Minh City leaves at 5.30 am. There is a football match at 9 p.m on TV tonight. More examples: + She usually(go)...............to school by bus John and Ann always(watch)...................TV after dinner The Present Continuous Tense * FORM Eg. (+) I am reading an English book. (-) She is not cooking in the kitchen at the moment. Are they playing handball with their friends now? * Wh-questions: Why is she crying? S + am/is/are + V-ing. (-) S + am/is/are + not + V-ing (?) Am/Is/Are+ S + V-ing? Wh-questions: Wh- + am/is/are + S + V-ing? (Chú ý: Khi từ để hỏi là chủ ngữ thì không áp dụng cấu trúc này mà trật tự từ trong câu ở dạng khẳng định. Eg. Who is talking in the room?) Cách thêm đuôi "-ing": Thông thường, ta thêm "-ing" vào sau động từ, tuy nhiên : + Động từ tận cùng là "e", bỏ ‘‘e’’ rồi thêm ‘‘-ing’’: live living, drive driving, ... + Động từ tận cùng là "ie", chuyển thành ‘‘y + ing’’: die dying, lie lying, ... Động từ 1 âm tiết hoặc 2 âm tiết mà trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 kết thúc bằng MỘT nguyên âm và MỘT phụ âm thì nhân đôi phụ âm cuối trước khi thêm "-ing" (ngoại trừ động từ kết thúc bằng "w", "x") Stop stopping, cut cutting, sit sitting, swim swimming, ... Begin beginning, ... But cook cooking, teach teaching, grow growing, fix fixing ... * USE Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra tại thời điểm nói hoặc xung quanh thời điểm nói, thường dùng với : now, right now, at the moment, at present, ... E.g: Tom is having dinner at the moment. What are you doing now? Be quiet! The baby is sleeping. 5


Listen! Someone is crying somewhere. - Diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai có kế hoạch trước: E.g: George is leaving for New York tomorrow. What are you doing tonight? Diễn tả hành động thường xuyên lặp đi lặp lại gây sự bực mình hay khó chịu cho người nói. Cách dùng này được dùng với trạng từ “always, continually” E.g. He is always losing his keys (Anh ấy cứ hay đánh mất chìa khóa) Notes: Không sử dụng dạng tiếp diễn (V_ing) với các động từ chỉ nhận thức, tri giác hoặc sự sở hữu như: to be, see, hear, understand, know, like, want, feel, smell, remember, forget, …. Với các động từ này, ta dùng thì hiện tại đơn giản. E.g: I’m tired . (Tôi đang mệt) B. PRACTICE. Exercise 1: Choose the best answers 1. He often ______ up late. A. get up B. gets up C. got up D. getting up 2. ______ you often ______ TV? A. Do/watch B. Do/watches C. Have/watch D. Does/watches 3. Mr. Brown ______English. A. speak B. speaks C. does speak D. spoke 4. I usually ______ shopping on weekend. A. goes B. does go C. go D. went 5. Hai often ______ his face at 6.15. A. washes B. washing C. does wash D. Wash 6. Thanh and Mai always ______ a movie on Saturdays. A. see B. sees C. do see D. does 7. ______he often ______ a bus to school? A. Do/take B. Is/take C. Does/takes D. Does/take 8. We ______ students in class 8A. A. are B. is C. do D. eat 9. She ______ homework in the evenings. A. do not B. does not do C. doing D. do 10. He usually ______ a taxi to the railway station A. takes B. take C. taking D. does take 11. Look! A man ______you. A. calls B. call C. is calling D. are calling 12. Keep silent! I ______to the radio. A. am listening B. listen C. is listening D. listens 13. At the moment, I ______a book and my brother ______ TV. A. read/watch B. am reading/is watching C. reading/watching D. is reading/are watching 14. At the moment, Nam and his friends ______shopping at the mall. A. is going B. goes C. are going D. go 15. Oh no! Look! It ______ again. It always ______ in this country. A. snow/snow B. snows/snows C. snowing/snowing D. is snowing/snows C. HOMEWORK 6


* Choose the best answers 1. My and I always ______ to the countryside by bus. A. went B. goes C. do go D. go 2. Our teacher usually ______ us many exercises. A. give B. giving C. gives D. does give 3. He often ______ a train to work. A. catches B. catch C. don’t catch D. catching 4. The sun ______in the East. A. rise B. rises C. raise D. does rise 5. My old friend, Manh …………………… to me twice a month. A. phone B. phones C. phoned D. do phone 6. What she says …………………… true. A. is B. are C. do D. does 7. The weather generally ……………. quite hot in July and August. A. get B. gets C. got D. getting 8. Michael………….. thirsty eight hours a week. A. worked B. work C. works D. working 9. Peter usually ………lunch at school. A. have B. has C. had D. having 10. They often ……………………their parents on every Saturday. A. visit B. visits C. does not visit D. visiting 11. I …….. with my parents but right now I ………. with some friends for a few days. A. live/stay B. living/staying C. am living/stay D. live/am staying 12. Look! That boy ……….. after the bus. He …………. to catch it. A. is running/wants B. run/want C. running/wanting D. runs/wants 13. What are you doing next Saturday? Nothing special. I ………… at home. A. staying B. am staying C. stay D. stayed 14. Where's John? He …………….. to a new CD in his room. A. listens B. listen C. listening D. is listening 15. Jean has been working hard all day but she ………… at the moment. A. isn’t working B. not working C. doesn’t work D. aren’t working The Present perfect Tense & The Present Perfect Continuous Tense. A. PRESENTATION The Present perfect Tense. * Form: Examples: (+) Nam has lived in Hanoi for 10 years. (-) I have not found my door keys yet. (?) Have you ever met him before? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. (?) What have you just done? (+) S + have/has + V(past participle) (-) S + have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t)+ V(past participle). Have/Has + S + V(past participle)? * Wh- + have/has + S + V(past participle)? 7


(I/We/You/They + have … ; He/She/It + has …) * USE: The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening in the past and still continuing at the present time (often used with since and for). Eg: We have lived in this city for 10 years. She has worked in that company since 2000. The Present Perfect Tense is used to express past actions whose time is not definite. Eg: I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them. He has gone away. The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action happening in an incomplete period. Eg: It has been cold this winter. Have you seen him today? The Present Perfect Tense is used to express a past experience. Eg: I have been to Ho Chi Minh City several times. He has done this job before. The Present Perfect Tense is used to express an action which will be completed in the future. Eg: I will go when I have finished my homework. He will phone you as soon as he has finished his work. The Present Perfect Tense is used with just for a recently completed action. Eg: I have just bought a dictionary. The Present Perfect Tense is used with “not ……. yet” Eg: I have not written to him yet The Present Perfect Tense is used with “It is the first time/the second time….” Eg: It is the first time that he has been to Tuyen Quang. The Present Perfect Tense is used with the following adverbs: never, ever, recently, lately, already, up to now, so far, for a long time, for ages, for the past few months/years… 2. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense. * Form: Examples: (+) Nam has been living in Hanoi for 10 years. (-) I have not been finding my door keys yet. Have you been cooking? Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. What have you been doing ? S + have/has + been + V-ing... (-) S + have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t)+ been + V-ing. (?) Have/Has + S + been + V-ing? Wh- + have/has + S + been+ V-ing? (I/We/You/They + have … ; He/She/It + has …) * USE: Thì này diễn tả một hành động bắt đầu trong quá khứ và kéo dài liên tục đến hiện tại. Notes: Không dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn để nói những tình huống tồn tại 1 thời gian dài nhất là khi có always. Eg: Alice has always worked hard. (Không dùng has always been working hard) 8


Không dùng thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn với các động từ được liệt kê ở thì hiện tại tiếp diễn(các động từ chỉ nhận thức, tri giác). Eg: How long have Bob and Alice been married? (Không dùng have Bob and Alice been being married) Các từ hay đi kèm là: Since: + Mốc thời gian For: + khoảng thời gian Eg: I have been studying French for five years. B. PRACTICE Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. My mother _______ (teach) at Tan Trao High School since 1990. He already _______ (be) in Ho Chi Minh City twice. All the students in our class ________ (study) harder recently. It is the second time we ________ (visit) Ho Chi Minh’s Mausoleum. ________ you _________ (feed) the cat yet? No, I _________ (not do) it. English _________ (be) popular all over the world for a very long time. She ________ (earn) her living since she graduated from university. What they just ___________ (do)? We ________ (not finish) our homework yet. It _________ (rain) a lot this summer. C. HOMEWORK Exercise : Hoàn thành các đoạn hội thoại sau bằng cách chia các động từ. Tom: Hi Ana. I (try) ___1___ to ring you several times today. Where (you / be) _____2______? Ana: I (be) ___3_____ at home all the time. But I (clean) ______4_____ the house all day, so maybe I didn't hear the phone ring. Tom: (you/ clean) ____5________ everything now? Ana: No, not yet. I (tidy/ not) _____6_____ up the kitchen yet. But why are you here? Tom: Don't you remember? Jane (invited) ____7______ us to her birthday party and we (buy/ not) _____8_____ a present for her yet. Ana: Oh, that's right. (you/ find out/ already)___9___ what she wants? Tom: Well, she (learn) _____10______ Spanish for a year and wants to spend her next holiday in Mexico. Maybe we could get her a guide book. Ana: That's a good idea. There is a good bookshop in the big shopping centre. I (see) ____11____ some nice books about Mexico there recently. THE SIMPLE PAST AND PAST CONTINUOUS TENSES A. PRESENTATION. The Simple Past Tense * Form. +TOBE S + was/ were (not) + …. Was/Were + S + .............? Wh- + was/were + S + ......... ? (I, he, she, it + was; you, we, they + were) ORDINARY VERBS S + Ved 9


S + did not (didn’t)+ V(infinitive) Did + S + V(infinitive”)? * USE: Diễn tả một hành động xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ với thời gian xác định Eg: She went shopping with me yesterday afternoon. Lan wrote a long letter to her sister last night. Diễn tả một thói quen hay một công việc lâu dài trong quá khứ: used to + Vinfinitive Eg: They used to play on the swings when they were children. When I was a student, I always went to the library to borrow books. Các trạng từ thường dùng: ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week/month/year/Christmas, in 1995, ... 2. The Past Continuous Tense * Form: S + was/were + V- ing S+ was/ were + not + V-ing Was/Were + S + V-ing? * USE. Diễn tả một hành động đang xảy ra ở một thời điểm hay cả một khoảng thời gian trong quá khứ, thường dùng với at 7.00 pm yesterday, at this time last night, ... Eg: I was watching a football match on T.V at 8 o'clock last night. Diễn tả một hành động đang tiếp diễn trong quá khứ (QKTD) thì một hành động khác xen vào/cắt ngang (quá khứ đơn) Eg: I was having dinner when he came. Diễn tả hai hoặc nhiều hành động xảy ra đồng thời tại cùng một thời điểm xác định trong quá khứ. Eg: At 8p.m yesterday, Mary was watching TV while Tom was reading a newspaper. B. PRACTICE. Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D. 1. I ______ my old school teacher last week. A. visited B. visit C. am visiting D. have visited 2. A burglar _________ into the house while we __________ television. A. broke/ were watching B. broke/ watched C. had broken/ watched D. broke/ had watched 3. I ______ all of my homework last night. A. finish B. will finish C. have finished D. finished 4. In the 19th century, it _______ two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. A. took B. had taken C. had taken D. was taking 5. When Carol _______ last night, I ______ my favorite show on television. A. was calling / watched C. called / have watched B. called / was watching D. had called / watched When I _______ home last night, I _______ that Jane _______ a beautiful candlelight dinner. had arrived / discovered / prepared was arriving / had discovered / was preparing have arrived / was discovering / had prepared arrived / discovered / was preparing 10


7. Sam _______ to change a light bulb when he _______ and _______. A. was trying / slipped / fell C. tried / was slipping / falling B. had been trying / slipped D / was falling d. has tried / slips / falls 8. I _______ you last night after dinner, but you _______ there. Where _______ you? A. was calling / are not / are C. called / were not / were B. had called / had not been / were D. called / have not been / are 9. The Titanic _______ the Atlantic when it _______ an iceberg. A. was crossing / struck C. had crossed / was striking B. crossed / had struck D. is crossing / strikes 10. The number of the participants in the survey _______ 250 students for Oxford University. A. are B. was C. were D. have been 11. I _______ a terrible accident while I _______ on the beach. A. see / am walking C. saw / was walking B. was seeing / walked D. have seen / were walking 12. What _______ when the fire alarm _______ off? A. are you doing / will go C. have you done / would go B. were you doing / went D. will you do / are going 13. They ______ enthusiastically when their teacher ______ in. A. discuss / comes C. will have discussed / comes B. will discuss / will come D. were discussing / came I have not met her for three years. A. The last time I met her was three years ago. B. It is three years when I will meet her. C. I did not meet her three years ago. D. During three years, I met her once. 15. He last visited London three years ago. A. He has been in London for three years. B. He hasn't visited London for three years. C. He didn't visit London three years ago. D. He was in London for three years. C. HOMEWORK. Choose the best option by circling the letter A, B, C or D I have not seen Tom for ages. B. Tom and I do not look the same age. A. It has been a long time since I last saw Tom. C. Tom and I are friends for a long time. D. I often met Tom ages ago. I haven't met my grandparents for five years. A. I have met my grandparents for five years. B. I often met my grandparents five years ago. C. I didn't meet my grandparents five years ago. D. I last met my grandparents five years ago. 3. It is three years since I ______ her in Bangkok in 2013. A. last saw B. saw last C. had seen D. have seen 4. Lan ______ learning English a few years ago. A. starts B. will start C. started D. is starting 5. _______ Tom Cruise's last movie? Yes, I _______ it three days ago A. Have you ever seen / saw C. Did you ever see / have seen B. Had you ever seen / would see D. Will you ever see / saw 6. In the past, people _______ to the beach more often. A. have gone B. used to go C. were going D. had gone 7. Last week, we ______ an interesting film about the animal world.

A. see

B. saw

C. are seeing

D. will see 11


8. He__________his job last month and then he___________out of work. A. lost / was B. was lost / had been C. has lost / was D. lost / have been The plane from Dallas ________ two hours late, so I missed my connecting flight from Frankfurt to London. A. takes off B. has taken off C. will take off D. took off 10. When we came, they _________ a meeting in the hall. A. are having B. were having C. have been having D. have had THE PAST PERFECT AND PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES A. PRESENTATION. The Past Perfect Tense * FORMATION S + had + V(past participle) (-) S + had not (hadn’t)+ V(past participle). Had + S + V(past participle)? Examples: (+) By the end of 1999, Tom had lived in Hanoi for 5 years. (-) We had not done anything about it before the problem was solved. Had you finished all the work before you left the office? * USE Thì QKHT diễn tả một hành động xảy ra và kết thúc trước một thời điểm hoặc một hành động khác trong quá khứ. E.g. He had worked in that company for 5 years before 1995. She had known the news before I told her about it. Thì QKHT được sử dụng trong câu điều kiện loại 3 trong mệnh đề ĐK. E.g. If I had known that she was in hospital, I would have come to visit her. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense * FORMATION: (+) S+ had + been + V_ing …. (-) S+ hadn’t+ been+ V-ing ….. (?) Had+S+been+V-ing …..? * USE Thì quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn nhấn mạnh khoảng thời gian của 1 hành động đã xảy ra và kết thúc trước 1 thời điểm hoặc một hành động khác trong quá khứ. E.g. They had been waiting 2 hours before they gave up. B. PRACTICE. Exercise 1. Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D. 1. They _______ for 3 hours when the storm suddenly broke. A had been running C. have been running B. are running D. will be running 2. He was sorry that he _________ his identity. A. revealed B. had revealed C. has revealed D. reveals 3. Mary’s house …….before the firemen came. A. was burnt B. had been burnt C. have been burnt D. burnt 4. Yesterday, I _______ for work late because I _______ to set my alarm. 12


A. had left / forgot C. was leaving / was forgetting B. left / had forgot D. had been leaving / would forget 5. By the time we _______ to the train station, Susan _______ for us for more than two hours. A. will get / has been waiting C. got / was waiting B. got / had been waiting D. get / will wait _______ in Rome than he _______. No sooner he had arrived / was being kidnapped No sooner had he arrived / was kidnapped Had he no sooner arrived / kidnapped No sooner was he arriving / had been kidnapped He ______ email before, so I ______ him how to use it. A. did not use / had shown C. had not used / showed B. has not used / showed D. was not using / will show Doctor Pike ______ the hospital after he ______ an uneventful evening on duty. He ______ of his day of rest. A. was leaving / has had / thought C. left / had had / was thinking B. will leave / had / will think D. is leaving / will have / thinks Exercise 2. Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect or past perfect continuous) They were very tired in the evening because they (help) ________________ on the farm all day. We were very hungry because we (not eat) __________________anything. We (look for) ____________________ her ring for two hours and then we found it in the bathroom. They (wait) ______________________ at the station for 90 minutes when the train finally arrived.

I (not / see) _______________ Jacob for several years, but I recognised him immediately. C. HOMEWORK. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (past simple, past continuous, past perfect or past perfect continuous) We (go) ______________to the cinema last week. A bird pooed on the window that I (clean) __________________ only some minutes before. Yesterday at nine he (sit) __________________ in front of his computer. When their mum got home, the boys (watch) ______________________ TV for two hours. He (want) ____________ to repair our washing machine that (break) ______________ a few days before. THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE, BE GOING TO AND BE V.ING A. PRESENTATION. The Simple Future Tense * FORMATION: S + will + V(infinitive) (-) S + will not (won’t) + V(infinitive) (?) Will + S + will + V(infinitive) ? (I và We có thể dùng với “shall”; will not = won’t, shall not = shan’t) USE: refer to the information about the future. 13


express a request. express a future action decided at the time of speaking. make predictions about future events Notes: “Will” is usually used with the following adverbs: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/......, soon, sooner or later,.. .and often used with: think, believe, expect, hope, be sure, be certain, possibly, probably, perhaps…… E.g: He will be 20 next week. I won’t go there tomorrow. Will you open the door? Nam is in hospital. Really? I will visit him. Tomorrow will be warm, with some cloud in the afternoon. 2. Be going to * FORMATION: (+) S + is/am/are + going to + V(infinitive) (-) S + is/am/are + not + going to + V(infinitive) (?) Is/Am/Are + S + going to + V(infinitive)? * USE: Elicit the use of “be going to” from Ss. “Be going to” is used to express: an action happening in the near future with present signs. an intended action in the future: E.g: Look at the black clouds in the sky. It's going to rain. I am going to sell my house next week. Be V-ing (The present continuous) * FORMATION: S + am/is/are + V-ing. (-) S + am/is/are + not + V-ing Am/Is/Are+ S + V-ing? * USE: - “Be + Ving” is used to refer to a planned action in the future. Eg. My parents have bought some air tickets. They are taking us to Ho Chi Minh city. B. PRACTICE. Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D. 1. - There is someone knocking at the door. - …… A. I'll answer it B. let me open it C. I'm opening it D. I’m answering it 2. Why have you bought so much food? - I ………… for ten people. A. will cook B.am going to cook C. cooked D. have cooked 3. Look out! That tree………………………… A. is going to fall B. will fall C. falls D. will be falling 4. Why are you so sad? I think …………. the exam next week. A. I would fail B. I will fail C. I failed D. I fail 5. Let me know as soon as Mary …. here. 14


A. will get B.is going to get C. gets D.is getting 6. John ……….back until ten o’clock. Can I take the message? A. is going to be B. will be C.is D. won’t be. 7. Great news! Jean and Chris …………… to stay with us. A. will come B. are coming C. would come D. were coming 8. Don’t worry. I’m sure your son … the exam. A. will pass B. won’t pass C.is passing D. passed 9. The doctor says I …. a baby. A. will have B. would have C.am going to have D. will be having 10…….. successful in The Beauty Contest. A. I don’t think she is B. I think she is not going to be C. I don't think she will be D. I don’t think she won’t be C. HOMEWORK. Exercise 1: Find the mistake in the following sentences We are probably going to go to Scotland this summer. A B C D Do you think Mary is going to get the job? A B C D What do we do tomorrow morning, Lan? - I haven’t decided yet. A B C D Look at the black clouds! It will rain soon. A B C D I’ve got two tickets. We will watch the football match tonight. A B C D Exercise 2: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. 1. Why do you want all the furniture out of the room? Because I (shampoo) ____________ the carpet. It’s impossible to do it unless you take everything off it first. 2. Do you have to carry so much stuff on your back? Yes, we do. We (camp) ____________ out and (cook) ____________ our own meals, so we have to carry a lot. If you leave your keys with the hall porter he (take) ____________ the car round to the garage. Have you decided on your colour scheme? Oh yes, and I've bought the paint. I (paint) ____________ this room blue and the sitting room green. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS, FUTURE PERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES A. PRESENTATION. The Future Continuous Tense * FORMATION: (+) S + shall/will + be + V_ing+ …. (-) S + shall/will + NOT+ be + V_ing+ …. (?) shall/will +S+ be + V_ing+ …..? * USE 15


Thì tương lai tiếp diễn diễn tả hành động sẽ xảy ra ở 1 thời điểm nào đó trong tương lai. E.g. At this time tomorrow morning, they will be attending an important meeting. * Signal words: at this time tomorrow, at this moment next year, at present next Friday, at 5 p.m. tomorrow... The Future Perfect Tense * FORMATION: (+) S + shall/will + have + Past Participle… (-) S + shall/will + not + have + Past Participle… (?) Shall/will +S + have + Past Participle…? * USE Thì tương lai hoàn thành diễn tả 1 hành động sẽ hoàn thành trước 1 thời điểm hoặc 1 hành động khác trong tương lai. E.g. When you come back, we will have finished the work. Signal words: by the time, by the end of.., before+ future time 3. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense FORMATION: (+) S + shall/will + have been + V_ing+ …. (-) S + shall/will + not + have been + V_ing+ …. Shall/will +S+ have been + V_ing+ …..? * USE: Thì tương lai hoàn thành tiếp diễn nhấn mạnh khoảng thời gian của 1 hành động sẽ hoàn thành trước 1 thời điểm hoặc một hành động khác trong tương lai. E.g. By the end of this year, he will have been working in this hospital for 30 years. B. PRACTICE. Choose the best option by circling A, B, C or D. Many natural resources _________ by the end of the century. A. will have disappeared C. had disappeared B. have disappeared D. disappeared st

2. By the end of the 21 century, the first car running on the sea water ________. A. will finish C. will have been finished B. will be finished D. will be finishing 3. No matter what happens next I _______ help you. A. am B. have C. will D. would 4. By this time next summer, you _______ your studies. A. completes B. will complete C. are completing D. will have completed 5. What _______ at this time tomorrow? A. will you do C. will you be doing B. will you have done D. will you have been doing 6. Soon, people _______ most of the time at home. A. will work B. are working C. have worked D. work 7. _______ you send this wedding card to Peter, please? A. Will B. Are C. Did D. Had 8. When Peter _______, I _______ him to your new house. 16


A. will arrive / take C. arrives / will take B. has arrived / am taking D. had arrive / had taken 9. I think that everything ______ ready for the project procedure by the end of next month. A. will have been B. has been C. had been D. is 10. Dan and Crystal ______ married in June. A. are getting B. has got C. was getting D. will have got C. HOMEWORK. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form. 1 Don't phone between 7 and 8. We (have) …………... dinner then. 2. Phone me after 8 o'clock. We (finish) .................. dinner by then. 3. Lisa is from New Zealand. She is travelling around Europe at the moment. So far she has travelled about 1,000 miles. By the end of the trip, she (travel)…........more than 3,000 miles. Ben is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues like this, he (spend) …........... all his money before the end of his holiday. 5. If you need to contact me, I (stay)…… .... at the Lion Hotel until Friday. Peter has to go to a meeting which begins at 10 o'clock. It will last about an hour. Mary: Will you be free at 11.30? Peter: Yes, the meeting (end) …………..by then. MIXED EXERCISES Choose the best answer to complete each of the following sentences. 1. I learned that the college ________ in 1900. A. found B. was founded C. founded D. had been founded 2. After he....................... his English course, he went to England to continue his study. A. has finish B. had finished C. was finished D. would finish 3. How......................... since we ..................... college? A. are you- left B. were you- left C. have you been- have left D. have you been- left 4. you lately. We .......................... three months ago. A. haven’t seen- last met B. didn’t see- met C. haven’t seen- have meet D. didn’t see- have met 5. The Chinese............... spaghetti dishes for a long time before Marco Polo............. back to Italy.. A. made- brought B. have made- brought C. made- had brought D. had been making- brought 6. When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker................. speaking and the audience................... A. just finished- were clapping B. had just finished- had clapped C. had just finished- were clapping D. just finished- had clapped 7. He............................. his job last month and then he.................. out of work. A. lost- was B. was lost- had been C. has lost- was D. lost- has been 8. In the last hundred years, travelling....................... much easier and more comfortable. A. become B. has become C. became D. will became 9. He _____ in Quang Ngai before I moved to Binh Thuan. C. had lived A. has been living B. has lived D. was living I..................

17


10. In the past, the trip................... very rough and often dangerous, but things.......... a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. A. was- have changed B. is- change C. had been- will change D. has been- changed 11. She................ to Hanoi for her summer vacation last year. A. went B. go C. goes D. is going 12. The train ______ half an hour ago. A. has been leaving B. left C. has left D. had left 13. When Carol.................... my favorite show on television. last night, I................ A. was calling- watched B. called- have watched C. called- was watching D. had called- watched 14. By the time next summer, you.................... your studies. A. completes B. will complete C. are completing D. will have completed By Christmas, I _______ for Mr. Smith for six years. A. will have been working B. will work C. have been working D. will be working I’ll come and see you before I _______ for the States. A. leave B. will leave C. have left D. shall leave 17. Sam.............. to change a light bulb when he................ down. and.................. A. was trying-slipped- fell B. tried- was slipping- falling C. had been trying- slipped- was falling D. has tried- slips- falls 18. I couldn’t cut the grass because the lawn mower ______ a few days previously. A. broke down B. has been broken C. had broken down D. breaks down 19. I............. for this company for more then thirty years, and I intend to stay here until next year. A. am working- will retire B. am going to work- am retiring C. work- am going to retire D. have been working- retire 20. Since _______, I have heard nothing from him. A. he had left B. he left C. he has left D. he was left 21. The man got out of the car, ________ round to the back and opened the book. A. walking B. walked C. walks D. walk 22. By the time you receive this letter, I ................ for the USA. A. have left B. will leave C. will have left D. am leaving 23. While I ……………….along the road, I saw a friend of mine. A. was cycling B. have cycled C. cycled D. am cycling 24. By the time I . . . . . . . . . . this report, I will give you a ring. A. type B. will type C. have typed D. will have typed th 25. While my mother .................... a film on TV, my father was cooking dinner. It was March 8 yesterday. A. watched B. was watching C. had watched D. watches 26. When we came, they _________ a meeting in the hall. A. are having B. were having C. have been having D. have had 27. Tom and Mary ______ for Vietnam tomorrow. A. leave B. are leaving C. leaving D. are left 28. Having finished their work, the workers expected to be paid. I.................

18


A. The workers expected to be paid because they had finished their work. B. Having their work finishing, the workers expected to be paid. C. Having expected to be paid, the workers finished their work. D. Having been finished their work, the workers expected to be paid. I haven't heard from Susan for several months. A. I didn't hear from Susan several months ago. B. I last heard from Susan several months ago. C. Susan heard from me several months ago. D. Susan didn't hear from me several months ago. Eight years ago we started writing to each other. A. We have rarely written to each other for eight years. B. Eight years is a long time for us to write to each other. C. We wrote to each other eight years ago. D. We have been writing to each other for eight years. Find out the underlined part of each sentence that needs correction 31. This time last week I were staying in Ho Chi Minh city. A B C D 32. Before I moved here in 1990, I has lived in Ha Noi. A B C D 33. I was hungry now. I haven’t had breakfast this morning. A B C D I was used to go swimming in summer when I was small. A B C D 35. There are a lot of blacks clouds in the sky. It will rain

A B C D Did you met anyone interesting at the party last night? A B C D Someone will stole your car if you leave the car unlocked. A B C D 38. It is not until 1915 that the cinema really became an industry. A B C D 39. I don’t need your umbrella today. I don’t think it is going to rain. A B C D 40. When I came, the room was in a terrible mess because someone have broken in. A B C D

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2. SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

Singular subject+singular verb Plural subject+plural verb Subject-verb agreement

Subject+ singular/plural verb

Confused subjects

A- Singular subject + singular verb: BÊt cø ng−êi häc tiÕng anh nµo còng ®Òu n¾m ®−îc mét nguyªn t¾c trong tiÕng anh lµ chñ ng÷ sè Ýt ph¶i kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè Ýt vµ ng−îc l¹i. Ex: - Mr Orson is a doctor. - She lives in Ha Noi. ect. TÊt nhiªn ®ã lµ lý thuyÕt cßn khi d¹y phÇn nµy chóng ta nªn giíi thiÖu cho häc sinh n¾m ®−îc nh÷ng tr−êng hîp chñ ng÷ cô thÓ d−íi ®©y ®−îc coi lµ sè Ýt vµ lu«n kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè Ýt:

1- Chñ ng÷ lµ nh÷ng ®¹i tõ bÊt ®Þnh (infinitive prronouns): someone/somebody, something, noone/nobody, nothing, anybody/anyone, anything, everyone/everybody, everything . Ex: - Everyone thinks that He is innocent. Nothing is more valuable than health. 2- Chñ ng÷ cã each vµ every: Each/Every + singular noun + singular verb Ex: - Each student has to overpass an important examination. Every person likes independence and freedom. * L−u ý: nÕu chñ ng÷ lµ each of + plural noun th× cã thÓ dïng ®éng tõ ë c¶ hai h×nh thøc sè Ýt hay sè nhiÒu. Ex: - Each of the men has/have known this. Tuy nhiªn häc sinh nªn sö dông ®éng tõ sè Ýt dùa theo " careful written English" 3- Chñ ng÷ cã "More than one..."

More than one + singular noun + singular verb Ex: - More than one building was built last year. 4- Chñ ng÷ lµ "One of/ Not one of......"

ect.

One of/ Not one of + plural noun + singular verb Ex: - One of my close friends has died. - Not one of those girls has been in love with him. ect. 5- Chñ ng÷ lµ "uncounable nouns" nh−: water, beer, wine, oil, petrol, rice, wheat flour, sugar, milk, cheese, butter, salt, sausage, food, meat, sand, soap, information, air, money,work, homework,...... Ex: - Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade. - Bad information on the internet causes social evils. ect. 20


* L−u ý: a/ Some non-count nouns, such as food, meat, money and sand may be used as count nouns in order to indicate different types. b/ The word "time" can be either countable or non-countable depending on the context. When it means an occasion, it is a countable. When it means a number of hours, days, years, etc... it is non-countable. 6- Chñ ng÷ lµ: Some (of) Most of Any of None of

+ uncountable noun + singular verb

A lot of

+ plural noun + plural verb

Plenty of All (of) The majority of The minority of Ex: - All the furniture was destroyed in the fire. - Most of the rooms in the hotel have air-conditioning. ect. 7- Chñ ng÷ lµ danh ®éng tõ (gerund): learning, teaching, playing, speaking, ect......, ®éng tõ kÕt hîp

lu«n lµ sè Ýt. Ex: - learning English is interesting. - Playing badminton is popular nowadays. ect. 8- Chñ ng÷ lµ ®éng tõ nguyªn thÓ (infinitive): to do, to work, to explain, to understand, to meet, to see, ect..... còng lu«n ®i víi ®éng tõ sè Ýt. Ex: - To understand his feeling is difficult. - To complete this duty is not easy. ect. 9- Chñ ng÷ lµ mét mÖnh ®Ò (clause)

That

+ clause

+ singular verb

Ex: - That they once loved eachother is really true. What we have said to you is completely right. 10- Chñ ng÷ lµ "the number"

The number (of) +

singular verb

A number (of) +

plural verb

Ex: - The number of homless children is becoming bigger and bigger. A number of negative young men easily cause social evils. 11- Chñ ng÷ lµ "many a...." Many a + singular noun + singular verb Ex: - Many a student has been awarded the scholarship. B- Plural subject + plural verb: 21


Trong tiÕng anh khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét danh tõ hay ®¹i tõ sè nhiÒu th× sÏ ®−îc theo sau bëi mét ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu. Ex: - These countries have developed economy. - They are active men. Khi d¹y ®Õn sù kÕt hîp nµy t«i còng th−êng ®−a thªm nh÷ng tr−êng hîp sau lu«n ®−îc dïng víi ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu: 1- Chñ ng÷ cã: Both ....and.... + plural verb Ex: - Both you and I were wet yesterday. Both literature and English are important subjects. 2- Chñ ng÷ lµ tÝnh tõ: The + adjective + plural verb: Ex: - The poor need being helped by the rich.

The intelligent often talk little. 3- Mét sè danh tõ cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu vµ lu«n kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu nh−: glasess(c¸i kÝnh/cÆp kÝnh), scissors(c¸i k×m), trousers(c¸i quÇn), shorts, pliers, pants, jeans, tongs, tweezers, belongings, clothes, congratulations, earnings, ouskirts, paticulars(=information), premises(=building), riches, savings, staires, surroundings, thanks.

Ex: - Which trousers are yours? The scissors are mine. C- Subject + singular/plural verb 1- Chñ ng÷ lµ: Any of

Either of

+ plural noun

+ singular/plural verb

Neither of Ex: - Any of them has/have known this. Neither of the English athletes has/have won this year. Tuy nhiªn chóng ta nªn dïng ®éng tõ sè Ýt tu©n theo "written careful English" 2- Chñ ng÷ cã: None of /

+ uncountable/ singular noun + singular verb

No

+ plural noun + plural verb

Ex: - None of my friends have finished the exam yet. None of the counterfeit money has been found. No example is relevant to this case. No examples are relevant to this case. 3- Khi chñ ng÷ cã hai hoÆc nhiÒu h¬n c¸c ®èi t−îng ®−îc nèi víi nhau b»ng "and" th× ta th−êng dïng ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu. Ex: - Mary and Tom are classmates. A strong wind and a full sail bring joy to the sailor. Nh−ng còng cã tr−êng hîp sö dông ®éng tõ sè Ýt khi chñ thÓ muèn qui vÒ mét ®èi t−îng, hoÆc khi hai vËt hoÆc hai bé phËn kh¸c nhau nh−ng ®−îc hîp l¹i thµnh mét còng ®−îc coi lµ danh tõ sè Ýt vµ kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè Ýt. Ex: - Bread and egg was all I like. The writer and the poet is arriving tonight.(Nhµ v¨n kiªm nhµ th¬ sÏ.....) 4- Chñ ng÷ lµ: Some (of) Part of 22


Half of Most of

+ plural noun + plural verb

A lot of

+ non-count noun + singular verb

Plenty of The remainder The last The rest The minority The majority §éng tõ phô thuéc vµo danh tõ ®øng sau Ex: - The majority of the students believe him tobe innocent. Some of the salt is necessary. * L−u ý: The minority The majority

+ singular verb

Ex: The majority believes that we are in danger.

5- C¸c danh tõ tËp hîp cã thÓ kÕt hîp ®−îc víi ®éng tõ ë c¶ hai h×nh thøc tïy theo ý ng−êi nãi. Mét sè danh tõ tËp hîp th«ng dông nh−: audience, army, crew, crowd, class, committee, company, family, flock, group, government, team ...... Th«ng th−êng ta dïng ®éng tõ sè Ýt khi ng−êi nãi xem tËp hîp Êy nh− mét ®¬n vÞ duy nhÊt. Ex: - Almost every family on the street has a son or a daughter studying in universities.

- The audience was like a stone wall, silent and cold. §éng tõ sè nhiÒu ®−îc dïng khi ng−êi nãi muèn ®Ò cËp hay nhÊn m¹nh ®Õn tõng thµnh viªn trong nhãm ®ang ho¹t ®éng mét c¸ch riªng lÎ hoÆc tËp hîp Êy ®−îc xem nh− nh÷ng bé phËn hay thµnh phÇn kh¸c nhau. Ex: - The audience were applauding, cheering, even stamping their feet. Poultry are being fed. 6- Víi mÉu c©u "There + be....."th«ng th−êng ®éng tõ phô thuéc vµo danh tõ ®øng ngay sau nã.

Ex: - There is much traffic at night and many mules on the road.

There were two lorries, a car and a motorcycle there yesterday. * L−u ý: §«i khi ®éng tõ hßa hîp víi tÊt c¶ c¸c chñ tõ sau nã:

Ex: - There are a plaza, a cathedral, and a governor'r palace on the hill. D- Confused subjects: 1- Khi chñ ng÷ lµ mét côm tõ cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu chØ thêi gian, träng l−îng vµ sù ®o l−êng th× ®éng tõ ®−îc kÕt hîp ë h×nh thøc sè Ýt. Ex: - Twenty years in prison is a very long time. (Twenty years = a period of time) Five miles on that road seems impossible for us to walk. ( Five miles = a distance of forty miles) Twenty dollar is too much for me. (Twenty dollar = a sum of money)

2- Khi chñ tõ ®i kÌm víi côm giíi tõ b¾t ®Çu b»ng: with, a long with, together with, as well as, besides, in addition to, other than, like, accompanied by... th× ®éng tõ ®−îc chia theo chñ tõ ®øng tr−íc c¸c côm giíi tõ nµy (c¸c côm giíi tõ nµy kh«ng ¶nh h−ëng ®Õn chñ tõ tr−íc nã) 23


Ex: - Mr Black with his children lives there. The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.

All the books other than the blue one are very interesting. 3- Khi hai chñ tõ kÕt hîp víi nhau b»ng: ...or...; either... or...; neither...nor...; not...but...; not only...but also... th× ®éng tõ ®−îc chia theo chñ tõ ®øng gÇn ®éng tõ nhÊt.

Ex: - Either you or I am responsible for this. Not his friends but He has caused this. Neither her children nor She has done that. 4- Mét sè danh tõ cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu nh−ng lu«n ®−îc coi lµ danh tõ sè Ýt lu«n kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè Ýt: mathematics, physics, economics, politics, phonetics, linguistics, ethics, optics, civics, genetics, measles, mumps, rickets, AIDS, SARS, news... Ex: - The news of the war has surprised all of us. Measles is not a dangerous disease nowadays. * Proper names with "s" at the end are used like singular nouns. Ex: - The Philippines is famous for beautiful sights.

"Gulliver's Travels" is a very interesting novel. 5- Mét sè danh tõ kh«ng cã h×nh thøc sè nhiÒu nh−ng l¹i lu«n lµ danh tõ sè nhiÒu: police, clergy, children, people, men, women, cattle, poultrry, oxen, mice, lice, geese, feet, teeth, data, erata, curricular, bacteria,... lu«n kÕt hîp víi ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu. Ex: - The police have been looking for the murder for three months now. - The data are not suitable for my purpose. Nh÷ng danh tõ nµy cã thÓ c¸c em ®y gÆp ë phÇn "Danh tõ bÊt qui t¾c" nh−ng chóng ta còng nªn hÖ thèng l¹i gióp c¸c em ®−îc kh¾c thªm mét lÇn n÷a * L−u ý: "People" nÕu mang nghiy "d©n téc" lµ danh tõ sè Ýt, sè nhiÒu ph¶i thªm "s". Ex: - There are many peoples living in Viet Nam. 6- Chñ ng÷ lµ "percent": ... percent of

+ plural noun + plural verb + non-count noun + singular verb

Ex: - Fifty percent of the old people of over ninety live in the city. Fifty percent of the oil was lost by evaporation. * Khi chñ ng÷ cã ph©n sè còng vËy: Ex: - Two-thirds of the school children here live in the country. - Two-thirds of the money He earned was illigal. 7- Mét vµi danh tõ cã thÓ ®i víi ®éng tõ sè nhiÒu hoÆc sè Ýt tïy theo nghÜa: Ex: - Statistics doesn't appeal me (Statistics : m«n thèng kª häc) Statistics don't convince me (Statistics: c¸c d÷ liÖu thèng kª) Tatics is the art of moving military forces. (Tatics: ChiÕn thuËt lµ...) Northern and Southern Tatics towards the end of the Civil war were quite different.

(Tatics: Chiến thuật...) Thông thường các từ nối với nhau bởi từ and làm chủ ngữ thì động từ luôn chia theo số nhiều, nhưng chú ý các truờng hợp sau: * Sau each, every dù có liên từ and thì động từ luôn chia theo số it: Ex: Each girl and boy has to tell a story. Khi 2 từ nối với nhau bằng từ and để diễn tả 1 vật, 1 ý tưởng duy nhất thì động từ cũng chia theo số it: Ex: Bread and butter is my favourite breakfast. The teacher and the painter is coming here

24


PRACTICE ON SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT I. Choose the best answer to finish each sentence: 1. Each of the men _____ responsible for this. A. are

B. being

C. is

D. were

2. Bill together with his brothers ______ to the beach every morning. A. going

B. goes

C. go

D. went

3. Either the monitor or the athletes _____ to blame for the bad result. A. be

B. are

C. is

D. to be

4. Everyone _______ with me about my plans A. have agreed

B. agreeing

C. disagree

D. agrees

5. Tim as well as his relatives _______ safe from the hurricane. A. be

B. is

C. are

D. being

6. The results of Dr. Frank’s experiment ______ announced on TV last night. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

7. Fifty minutes ______ the maximum length of time allowed for the exam. A. is

B. be

C. are

D. were

8. The cost of living ______over 10% in the last few years. A. rises

B. has risen

C. rose

D. is rising

9. A number of sheep ______eating grass now. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

10. Measles ________ sometimes a serious disease. A. is

B. are

C. being

D. be

11. Making cakes and pies ________Mrs. Reed’s specialty. A. are

B. were

C. is

D. have been

12. The United States _______ between Canada and Mexico. A. lying

B. lies

C. lain

D. lie

13. The students in the next classroom _______very loudly everyday. A. was talking

B. talked

C. are talking

D. talk

14. The singer and the actor ______ coming. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have been

15. A cart and horse _______ seen at a distance now. A. are

B. is

C. were

D. was

16. Two million dollars _______not enough for the victims of the tsunami. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. both A &B

17. Cattle _______ allowed to graze here now. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. was 25


18. Each of the boys _____ a book now A. need

B. needs

C. needing

D. is needing

C. are needing

D. needs

19. The poor living here _______ help. A. is needing

B. need

20. Two-thirds of the money _______ mine now. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. was

21. Three years in a strange land ______ like a long time for lonely people. A. seemed

B. seeming

C. seems

D. seem

22. The teacher, along with his students,_______ the procession. A. are watching

B. is watching

C. have watched

D. were watching

23. Seventy-five percent of the students _______ another language. A. speak

B. speaks

C. spoken

D. has spoken

24. My new pair of pants _______at the cleaners. A. is

B. are

C. be

D. has been

25. The police ______on the alert for the escaped convict. A. are

B. is

C. was

D. both A & B

26. The battery, along with the alternator and starter, ______ up the electrical system of a car. A. make

B. have made

C. have been made

D. makes

27. Much of what you were told ______ inaccurate. A. are

B. was

C. been

D. were

28. Miss White_______ her parents is going to pay a visit to the Great Wall. A. and

B both

C. as well as

D. or

29. The Vietnamese ________hard-working and brave. A. is

B. are

C. be

D. being

30. A good deal of money _______ spent on the books. A. have

B. has

C. have been

D. has been

31. The manager or his secretary ______ to give you an interview. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have

32. Ninety percent of the work _______ been done. A. is

B. are

C. has

D. have

33. Those who _______ to go with me, please raise your hand. A. want

B. wants

C. wanting

D. are wanting

34. Three-fifths of the police________ in the school near the town recently. A. has trained

B. have trained

C. has been trained

D. have been trained

35. ______ not only you but also he going to Japan? A. Are

B. Is

C. Were

D. Was

36. All the books on the shelf ______to me. A. belong

B. belongs

C. belonging

D. is belonging 26


37. The trousers you bought for me _____me. A. don’t fit

B. doesn’t fit

C. fits

D. not fit

38. Mumps _________ usually caught by children. A. are

B. was

C. is

D. were

39. The United States _____ between Canada and Mexico. A. lying

B. lies

C. lain

D. lie

40. Physics_________ us understand the natural laws. A. helps

B. help

C. have helped

D. are helping

C. have arrested

D. was arresting

41. The police _________ the robber. A. were arrested

B. has arrested

42. Either you or he ____________ wrong. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have been

43. John as well as Mary __________ very kind. A. were

B. are

C. is

D. have been

44. The doctor with the nurses ___________ exhausted after the operation yesterday. A. were

B. was

C. have been

D. are being

C. were

D. have been

C. Have been

D. Were

45. Five miles ___________ not very far. A. is

B. are

46. _______ ten years too long? A. Are

B. Is

47. Neither his parents nor his teacher ____________ satisfied with his result. A. are being

B. were

C. is

D. are

48. None of the butter in the fridge ____________ good. A. is being

B. is

C. have been

D. are

49. None of the students ___________ the test yet. A. finished

B. has finished

C. is finishing

D. have finished

50. A pair of shoes _________ under the bed. A. have been

B. are

C. are being

D. is

51. 200 tons of rice ___________ last month. A. is used

B. had been used

C. was used

D. were used

52. In the hotel, the bread and butter ________ for breakfast. A. is served

B. are served

C. serves

D. have been served

53. John, along with twenty friends, ______ planning a party now . A. is

B. are

C. been

D. being

54.The picture of the soldiers often ______ back many memories. A. have brought

B. brought

C. bring

D. brings

55.The quality of this recordings _______not very good. A. be

B. is

C. are

D. were 27


56. The effects of cigarette smoking _______ been proven to be extremely harmful so far. A. have B. has C. had D. will have 57. The use of credit cards in place of cash _______ increased rapidly in recent years. A. has had

B. had had

C. have

D. has

58. Neither Bill nor Mary ______ going to the play tomorrow. A. are

B. is

C. been

D. being

59. Anything ______ better than going to another movie tonight. A. are

B. is

C. be

D. have been

60. A number of reporters ______ at the conference yesterday. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

61.Skating ________ becoming more popular nowadays . A. are

B. is

C. have been

D. both A&B

62.A number of reporters ________at the conference now. A. is

B. are

C. has been

D. being

63.Either John or his wife________ breakfast each morning. A. make

B. are making

C. have made

D. makes

64.After she had perused the material , the secretary said that everything ______ in order. A. were

B. was

C. have been

D. has been

65. Every elementary school teacher ______ to take this training course. A. is having

B. are having

C. have

D. has

66. Neither Jill nor her parents ______ seen this movie before. A. have

B. has

C. have been

D. both A&B

67. The number of days in a week ______ seven. A. were

B. have been

C. is

D. are

68.A number of the applicants _______already been interviewed. A. have

B. have had

C. has

D. had had

69.Twenty dollars ______ all I can afford to pay for that car. A. are

B. were

C. is

D. have been

70. The majority of the students _______ him to be innocent. A. believes

B. is believing

C. believe

D. has believed

71. The majority ________ that we are in no danger. A. believe

B. believes

C. have believed

D. both A &C

C. makes

D. make

72. Writing many letters ________ her happy. A. have made

B. are making

73. No example ________relevant to this case.

28


A. were

B. is

C. are

D. have been

74. John, along with 20 friends, ______ planning a farewell party now. A. have been

B. are

C. is

D. were

75. The quality of these recordings ______ not very good. A. is

B. are

C. have been

D. were

76. Mr Robbins, accompanied by his wife and children, _______arriving tonight. A. are

B. is

C. being

D. has been

77. If either of you ______ a vacation now, we will not be able to finish the work. A. take

B. takes

C. are taking

D. are taken

78. Living expenses in this country, as well as in many others, _____at an all-time high. A. is

B. are

C. have been

D. were

Mr John, accompanied by several members of the committee, ___ proposed some changes of the rules. A. has

B. having

C. have

D. both A & C

80. Neither the doctor nor the secretary ______ left yet. A. have

B. has

C. are

D. is

81. Fifty minutes ______not enough time to finish the test. A. are

B. is

C. were

D. have been

82. Every body who ______ not purchased a ticket should be in this line. A. had

B. have

C. has

D. had had

83. The view of these disciplines ______ from time to time. A. vary

B. have varied

C. varies

D. are varied

84. The pictures of the soldiers often _____ back many memories. A. has brought

B. brings

C. bring

D. is bringing.

85. The number of residents ______ been questioned on this matter quite small. A. has

B. have

C. had

D. have had

C. work

D. was working

86. Both of my brothers ________ in London. A. is working

B. works

87. Studying late at night ______ one of those things that ______ me tired. A. is/makes

B. are/make

C. is/make

D. are/makes

88. Physics ______ nearly as interesting to me as literature. A. were

B. are

C. is

D. have been

89. Vehicles ______ just been recalled because of a design fault recently. A. had

has

C. have

D. both B &C.

90. The data_____ not suitable for my purpose 29


A. is

B. has been

C. was

D. are

91. Anyone who _______ to apply must do so in writing. A. wishes

B. wish

C. have wished

D.

C. belong

D. both A& B

92. Everything I have _______ to you. A. have belonged

B. belongs

93. A great number of our students _____ American this year. A. is

B. are

C. has been

D. was

94. Not only the child, but also the grandparents ________the party. A. is joining

B. joins

C. were joining

D. have joined

95. The number of people at the exhibit_______ amazing. A. are

B. were

C. was

D. has

96. Either of my parents or my brother______ next week. A. has coming

B. have come

C. are coming

D. is coming

97. None of the information______ announced to the public. A. is

B. were

C. are

D. have been

98. Neither the table nor the chairs _______ here. A. was

B. been

C. is

D. are

How many musical notes of the 11,000 tones that human ear can distinguish ____in the musical scale? A. it is

B. are there

C. there are

D. was there

100. Mark won’t like that bread, nor _______that cheese. A. he likes

B. he will like

C. does he

D. will he like

101. The new manager, accompanied by his wife, ________arriving today. A. are

B. is

C. were

D. was

C. is spoken

D. speaks

102. French _______ in parts of Canada. A. is speaking

B. are spoken

103. Seventy-five per cent of the students______another language. A. speak

B. speaks

C. has spoken

D. is speaking

104. Everyman and a woman_______the right to vote. A. have

B. has

C. are having

D. have had

105. Nine of every ten people in the world________in the country in which they were born. A. has lived

B. was living

C. lives

D. live

106. The average temperature of rocks on the surface of the earth______55 F. A. have been

B. are

C. is

D. were

107. More than half of the pollution in this river_________from industrial waste. A. come

B. have come

C. are coming

D. comes 30


108. The police_______ on the alert for the escaped convict. A. are

B. be

C. is

D. was

109. Everyone who _______into the woods should recognize common poisonous plants such as poison ivy and poison oak. A. have gone

B. go

C. went

D. goes

110. The number of chromosomes in a cell ______from species to species. A. varies

B. vary

C. varying

D. to vary

111. Neither Mary nor her friends_______ going to the party. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. A or B

112. The battery, along with the alternator and starter,______ up the electrical system of a car. A. have made

B. have been made

C. makes

D. are making

113. Each of the Ice Ages_______ more than a million years long. A. is

C. was

B. are

C. has been

114. The production of different kinds of artificial materials______ essential to the conservation of our natural resources.

A. are

B. were

C. is

D. have been

115. His knowledge of languages and international relations_______ him a lot in his present work. A. helps

B. is helping

C. have helped

D. has been helping

116. I’m happy that everything_________ in its place. A. are

B. have been

C. is

D. were

117. One of my best friends______ five credit cards. A. have

B. has had

B. have had

C. are having

118. There________ never been an environmental disaster of this magnitude. A. has

B. have

C. are

D. is

119. Far too few of us________ financial discipline. A. have

B. is having

C. has had

D. has

120. Both viruses and genes________ made form nucleoproteins. A. are

B. is

C. were

D. has been

Mary, accompanied by her brother on the piano, ___very well received at the talent show yesterday. A. was

B. were

C. have been

D. has been

122. None of the work________ completed yet. A. have been

B. were

C. being

D. has been

123. It _____ these questions that are difficult. A. be

B. was

C. is

D. have been

The facilities at the new research library, including an excellent microfilm file _____among the best in the country.

31


A. are

B. is

C. has been

D. was

125. Many parts of our once beautiful city_____ to look like mini garbage dumps. A. is starting

B. is started

C. are starting

D. has started

126. The radiation levels from a computer display terminal ____ well below presently accepted. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. has been

127. The news_____ quite alarming at present. A. are

B. is

C. was

D. were

128. Thirty five dollars_____ too much for this shirt. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. have been

129. Neither the local environmentalist nor the mayor_________a plan that will satisfy everyone.

A. has

B. had have

C. have had

D. are having

C. were

D. have been

130.No news _____ good news. A. is

B. are

131.Here ______some accounts that you must check. A. is

B. are

C. were

D. was

C. have made

D. are making

132.A lot of homework _______ me tired. A. make

B. makes

133.Not only Mr. Pike but also his sons _______ tea. A. likes

B. like

C. has liked

D. is liking

134.Mathematics ______ us with many aspects. A. helps

B. help

C. have helped

D. helping

135.The United States ________of about 160 nations. A. consists

B. consist

C. consisting

D. have consisted

C. so does tea

D. does tea so

136.Coffee contains caffeine, and ______ A. tea does so

B. so tea does

137.Plenty of milk _______ consumed everyday. A. are

B. is

C. was

D. were

138.Neither you nor I _______ responsible for the bad result. A. are

B. is

C. am

D. be

139. Both Jane and Mary, as well as John, _______ ready for the exam. A. is

B. was

C. are

D. has been

140.Working for 12 hours a day ________ her very tired. A. make

B. makes

C. making

D. have made

141.The number of the days in a week ________ seven. A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

142.The army ________ eliminated this section of the training test. 32


A. has

B. have

C. are

D. is

143. _______ Julia _______ her sister are going to the party. A. Both /and

B. Not only / but C. Either /or also

D. both A &B

144. My wife had never been to Hue, and ______ I. A. never have

B. neither have

C. neither had

D. neither did

Plants and animals in high mountain areas ___with freezing temperatures, fierce winds, and

thin air. A. live

B. lives

C. was living

D. being lived

146. Tom’s family ______ wondering whether there_______ anything that they can do A. are/ are

B. is/ is

C. are/ is

D. is /are

147. The couple _______ in Denver but_______ to Houston for the winters A. lives/ go

B. lives/ goes

C. live/ go

D. live/ goes

148. Each nation ______ its own culture, and our nation has______ own culture, too A. has/ its

B. have/ our

C. have/ its

D. has/ their

149. None of the corporations_____ received the necessary state charter yet. A. has

B. have

C. is having

D. have had

The news of the economic decline ________ upsetting now. A. were

B. are

C. is

D. both B&C

Choose the letter A/B/C or D of the underlined portion which is not correct in standard written English: 1. Neither his parents nor his teacher are satisfied with his result when he was at high school. A B C D 2. Daisy was the only one of those girls that get the scholarship. A B C D 3. Working provide people with personal satisfaction as well as money. A B C D 4. Either the doctor or the nurses takes care of changing the patients’ bandages. A B C D 5. Every student who majors in English are ready to participate in the oratorical contest. A B C D 6. One hundred eight thousand miles are the speed of light. A B C D 7. The guest of honors, along with his wife and children, were sitting at the first table when we had a party yesterday. A B C D 8. The audience was enjoying every minute of the performance. A B C D 9. All the books on the top shelf belongs to me. A B C D 10. Five thousand pounds were stolen from the bank. A B C D 33


Happiness and success depends on yourself. A B C D 12. The loss of her husband as well as two of her sons were too much for her. A B C D 13. David or his brother were indicted yesterday on charges of grand theft. A B C D 14. Current research on AIDS, in spite of the best efforts of hundreds of scientists, leave A B C serious questions unanswered. D 15. Everyone have to plan a program that fits into the day’s schedule and that allows for good A B C exercise and appropriate rest. D 16. The number of people at the exhibit were amazing. A C D B 17. Every man and a woman have the right to vote. A B C D 18. Nine of every ten people in the world lives in the country in which they were born. A B C D 19. The average temprature of rocks on the surface of the earth are 55 F A B C D 20. More than half of the pollution in this river come from industrial waste. A B C D 21. Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes that a person A B C likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her. D 22. Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed, but not one has A B C been widely used as this one. D 23. There were a time that I used to swim five laps every day, but now I do not have enough time. ABCD 24. The police is on the alert for the escaped convict. AB C D 25. The battery, along with the alternator and starter, make up the electrical system of a car. A B C D A number of graduates has received scholarships from this apartment. A B C D 27. Statistics are now compulsory for all students taking a course in engineering. A B C D 28. All the office staff has agreed to work late tonight to get the job finished. A B C D Some people has the strangest hobbies. My brother collects bottles. 34


A B C D None of the information are particularly useful to me. A B C D Although women in this century faces less discrimination than ever before, they still A encounter many obstacles that men do not. B C D 32. Every one have to plan a program that fits into the day’s schedule and that allows for A B C good exercise and appropriate rest. D 33. John is the only one of the hikers who have climbed above fifteen thousand feet. A B C D 34. Current research on AIDS, in spite of the best efforts of hundreds of scientists, leave A B C unanswered serious questions D 35. Neither apple pie nor her faded cat posters nor her neglected guppy collection hold the slightest A B C interest for Dorothy any more. D 36. Today, many scientists disagree over whether the chimpanzee or the boobook are more human in A B C its behavior. D 37. Along with statistics, strategy, and intelligence, logistics are one of the four main elements of ABCD military cience Five percent of the profits was to be distributed to the stockholders. A B C D Food tests taken on Friday has confirmed my original diagnosis. A B C D Neither the employers nor the union desire a strike vote. A B C D III. Choose the incorrect sentence in which the verb disagrees with the subject: A. The invoice and the purchase order have to be approved by the director. A sandwich and a milk shake were all he wanted for breakfast Faith, hope, and charity represent virtues to most of us fish and chips are one of her favorite dishes 2. A. Neither has brought the music for the duet B. Where has everybody gone? C. Every city, town, and hamlet has a Main Street D. Every boy and girl in the class do volunteer work A. Thirty pounds is a lot to lose in one mouth B. Nine miles were the length of the race 35


C. Five hours of waiting has reduced the kidnapper to bundle of nerves D. Four thousand dollars is the minimum bid for the foreclosed property A. Here are the subjects the president will discuss There are still several oranges in the baskets Here come trouble

Each of the loans has been recalled by the bank. A. Most of the problems have been solved All is ready All was concerned My entire supply of checks were missing. A. Neither the students nor the teacher have signed the petition Not a new machine but new workers are needed for the job Not only the Arab states but also Venezuela has major oil reserved Not only strength but agility is essential in bicycling A. Both of the players were late Many books on the best-seller list have little literacy value Many a prisoner have tried to escape Few of the contestants are here A. half of the rent is missing Two-thirds of her house have been painted Forty percent is a big commission Half of the apartments in the building are without heat A. John is one of the chemists who believe that science is an art He is the only one of four candidates who refuse to attend the course David is one of the employees who always work overtime His grandfather is the only one of his relatives who still goes to church A. Either his book or that one contains the information Neither the governor nor his top aids were implicated in the scandal The records or the stereo has to go Neither my roommate nor my sisters plans to move

COMPARISONS I. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN So sánh ngang bằng Cấu trúc sử dụng là as .... as S + V + as + {adj/ adv} + as + {noun/ pronoun} My book is as interesting as yours. John sings as well as his sister. His job is not as difficult as mine. They are as lucky as we. Nếu là câu phủ định, as thứ nhất có thể thay bằng so. 36


He is not as tall as his father. He is not so tall as his father. Sau as phải là một đại từ nhân xưng chủ ngữ, không được là một đại từ tân ngữ. Peter is as tall as I. (ĐÚNG) Peter is as tall as me. (SAI) Danh từ cũng có thể được dùng để so sánh, nhưng nên nhớ trước khi so sánh phải đảm bảo rằng danh từ đó phải có các tính từ tương đương. adjectives

nouns

heavy, light

weight

wide, narrow

width

deep, shallow

depth

long, short

length

big, small

size

Khi so sánh bằng danh từ, sử dụng cấu trúc sau: S + V + the same + (noun) + as + {noun/ pronoun} My house is as high as his. My house is the same height as his. Chú ý rằng ngược nghĩa với the same...as là different from... Không bao giờ dùng different than. Sau đây là một số ví dụ khác về so sánh bằng danh từ. These trees are the same as those. He speaks the same language as she. Her address is the same as Rita’s. Their teacher is different from ours. She takes the same course as her husband. 2. So sánh hơn kém Trong loại so sánh này người ta chia làm hai dạng: tính từ và phó từ ngắn (chỉ có một hoặc hai âm tiết khi phát âm) và tính từ, phó từ dài (3 âm tiết trở lên). Khi so sánh không ngang bằng: Đối với tính từ và phó từ ngắn chỉ cần cộng đuôi -er. (thick – thicker; cold-colder; quietquieter) Đối với tính từ ngắn có một phụ âm tận cùng (trừ w,x,z) và trước đó là một nguyên âm, phải gấp đôi phụ âm cuối. (big-bigger; red-redder; hot-hotter) Đối với tính từ, phó từ dài, thêm more hoặc less trước tính từ hoặc phó từ đó (more beautiful; more important; more believable). Đối với tính từ tận cùng là phụ âm+y, phải đổi y thành -ier (happy-happier; dry-drier; prettyprettier). Đối với các tính từ có hậu tố -ed, -ful, -ing, -ish, -ous cũng biến đổi bằng cách thêm more Trường hợp đặc biệt: strong-stronger; friendly-friendlier than = more friendly than. Chú ý: 37


Chỉ một số phó từ là có đuôi –er, bao gồm: faster, quicker, sooner, latter. Nhớ dùng dạng thức chủ ngữ của đại từ sau than, không được dùng dạng tân ngữ. Ví dụ về so sánh không ngang bằng: John’s grades are higher than his sister’s. Today is hotter than yesterday. This chair is more comfortable than the other. He speaks Spanish more fluently than I. (không dùng than me) He visits his family less frequently than she does. This year’s exhibit is less impressive than last year’s. So sánh không ngang bằng có thể được nhấn mạnh bằng cách thêm much hoặc far trước cụm từ so sánh. A waterlemon is much sweeter than a a lemon. His car is far better than yours. Henry’s watch is far more expensive than mine. That movie we saw last night was much more interesting than the one on TV. She dances much more artistically than her predecessor. He speaks English much more rapidly than he does Spanish. Danh từ cũng được dùng để diễn đạt phép so sánh ngang bằng hoặc hơn/kém. Chú ý dùng tính từ bổ nghĩa đúng với danh từ đếm được hoặc không đếm được. He earns as much money as his brother. They have as few classes as we. Before payday, I have as little money as my brother. I have more books than she. February has fewer days than March. Their job allows them less fredom than ours does. Khi so sánh một người/ một vật với tất cả những người hoặc vật khác phải thêm else sau anything/anybody... He is smarter than anybody else in the class. Lưu ý: Đằng sau as và than của các mệnh đề so sánh có thể loại bỏ chủ ngữ nếu nó trùng hợp với chủ ngữ thứ nhất, đặc biệt là khi động từ sau than và as ở dạng bị động. Lúc này than và as còn có thêm chức năng của một đại từ quan hệ thay thế. Their marriage was as stormy as had been expected (Incorrect: as it had been expected). He worries more than was good for him. (Incorrect: than it/what was good for him). Các tân ngữ cũng có thể bị loại bỏ sau các động từ ở mệnh đề sau THAN và AS: Don’t lose your passport, as I did last year. (Incorrect: as I did it last year). They sent more than I had ordered. (Incorrect: than I had ordered it). She gets her meat from the same butcher as I go to. (Incorrect: as I go to him).

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3. Phép so sánh không hợp lý Khi dùng câu so sánh nên nhớ các đối tượng dùng để so sánh phải tương đương nhau: người với người, vật với vật. Các lỗi thường mắc phải khi sử dụng câu so sánh không hợp lý được chia làm 3 loại: sở hữu cách, that of và those of. 3.1 Sở hữu cách: Incorrect: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor. (Câu này so sánh các bức tranh với người chỉ dẫn) Correct: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor’s. (instructor's = instructor's drawings) 3.2 Dùng thêm that of cho danh từ số ít: Incorrect: The salary of a professor is higher than a secretary. (Câu này so sánh salary với secretary) Correct: The salary of a professor is higher than that of a secretary. (that of = the salary of) 3.3 Dùng thêm those of cho các danh từ số nhiều: Incorrect: The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than a teacher . (Câu này so sánh duties với teacher) Correct: The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than those of a teacher (those of = the duties of) 4. Các tính từ và phó từ đặc biệt Một số ít tính từ và phó từ có dạng thức so sánh đặc biệt. Chúng không theo các quy tắc nêu trên. Nghiên cứu bảng sau: Tính từ hoặc trạng từ

So sánh hơn kém

So sánh nhất

far

Farther/further

farthest /furthest

Little/few

less

least

Much/many

more

most

Good/well

better

best

bad /badly

worse

worst

I feel much better today than I did last week. He has less time now than he had before. This magainze is better than that one. He acts worse now than ever before. Lưu ý: farther dùng cho khoảng cách; further dùng cho thông tin hoặc các trường hợp trừu tượng khác. The distance from your house to school is farther than that of mine. If you want further information, please call to the agent. Next year he will come to the U.S for his further education. 5. So sánh bội số So sánh bội số là so sánh: bằng nửa (half), gấp đôi (twice), gấp ba (three times),...

39


Không được sử dụng so sánh hơn kém mà sử dụng so sánh bằng, khi so sánh phải xác định danh từ là đếm được hay không đếm được, vì đằng trước chúng có many/much This encyclopedy costs twice as much as the other one. Jerome has half as many records now as I had last year. At the clambake last week, Fred ate three times as many oysters as Bob. Các lối nói: twice that many/twice that much = gấp đôi ngần ấy... chỉ được dùng trong khẩu ngữ, không được dùng trong văn viết. We have expected 80 people at that rally, but twice that many showned up. (twice as many as that number). 6. So sánh kép Là loại so sánh với cấu trúc: Càng... càng... Các Adj/Adv so sánh phải đứng ở đầu câu, trước chúng phải có The. Dùng một trong hai mẫu câu sau đây để so sánh kép: The + comparative + S + V + the + comparative + S + V The hotter it is, the more miserable I feel. (Trời càng nóng, tôi càng thấy khó chịu) The sooner you take your medicince, the better you will feel. (Anh càng uống thuốc sớm bao nhiêu, anh càng cảm thấy dễ chịu bấy nhiêu) The bigger they are, the faster they fall. (Chúng càng to bao nhiêu thì càng rơi nhanh bấy nhiêu) The more + S + V + the + comparative + S + V The more you study, the smarter you will become. (Càng học, anh càng thông minh hơn) The more I look into your eyes, the more I love you. (Càng nhìn vào mắt em, anh càng yêu em hơn) Sau The more ở vế thứ nhất có thể thêm that nhưng không mẫu câu này không phổ biến. The more (that) you study, the smarter you will become. Trong trường hợp nếu cả hai vế đều có chủ ngữ giả it is thì có thể bỏ chúng đi The shorter (it is), the better (it is). Hoặc nếu cả hai vế đều dùng to be thì bỏ đi The closer to the Earth’s pole (is), the greater the gravitational force (is). Các cách nói: all the better (càng tốt hơn), all the more (càng... hơn), not... any the more... (chẳng... hơn... tí nào), none the more... (chẳng chút nào) dùng để nhấn mạnh cho các tính từ hoặc phó từ được đem ra so sánh. Nó chỉ được dùng với các tính từ trừu tượng và dùng trong văn nói: Sunday mornings were nice. I enjoyed them all the more because Sue used to come round to breakfast. He didn’t seem to be any the worse for his experience. He explained it all carefully, but I was still none the wiser. Cấu trúc này không dùng cho các tính từ cụ thể: Those pills have made him all the slimmer. (SAI)

40


7. Cấu trúc No sooner... than (Vừa mới ... thì đã...) Chỉ dùng cho thời quá khứ và thời hiện tại, không dùng cho thời tương lai. No sooner đứng ở đầu một mệnh đề, theo sau nó là một trợ động từ đảo lên trước chủ ngữ để nhấn mạnh, than đứng ở đầu mệnh đề còn lại: No sooner + auxiliary + S + V + than + S + V No sooner had we started out for California than it started to rain. Một ví dụ ở thời hiện tại (will được lấy sang dùng cho hiện tại) No sooner will he arrive than he will want to leave. Lưu ý: No longer có nghĩa là not anymore. Không dùng cấu trúc not longer cho các câu có ý nghĩa không còn ... nữa. He no longer studies at the university. (He does not study at the university anymore.) S + no longer + Positive Verb 8. So sánh hơn kém không dùng than (giữa 2 đối tượng) Khi so sánh hơn kém giữa 2 người hoặc 2 vật mà không dùng than, muốn nói đối tượng nào đó là tốt hơn, giỏi hơn, đẹp hơn,... thì trước adj và adv so sánh phải có the. Chú ý phân biệt trường hợp này với trường hợp so sánh bậc nhất dưới đây (khi có 3 đối tượng trở lên). Trong câu thường có cụm từ of the two + noun, nó có thể đứng đầu hoặc cuối câu. Harvey is the smarter of the two boys. Of the two shirts, this one is the prettier. Pealse give me the smaller of the two cakes. Of the two books, this one is the more interesting. 9. So sánh bậc nhất . Để biến tính từ và phó từ thành dạng so sánh bậc nhất, áp dụng quy tắc sau: Đối với tính từ và phó từ ngắn: thêm đuôi -est. Đối với tính từ và phó từ dài: dùng most hoặc least. Trước tính từ hoặc phó từ so sánh phải có the. Dùng giới từ in với danh từ số ít đếm được. Dùng giới từ of với danh từ số nhiều đếm được. adjective/ adverb + est S + V + the most + adjective / adverb least + adjective / adverb

in + singular countable noun + of + plural countable noun

John is the tallest boy in the family. Deana is the shortest of the three sisters. These shoes are the least expensive of all. Of the three shirts, this one is the prettiest. Sau cụm từ One of the + so sánh bậc nhất + noun phải đảm bảo chắc chắn rằng noun phải là số nhiều, và động từ phải chia ở số ít. One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Johnson. Kuwait is one of the biggest oil producers in the world. 41


Các phó từ thường không có các hậu tố -er hoặc –est. Chúng được chuyển sang dạng so sánh tương đối bằng cách thêm more hoặc less; sang dạng so sánh tuyệt đối bằng cách thêm most hoặc least phía trước chúng. Sal drove more cautiously than Bob. Joe dances more gracefully than his partner. That child behaves most carelessly of all. Một số các tính từ hoặc phó từ mang tính tuyệt đối thì không được dùng so sánh bậc nhất, hạn chế dùng so sánh hơn kém, nếu buộc phải dùng thì bỏ more, chúng gồm: unique/ extreme/ perfect/ supreme/ top/ absolute/prime/ primary His drawings are perfect than mine.

II. PRACTICE 1. I’m 40 years old. Jane is 30 years old. => I ..................................................................................................................................................... 2. Peter always gets mark 10 and Mary only gets mark 5 at Maths. => Peter ............................................................................................................................................... 3. The colour TV is more expensive than the black and white TV. => The black ........................................................................................................................................ 4. My mother doesn’t speak English as well as my father. => My father ....................................................................................................................................... 5. Your house is larger than mine. => My house ....................................................................................................................................... 6. Nam can run farther than I can. => I ..................................................................................................................................................... 7. Mr Binh drives more carefully than he used to. => Mr Binh ......................................................................................................................................... 8. Lan is a better typist than Hoa. =>Hoa ................................................................................................................................................. 9. Apples are usually cheaper than oranges. => Apples ........................................................................................................................................... 10. I haven’t got as much money as you. => You ............................................................................................................................................... 11. Hung is the tallest boy in our class. => Nobody .......................................................................................................................................... 12. Have you got a cheaper bike than this? => Is this ............................................................................................................................................. 13. No restaurant in the city is better than this one. => This restaurant ............................................................................................................................... 14. He is the worst guitarist in the world. => Noone ............................................................................................................................................ 15. She knows more about it than I do. => I ............................................................................................................................................................. 42


III. CÁC CÂU HỎI TRẮC NGHIỆM THEO CHUYÊN ĐỀ Circle the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. Bill Gates is one of ________ people in the world. A. the rich B. richer C. rich D. the richest I am ________ at music than my old sister. A. good B. better C. goodest D. the best Rita is ________ than the other students in class. A. hardworking B. the most hardworking C. more hardworking D. hardworkinger Ice hockey is ________ sport in Canada. A. popular B. the most popular C. more popular D. populariest Garfield is ________ than Nemo. A. the funniest B. more fun C. funnier D. funny That is ________ song this band has. A. the most beautiful B. more beautiful C. beautifulest D. beautiful The China Wall is ________ wall in the world. A. the longest B. more long C. longer D. long Cities are ________ than villages A. busier B. busy C. the busiest D. most busy February is ________ than April. A. short B. the shortest C. shorter D. most short Amalia is ________ girl in the class. A. the cleverest B. clever C. cleverer D. more clever German is ________ than English. A. the most B. difficult difficulter C. difficult D. more difficult Swimming is ________ than running. A. exciting B. more exciting C. excited D. the most exciting Your new car is _______ than my old one. A. the cheapest B. cheaper C. more cheaper D. most cheapest Travelling by plane is________ than traveling by ship. A. fastest B. fast C. faster D. more fastest New York is ________ city in USA. A. crowded B. the most crowded C. more crowded D. crowder Of the four dresses, which is _______expensive? A. the best B. the most C. the more D. the greater The larger the apartment, the_______ the rent. A. expensive B. more expensive C. expensively D. most expensive The faster we walk,_______ we will get there. A. the soonest B. the soon C. the more soon D. the sooner “ Why did you buy these oranges? ” “They were _______ I could find. ” A. cheapest B. cheapest ones C. the cheapest ones D. the most cheapest She plays the piano _______ as she sings. A. as beautifully B. more beautifully C. as beautiful D. the most beautifully 43


Nam is 5 years ______ than Hoa. A. old B. older C. elder D. eldest Mary is the______ student in my class. A. tallest B. taller C. tall D. as tall as Peter wanted to win the race. He ran ______. A. so fast as he can B. fast as he could C. fast as he can D. as fast as he could Jim is five centimeters _____ than Tom. A. tall B. tallest C. higher D. taller She speaks Chinese as ________ as I do. A. well B. good C. very good D. better Lucy answered the questions ______ than Sarah. A. more intelligent B. most intelligent C. more intelligently D. intelligent One of the ____ diseases mankind has ever faced is cancer. A. worse B. better C. worst D. best Nancy plays the piano _____ beautifully than I do. A. most B. as C. more D. quite It is ______ to talk about a problem than to solve it. A. more easier B. easiest C. easier D. easy The situation continues to get worse and ______. A. worst B. bad C. worse D. badly You have got a scholarship; you are luckier______. A. as I do B. than I am C. than I have D. than I do The longer hours you work, ______. A. the less tired you'll be B. you'll be more tired C. the more tired you'll be D. the most tired you'll be 33: Nowadays, young people ______. A. don’t read as many as their parents used to B. don’t hardly read much as their parents did C. do more reading as their parents used to D. don’t read as much as their parents used to The more you talk about the situation, ______. A. it seems the worse B. the worse it seems C. it seems worse D. the worse does it seem “Could you talk ______? I'm learning my lessons.” A. more quietly B. as quietly C. most quietly D. so quietly John said that no other car could go ______. A. fastest than his car B. faster like his car C. so fast like his car D. as fast as his car 37: The more you study, ______. A. you will gain more knowledge B. the more knowledge do you gain C. you are the more knowledgeable D. the more knowledge you gain John works much ______ than we do. A. more hardly B. harder C. hardest D. hard The longer he waited, ______ impatient he got. A. the better B. better C. the more D. more The harder you try, ______ you get. A. the best B. good C. the better D. better 41. The better the weather is, . 44


A. the most crowded the beaches get C. the more crowded the beaches get 42. The more you practise speaking English, A. the more fluently you can speak it C. the more you can speak it fluent 43. The larger the area of forest is destroyed, A. the most frequent natural disasters are C. the more frequent are natural disasters 44. The higher the cost of living is, A. the life of the immigrants becomes the harder C. the harder does the life of the immigrants become

B. the most the beaches get crowded D. the more the beaches get crowded . (THPT QG 2017) B. the more fluent you can speak it D. the more you can speak it fluently . (THPT QG 2017) B. the most frequently natural disasters occur D. the more frequently natural disasters occur . (THPT QG 2017) B. the hardest the life of the immigrants becomes D. the harder the life of the immigrants becomes

Circle the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the underlined part that needs correction in each of the following questions. Richard feels good than several days ago. A B C D 2. Mary and Daisy are both intelligent students. Mary is so intelligent as Daisy. A B C D 4. The Caspian Sea, a salt lake, is the largest than any other lakes in the world. ABCD 5. He drives the car more dangerous than his brother does. ABCD 6. It was the most biggest building that I had ever seen. A B C D 7. I wish my house were so large as Jone’s. AB C D The Mekong is one of the longer rivers in the world. A B C D She can play the piano more good than her sister. A B C D 10. Many people believe that New York is the most great city in America A B C D His drawings are as perfectly as his instructor’s drawings . A B C D 12. The salary of a professor is high than that of a secretary A B C D 13. The duties of a policeman are dangerous than those of a teacher. A B C D John’s car runs good than Mary’s. ABCD The climate in Florida is as milder as California. A B C D Classes in the university are most difficult than those in the college. A B C D The basketball games at the university are well than those of high school. 45


A B C D I feel more better today than I did last week. A B C D This encyclopedia costs three times as more as the other one. A B C D He visits his family less frequent than she does. A B C D 21. Jessica is only an amateur, but she sings well than most professionals A B C D 22. This house is more spacious as that white house I bought in Rapid City, South Dakota last year. ABC D 23. They asked a lot of questions, checked their figures, and came up with best solution. A B C D 24. Almost everyone has heard the more famous Olympic saying: “Stronger, Higher, Faster.” A BCD 25. Louise is the more capable of the three girls who have tried out for the part in the play. ABC D 26. This telephone isn’t as cheap the other one, but it works much better. A B C D 27. Stories are the most good way of teaching moral lessons to young people. A B C D 28. The first skill to learn is how to write only the more important words, not whole sentences. A B C D 29. It is certainly true that the average woman has weaker muscles that the average man. ABCD 30. In 1925, he joined the advertising department of Doubleday Page and B Company, one of the most large publishing houses in New York. C D Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. 1. They understand more than we do. A. We don’t understand as much as they do.

B. We don’t understand anything at all.

D. They are very intelligent. C. They understand everything inside out It is much more difficult to speak English than to speak French. A. To speak French is more difficult than to speak English. B. To speak English is more difficult than to speak French. C. Speaking English is more difficult than to speak French. D. Speaking French is not as difficult as to speaking English. My interview lasted longer than yours. A. Your interview wasn’t as short as mine. C. Your interview was as long as mine

B. Your interview was shorter than mine. D. Your interview was longer than mine.

4. When I was younger, I used to go climbing more than I do now. A. Now I don’t go climbing anymore. B. I used to go climbing when I younger. 46


C. Now I don’t go climbing as much as I did. D. I don’t like going climbing any more. 5. Your coffee is not as good as mine. A. Mine is better than yours. B. My coffee is better than your. C. My coffee is better than yours. D. My coffee is more good than yours. 6. I can't cook as well as my mother does. B. My mother can't cook better than I can. A. My mother can cook better than I can. D. I can cook better than my mother can. C. My mother can cook well than I can. 7. Murder is the most serious of all crimes. B. No crime is more serious than murder. A. Murder is very serious. D. Murder is the dangerous crime. C. Everyone is very afraid of murder. 8. No one in this class is as tall as Richard. B. Richard is taller than in this class. A. Richard is the tallest in this class. D. Richard is more tall than in this class. C. Richard is the most tall in this class. 9. This is the best music I have ever heard. B. I’ve never heard such a good music as this. A. I’ve never heard better music than this. D. This is the first time I’ve heard this good music. C. I’ve never heard so good music as this.

4. PASSIVE VOICE PART A. Lý thuyết chung: * Sơ đồ cách chuyển từ câu chủ động sang bị động: Sơ đồ chung Active + + + (place) + (time) S V O thì hình thức Passive + + Vcột 3 /ed + (place) + + (time) be S by O số ít - nhiều Muốn đổi một câu chủ động sang câu bị động thì phải xác định được chủ từ (S), động từ và túc từ trong câu song làm như sơ đồ. Chú ý động từ chính trong câu chủ động ở thì nào thì "be" ở câu bị động chia theo thì đó. I. Bị động với 6 thì không tiếp diễn. 1. The Simple present S + V + O S + (is, am, are) + VpII by O Ex: She cleans the floor.

The floor is cleaned (by her)

2. The Simple past.

S + V(ed/irregular) + O S + were,was + VpII by O Ex: She cleaned the room yesterday. The room was cleaned (by her yesterday). VpII 3. The Present perfect. S + have, has + + O S + have, has been VpII + O Ex: I have bought the book. The book has been bought (by me). VpII 4. The Past perfect S + had + + O S + had been VpII by O 47


Ex: I had met him before 4 p.m yesterday. He had been met (by me) before 4 p.m yesterday. 5. The Future simple. S + will + V + O S + will be VpII by O Ex : I will buy the bicycle. The bicycle will be bought (by me). VpII 6. The Future perfect. S + will have + + O S + will have been VpII by O Ex : I will have met him by nine. He will have been met (by me). II. SÁU THÌ TIẾP DIỄN Ở THỂ BỊ ĐỘNG Sơ đồ chung S + be + V-ing S

+

be

being

VpII

+

O by

O

1. The Present progressive: S + (is, am, are) + V-ing + O S + (is, am, are) being PP by O Ex : He is washing the clothes. The clothes are being washed (by him). 2. The Past progressive: S + (were,was) + V-ing + O S + (were,was) being VpII by O Ex 1. They were watching the play The play was being watched. 3. The Future Present progressive: S + will be + V-ing + O S + will be being VpII by O Ex : He will be reading the book. The book will be being read (by him). 4. The Present Perfect Progressive: S + have/has been + V-ing +O S + have/has been being + VpII by O Ex: She has been repairing the computer for 3 days. The computer repaired for 3 days. 5. The Past Perfect Progressive: S + had been + V-ing +O S + had been being + VpII by O 6. The Future Perfect Progressive: S + will have been + V-ing + O S + will have been being + VpII by O III. CÁC CẤU TRÚC KHÁC. 1. Modal Verbs S + modal verb + V (bare) + O S + Modal verb be VpII by O Ex: 1. She can do the exercises The exercises can be done by her. 2. Be going to: S + be going to + V + O S + be going to be PP by O 3. Have to/had to

has been being

48


S + have to, had to + V + O S + have to, had to be PP by O 4. Used to: S + used to + V + O S + used to be PP by O It is + adj + to V + O 5. It is + adj for + O + to be + PP OR S + be + adj + to be + PP IV. OTHER SPECIAL STRUCTURES STRUCTURE 1: If the verb in that – clause is in the simple present:

S1+ V1(s,es)+that+ S2+ V2 +O 1.( It is V1+ed/p2 + that+ clause không đổi) S2+ V1+ed/p2 + to Vo … People / they + think / say /suppose / believe / consider / report…+ that + clause 1. It's + thought/ said/ supposed/ believed/ considered/ reported…+ that + clause

S + am/ is/ are + thought/ said/ supposed…+ to + V-inf Eg: People say that he is 108 years old. It is said that he is 108 years old He is said to be 108 years old STRUCTURE 2: If the verb in that – clause is in the simple past or present perfect: Eg: They believe that she passed the final exam It is believed that she passed the final exam She is believed to have passed the final exam Eg: People think he stole my car. >>1. It's thought that he stole my car. He is thought to have stolen my car. STRUCTURE 3 Somebody + want/ like/expect + someone to do something Somebody + want /like/expect + something + to be done Eg: Our teacher wants us to prepare our lessons carefully. Our teacher wants our lessons to be prepared carefully. They expected me to finish my work early. They expected my work to be finished early. STRUCTURE 4 Somebody + see/make/let + someone + do + something (active) Someone is seen/made + to do something (passive) Someone is let + do something (passive) but we often say: someone is (not) allowed to do something Eg: He made me stay outside yesterday. (active) I was made to stay outside yesterday. The teacher let us go home early last week. (active) 49


We were let go home early by the teacher last week. often: We were allowed to go home early by the teacher last week. I saw the thief climb the wall. (active) The thief was seen to climb the wall. STRUCTURE 5 Somebody + have + someone + do something Somebody + get + someone + to do something Somebody + have + something + done "To get someone to do something" suggests that you talked to the person and convinced him to do something. "To have someone do something" simply states that you arranged for someone to do something, whether or not that person did it voluntarily. Eg: He had his waiter carry the luggage home. He had the luggage carried home by the waiter. I got the postman to post the letter for me. I had the letter posted for me by the postman. STRUCTURE 6 Don’t do something (active) something mustn’t be done It’s impossible to do something (active) something can’t be done It’s possible to do something (active) something can be done Eg: Don’t touch this switch. This switch mustn’t be touched It is impossible to do this This can’t be done. STRUCTURE 7 Somebody + advise/ beg/ urge/ recommend someone to do something (active) Cách 1: Someone is advised/ begged/ urged/ recommended to do something Cách 2: Somebody advise/ beg/ urge/ recommend that something should be done Eg: He advised me to sell the car. I was advised to sell the car. He advised that the car should be sold. STRUCTURE 8 Somebody + agree/ arrange/ determine/ decide/ is deternined/ is anxious +to do something (active) Somebody + agree/ arrange/ determine/ decide/ is deternined/ is anxious + that something should be done Eg: She decided to rebuild the house. She decided that the house should be rebuilt. STRUCTURE 9 Somebody + insist/ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest + doing something (active) Somebody insist/ advise/ propose/ recommend/ suggest that something should be done Eg: He suggested selling the radio. He suggested that radio should be sold. They advised enlarging the garden. They advised that the garden should be enlarged. 50


STRUCTURE 10 Mệnh lệnh thức (imperative) + Object S + should/must + be +P2/ Let+object+be+P.P Eg: Turn on the lights. Open your book, please! The lights should be turned on. Let your book be opened, please! A. MULTIPLE CHOICES Exercise 1: 1. Everything that _________ remained a secret. A. had be overheard B. had been overheard C. had been overheared D. would had been overheard 2. Everything ___________________________. A. were forbidden B. is forbidden C. is forbidded D. are forbidden 3.Everything___________________________. A. are going to be forgotten B. is going to be forgotten C. is going to be forgot D. were going to be forgotten 4. I___________________________. A. have not given the money B. have not been given the money C. have not been give the money D. have not be given the money 5. It _________ for years. A. has not be known B. had not been known C. had not be known D. have not been known 6. It _________ that learning English is easy. A. are said B. said C. is said D. is sayed 7. John and Ann___________________________. A. were not mislead B. were not misleeded C. was not misled D. were not misled 8. Our horses ___________________________. A. are well feeded B. are well fed C. is well fed D. is well feeded 9. Peter and Tom _________ in an accident yesterday. A. is hurt B. is hurted C. were hurt D. were hurted 10. South Florida and HawaiI _________ by a hurricane. A. is hit B. have been hit C. have are hit D. has been hit 11. The battles _________ for liberation . A. had be fought B. had been fighted C. had been fought D. has been fought 12. We can’t go along here because the road........................ A. is repairing B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. repairs 13. The story I’ve just read_________ Agatha Christie. A. was written B. was written by C. was written from D. wrote by 14. I’m going to go out and_________ A. have cut my hair B. have my hair cut C. cut my hair D. my hair be cut 15. Something funny_________ in class yesterday. A. happened B. was happened C. happens D. is happened 16. Many US automobiles_________ in Detroit, Michigan A. manufacture B. have manufactured C. are manufactured D. are manufacturing 17. A lot of pesticide residue can_________ unwashed produce. 51


A. find B. found C. be finding D. be found 18. We_________ by a loud noise during the night. A. woke up B. are woken up C. were woken up D. were waking up 19. Some film stars_________ difficult to work with. A. are said be B. are said to be C. say to be D. said to be 20. Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? – I don’t enjoy_________ at. A. be laughed B. to be laughed C. laughing D. being laughed 21.Today, many serious childhood diseases_________ by early immunization.[ sự miễn dịch] A. are preventing B. can prevent C. prevent D. can be prevented 22.Do you get your heating_________ every year? A. checking B. check C. be checked D. checked 23. Bicycles_________ in the driveway. A. must not leave B. must not be leaving C. must not be left D. must not have left 24. Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony_________ next weekend.[ Symphony: khúc giao hưởng] A. is going to be performed B. has been performed C. will be performing D. will have perform 25. All bottles_________ before transportation. A. frozen B. were froze C. were frozen D. are froze 26. ___________________________.yet? A. Have the letters been typed B. Have been the letters typed C. Have the letters typed D. Had the letters typed English has become a second language in countries like India, Nigeria or Singapore where `_________ for administration, broadcasting and education. A. is used B. it is used C. used D. being used 28. The telephones_________ by Alexander Graham Bell. A. is invented B. is inventing C. invented D. was invented 29. Lots of houses_________ by the earthquake. A. are destroying B. destroyed C. were destroyed D. is destroyed th 30. Gold_________ in California in the 19 century. A. was discovered B. has been discovered C. was discover D. they discover 31.The preparation_________ by the time the guest_________ A. had been finished- arrived B. have finished- arrived C. had finished-were arriving D. have been finished- were arrived 32. The boy_________ by the teacher yesterday. A. punish B. punished C. punishing D. was punished “Ms Jones, please type those letters before noon”_ “They’ve already ______, sir. They’re on your desk.” A. typed B. been being typed C. being typed D. been typed 34. Sarah is wearing a blouse. It___________ of cotton. A. be made B. are made C. is made D. made 35. They had a boy _________ that yesterday. A. done B. to do C. did D. do 36. We got our mail _________ yesterday. A. been delivered B. delivered C. delivering D. to deliver 52


37. James……..the news as soon as possible. A. should tell B. should be told C. should told D. should be telled 38. My wedding ring _________ yellow and white gold. A. is made B. is making C. made D. make 39. Mr. Wilson is _________ as Willie to his friend. A. known B. knew C. is known D. know 40. References _________ in the examination room. A. not are used B. is not used C. didn’t used D. are not used 41. Laura _________ in Boston. A. are born B. were born C. was born D. born 42. His car needs _________ A. be fixed B. fixing C. to be fixing D. fixed 43. Her watch needs _________. A. repair B. to be repaired C. repaired D. to repair 45. This house is going _________by my mother A. sold B. sell C. to be sold D. to sell 46. There’s somebody behind us. I think we are _________. A. being followed B. are followed C. follow D. following 47. Have you _________ by a dog? A. bite B. bit C. ever been bitten D. ever been bit 48. The room is being _________ at the moment. A. was cleaned B. cleaned C. cleaning D. clean 49. It _________ that the strike will end soon. A. is expected B. expected C. are expected D. was expected 50.It is _________ that many people are homeless after the floods. A. was reported B. reports C. reported D. reporting 51. He was said _________ this building. A. designing B. to have designed C. to design D. designed 52. Those letters _________ now. You can do the typing later. A. need typing B. needn't to be typed C. need to type D. needn't typing “What a beautiful dress you are wearing”- “Thanks, it_______ especially for me by a French tailor.” A. is made B. has made C. made D. was made 54. Somebody cleans the room every day. A. The room everyday is cleaned. B. The room is every day cleaned. C. The room is cleaned every day. D. The room is cleaned by somebody every day. 55. People don’t use this road very often. A. This road is not used very often. B. Not very often this road is not used. C. This road very often is not used. D. This road not very often is used. 56.How do people learn languages? A. How are languages learned? B. How are languages learned by people? C. How languages are learned? D. Languages are learned how? 57.Over 1500 new houses _________ each year. Last year, 1720 new houses _________. A. were built/ were built B. are built/ were built C. are building / were built D. were built/ were being built 58. Tom bought that book yesterday. A. That book was bought by Tom yesterday. B. That book were bought yesterday by 53


Tom. C. That book yesterday was bought by Tom 59. The new computer system _________ next month. A. is be installed C. is been installed

D. That book was bought yesterday. B. is being installed D. are being installed by people

Exercise 2: They were interviewing her for the job. She ________________ for the job. A. was being interviewed B. was interviewed C. has been interviewed D. are being interviewed 2. Tom is writing the letter. The letter ________________ by Tom. A. was written B. is being written C. has been written D. are being written Everyone understands English. English ________________. A. is understood B. has been understood C. was understood D. are understood 4. The employees brought up this issue during the meeting. This issue ________________ by the employees during the meeting. A. has been brought up B. is brought up C. was brought up D. is being brought up 5. The professor told him not to talk in class. He ________________ by the professor not to talk in class. A. has been told B. was told C. was being told D. is told 6. They say that women are smarter than men. Women ________________ to be smarter than men. A. were being said B. were said C. are said D. said 7. The fire has destroyed the house. The house ________________ by the fire. A. has been destroyed B. was being destroyed C. is destroyed D. are destroyed She would have told you. You ________________ by her. A. would have been told B. would be told C. were being told D. would have told 9. She would reject the offer. The offer ________________ by her. A. will have been rejected B. would be rejected C. will be rejected D. are rejected B. Rewrite each of the following sentences in such a way that it means almost the same as the sentence printed before it. 1. They must do their task now. …………………………………………………………………. 2. He expected me to buy him a book. …………………………………………………………………. 3. They want him to invite them to the party. …………………………………………………………………. 4. They opened the road 10 years ago. …………………………………………………………………. 5. He can mend all chairs for you now. ………………………………………………………………….. 6. We expected them to forgive us. …………………………………………………………………. 7. They allowed women to vote many years ago. Women were allowed to vote many years ago. 8. You should open the wine 3 hours before you use it. 54


…………………………………………………………………. 9. They suggested making the test easier. …………………………………………………………………. 10. People think she is the most beautiful girl. …………………………………………………………………. 11. It’s your duty to make tea for the party. …………………………………………………………………. 12. They let their children go to the zoo last Sunday. …………………………………………………………………. 13. He had the neighbor mend the chair. …………………………………………………………………. 14. The walls need painting. …………………………………………………………………. 15. He made me clean all the plates last night. …………………………………………………………………. 16. Don’t close the door. …………………………………………………………………. 17. People say he is very rich. …………………………………………………………………. 18. We see her walk with him every evening. …………………………………………………………………. 19. They had the typist type all their letters. …………………………………………………………………. 20. I am going to ask the gardener to cut my fence tomorrow. …………………………………………………………………. 21. Don’t let others see you. …………………………………………………………………. 22. He needn’t repair the bike. …………………………………………………………………. 23. People think he was an artist. …………………………………………………………………. 24. It’s impossible to rebuild the school. …………………………………………………………………. 25. He let me come in. …………………………………………………………………. 26. People said she was very intelligent. …………………………………………………………………. 27. He doesn’t need to paint the house. ………………………………………………………………….. 28. You needn’t water the flowers. …………………………………………………………………. 29. Tom used to borrow my pen. …………………………………………………………………. 55


30. He had to finish his work on time. …………………………………………………………………. 31. You needn't do all the homework. …………………………………………………………………. 32. You ought to tell him early. …………………………………………………………………. 33. They don't use the room very often …………………………………………………………………. 34. They must widen the road to school this year. …………………………………………………………………. 35. Have you done your homework? …………………………………………………………………. 36. Did you finish your work early? …………………………………………………………………. 37. Who will Ann meet at the airport? …………………………………………………………………. 38. What did you do last night? …………………………………………………………………. 39.Who wrote this book? …………………………………………………………………. 40. Who has seen her at the party? …………………………………………………………………. 41. Who built this house? …………………………………………………………………. 42. Who had to tell you about it? …………………………………………………………………. 43. Who can do this work? …………………………………………………………………. 44. Who will meet you at the airport? ………………………………………………………………….

45. I can't make tea with cold water. .…………………………………………………………………. Tom has taken away some of my books .…………………………………………………………………. They will hold the meeting before Tuesday. .…………………………………………………………………. Open your books, please! .…………………………………………………………………. 46. They have to repair the enginer of the car.

.…………………………………………………………………. The boy broke the window and took away some pictures. .…………………………………………………………………. 56


A man I know told me about it. .…………………………………………………………………. No one believes his story. .…………………………………………………………………. Do they teach English here? . …………………………………………………………………. Will you invite her to your wedding party? . …………………………………………………………………. Some people will interview the new president on TV. .…………………………………………………………………. The manager didn’t phone the secretary this morning. .…………………………………………………………………. 47. They find the new project worthless.

.…………………………………………………………………. Tim ordered this train ticket for his mother. .…………………………………………………………………. You didn’t show me the special camaras. .…………………………………………………………………. She showed her ticket to the airline agent. .…………………………………………………………………. He lends his friend his new shoes. .………………………………………………………………….

48. She left her relatives five million pounds. .…………………………………………………………………. The shop assistant handed these boxes to the customer. .…………………………………………………………………. The board awarded the first prize to the reporter. .…………………………………………………………………. They make shoes in that factory. ………………………………………………………………….

49. People must not leave bicycles in the driveway. ………………………………………………………………….

50. They built that skyscraper in 1934. ………………………………………………………………….

51. The students will finish the course by July. ………………………………………………………………….

52. They are repairing the streets this month. ………………………………………………………………….

53. They make these tools of plastic. ………………………………………………………………….

54. They have finished the new product design. 57


………………………………………………………………….

55. They were cooking dinner when I arrived. ………………………………………………………………….

56. Smithers painted 'Red Sunset' in 1986. ………………………………………………………………….

57. Did the plan interest you? …………………………………………………………………. They had finished the preparations by the time the guests arrived. ………………………………………………………………….

CLEFT SENTENCES (Câu nhấn mạnh) Câu nhấn mạnh được dùng để nhấn mạnh một thành phần của câu như chủ từ, túc từ hay trạng từ 1. Nhấn mạnh chủ từ (Subject focus) Form: It + is / was + S + WHO/ WHICH/ THAT + V… Ex1: My brother collected these foreign stamps. It was my brother who/that collected these foreign stamps. Ex2: Her absence at the party made me sad. It was her absence at the party which/that made me sad. Nhấn mạnh túc từ (Object focus) Form: It + is / was + O+ WHO(m)/ WHICH/ THAT + S + V… Ex1: I met Daisy on the way to school. It was Daisy who(m) I met on the way to school. Ex2: My brother bought an old motorbike from our neighbor. It was an old motorbike which/that my brother bought from our neighbor. * Note: Khi động từ chính trong câu gốc ở thì quá khứ thì động từ TO BE chia ở quá khứ là WAS, khi ở thì hiện tại, hoặc tương lai thì nó được chia là IS. Khi nhấn mạnh túc từ ta có thể dùng who thay cho whom nhưng khi nhấn mạnh chủ từ thì không dùng whom thay cho who. Ex: + The man is learning English It is the man who is learning English. + The woman gave him the English book. It was him who(m) the woman gave the English book. Nhấn mạnh trạng từ (Adverbial focus)

It was in December that we first met. I was born in this village. It was in this village that I was born. Cleft sentences in the passive a. It + is / was + Noun / pronoun (person) + who + tobe + P.P… Ex: Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers. It was that singer who was given a lot of flowers. b. It + is / was + Noun (thing) + that +to be + P.P… 58


Ex: + People talk about this film. → It is this film that is talked about. Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers. It was a lot of flowers that were given to that singer. PRACTICE Exercise 1: Change these sentences into cleft sentences My father usually complains about my students whenever they go to my house. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I used to like climbing up tress and pick fruits. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. My neighbors always make noise at night. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. We often complain about the noise at night ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. You gave her a bunch of rose last week. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Our English teacher is the greatest teacher in the world. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. The earthquake destroyed everything two years ago. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. My recent computer helps me a lots in preparing tasks for my students. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. My students’ bad behavior made me sad yesterday morning. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. The man gave her the book ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. The boy visited his uncle last month. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. I and she sang together at the party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. Nam’s father got angry with him. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. The boys played football all day long. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. The girl received a letter from her friend yesterday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. His presence at the meeting frightened the children. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. My mother bought me a present on my birthday party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. The neighbor told them about it. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. My friend came to see me late last night. 59


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. That boy scored the goal for his team. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exercise 2: Change these sentences into cleft sentences 0. My younger sister always keeps her doll carefully. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. The boy hit the dog in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. The woman answered the man rudely. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. The boy played ping pong the whole afternoon. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. The girl gave the boy a special gift on his birthday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. My wife gave this T-shirt to me on my last birthday party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. I always keep your picture besides me. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. He borrowed the money from his close friend – Hoa. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. The police arrested the man at the railway station. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. The man is learning English. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. The woman gave him the English book. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. She sent her friend a post card. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. Hoa borrowed some English books from Long. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. The little boy greeted his grand father in a strange language. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. The pedestrian asked the policeman a lot of questions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. The dog barked at the stranger. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. My mom is making some cakes for our dinner. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. We all saw her husband out side the theater lats night. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. Mr. Hao repaired the roof yesterday morning. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. I always meet my students in the cafÊ whenever I come there. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exercise 3: Change these sentences into cleft sentences ((Paying attention to the adverbial phrase) 60


1. We were born in this place. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. We often gather for dinner in this restaurant. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. The boy hit the dog in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. He bought the book from that corner shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. She bought him a present at the shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. She makes some cakes for tea. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. His father repaired the bicycle for him. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. The meeting started at 8.00 a.m. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. We all bought those things from Susu shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. He met his wife in Britain. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. My mom presented a lap top on my birthday party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. Kathy bought her husband an anniversary gift at a sports shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. He got married when he was 26 years old. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. They were having barbecue in the park. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. I met her on the way to school. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. They often have parties on the weekend. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. The police arrested the thief at the railway station. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. I gave him a photo album on his wedding day. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. We planted some young trees in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. I met my wife when I was a student at teacher training college. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Exercise 4: Change these sentences into cleft sentences in the passive 1. My husband watered the flowers every day. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. They celebrated their wedding last week. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61


3. He described his home town in his novel. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. Most girls like Spring. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. My father bought the car for me on my birthday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. The prince kissed my younger sister at the party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. My younger sister always keeps her doll carefully. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. The boy hit the dog in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. The woman answered the man rudely. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. The boy played ping pong the whole afternoon. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. The girl gave the boy a special gift on his birthday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. My wife gave this T-shirt to me on my last birthday party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. I always keep your picture besides me. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. He borrowed the money from his close friend – Hoa. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. The police arrested the man at the railway station. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. The man is learning English. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. The woman gave him the English book. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. She sent her friend a post card. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. Hoa borrowed some English books from Long. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. The little boy greeted his grand father in a strange language. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. The pedestrian asked the policeman a lot of questions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. The dog barked at the stranger. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23. My mom is making some cakes for our dinner. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24. We all saw her husband out side the theater lats night. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25. Mr. Hao repaired the roof yesterday morning. 62


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26. I always meet my students in the cafee whenever I come there. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27. I bought this motor in HCM city some years ago. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28. I met Sasa on the way to my school. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29. Vietnamese people celebrate Tet as the greatest occasion in a year. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30. My mother gave me this story book as a birthday present. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31. Her younger sister broke her glasses. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32. She frightened the children. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33. My father bought me a lap top for my birthday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34. People talked a lot about his house. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35. The pedestrian asked the policeman for the direction to the post office. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MIXED - EXERCISE Exercise 1: Change these sentences into cleft sentences: 1. The boy visited his uncle last month. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. I and she sang together at the party ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Nam’s father got angry with him. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. The boys played football all day long. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. The girl received a letter from her friend yesterday. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. His presence at the meeting frightened the children. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. My mother bought me a present on my birthday party. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. The neighbor told them about it. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. My friend came to see me late last night. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. That boy scored the goal for his team. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. The dog grabbed at the piece of meat and ran away. 63


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12. The strong wind blew the roof off. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13. The police arrested the man at the railway station. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. The man is learning English. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. The woman gave him the English book. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16. She sent her friend a post card. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17. Hoa borrowed some English books from Long ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18. The little boy greeted his grand father in a strange language. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19. The pedestrian asked the policeman a lot of questions. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20. The dog barked at the stranger. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. My mom is making some cakes for our dinner. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. We all saw her husband out side the theater last night. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23. Mr. Hao repaired the roof yesterday morning. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24. I always meet this student in the cafĂŠ whenever I come there. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25. I bought this motor in HCM city some years ago. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26. I met Sasa on the way to my school. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27. We were born in this place. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28. We often gather for dinner in this restaurant. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29. The boy hit the dog in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30. He bought the book from that corner shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31. She bought him a present at the shop. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32. She makes some cakes for tea. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33. His father repaired the bicycle for him. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------64


34. I met her on the way to school. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------35. They often had parties at the weekends. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36. The police arrested the thief at the railway station. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37. I gave him a photo album on his wedding day. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------38. We planted some young trees in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------39. I met my wife when I was a student at teacher training college. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------40. My father usually complains about my students whenever they go to my house. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer for each of the following question. 1. ________ I bought the golden fish. A. It was from this shop that B. I was from this shop where C. It was this shop which D. It was this shop that 2. It was Tom _______ to help us. A. comes B. that comes C. to come D. who came 3. _______ the police had rescued from the fire. A. The baby B. The baby that C. It was the baby whom D. The baby whom 4. ________ my parents gave me the fish tank. A. It was on my birthday when B. It was my birthday on that C. It was my birthday that D. It was on my birthday that 5. _______ I first met my girlfriend. A. It was in London that B. It was in London where C. It was London that D. It was London which 6. _________ on the phone. A. It is his mother whom is B. It was his mother whom is C. It was his mother who is D. It is his mother who is 7. ________ a high level of blood cholesterol. A. It is eggs that contain B. Those are eggs it contains C. It is eggs that contains D. It is eggs contain 8. _________ England won the World Cup. A. It was in 1966 that B. It was on 1966 that C. It was in 1966 when D. It was 1966 in that 9. __________ we all look for. A. It is happiness that B. That happiness C. Happiness it is that D. Happiness it is 10. ____________ me how to play the drum. A. It was my uncle who taught B. My uncle who taught C. It was my uncle taught D. It is my uncle teaching 11. It is the room _______ we usually hold our meetings. 65


B. why C. where D. when A. that 12. It’s my brother ________ gave me this hat on my birthday. A. he B. whose C. which D. who 13. It was a letter __________ she received from her aunt yesterday. A. that B. whom C. it D. where 14. It is __________ who I want to make friend with. A. she B. her C. hers D. she’s 15. It was in New York ___________ I first met her ten years ago. A. there B. where C. that D. which 16. It ___________ English that the man is learning in the classroom. A. is B. was C. be D. were 17. It ___________ at the bank that the wanted man changed the money. A. is B. was C. being D. were 18. It was the dog ___________ the boy hit in the garden. A. where B. in which C. who D. that 19. It is the student who _________ toward us. A. is running B. was running C. ran D. were running 20. It ___________ Peter and Sandra who travelled together on the ship to Asia. A. is B. was C. be D. were 21. It was in 1875 ___________joined the staff of the astronomical observatory at Harvard University. A. that Anna Winlock B. Anna Winlock, who C. as Anna Winlock D. Anna Winlock then 22.___________that the capital of South Carolina was moved from Charleston to Columbia. A. In 1790 was B. There was in 1790 C. In 1790 D. It was in 1790 23. It was Mr. Harding ___________ the bill to yesterday. A. who sent my secretary B. to whom my secretary sent C. that my secretary sent D. my secretary sent 24.___________ who was elected the first woman mayor of Chicago in 1979. A. It was Jane Byrne B. Jane Byrne C. That Jane Byrne D. When Jane Byrne 25. It is in Quebec___________ French is used as an official language . A. which B. where C. in where D. that 26. ___________that the capital of South Carolina was moved from Charleston to Columbia. A. In 1790 was B. There was in 1790 C. In 1790 D. It was in 1790 27. ___________ Ruth St. Dennis turned to Asian dances to find inspiration for her choreography. A. It was the dancer that B. The dancer C. That the dancer D. The dancer was 28. It is the library ____. A. that I often borrow books B. that I often borrow books from C. where I often borrow books from D. from that I often borrow books 29. __________ took my car. A. It was you B. It were you C. It was you that D. It was you whom 30. ___________me how to play the drum. A. It was my uncle who taught B. My uncle who taught C. It was my uncle taught D. It is my uncle teaching 31. ___________gave me that picture book. A. Mary B. It was Mary C. It was Mary whom D. It was Mary whose 66


32. It is ___________we will leave for Paris. A. April B. in April that C. April in that D. in April when 33. ___________on my part that I could not manage to deliver the goods on time. A. An error B. That is an error C. It was an error D. An error it was 34. ___________took my document ? A. It is Peter that B. It was Peter that C. Was it Peter that D. Was that Peter 35. It is ___________I get emotional satisfaction. A. collecting stamps that B. from collecting stamps that C. collecting stamps from that D. collecting stamps that from 36. ___________taught me how to collect butterflies. A. It was my father B. It is my father C. It was my father whom D. My father 37. It was the woman that ___________us English last year. A. taught B. teaches C. has taught D. had taught 38. It was the boy ___________ I told you about. A. that B. whose C. who’s D. None is correct 39. ___________was Nam who wanted to buy my old guitar. A. There B. Which C. It D. Who Nguyen Du wrote Kieu story. It is Kieu story that was written by Nguyen Du. It was Kieu story that was written by Nguyen Du. It was Kieu story that is written by Nguyen Du. It is Kieu story that is written by Nguyen Du. They grow corn in India. A. It is corn that they grow in India. B. It was corn that they grow in India. C. It is corn that was grown in India. D. It was corn that is grown in India 42. The cat is going to catch the mouse. A. It was the mouse that the cat is going to catch. B. It is the mouse that the cat is going to catch. C. It is the mouse that was being caught by the cat. D. It was the mouse that was being caught by the cat. Mary bought this book yesterday. It is this book that Mary bought yesterday. It is this book that was bought by Mary yesterday. It was this book that was bought by Mary yesterday. It is this book that is bought by Mary yesterday. They feed these animals twice a day. It was these animals that they feed twice a day. It is these animals that were fed twice a day. It was these animals that are fed twice a day. It is these animals that they feed twice a day. My brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour last Saturday. It is last Saturday that my brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour. It was last Saturday that my brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour. It is last Saturday when my brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour. It was last Saturday which my brother bought his new car from our next-door neighbour.

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6. MODAL VERBS Knowledge: I. Modal verbs. 1. Can: - We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities at present: Eg: 1. She can speak five languages. He can swim like a fish. They can’t dance very well. We use can to talk about the ability to do something at a given time in the present or future: Eg: 1.You can make a lot of money if you are lucky. Help. I can’t breathe. They can run but they can’t hide. We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible or impossible: Eg: 1.It can be very cold in winter. You can easily lose your way in the dark. That can’t be true. We use can to ask for permission to do something: Eg: 1.Can I ask a question, please? Can we go home now? We use can to give permission: Eg: 1.You can go home now if you like. You can borrow my pen if you like. We use can I … to make offers: Eg: 1. Can I help you? 2. Can I do that for you? 2. Could: We use could to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities in the past: Eg: 1. He could ride a bike when he was only three. He couldn’t speak until he was three. We use could to ask for permission to do something: Eg: 1. Could I use your phone? Could I ask you some questions? We use could to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain: Eg: 1. If we don’t hurry we could be late. (=Perhaps/Maybe we will be late) - We use could as a polite way of telling or asking someone to do something: Eg: 1. Could you take a message please? 2. Could I have my bill please? 3. Will: - We use will to say what we believe will happen in the future: Eg: 1. We'll be late. We will have to take the train. We use will to make offers and promises:

68


Eg: 1. I’ll give you a lift home after the party. We will come and see you next week. We use will to talk about what people want to do or are willing to do: Eg: 1. We’ll see you tomorrow. 2. Perhaps dad will lend me the car. 4. Would: would is the past tense form of will. It is usedto talk about the past. Eg: I thought I would be late …… It is used to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true. Eg: I would give her a call if I could find her number It is also used for politeness. Eg: Would you carry this for me please? * Phrases with would: + would you…, would you mind (not) -ing, for requests: Eg: 1. Would you mind carrying this? Would you mind not telling him that? would you like ...; would you like to ..., for offers and invitations: Eg: 1. Would you like to come round tomorrow? Would you like another drink? I would like …; I’d like … (you)(to) ..., to say what we want or what we want to do: Eg: 1. I’d like that one please. I’d like to go home now. I’d rather… (I would rather) to say what we prefer: Eg: 1.I’d rather have that one. I’d rather go home now. I would think, I would imagine, I'd guess, to give an opinion when we are not sure or when we want to be polite: Eg: 1.It’s very difficult I would imagine. 2. I would think that’s the right answer. 5. May: "May" is most commonly used to express possibility. Eg: 1. A: Where is John? B: He may be sleeping. I haven’t decided where to go next summer. I may go to Ireland. She may be elected President of the club. It can also be used to give or request permission. Eg: 1. May I use your phone? Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. May is also used in expressing a wish. Eg: 1. May God bless you! 2.May his soul rest in peace! 6. Might: - Might is the past tense of may in indirect speech. Eg: He said, ‘I may stand for election.’ He said that he might stand for election. Might is often used to express possibility. Note that might expresses less possibility than may. 69


Eg: I may pass. (50% chance) I might pass. (20% chance) The patient may recover. (It is possible for the patient to recover.) The patient might recover. (It is possible but very unlikely.) It is also often used in conditional sentences ( type 2&3). Eg: If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. - We can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests. Eg: 1. You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. 2. You might try the cheesecake. 2. Might I have something to drink? 7. Must: "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. Eg: 1. This must be the right address!

The boy has been running for hours. He must be very tired. Look at all of that snow. It must be really cold outside. We use “ Must” to express obligation or duty. Eg: 1. I must memorize all of these rules about modal verbs. People must remain seated until the show is over. You must wear a seatbelt at all times. It can also be used to emphasize the necessity of something. Eg: 1. Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. You must give up smoking, it's bad for you. Plants must have light and water to grow. Must is also used to express a strong recommendation. Eg: 1. We really must get together for dinner sometime. You must see the new Peter Jackson movie, it's fantastic. The ice cream here is delicious. You must try some 8. Mustn’t: - It is used to express prohibition. Eg: 1. You musn’t walk on the grass. 2. You mustn’t use your phone while driving 9. Should: - "Should" is most commonly used to give advice. Eg: 1. You should study hard to win a place at a university. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods. They shouldn’t drink too much alcohol. It is used to make recommendations. Eg: 1. When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. - It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Eg: 1. Susan should be in New York by now. You should be wearing your seat belt Ough to: - "Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. 70


Eg: You ought to stop smoking. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. Eg: Jim ought to get the promotion. 11. Need/ Needn’t: It is used to state that something is/ isn’t necessary. Eg: 1. You have got plenty of time. You needn’t hurry. You need pay attention to what the teacher is saying. You needn’t wear uniform on Saturday. II. Modal perfect 1. Could, may, might + have + P2 = có lẽ đã - Diễn đạt một điều gì đó có thể đã xảy ra hoặc có thể đúng ở quá khứ song người nói không dám chắc. Eg: 1. He could have forgotten the ticket for the concert last night. I didn’t hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleeping at that time. John might have gone to the movies yesterday. Diễn đạt điều gì đó có thể xảy ra nhưng đã không xảy ra Eg: Why did you leave him come home alone? He might/could have got lost. Should/shouldn’t + have + P2 = lẽ ra phải, lẽ ra nên/ không nên Chỉ một việc lẽ ra đã phải xảy ra / không trong quá khứ nhưng vì lí do nào đó lại không xảy ra/đã xảy ra. Eg: 1. Maria should have called John last night. John should have gone to the post office this morning. The policeman should have made a report about the burglary. We shouldn’t have treated her like that. She must be really sad. * Chúng ta cũng có thể dùng cụm từ was/were supposed to + V để thay cho should + have + P2 Eg: 1. John was supposed to go to the post office this morning. The policeman was supposed to make a report about the burglary. Must + have + P2 = chắc là đã, hẳn là đã Chỉ một kết luận logic dựa trên những hiện tượng có đã xảy ra ở quá khứ Eg: The grass is wet. It must have rained last night. Jane did very well on the exam. She must have studied hard. Would + have + Past Participle: (đã . . . rồi) dùng trong câu điều kiện loại III. Eg: If I had had enough money, I would have bought that Honda. Can’t + have + Past Participle: dùng để chỉ một sự việc gần như chắc chắn không thể xảy ra. Eg: Last night, Mary can’t have gone out with John because she had to be at home to do her homework. Needn’t + have + P2: dùng để chỉ việc không cần thiết phải làm nhưng đã làm rồi. 71


Eg: 1. I needn’t have brought the umbrella because I didnt rain. You needn’t have bought so much food. We have two. III. Modal in the passive Form: Active:

Passive:

S+modals+V infinitive + Object + …

S+modals + be+ Vp2 +…+(by Object)

Eg: 1. You may forget the rules quickly. Infi o

-> The rules may be forgotten quickly. Vp2 2. The doctor can't persuade her. -> She can’t be persuaded (by the doctor) 3. You should clean your teeth twice a day. -> Your teeth should be cleaned twice a day. B. Exercises: Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with must (not), (do not) have to, must (not), need (not), can (not), could (not), might (not), be (not) able to, had better or should. I _________ go to the airport. I’m meeting someone. It’s too late. I ________ go now. You _________ lock the door when you go out. These have been a lot of break-in recently. A person ________ to become rich and famous in order to live a successful life. I don’t want to know anyone. You ___________ tell anyone. Tom: What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? Susan: Well, it _____ big. That’s not important. But it _____ have a nice garden – that’s essential. Ann: I think I _________ go shopping. We’re run out of food. Susan: We have enough food for dinner, so I _________ go shopping today. We ________ repair the car ourselves. We __________ take it to garage. George has traveled a lot. He_________ to speak for language. If it´s rainy you ________ take an umbrella. Exercise 2: Choose the best option 1.There are plenty of tomatoes in the fridge. You ______buy any. A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. shouldn’t D. can’t 2. _______you swim when you were 10? A. Can B. Could C. Must D. May 3. He's amazing, he _____speak five languages, including Chinese. A. will B. need C. can D. might 72


4. You ______ use your mobile phone during the test. It's against the rules. A. mightn't B. mustn't C. oughtn't D. needn't 5. I'm not sure, but Tony ______ probably get that demanding job. A. must B. need C. ought D. might 6. You ______ pass the exam in order to graduate from high school. A. must B. can C. may D. might 7. All students ______ hand in their assignments by Friday at the latest. A. must B. may C. ought D. might 8. It_____ rain this evening. Why don't you take an umbrella? A. could be B. must C. might D. had better 9. This road is very narrow. It ___to be widened. A. might B. needs C. mustn’t D. may 10. They have plenty of time, so they needn’t ___. A. be hurry B. to hurry C. hurry D. to be hurried 11. You’re having a sore throat. You’d better___ to the doctor. A. to go B. went C. go D. going 12. My mother permitted me to go out at night. She said, “You ___ go out tonight.” A. may B. have to C. must D. ought to 13. You ___ ring the bell; I have a key. A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. shouldn’t 14. _____ you help me with the homework? A. May B. Shall C. Should D. Will 15. Many birds will ___ more than 3,000 miles to reach their winter homes. A. flying B. fly C. be fly D. flew 16. You _____ throw litter on the streets. A. mustn't B. couldn't C. needn't D. won't 17. ___ you speak any foreign languages? A. Could B. Must C. Can D. Might 18. ___ you mind my staying here for some days? A. Would B. Could C. Can D. Should 19. You _____ return the book now. You can keep it till next week. A can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not 20. "Must we do it now?" -"No, you _____ .” A. won't B. needn't C. can't D. don't 21. “Have you seen Kate?” “No, but she ___ be at her desk.” A. may B. ought C. would D. will 22. We have enough food for dinner so you _______ go to the market. A. needn’t B. can’t C. won’t D. mustn’t 23. He _______ go to the beach this weekend if the weather is good. A. might B. must C. can D. needs 24. You ____ look at me when I am talking to you. A. could B. should C. would D. can 25. I was using my pencil a minute ago. It ____ be here somewhere! A. can B. could C. would D. must 26. _____ I go to the bathroom, please? 73


A. Must B. Would C. May 27. You ____ eat so much chocolate. It’s not good for you. A. mustn’t B. shouldn’t C. needdn’t 28. Students_____leave the classroom before the ring bells. A. must B. should C. shouldn’t 29. ___ you pass my pencil to me? A. Can B. Must C. Need 30. ____ you give me a hand, please? A. Must B. Should C. Might

D. Will D. won’t D. can D. Should D. Could

Exercise 3: Choose the best option 1. Janet's not at school today. She __________ have overslept. A. should B. might C. couldn’t D. must 2. Grandpa moved the piano by himself. He's okay, but he _________have injured his back. A. could B. couldn’t C. should D.must My parents haven't arrived at the party yet. They don't know this city very well. They ______ have gotten lost. A. should B. must C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t 4. I'm tired today. I definitely __________ have stayed up so late last night. A. shouldn’t B. couldn’t C. may D. could 5. How did Linda catch a cold? I'm not sure. She __________ have gone out in the rain. A. couldn’t B. should C. may D. mustn’t 6. Mother didn't answer the phone. She ________have been sleeping. A. should B. might C. needn’t D. mustn’t 7. I think I ate too much at dinner. I definitely ______ have skipped dessert. A. should B. shouldn’t C. may D. must 8. It's too bad you didn't practice for the marathon. You _____ have won. A. could B. may not C. must D. couldn’t 9. Jennifer had a lot of homework. She ________have gone to the party last night. A. couldn’t B. must not C. shouldn't D. needn’t 10. Jack ______________ in a car accident yesterday. He was home all day. A. shouldn’t be B. mustn’t be D. shouldn’t have been C. couldn’t have been 11. Nancy did very well on her history test. She __________ have studied hard. A. might B. should C. shouldn’t D. must 12. We couldn't hear our teacher all day. He _________ have spoken louder. A. may B. must C. mustn’t D. should 13. Bill slept too late but he got to work on time. He's lucky. He ______have missed the bus. A. must B. should C. could D. mustn’t 14. It was a good movie. You _____________ have seen it. A. shouldn’t B. should C. would D. mustn’t 15.I'm not sure. I _________ have left my keys at home. A. should B. must C. wouldn’t D. might 16. The bus arrived 2 minutes after you left, so you _____ have taken a cab. A. needn’t B. couldn’t C. must D. should Exercise 4: Choose the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions. 1. I‘m sure Luisa was very disappointed when she failed the exam. 74


A. Luisa must be very disappointed when she failed the exam. B. Luisa must have been very disappointed when she failed the exam. C. Luisa may be very disappointed when she failed the exam. D. Luisa could have been very disappointed when she failed the exam I really believe my letter came as a great surprise to John. A. John might be very surprised to receive my letter. B. John might have been very surprised to receive my letter. C. John must be very surprised to receive my letter. D. John must have been very surprised to receive my letter. You must clean the machine every time you use it. A. This machine must clean every time you use it. B. This machine must be cleaned every time it is used. C. This machine must be used every time you clean it. D. This machine must be cleaned every time it uses. Remember to shut down the computer if you don’t use it . A. The computer must be shut down when it isn’t used . B. The computer must be shut down every time you use it. C. The computer mustn’t be shut down whenever you use it. D. The computer must be shut down every time it uses. It’s not necessary that you do your homework now. A. You shouldn’t do your homework now. B. You must do your homework now. C. You needn’t do your homework now. D. You can not do no homework now. I’m sure my mother was very happy when she got my letter. A. My mother may be very happy when she got my letter. B. My mother must be very happy when she got my letter. C. My mother could have been very happy when she got my letter. D. My mother must have been very happy when she got my letter. I really believe that he drew this picture last night . A. He may be draw this picture last night. B. He must draw this picture the night before . C. He could have drawn when this picture the previous night. D. He must have drawn this picture last night. 8. It isn’t necessary for us to discuss this matter in great detail. A. We should discuss this matter in great detail. B. We might discuss this matter in great detail C. We needn’t discuss this matter in great detail D. We mustn’t discuss this matter in great detail. 9. It wasn’t necessary for me to go out after all. A. I didn’t need go out after all. B. I needn’t have gone out after all. D. I didn’t need to have gone out after all. C. I needn’t go out after all. 10.There’s a possibility that I will study in Spain after graduating. A. I must study in Spain after graduating. B. I should study in Spain after graduating. C. I may study in Spain after graduating. D. I am certain about studying in Spain after graduating. Exercise 5: Change the sentences into passive. 1.We must keep the factory open. ->_______________________________________________________________________________ 75


2. We ought to make things clear to them ->_______________________________________________________________________________ 3. They can see the enitre valley from their moutain home. ->________________________________________________________________________________ 4. One of the students must have left the book in the earlier class. ->________________________________________________________________________________ 5. No one can explain some UFO sightings easily. ->________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You shouldn’t make fun of the poor. ->________________________________________________________________________________ Exercise 6: Rewrite each of the following sentences so that it has the same meaning as the first one. 1. It is necessary for the young to learn English. (NEED) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. It is unnecessary for children to get up early. (NEED) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Maybe she will come here tomorrow. (POSSIBLE) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Lily cleaned the house, but her mother had cleaned it before. (NEEDN’T) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. He had a lot of homework to do but he did not do them. (SHOULD) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. I would have been able to finish the report if I had had more time. ( COULD) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. I’m sure they haven’t called yet. ( CAN’T) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. It’s not necessary for you to come early (NEED) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Perhaps it will be sunny this afternoon.(MAY) -> ______________________________________________________________________________ I’d prefer not to go with her friends. (RATHER)

INFINITIVE AND GERUND A. INFINITIVE (động từ nguyên mẫu) I. INFINITIVE WITH TO (ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU CÓ TO) A. Làm chủ ngữ trong câu. Ex : To become a teacher is my dream.(trở thành một giáo viên là giấc mơ của tôi) To take care of children is her duty.( chăm sóc lũ trẻ là nghĩa vụ của cô ấy) B. Đi theo sau tính từ : thường đi theo sau các cấu trúc sau: 1. It’s + adj + ( for sb) + to – V Ex : - It’s easy for me to understand him. ( thật dễ dàng đối với tôi để hiểu anh ấy.) It’s difficult for her to learn English.( thật khó đối với cô ấy để học tiếng anh.) It’s + adj + of + sb + to-V. 76


- Thường đi với một số tính từ sau: Kind : tốt bụng Unkind: không tốt bụng brave: dũng cảm timid: nhút nhát

coward: hèn nhát stupid: ngu ngốc wise: khôn ngoan selfish : ích kỉ

thoughtful: suy tư careless: bất cẩn tactful: bất cẩn mean: keo kẹt

rude( thô lỗ), Polite (lịch sự) generous: hào phóng

Ex: It is very kind of you to help me.( bạn thật tốt bụng khi giúp tôi) It’s stupid of him to do that.( thật ngu ngốc khi anh ấy làm điều đó) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Đi sau cấu trúc: S + be + adj + to – V Thường đi với các tính từ sau: Difficult : khó Easy : dễ Eager : háo hức

Supprised : ngạc nhiên Amazed : ngạc nhiên Delighted : vui mừng

Glad : vui Happy : hạnh phúc, vui Sorry : xin lỗi

Pleased : hài long Ready : sẵn sàng

Ex : we are eager to know his girlfriend. ( chúng tôi háo hức để gặp bạn gái của anh ấy.) This job is difficult to do.( việc này rất khó để làm.) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… C. Theo sau cấu trúc. S + V + O + to – V Những động từ theo sau bởi một tân ngữ và một động từ nguyên dạng có to là: Advise : khuyên Order : ra lệnh Persuade: thuyết phục Beg : nài nỉ Allow: cho phép

Command : yêu cầu Invite : mời Lead: lãnh đạo Expect: mong đợi Train: đào tạo

Teach : dạy Select : lựa chọn Enanle: tạo điều kiện Ask: đề nghị Urge: tranh cãi

Warn : cảnh báo Forbit : ngăn cấm Assist : hỗ trợ Send : gửi Tell : kể, bảo Encourage: khuyến khích

Ex : We select him to be a leader. ( chúng tôi lưa chọn anh ấy làm lãnh đạo) Lan encourage you to study harder. ( Lan mong bạn học hành chăm chỉ hơn) D.Theo sau một số động từ : có một số động từ theo sao nó là to- V : Afford: có khả năng tài chính Wish : ước Demand: yêu cầu Refuse: từ chối Agree : đồng ý Promise: hứa Resolve ; giải quyết Fail :thất bại

Plan :lập kế hoạch Decide: quyết định Attempt : cố gắng, nỗ lực Pledge: cam kết Neglect: bỏ qua Manage: xoay sở, quản lí Try: cố gắng Learn: học Choose: chọn

Want: muốn Vow: thề thốt Dare; dám Swear thề Arrange: sắp xếp Happen: tình cờ Hope: hi vọng Seek: tìm kiếm Struggle : đấu tranh

+ (not) To V

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Pretent: giả vờ Dare: dám Prove: chứng Mind: để ý, chú ý Offer: đề nghị

Threaten: đe dọa Hurry: vội Deserve: xứng đáng Omit: nhỡ

Hasten: hối thúc Wait: chờ đợi Undertake: tiến hành Prepare : chuẩn bị Pay: trảTend : có xu thế

Ex: I agree to go out with him.( tôi đồng ý đi chơi cùng anh ấy) She always tries to learn English.( cô ấy luôn cố gắng học tiếng anh) Lan refused to answer my question.( Lan từ chối trả lời của tôi) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO (ĐỘNG TỪ NHUYÊN MẪU KHÔNG CÓ TO) *Cách sử dụng: Dùng sau động khuyết thiếu:

S+

May/ might : có thể can/could : có thể have to: cần phải Must: phải used to: đã từng Will : sẽ Would: sẽ Shall: sẽ Should: nên ought to: cần phải had better: nên would rather : thích .. hơn

+ (not) V

Ex : he can swim ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Dùng sau cấu trúc : S + V + O + V Thường đi với một số động từ sau:

S+

see (saw): nhìn thấy Watch: nhìn, thấy feel (felt): cảm thấy smell (smelt): ngửi hear (heard): nghe let (let): cho phép make (made): bắt ai làm gì

+ O + (not) V

Ex: I saw him go with Lan ( tôi nhìn thấy anh ấy đi cùng Lan) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 78


*Chú ý: - Would you like/love/hate/prefer + to V To be said + to V : ai/ cái gì được nói To be made + to V: được làm…. Exercise 1. Choose the best answer to complete each of the sentences/Or identify the underlined part that needs correction: 1. The teacher had his student __________the writing .and handed them in. A. to have stopped B. stop C. stopped D. to stop 2. It is cloudy, you’d better ____________ an umbrella. A. take B. to take C. taking D. to be taken 3. Would you mind if I _____________ the window? A. to open B. opened C. opening D. open 4. Wouldn’t you rather _____________? A. succeed B. to succeed C. succeeding D. succeeded 5. He made me __________it all over again. A. done B. do C. to do D. doing 6. I had the boy ___________ a letter yesterday. A. posting B. to post C. post D. posted 7. You must _____________ a lot of people. A. to know B. know C. knowing D. known 8. My father doesn’t let me _____________ out at night. A. going B. to go C. go D. gone 9. We heard him __________________ downstairs. A. ran B. to be run C. to run D. run 10. Let’s ____________ an English song. A. singing B. sing C. to sing D. sang 11. We watched him ______________ the car. A. park B. parked C. to park D. to be parked 12. Why don’t you ____________ for a job? A. applying B. applied C. to apply D. apply 13. I am planning __________ Da Lat next week. A. visit B. visiting C. visited D. to visit 14. I must go now. I promised _____________ late A. not being B. not to be C. not being D. won’t be 15. Suddenly he stopped the car in order __________. A. smoke B. to smoke C. smoking D. smoked 16. It was late, so we decided ____________ a taxi home. A. to take B. taken C. taking D. take 17. How old were you when you learnt _______________? A. how to drive B. how drive C. how driving D. how driven 18. She always encourages her son ____________ harder. A. to study B. studied C. study D. studying 19. Don’t forget __________ the letter I gave you. A. to post B. posting C. post D. posted 20. I got my father ________________ my bike. 79


A. repair B. to repair C. repairing D. repaired 21. The fire isn’t hot enough _________________ a kettle. A. boiling B. to boil C. boil D. boiled 22. It is too cold for us ______________________. A. went out B. go out C. to go out D. going out 23. He went to Britain ___________English. A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learned 24. I have some letters ________________. A. to write B. writing C. wrote D. write 25. It takes me ten minutes _________to school every day. A. walking B. to walk C. walk D. walked 26. We expect him ______________ tomorrow. A. arrive B. arriving C. to arrive D. will arrive 27. Would you like __________to my birthday party? A. coming B. come C. came D. to come 28. I tried ___________the bus, but I missed it. A. catch B. catching C. to catch D. caught 29. Remember _____________Lan a present because today is her birthday. A. send B. sending C. to send D. sent 30. We were allowed ___________ photographs in this room. A. sell B. to sell C. selling D. sold It took me a very long time recovering from the shock of her death. A B C D Remember taking off your shoes when you are in a Japanese house. A B C D My parents permitted me going out at weekends. AB C D Money is used to buying food and clothes. A B C D He often lets me to use his mobile phone. ABCD Exercise 2. Rewrite each of the following sentences so that its meaning remains unchanged, using the given words: 1. My parents don’t allow me to play games on computer. My parents don’t let ………………………………………… 2. I had my friend answer the questions. I got my friend ………………………………………………. 3. He spent an hour doing his homework last night. It took………………………………………………………… 4. I am going to the post office. I want to send some letter. I am going to the post office in order……………………………… 5. My grandfather is very weak. He can’t lift the box. My grandfather is too ………………………………………… 6. My father said that I could use his car. My father allowed me………………………………………… 80


7. The sudden noise caused me to jump. The sudden noise made me…………………………………… 8. “John, please don’t tell anyone my new address”, said Mary. Mary told John……………………………………………….. 9. I don’t really want to visit the museum.

I’d rather……………………………………………………… 10. Lan told Nam:” Remember to send your parents my regard” Lan reminded Nam…………………………………….………. 11. The lesson was too long for us to learn by heart. The lesson wasn’t short enough………………………………. 12. She was very stupid when she went out without a raincoat. It was very stupid of her………………………………………. 13. Would you mind making me some tea? Would you please…………………………………………………? 14. They got out of the car. I watched them…………………………………………………… 15. He was the first man who reached the top of the mountain. He was the first man to……………………………………………

B. GERUND (DANH ĐỘNG TỪ) Khái niệm : danh động từ chỉ một danh từ bắt nguồn từ một động từ II. Cấu tạo : là dạng thừc động từ thêm đuôi ing ( v-ing) Ex : Smoking, singing, reading III. Cách dùng danh động từ 1. làm chủ ngữ trong câu. Smoking is harmful to your health. Singing is one of her hobbies. * dùng trong các câu cấm đoán ngắn gọn. No smoking, no físhing, no waiting. 2.Danh động từ theo sau một số động từ sau. Appreciate : đánh giá cao Imagine: tưởn tượng Miss: nhỡ, lỡ Risk: mao hiểm Detest: ghét, không ưa Save: cứu Avoid: tránh Hate: hét

Admit: thừa nhận Mention : quân tâm Postpone: đình hoãn Delay: hoãn Deny: từ chối Dread: đe dọa Resent: oán giận Try: thử làm gì Stop: tam dừng

Enjoy: thích Fancy: thích Finish: kết thúc Practise: thực hành Mind:phiền lòng Resist: chống lại Resumme: lấy lại Forget: quên đã làm gì Love : yêu, thích

Suggest: đề nghị Tolerate: miễn cưỡng Forgive: từ bỏ Consider: xem xét Confess:thú nhận Remember; nhớ đã làm gì Escape: chốn thoát

Ex: the boy admitted breaking the vase. He avoided answering my question. Do you mind closing the door? He enjoys practicing English. 81


* Dùng sau một số cụm động từ sau: Can’t help: không thể không Can’t stand:không thể

chịu đựng Can’t bear: không thể chịu được Give up: tử bỏ Keen on: say mê

Keep on: tiếp tục

See about: lo liệu

Look forward to: mong đợi

Put off: đ hoãn

Be/ get used to : quen với việc gì

Can’t face: không thể đối mặt

Be interested in: say mê

Be against: chống lại Go on : tiếp tục

He gave up smoking last year. They put off holding the meeting. We look forward to meeting him. * Dùng sau một số cụm từ như: It’s no good/ use + V-ing: làm gì đó không có lợi It is no good eating too much at dinner.( ăn nhiều vào bữa tối thật không có ích lợi gì) - It’s (not) worth + V-ing : đáng để làm gì. It’s worth watching this film. ( bộ phim này thật đáng để xem) There’s no point + in + V-ing: làm việc gì vô ích There is no point in waiting for him so long.( thật vô ích chờ đợi anh ấy lâu như vậy) It’s a waste of time/money + V-ing : làm việc gì đó chỉ tốn thời gian/ tiền bạc It’s a waste of time chatting. ( nòi chuyện phiếm chỉ tốn thời gian) 3. Danh động từ trong cấu trúc: S + V + O + giới từ + V-ing Thường đi với các động từ sau: Accuse sb of + Ving: kết tội …vì Blame…….for + Ving: đổ lỗi… vì Congratulate....on + Ving : Chúc mừng …vì Forgive……..for + Ving: tha thứ… vì Excuse……..for + Ving: xin lỗi …vì

Prevent…from…: ngăn ngừa … khỏi Punish…….for……….. : phạt …vì Stop……from……… : ngăn …khỏi thank…..for……….. : cảm ơn …vì remind….of….......... : nhắc nhở…..

ex: I congratulate them on passing the exams.( tôi chúc mừng họ vì đã vượt qua kì thi.) The teacher punished students for being lazy.( cô giáo đã phạt học sinh vì lười biếng.) They thanks us for helping them.( họ đã cảm ơn chúng tôi vì giúp đỡ họ.) * Danh động đi theo sau với một số danh từ đi cùng với động từ have Have (any) problem:gặp khó khăn Have trouble: gặp khó khăn Have difficulty: gặp khó khăn - Have a hard time: gặp khó khăn Have a difficult time : gặp khó khăn Have a good time : có thời gian tốt Have fun: có niềm vui

+ V- ing (Gặp khó khăn)


82


ex: - she has some problems speaking English.( cô ấy gặp một số khó khăn trong nói tiếng anh) we had a hard time living in Thai Nguyen( chúng tôi có thời gian khó khăn sống ở thái Nguyên) Chú ý 1 : - Có một số động từ dùng trong ở cả 2 dạng To V và V-ing với nghĩa khác nhau.

* Try Try + V-ing : thử làm gì đó( có tính thử nghiệm) We try making a cake.( chúng tối thử làm cái bánh) Try + to V : cố gắng làm gì đó.( để thành công) He tries to learn to speak English.( anh ấy cố gắng học tiếng anh) Stop Stop + V-ing: ngưng làm điều gì. My father stops smoking. Stop + to V : ngưng/ dừng làm điều gì khác. The driver stops to have lunch.( người lái xe dừng lại để ăn trưa) Forget Forget + V-ing: quên đã làm gì. I often forget closing the door. ( tôi thường quên là đã đóng cửa sổ ) - Forget + to V: quên phải làm gì. Don’t forget to post the letter.( đừng quên gửi thư nhé. ) * Regret Regret + V-ing : tiếc đã làm điều gì He regrets giving her that book.( anh ta tiếc đã cho cô ấy quyển sách đó.) Regret + to V : tiếc ( thường được dùng để thông báo với ai về điều không may mắn hay từ chối) We regret to inform you that you failed the exams.( chúng tôi rất tiếc thông báo với bạn là bạn đã trượt kì thi rồi.) Remember Remember + V-ing : nhớ đã làm gì. I remember meeting her.( tôi nhớ đã gặp cô ấy rồi) - Remember +to V : nhớ phải làm gì. Remember to turn off lights before you go out.( nhớ tắt đèn khi bạn ra ngoài.) Continue continue + Ving: vẫn tiếp tục làm ko nghỉ Althought they're tired, they countinue working [ mặc dù họ đã mệt nhưng họ vẫn tiếp tục làm việc] - continue + To V: tiếp tục làm việc gì đó sau khi nghĩ We countinue to work after tea break [chúng tôi tiếp tục làm việc sau khi nghỉ uống trà] Chú ý 2 : sau các giớ từ ta dùng động từ thêm đuôi ING c. Passive infinitives and gerunds 1. Thể bị động ở động từ nguyên mẫu Chủ động: S + V + to V Bị động: S+ V + to be + VPII / to have been + VpII (khẳng định) Hoặc S + V + not to be + VPII / not to have been + VpII(phủ định) Example: 83


He's trying to finish the work soon. He expects most of it to be finished before the weekend. It needs to be done by the end of this month. They have chosen Emily Watson to play the part. She's really excited to have been chosen. They didn't invite us. It was strange not to be invited 2. Thể bị động ở danh động từ

Chủ động: S + V + (not) + V-ing Bị động: S + V + being + VpII / having been + VpII (khẳng định) Hoặc S + V + not being + VpII / not having been + VpII (phủ định) Example: He was asking about a lot of personal things. I didn't like being asked about my private life. I think they've promoted Tom, but he didn't mention having been promoted when we talked. No one had informed me about that. I resented not having been informed Exercise 1. Give the correct verb form: Students stopped (make) ___________ noise when the teacher came in. She couldn’t help (shed) __________ tears when she saw the film “Romeo and Juliet”. Would you mind (buy) ____________ me a newspaper? They postpone (build) ____________ an Elementary School for the lack of finance. Are his ideas worth (listen) ____________ to? My grandfather is used to (get) _____________ up early in the morning. They are looking forward to our (visit) _______________them. He used to fall asleep without (take) ___________ his shoes off. My watch keeps (stop) ___________. I remember (meet) ____________ you somewhere last month. Exercise 2. Rewrite the sentences without changing their meanings: 1. Would you please do it for me? Would you mind _______________________________. 2. She doesn’t usually stay up so late. She is not used ________________________________. 3. The children like going in the rain. The children enjoy _____________________________. 4. Why don’t we go out for a meal tonight? I suggest _____________________________________. 5. It took her 2 hours to drive from London to Edinburgh. She spent ____________________________________. Exercise 3. Choose the best answer A, B, C or D 1. Instead of ___________ about the good news, Tom seemed to be different. A. exciting B. to excite C. being excited D. to be excited 2. I remember __________ to the zoo when I was a child. A. to take B. to be taken C. taking D. being taken 3. Would you mind not _________ the radio on until I’ve finished with this phone call? A. turning B. to turn C. being turned D. to be turned 4. Julia’s children are used to _____ after school every day. They don’t have to walk home. A. picking up B. to pick up C. being picked up D. to be picked up 84


5. It’s not good to avoid _________ the teacher’s questions in class. A. answer B. answering C. answered D. to answer 6. It is no good _________ sorry for yourself. A. to feel B. feeling C. feel D. felt 7. Everyday I spend two hours _________ speaking English. A. practise B. to practise C. practising D. practised 8. Tommy admitted _________ the rock through the window. A. throwing B. being throwing C. to throw D. to be thrown 9. He suggested _________ a double railway tunnel. A. to build B. built C. building D. that building 10. I was reading my books, but I stopped _________ a programme on TV. A. reading to watch B. to read to watch C. to read for watching D. reading watching 11. Does Dr Johnson mind ________ at home if his patients need his help? A. to call B. to be called C. calling D. being called 12. We hope that the students themselves will enjoy _______ part in the projects. A. to take B. taking C. to be taken D. being taken 13. Your house needs _________ . A. redecorate B. redecorating C. redecorated D. to redecorate 14. Please wait a minute. My boss is busy ________ something. A. to write B. write C. wrote D. writing 15. The children stopped ___________ games when their mother came home. A. playing B. play C. to play D. played 16. I really regret _________ your feeling when I asked you such a silly question. A. hurt B. hurting C. being hurt D. to hurt 17. I can’t go on __________ here any more. I want a different job. A. working B. to work C. work D. worked 18. My uncle has given up ___________ for 3 years. A. to smoke B. smoking C. smoke D. smoked 19. This girl can't bear ____________alone. A. being B. is C. to be D. was 20. I must drive more carefully. I can’t risk____________ another speeding ticket. A. get B. getting C. to get D. got Exercise 4. Choose the underlined part among A, B, C or D that needs correcting. 21. You had better learn a foreign language before apply for a job. A B C D Would you mind to check the figures again? A B C D My little sister suggested to go to the beach for a change. A B C D I spent most of my time in the train read my favorite book. A B C D 25. He stopped to smoke because it is harmful to his health. A B C D 26. My father prefers watching films at home to go to the cinema. 85


A B CD She is looking forward to see her grandparents again soon. A B C D Before to go out, remember to turn off the computer. A B C D 29. People want to conserve the environment, but they can’t help pollute it. A B C D 30. I enjoy not have to get up early when I’m on holiday. A B C D Exercise 5. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 31. Shall we go for a ride? A. What about going for a ride? B. What about go for a ride? C. What about to go for a ride? D. What about to going for a ride? Why don’t we go to the cinema for a change? A. I suggest going to the cinema for a change. B. I suggest go to the cinema for a change. C. I suggest not going to the cinema for a change. D. I suggest to go to the cinema for a change. Please don’t play music so loudly. A. Would you mind playing your music so loudly? B. Would you mind not play your music so loudly? C. Would you mind not to play your music so loudly? D. Would you mind not playing your music so loudly? 34. Shall we invite our friends to the party on Sunday? A. Do you consider to invite our friends to the party on Sunday? B. Do you consider inviting our friends to the party on Sunday? C. Do you consider invite our friends to the party on Sunday? D. Do you consider to inviting our friends to the party on Sunday? 35. Let’s get together next Saturday. A. How about get together next Saturday? B. How about let getting together next Saturday? C. How about getting together next Saturday? D. How about let get together next Saturday?

8. CONJUNCTIONS

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I. CLAUSES OF CONCESSION 1. Form: Though/Although/Even though + A clause ( S + V) In spite of / Despite + Noun phrase/Gerund 2. Examples: 1. Though he is rich, he is not happy. In spite of/ Despite his money, he is not happy. She decided to accept the job despite the low salary. Though the salary is low, she decided to accept the job. * Note: Remember that but is never used with though, although or even though. - Ask for some more examples from Ss with the above linking words. II. CLAUSES OF REASONS 1. Form: The concept of clause can be expressed by: Since As Because

+ A Clause

=

As a result of On account of + Noun/Gerund Due to Because of

2. Examples: I couldn’t get to work because I was ill. (= I couldn’t get to work because of my illness.) - Ask for some more examples from Ss with the above linking words. COODINATING CONUNCTIONS: or, but, nor, yet, however, but, therefore and so 1. However, but, yet : Dùng để nối 2 mệnh đề đối lập The test was easy, but I couldn’t finish it. John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton. The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day. 2.Therefore, So, for: Nối 2 mệnh chỉ nguyên nhân và kết quả Therefore đứng sau dấu(.) và (;) “So” đứng sau dấu (,) Eg: He hadn’t studied hard. Therefore he failed the exams. 87


He hadn’t studied hard, so he failed the exams. Ask for some more examples with therefore and so from Ss. John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the company's board of trustees. Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train. IV. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS: Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm. Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be." Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best. . .both. and not only . . . but also not . . . but either . . . or

neither .. . nor whether. . . or as . . . as

1. both ... and ... E.g. She is both intelligent and beautiful (adj) Both his brother and he are students ( nouns) Note: Trong câu sử dụng “Both ….and…” thì động từ phải chia ở dạng số nhiều. - Ask for some more examples with “ both ...... and ” from Ss. 2. not only.... but (also) ....... e.g. Not only workers but (also) farmers take part in the strike He studies not only Japanese but (also) Chinese. *Note: Trong câu sử dụng “Not only ….but also…” thì động từ phải chia phù hợp với chủ ngữ đứng trước nó. E.g. Not only does he speak English but also speaks German. E.g. Not only his friend but also his brother gives him presents Ask for some more examples with not only ..... but (also) from Ss. 3. either.... or.... E.g. Either you or your friend is responsible for the damage. My brother likes either footbal or volleyball. Ask for some more examples with either ..... or from Ss. 4. neither ... nor.... E.g. She likes neither tea nor coffee. Neither Tom nor his friends want to go camping. Neither Tom nor Tim wants to go camping 5. Inversion E.g 1. My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, I don’t like, either. My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, neither do I. E.g 2. Linh is interested in learning English. I am interested in learning English, too. Linh is interested in learning English, so am I. E.g 3. Not only did they take care of me, but they also treated me as if I were their own daughter. When a clause with neither or nor is used after a negative clause, we invert the subject and the verb after neither and nor: E.g 4. He hadn’t done any homework, neither had he brought any of his books to class. 88


E.g 5. We didn’t get to see the castle, nor did we see the cathedral. V. PRACTICE Exercise 1: Find out the sentence that has the same meaning as the original one. Ron enjoys horseback riding. Bob enjoys horseback riding, too. A. Both Ron and Bob enjoys horseback riding. B. Both Ron and Bob enjoy horseback riding. C. Neither Ron nor Bob enjoys horseback riding. D. Either Ron or Bob enjoys horseback riding. Arthur is absent. Ricardo is absent, too. A. Arthur is absent but Ricardo is not. B. Both Ricardo and Arthur is absent. C. Both Ricardo and Arthur are present. D. Both Ricardo and Arthur are absent. 3. Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource. Oil is also an irreplaceable natural resource. A. Neither coal nor oil is an irreplaceable natural resource. B. Either coal or oil is an irreplaceable natural resource. Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources. Both coal and oil is irreplaceable natural resources. 4. She is both beautiful and intelligent. She is not only beautiful but also intelligent. She is either intelligent or beautiful. She is neither intelligent nor beautiful. She is beautiful but she is not intelligent. 5. She is both a teacher and a good wife. She is not a good wife and a teacher. She is a teacher although she is a good wife. In spite of being a good wife, she is not a teacher. She is not only a teacher but also a good wife. 6. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks. Tom hasn’t written me for two weeks. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, so has Tom. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, neither has Tom. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, Tom has, too. Jane hasn’t written me a letter for 2 weeks, Tom also has. 7. His grandma was surprised at his school report. His dad’s feeling was the same. His grandma was surprised at his school report, his dad, either. His grandma was surprised at his school report, so was his dad’s feeling. His grandma was surprised at his school report, neither his dad’s feeling. His grandma was surprised at his school report, his dad did, too. 8. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, my classmate Lam has, either. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, neither my classmate Lam has. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, neither has my classmate Lam. I haven’t ever tasted caviar, also my classmate Lam has. Both I and Lam haven’t tasted caviar. Exercise 2: Choose the best answer 1. You can use my bicycle ______ you bring back tomorrow. 89


A. as long as B. although C. nevertheless D. in spite of 2. She spoke quietly to him _______ nobody else could hear a word. A. because B. if C. although D. so that 3. You may stay _________ you like. A. as far as B. as long as C. so much as D. so far 4. I’m going to Britain _________ learn English. A. so as to B. in order to C. both A&B D. in order that 5. He went to the library ____________. A. so as to borrow a book C. to borrowing a book B. in order that I borrow a book D. both A&B Exercise 3: Choose the best answer to fill in the gaps. 1. I can’t come out tonight ___________I’ve got too much homework. A. but B. while C. because D. although 2. Three nuclear power stations were built ___________ widespread opposition. A. so

B. whether

C. in case

D. despite

3. He is an excellent student. His recent behavior, ___________, has been terrible. A. despite

B. while

C. however

D. even though

4. I think he’s telling the truth. __________, I don’t trust him. A. So

B. When

C. Therefore

D. Nevertheless

5. I didn’t go to his party___________I was ill. A. but

B. after

C. before

D. because

6. _________ the Asian crisis, the company’s profits fell by 15% during 1997. A. In case

B. Because of C. In spite of

D. Even though

7. _________ it was raining, we decided to go for a walk. A. While

B. Whether

C. Although

D. Therefore

8. Could you look after the children ___________I cook lunch? A. though

B. while

C. whether

D. because

9. __________it rained a lot, they enjoyed their holiday. A. Despite

B. Although

C. Due to

D. In spite of

10. ________ there was no electricity, I was able to read because I had a candle. A. Unless

B. Until

C. Because

D. Even though

11. I managed to get to sleep__________ a lot of noise. A. although

B. because

C. because of

D. in spite of

12. I invited him to join us for lunch, ___________ he refused. A. however B. but C. so D. and He went to work early this morning ___________he had to translate an urgent letter into English for his boss. A. although B. because C. in spite of D. because of 14. Last summer, we went our holiday by the sea. __________it rained a lot, we enjoyed ourselves. A. In spite of B. Although C. Because D. Because of 15. We didn’t go anywhere yesterday_________the rain. A. in spite of B. though C. because D. because of 90


16. __________ what she said yesterday, he still loves her. A. In spite of B. Though C. Because D. Because of 17. Houses are very expensive nowadays. ___________, they have managed to buy one. A. So B. However C. But D. Therefore 18. Studying in the USA is good for your son. __________, I think you should let him go. A. Therefore

B. But

C. And

D. However

19. He went to the cinema ____________he had done his homework. A. before

B. until

C. by the time

D. after

20. My sister didn’t get the job____________she had all the qualifications. A. therefore

B. although

C. however

D. in spite of

21. You won’t pass the examination___________you study more. A. unless

B. as long as

C. if

D. whether

22. Mary searched all over the house,___________she could not find the key. A. but

B. although

C. however

D. because

23. She neither talked nor___________her feeling. A. show B. shown C. showing D. showed They told me much about him. When I met him, however, I was disappointed to find that he is __________handsome___________polite. A. either/ or B. neither/nor C. both/and D. either/ nor 25. Neither I nor she _________enjoying the party now. A. is B. are C. was D. were 26. Either she or they____________seen the film. A. has B. have C. having D. has had 27. Don’t be so unreasonable. I can’t_________cook __________iron your clothes. A. either/ or B. neither/nor C. both/and D. either/ nor. 28. The teacher speaks slowly___________ the pupils may understand him. A. because B. in order to C. so that D. or 29. They got up very early __________ to the top of the hill before sunrise. A. so as to get

B. in order not to get

C.A&D

D. in order to get

30. He turned off the lights _________ waste electricity. A. so as to

B. in order to

C. so as not to

D. in spite of

Exercise 4: Fill in each blank of the following sentences with a suitable conjunction. It looks like they are going to succeed _________ their present difficulties. I like spending my holidays in the mountains___________ my wife prefers the seaside. He could not tell you about that _________ he felt ashamed. My flight was delayed until 3:45. ________, I bought a book to read. 5. He loves his wife......... her long hair. He is kind and polite to me. ___________, I don’t like him. I went to the cinema last night___________ it rained. ________ he wasn’t feeling very well, Alex was determined to take part in the race. The food prices rise too much; _________, people’s life becomes difficult. 91


10. The test was difficult; ________, all students were able to finish it. Exercise 5. Choose the best answer to fill in the gaps. 1. I knew they were talking about me;..............., they stopped when I entered the room. A. because

B. therefore

C. despite

D. so that

2. _________ what she said yesterday, I still love her. A. In spite of B. Though C. Because D. Because of 3. Your son has decided to study in the USA. __________, I think you should let him go. A. Therefore

B. But

C. And

D. However

4. Don’t forget to say goodbye to the interviewer _______ leaving the office. A. before

B. after

C. while

D. when

5. _______ most of the food we eat comes from plants or animals, the variety of food is remarkable. A. Although

B. Even

C. Despite

D. However

C. despite

D. although

6. She failed the test ________ she studied hard. A. as

B. in spite of

7. Jack insisted that he didn’t need any help, ________ I helped him anyway. A. but

B. however

C. besides

D. so

8. _________ David was warned about the dangers of smoking, he continued to smoke. A. Even though

B. Despite

C. However

D. In spite of

9. She didn’t eat much ___________ she was hungry. A. though

B. because

C. but

D. however

10. _________ the rain, we have cancelled the party. A. Because

B. Because of

C. despite

D. in spite of

11. We decided to leave early ________ the party was boring. A. because

B. because of

C. although

D. however

12. _________ he had taken any kinds of exercise, he got fatter and fatter. A. Although

B. In spite of

C. Despite

D. Because

13. _________ they’re very rich, they still want more money. They seems to be no limit to their greed

A. Though

B. Although

C. Even though

D.A&B&C

C. or

D. so

14. We have no money, ________ Tom has some. A. either

B. but

15. They left the room ___________ they had finished the exam. A. while

B. soon

C. during

D. as soon as

16. We have studied hard _________ we will be well prepared for the examination. A. because

B. since

C. so that

D. in case

17. He is learning English __________ he can study in England. A. so as

B. so that

C. in order to

D. so as to

92


9. TRANSITIVES AND INTRANSITIVES I. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN 1. Nội động từ: a. Nội động từ diễn tả hành động nội tại của người nói hay người thực hiện hành động. * Examples: He walks. (Anh ấy đi bộ - Anh ấy tự đi chứ không phải là do người hay vật khác tác động) Birds fly. (Chim bay - Con chim tự bay theo bản năng chứ không do người hay vật tác động) b. Nội động từ không cần có tân ngữ trực tiếp đi kèm. Nếu có thì phải có giới từ đi trước và cụm từ này sẽ đóng vai trò trạng ngữ chứ không phải là tân ngữ trực tiếp. Examples: - She walks in the garden. Birds fly in the sky. 2. Ngoại động từ: a. Ngoại động từ diễn tả hành động gây ra trực tiếp lên người hoặc vật. * Examples: The cat killed the mouse. b. Ngoại động từ luôn cần thêm yếu tố bên ngoài là một danh từ hay đại từ theo sau để hoàn thành nghĩa của câu. Danh (đại) từ đi theo sau ngoại động từ là tân ngữ trực tiếp. Trong câu trên chúng ta không thể nói “The cat killed” rồi dừng lại được mà phải có “the mouse” đi kèm theo sau. “The mouse” là tân ngữ trực tiếp của “killed”. 3. Sự phân chia thành nội động từ và ngoại động từ chỉ là tương đối Một số động từ có thể làm nội động từ trong câu này và làm ngoại động từ trong câu khác, nghĩa của chúng có thể thay đổi. Hãy xem các ví dụ trong bảng sau va xem đó là nội động từ hay ngoại động từ trong câu: The door openned. (Cửa mở) She opened the door. (Cô ấy mở cửa) The bus stopped. (Chiếc xe buýt dừng lại) The driver stopped the bus. (Tài xế dừng xe buýt lại) The bell rings. (Chuông kêu) He rings the bells. (Ông ấy rung chuông) The glass broke. (Cốc vỡ) The boy broke the glass. (Cậu bé làm vỡ cốc) His lecture began at 8pm. (Bài giảng của ông ta bắt đầu lúc 8h tối) He began his work at 8pm. (Anh ấy bắt đầu công việc lúc 8h tối) The fire lit quickly. (Lửa cháy nhanh) I lit the fire. (Tôi đốt lửa) Flowers grow in their garden. (Hoa mọc ở trong vườn) They grow flowers in the garden. (Họ trồng hoa trong vườn) Water boils at 100 degree. (Nước sôi ở 100 độ C) Mary boiled the water for the tea. (Mary đun sôi nước để pha trà) Mặt khác, nhiều nội động từ có thể có tân ngữ láy (cognate object); đó là những tân ngữ có cùng hình thức với động từ. 93


Example: - Mary laughed a merry laugh. (Mary nở nụ cười vui vẻ) [to laugh↔a laugh] The old man lived a happy life.(Ông lão đã hưởng một cuộc sống hạnh phúc) [to live↔a life] The little boy slept a sound sleep. (Chú bé ngủ một giấc ngon) [to sleep↔a sleep] Ngoài ra, một số ngoại động từ lại được dùng như nội động từ, trong đó chủ từ không làm chủ hành động trong câu. * Example: The books sell well. (Sách bán chạy). [Thay vì nói: They sell the books well] II. PRACTICE EX1: Put the verbs in the correct column. sleep answer park read

give buy happen move

arrive live shake rise

ring tell explain win

burn drop occur exist

Transitive

Intransitive

either transitive or intransitive

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

EX2:Complete each sentences with a suitable verb in the box. Put the verbs in the correct tenses.

burn tell

win drink

live explain

give ring

We _____________ here for 40 years. I ____________ the bell, but no one answered it. William _____________ too much recently, which makes his parent really worried. If you had played for us, we ________________ the game. Gerald ______________ the situation to me, but I couldn’t understand it at all. The firm ______________ him a gold watch when he retired. The fire ______________ furiously, but the fire brigade put it out. The truth ______________ to you soon. EX3: A.Find the verb in each of the following sentences and write T if it is transitive and I if it is intransitive. The chef will prepare the food. John is working at the bakery. Lightning didn’t cause the fire. 94


We walked downtown after work yesterday. Thousands of people ride the subway every day. The baby was crying in the room. Joe fell down on his way to school this morning. Our houseguests are going to arrive tomorrow afternoon. The fire burnt all their belongings What happened in class yesterday? That athlete finished 12 seconds outside the world record. John will have finished his project when we arrive next month. B. Change the sentences that have objects into the passive voice. ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ EX4: Rewrite sentences in the passive as in the example: (The floor/ not clear/ yet) (The politician/ interview/ now) The Mona Lisa/ paint/ Leonardo da Vinci) (My flat/ burgle/ last night) (All tickets/ sell/ before we got there) (The dog/ not feed/ yet) The presents/ wrap/ now) The prizes/ award/ President/ tomorrow) (Tea/ grow/ India) (The prisoners/ take/ to prison/ now) Exercise 4: Choose the correct answer 1. We can’t go along here because the road _____. A. is repairing B. is repaired C. is being repaired 2. The story I’ve just read _____ Agatha Christie. A. was written B. was written by C. was written from 3. Why don’t you have your brother _____ the roof? A. repairs B. repair C. repaired 4. Something funny _____ in class yesterday. A. happened B. was happened C. happens 5. Claude Jennings is said _____ his memory. A. to have been lost B. to be lost C. to have lost

D. repaires D. wrote by D. to repair D. is happened D. to lose 95


6. We _____ by a loud noise during the night. A. woke up B. are woken up C. were woken up D. were waking up 7. How did that window _____? ~ I don’t know. A. get broken B. broke C. got broken D. broken 8. Some film stars _____ difficult to work with. A. are said be B. are said to be C. say to be . D.said to be 9. Vitamin C _____ by the human body. It gets into blood stream quickly. A. absorbs easily B. is easily absorbing C. is easily absorbed D. absorbed easily 10. Why did Tom keep making jokes about me? I don’t enjoy _____ at. A. be laughed B. to be laughed C. laughing D. being laughed 11. John _____ last week. A. had his house painted B. had painted his house C. had his father to paint D. had his house paint 12. Today, many serious childhood diseases _____ by early immunization. A. are preventing B. can prevent C. prevent D. can be prevented 13. ‘_____ about the eight o’clock flight to Chicago?’ ‘Not yet.’ A. Has been an announcement made B. Has an announcement made C. Has an announcement been made D.. Has been made an announcement 14. ‘Has the commitee made its decision yet?’ ‘Not yet. They are still _____ the proposal.’ A. considering B. been considered C. being considered D. considered 15. I might watch this programme. It _____ very funny. A. supposes to be B. is supposed being C. is supposed to be D. was supposed be 16. Do you get your heating _____ every year? A. checking B. check C. be checked D. checked

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Conditional sentence type 1: a. Form If clause Simple present S + Verb/ Verb-s/-es

Main clause Simple future S + will + bare infinitive

b. Use It is used to express a possible condition and a probable result in the present or the future. * Notes: Dùng thì hiện tại đơn ở mệnh đề chính để diễn tả một điều luôn luôn đúng hoặc 1 sự thật hiển nhiên. Eg. If you heat ice, it turns to water. can/ may dùng thay cho will/shall khi chỉ khả năng có thể. Eg: If you study hard, you can pass the exam. 2. Conditional sentence type 2: 96


a. Form If clause If + S + past form of the verb

Main clause S + would/ could + bare infinitive

b. Use It is used to talk about things which are unreal (not true or not possible) in the present or the future. Eg. If he knew my phone number, he would call me. Conditional sentence type 3: a. Form If-clause If + S + had + P.P

Main clause S + would have + P.P

b.Use It is used to talk about unreal situations in the past. Eg. If I had invited her to my party, it would have been more fun. Mixed conditionals: Form If-clause If + S + had + P.P

Main clause S + would + bare infinitive

Use Câu điều kiện này diễn tả điều kiện giả định ở quá khứ và kết quả không thực hiện được ở hiện tại. Eg. If I had gone to bed early last night, I wouldn’t feel sleepy now. Inversion of conditional sentences: Ta bỏ "IF" và đảo trợ động từ trong mệnh đề "IF" đứng trước chủ ngữ, mệnh đề chính không thay đổi. Đảo ngữ ở câu ĐK loại I: dùng "should" thay cho "if" Form: Should + S + V-infinitive, S + Will + Vinfinitive Eg1. If you study hard, you will pass the exam. -> Should you study hard, you will pass the exam. Eg2. I'll tell you if I find it. -> I'll tell you should I find it. 2. Đảo ngữ ở câu ĐK loại II: dùng "were" thay cho "if" Form: Were + S + (to + Vinfinitive), S + Would + Vinfinitive Eg1. If I were in your position, I wouldn't do that. -> Were I in your position, I wouldn't do that. Eg2. If I were you, I would tell him about that. -> Were I you, I would tell him about that. Eg3. If I had more time, my report would be better. -> Were I to have more time, my report would be better. 97


Đảo ngữ ở câu ĐK loại III: Form: Had + S + P2, S + would have + P2 Eg1. If I had invited her to my party, it would have been more fun. -> Had I invited her to my party, it would have been more fun. Eg2. If he hadn't missed the train, he would be here now. -> Had he not missed the train, he would be here now. Some special conditional sentences a. Unless = if .... not (nếu không, trừ phi) Unless + affirmative verb = If + negative Eg1: If it doesn't rain, we will go on a picnic. Unless it rains, we will go on a picnic. b. Otherwise = if not (nếu không thì) = or(else) -> Or / otherwise đứng trước mệnh đề chính Eg: Hurry up or you will be late for school. If you don't hurry up, you will be late for school. Eg: Her father pays her fees; otherwise she wouldn't be here. If her father didn't pay her fees she wouldn't be here. Eg: I used my calculator; otherwise I 'd have taken longer. If I hadn't used my calculator I 'd have taken longer. c. but for (= without/ with): nếu không vì, nhờ but for/ without + N/ NP/ V-ing = If it were not for .... (loại 2)/ If it hadn't been for ... (loại 3) Eg1. If you hadn't helped me, I couldn't have finished this assignment. If it hadn't been for your help, I couldn't have finished this assignment. => If it were not for your help, I couldn't finish this assignment In case: phòng khi, trong trường hợp Mệnh đề theo sau in case là thì hiện tại đơn hoặc quá khứ đơn Mệnh đề mở đầu bằng in case đưa ra lý do giải thích hành động được nói tới trong mệnh đề chính. Eg. I always take an umbrella in case it rains. = I always take an umbrella because it may rain.) e. Suppose/ supposing ....: giả sử = what if ...? what will you do ...? Eg. Supposing you won a lot of money, what would you do? f. As long as/ provided/ providing (that): miễn là Eg1. You can borow my book as long as you use it carefully. Eg2. You can borrow my bike provided/ providing (that) you bring it back tomorrow morning. g. Wish and if only. * Future wish S + wish = If only

S + wish(es) + S + would/ could/ should/ might + V Eg. I wish I would study very well. I wish I could speak English well = If only I could speak English well * Present wish:

S + wish(es) + S + V-ed/ WERE 98


-> Be: WERE dùng cho tất cả các ngôi Eg. I wish I studied very well. I wish (If only) I had a lot of money

* Past Wish

S + wish(ed) + S + had + VpII Eg. I wish I had studied well last year. I wish I hadn’t got a bad mark yesterday.

EXERCISES ON CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AND WISH SENTENCES Exercise 1: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: If I see him , I _____ (give ) him a gift. If I had a typewriter, I _____ (type) it myself. If I had known that you were in hospital, I _____ (visit) you. You could make better progress if you _____ (attend) class regularly. If you _____ (arrive) ten minutes earlier, you would have got a seat. If he worked more slowly, he _____ (not make) so many mistakes. If I _____ (find) a cheap room, I will stay a fortnight. A lot of people _____ (be) out of work if the factory closed down. If you had drunk less last night, you (not feel) _________ so bad today. If she (not get) ________married at such an early age, she would be at university now. Exercise 2. Choose the one word or phrase – A, B, C or D – that best completes the sentences. 1. He would get mark 10 if he ________ again the paper. He made one mistake in it. A. read B. is reading C. reads D. will read 2. If I ________ get a car sick, I would go there with you. A. won’t B. don’t C. didn’t D. wouldn’t 3. If he worked harder, he ________ pass the entrance examination. A. will B. would C. is going to D. can 4. If you ________ the front door carefully, the thieves wouldn’t have broken into your house. A. have locked B. locked C. would lock D. had locked 5. He ________ her an opportunity to work in his office if she had had English proficiency. A. would have given B. will have given C. will give D. gives 6. If it ________tomorrow, I will not have to water the garden. A. will rain B. is raining C. rained D. rains 7. Had I known his address, I ________ before. A. would write B. have written C. had written D. would have written 8. ________ already busy in August, I would gladly accept your invitation. A. Was I not B. Were I not C. If I am not D. Unless I was not 9. ________ heat from the sun there would be no life on earth. A. Except B. Without C. If there is no D. Despite 10. I won't lend you this money ________ you promise to pay it back. A. if B. unless C. or D. or else 99


11. Provided that he ________ the car, we ________ able to drive to the country. B. services - will be A. services - are C. will service - will be D. services - would be 12. Without your help, we ________ in such a short time. A. will not do it B. did not do it C. can not have done it D. wouldn't have done it 13. But for his help, I ________ A. would not have succeeded B. had not succeeded C. did not succeed D. have not succeeded 14. I didn't know you were asleep. Otherwise, I ________ so much noise when I came in. A. didn't make B. wouldn't have made C. won't make D. don't make 15. I wish you ________ to me before you went and bought that car. A. spoke B. have spoken C. had spoken D. would have spoken 16. If only he ________ harder, he wouldn’t have lost his job. A. worked B. would work C. had worked D. has worked 17. If only we ________ a car. I’m tired of the bad service of public transport. A. were B. had C. have D. are 18. I wish I ________ so much money when I was in town yesterday. A. wouldn’t have spent B. hadn’t spent C. wouldn’t spend D. didn’t spend 19. If you _________5 minutes late, you won’t be able to get into the examination room. A. will be

B. were

C. are

D. would be

20. If she ____________ English well, she would be offered that job. A. will speak

B. speaks

C. is speaking

D. spoke

21. I miss my friends. I wish my friends ______ here right now. A. were B. would be C. had been D. was 22. If he worked harder, he ______________pass the entrance examination. A. will

B. would

C. is going to

D. can

23. If you ___________ the front door carefully, the thieves wouldn’t have broken into your house. A. have locked

B. locked

C. would lock

D. had locked

24. He _____ her an opportunity to work in his office if she had had English proficiency. A. would have given

B. will have given

C. will give

D. gives

25. If it ______________tomorrow, I will not have to water the garden. A. will rain

B. is raining

C. rained

D. rains

26. Had I known his address, I ____________ before. A. would write

B. have written

C. had written

D. would have written

27. I speak terrible English. I wish I ______ English well. A. spoke B. would speak C. had spoken D. speaks 28. If you had taken my advice, you ____________ in such difficulties now. A. won’t be

B. hadn’t been

C. wouldn’t be

D. wouldn’t have been

29. ____________ anything suspicious arise, please let me know at once. A. Should

B. Would

C. Can

D. Did 100


30. I went out in the rain and now I have a bad cold. I wish I ______ out. A. didn't go B. wouldn't go C. hadn't gone 31. My friend _______ me at the station if he gets the afternoon off.

D. went

A. meets

D. would meet

B. will meet

C. would have met

32. ___he___ hard last year, he would have lost the first prize. ’

A. Hadn t – studied B. Had- studied C. Didn t study D. If – had studied 33. ___ interested in that subject, I would try to learn more about it. A. Were I B. Should I C. I was D. If I am 34. Unless you ___ all of my questions, I ’

can t do anything to help you. A. answered

B. answer

C. would answer

D. are answering

35. If he___tickets yesterday, he ___ on the beach now. had booked- would be had booked- would have lying C. booked – would lie lied D. books- will lie Exercise 3: choose the best answer Get in touch with me as soon as possible if you change your mind about the trip. Should you change your mind about the trip, contact me as soon as possible If you changed your mind about the trip, get in touch with me as soon as possible. You should call me whenever you changed your mind about the trip. Having changed your mind about the trip, you should get in touch with me soon Without his help, we would all die. We died because he didn’t help us. He didn’t help us, so we died. C. If it hadn’t been for his help, we would all have died D. If he had helped us, we wouldn’t have died. 3. You can stay in the flat for free if you pay the bills. A. Provided you pay the bills, you can stay in the flat for free. B. Without the bills paid, you can stay in the free flat. C. Unless the flat is free of bills, you cannot stay in it. D. Whether you pay the bills or stay in the flat, it is free.

In my experiments, the liquid is cooled to 32ºF. It always freezes. If you cool the liquid to 32 degrees, it froze. If you cooled the liquid to 32 degrees, it would freeze. If you cool the liquid to 32 degrees, it will freeze. If you had cooled the liquid to 32 degrees, it would have frozen. If he doesn’t apologize, I will never invite him here again. Unless he apologizes, then I will never invite him here again. Unless he apologizes, or I will never invite him here again. Unless he doesn’t apologize, I will never invite him here again. Unless he apologizes, I will never invite him here again. Do your homework first and I’ll let you play the computer games. I won’t allow you to do homework when you play the computer games. Let’s play the computer games without doing your homework. You are allowed to play the computer games without doing your homework. 101


D. Unless you do homework first, I won’t let you play the computer games.

I don’t have enough money with me now; otherwise I would buy that coat. A. If I didn’t have money with me now, I would buy that coat. B. If I had money with me now, I would buy that coat. C. If I had money with me now, I wouldn’t buy that house. D. If I didn’t have money with me now, I wouldn’t buy that house. Susan regretted not buying that villa. Susan wished she had bought that villa. Susan wished she bought that villa. Susan wished she could buy that villa. D. Susan wished she hadn’t bought that villa. It’s a pity that you didn’t tell us about this. A. I wish you told us about this. B. I wish you would tell us about this. C. I wish you had told us about this. D. I wish you have told us about this. I’m afraid he will not get over his illness. B. I wish he would get over his illness. A. I wish he will get over his illness. C. I wish he got over his illness. D. I wish he had got over his illness. Peter regretted buying the secondhand computer. Peter didn’t want to buy the secondhand computer. Peter wished he didn’t buy the secondhand computer. C. Peter wished he hadn’t bought the secondhand computer. D. Peter was glad to buy the secondhand computer. I regret that you didn’t give me a chance to tell you the truth. I wish you didn’t give me a chance to tell you the truth. I wish you gave me a chance to tell you the truth. C. I wish you had given me a chance to tell you the truth. D. I wish you hadn’t given me a chance to tell you the truth. Exercise 4. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it. 1. Throw a stone into water and it sinks. => If you ………………………………………………………………………. I feel better now because you talked to me about my problems last night. => I wouldn’t …………………………………………………………………. He doesn’t have a car, so he doesn’t go out in the evening. => If ……………………………………………………………………………. 4. I couldn’t finish the test because I didn’t have enough time. => If ……………………………………………………………………………. 5. You feel tired all the time because you go to bed so late. => If you ………………………………………………………………………. 6. She’ll leave unless he arrives in the next ten minutes. => If he ……………………………………………………………………….. 7. You are very tired today because you didn’t go to bed when I told you to. => You wouldn’t ………………………………………………………………… 8. They don’t clean the windows so the room looks rather dark. => Were …………………………………………………………………………. 102


9. You won’t pass unless you revise more. => Should ………………………………………………………………………. 10. He was driving too fast so he crashed. => Had he …………………………………………………………………….. 11. I would love to be rich and famous. => If only …………………………………………………………………………… 12. I'll only help you if you promise to try harder. => Unless ……………………………………………………………………………. 13. The flat is very noisy but they enjoy living there. => Even if …………………………………………………………………………... 14. Unless someone has a key, we can't get into the house. => We can only get ………………………………………………………………… 15. What a pity you failed your driving test! => I wish ………………………………………………………………………….. Exercise 5. Choose the underlined part in each sentence (A, B, C or D) that needs correcting. 1. What do you do if you won the first prize of the lottery? A B C D 2. Would people be able to fly if they have feathers instead of hair? A B C D 3. If a drop of oil is placed in a glass of water, it would float to the top A B C D 4. If Peter had been more careful, he wouldn’t break the camera I lent him A B C D Roger wouldn’t have made such a lot of mistakes if he hasn’t been so tired A B C D He wouldn’t have able to pass the test if his English hadn’t been good enough A B C D 7. If your son were old enough, he can be able to take the competition next week A B C D If she had send a telegram, we would have received it by now. A B C D They wouldn’t have order more books if they had noticed that the sales were falling. A B C D I would have called you if I could have known your number A B C D

11. RELATIVE CLAUSES I. RELATIVE PRONOUNS I. Relative pronouns: Who ,whom, which, that, whose WHO: Làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ, dùng thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người N (person) + WHO + V + O 103


Ex: - I need to meet the boy. The boy is my friend’s son. I need to meet the boy who is my friend’s son. I don't like the man . He lives next door . I don't like the man who lives next door. NOTE: THAT có thể thay thế cho WHO trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. Đại từ quan hệ không được lược bỏ. WHO/ WHOM: Làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ, dùng thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người …..N (person) + WHOM + S + V Ex: - I know the girl. I spoke to this girl. I know the girl who/ whom I spoke to. - The man is my teacher. Your father is talking to him. The man who/ whom your father is talking to is my teacher. NOTE: THAT có thể thay thế cho WHO/ WHOM trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. Đại từ quan hệ có thể được lược bỏ. 3. WHICH : Làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ, dùng thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật. WHICH có thể được sử dụng để thay thế cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước nó, chức năng như một liên từ. ….N (thing) + WHICH + V + O ….N (thing) + WHICH + S + V …..S + V…., WHICH + V (chia ở số ít) ………. Ex1: I don't like the book . It tells about a famous actor. I don't like the book which tells about a famous actor. Ex2: I like the shirt . You are wearing it. I like the shirt which you are wearing. Ex3: He passed his exam. This pleased his parents. He passed his exam, which pleased his parents. (dùng dấu phẩy trước đại từ quan hệ) WHOSE: Dùng thay thế cho sở hữu của người / vật thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức ‘s …..N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V …. Ex1: The woman is my teacher. Her son is my best friend. The woman whose son is my best friend is my old teacher. Ex2: The table is old. Its leg has been broken. The table whose leg/ the leg of which has been broken is old. NOTE: Nếu để thay thế cho sở hữu chỉ về vật/ con vật ta có thể dùng WHOSE hoặc OF WHICH * OF WHICH / OF WHOM: Ex: - Daisy has three brothers. All of them are teachers. Daisy has three brothers, all of whom are teachers. He asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. He asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. THAT: Có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định Ex: - I need to meet the boy that/ who is my friend’s son. - The woman that/ who is standing over there is my sister. - I know the girl that/ who/ whom I spoke to. - The man that/ who/ whom your father is talking to is my teacher. - She works for a company that/ which makes cars. 104


The elephants that/ which people keep in iron cages are big. * Những trường hợp thường dùng THAT: - Sau cụm từ quan hệ vừa chỉ người và vật: Ex: He told me the places and people that he had seen in London. Sau đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none. Ex: I’ll tell you something that is very interesting. All that is mine is yours. Sau các hình thức so sánh nhất; sau các từ only, first, last Ex: - This is the most beautiful dress that I have. You are the only person that can help us. It was the first time that I heard of it. Trong cấu trúc It + be + … + that … (chính là …) Ex: It is my friend that wrote this sentence. Những trường hợp không dùng THAT: - Trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định. Ex: Mr Brown, that we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. - Sau giới từ Ex: The house in that I was born is for sale. II. DEFINING & NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES 1. Defining relative clause (Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định) Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định đứng sau danh từ chưa được xác định, nó thêm một thông tin cần thiết cho danh từ đứng trước và không thể bỏ đi được vì nếu bỏ đi thì câu không rõ nghĩa. Không có dấu phẩy giữa danh từ và mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. Ex: - I saw the girl. She helped us last week. I saw the girl who/that helped us last week. * LƯU Ý: THAT được sử dụng để thay thế cho WHO, WHOM và WHICH. Ta có thể bỏ đại từ quan hệ: WHO, WHOM, WHICH, THAT khi chúng làm tân ngữ trong MĐQH xác định. 2. Non defining relative clause (Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định) Dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước đã được xác định rõ (nó chỉ là phần giải thích thêm), nếu bỏ đi mệnh đề chính vẫn rõ nghĩa. Mệnh đề này ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng dấu phẩy. Ta dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định khi: Trước đại từ quan hệ có: this/that/these/those/my/her/his/… Từ trước đại từ quan hệ là tên riêng, danh từ riêng, vật duy nhất, cụm trạng ngữ chỉ nơi chốn Ex: - My father is a doctor. He is fifty years old. My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor. Mr. Brown is a very nice teacher. We studied English with him. Mr Brown, who we studied English with, is a very nice teacher. The sun made the traveller thirsty. It was hot at midday. The sun, which was hot at midday, made the traveller thirsty The boys in the next room are my students. They are making noise. The boys in the next room, who are making noise, are my students. 105


LƯU Ý: + KHÔNG được bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong MĐQH không xác định. Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau: Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their) Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those

Exercise 1. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, WHICH or THAT The car ______ the robbers escaped in was a BMW. The dictionary _______ you gave me is very good. The towns people, ______ pride in their community is well- known, raised enough money to build a new town hall. The woman ______ daughter was crying tried to calm her down. Do you know the girls _______ are standing outside the church? The police are looking for the thieves _______ got into my house last night. The chocolate _______ you like comes from the United States. I have lost the necklace _______ my mother gave me on my birthday. A burglar is someone _______ breaks into a house and steals things. Buses _______ go to the airport run every half hour. I can’t find the key _______ opens this door. The family ______ car was stolen last week is the Smiths. I gave you a book _______ had many pictures. I don’t like the boy _______ Sue is going out with. The volunteers, ______ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly. Did you see the beautiful dress _______ she wore yesterday. The man _______ she is going to marry is very rich. This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday. He wore a mask _______ made him look like Mickey Mouse. The man ______ mobile was ringing did not know what to do. Exercise 2: Choose the best option among A, B, C, or D to complete each of the following sentences. 1. Tom, ______ is a monitor of the class, is also the captain of the school football team. A. who B. which C. whom D. that 2. Budapest, ______ is on the Danube, is a beautiful city. A. whom B. that C. who D. which 3. The street _______ leads to my school is very narrow. A. who B. which C. whom D. whose 4. Bring me the clock _______ is over there. A. whom B. which C. whose D. who 5. My friend, ____ aunt is nurse, would like to be a doctor someday. A. who B. whom C. which D. whose 6. The dog, ____ tail I stepped on, bit me. A. who B. whose C. which D. whom 7. Please give this to the beggar____ is at the door. A. who B. which C. whom D. whose 106


8. She gives her children everything ____ they want. A. that B. who C. whom D. what 9. Have you ever seen the photographs ____ Ann took? A. that B. whom C. whose D. who 10. I met the woman ____ can speak six languages. A. who B. whose C. which D. whom 11. Marie,_________ I met at the party, called me last night. A. that B. whom C. which D. whose 12. He rushed into the burning building, _______ was very brave. A. it B. who C. that D. which 13. They are living in the house ______ they bought last month. A. which B. where C. when D. who 14. We are going to visit Hanoi, ________ is the capital city of Vietnam. A. which B. that C. where D. who 15. Sally lost her job, ________ wasn’t surprising. A. that B. what C. it D. which 16. She gives her children everything ________they want. A. that B. who C. whom D. what 17.What was the name of the girl________passport was stolen? A. whose B. who C. which D. when 18. Why do you always disagree with everything________I say? A. who B. that C. when D. what 19. This is an awful film. It is the worst________I have never seen. A. who B. that C. what D. whom 20. She told me her address ________ I wrote on a piece of paper. D. where A. what B. which C. when Exercise 3. Combine these pairs of sentences, using relative pronouns 1. I don’t like the man. He is going out with my sister. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2. The book was a lovely story. I was reading it yesterday. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3. The only thing is how to go home. It makes me worried. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4. The most beautiful girl lives in the city. I like her long hair very much. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5. They are looking for the man and his dog. They have lost the way in the forest. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6. The tree has lovely flowers. The tree stands near the gate of my house. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7.These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8. The man works for my father’s company. The man’s daughter is fond of dancing. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9. Charlie Chaplin became a very rich man. He was from a poor family. 107


→…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10. I don’t like the man. He is going out with my sister. →…………………………………………………………………………………………………. III. RELATIVE ADVERBS WHY (for which): Dùng để thay thế cho cụm trạng ngữ chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason. …..N (reason) + WHY + S + V … Ex: I don’t know the reason. You didn’t go to school for that reason. I don’t know the reason why you didn’t go to school. WHERE: Thay thế cho từ cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there ….N (place) + WHERE + S + V …. (WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH) Ex: - The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed at that hotel. The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t very clean. WHEN: Thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then ….N (time) + WHEN + S + V … (WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH) Ex: - Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day. Do you still remember the day when we first met? Do you still remember the day on which we first met? - I don’t know the time. She will come back then. I don’t know the time when she will come back. Exercise 4: Complete each relative clause with why, when, or where: Do you know the reason ……………she is so upset? The day ……………you saw me I was feeling sick. The library is a place ……………you can borrow books. That is the house ……………we used to live. This is the reason ……………I never call her. The place ……………we went yesterday is just around the corner. They never told us the reason ……………they moved away. The school ……………I study English is not far from your house. Was that the time ……………you guys went to France together? That is the drawer ……………I keep my T-shirts. Exercise 5: Choose the best option among A, B, C, or D to complete each of the following sentences. 1. I don’t like the place ________ he lives. A. that B. which C. where D. when 2. The town _______ we are living is noisy and crowded. A. in where B. which C. at which D. where 3. The year ______ we came to live here was 1975. A. when B. which C. that D. in the time 4. The year ______ the first man travelled in space will never be forgotten. A. which B. that C. when D. where 5. This is the place ______ the battle took place forty years ago. A. which B. in where C. where D. from where 108


6. I will never forget the time __________ he said good bye to me. A. when B. where C. why D. which 7. Last month we spent our holiday in Tokyo, ________ there are many temples. A. which B. that C. where D. whom 8. Do you know the reason ______ they didn’t go swimming with us last week? A. what B. why C. how D. which 9. Sundays are the days ______ children don’t have to go to school. A. who B. which C. that D. when 10. The house __________ Mozart was born is now a museum. A. where B. which C. why D. when 11. The place __________ we spent our holiday was really beautiful. A. what B. who C. where D. which 12. The last time __________I saw her, she looked very beautiful. A. who B. that C. where D. when 13. The reason __________ I phoned him was to invite him to a party. D. which A. what B. whose C. why 14. The dress didn’t fit her, so she took it back to the shop __________ she had bought it. A. where B. which C. what D. when 15. 1945 was the year __________ the second world war ended. A. which B. why C. when D. where IV. RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH PREPOSITIONS N(Người)

N(Vật)

WHOM

+

Preposition – Giới từ

In, on, at, for, to, with, from, of, by, against, by…

+ WHICH

Nếu trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề quan hệ (chỉ áp dụng với whom và which.) Ex1: Mr. Brown is a nice teacher. We studied with him last year. Mr. Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a nice teacher. Mr. Brown, whom we studied with last year, is a nice teacher. Ex2: I don't like the hotel . We are living in that hotel I don't like the hotel which we are living in. I don't like the hotel in which we are living. Ex3: That girl is my sister.You are talking about her The girl who/(whom)you are talking about is my sister. The girl about whom you are talking is my sister. NOTE: Preposition + Whom / Which Chúng ta có thể sử dụng giới từ ở đầu hoặc cuối mệnh đề quan hệ. Giới từ thường được đặt ở cuối trong những trường hợp không trang trọng. Ex. This is the room. I work in it. This is the room in which I work OR the room that I work in. Khi chúng ta đặt giới từ ở cuối, chúng ta thường sử dụng that hoặc không sử dụng đại từ quan hệ ở đầu. Trong những tình huống trang trọng, chúng ta có thể bao gồm which, who và whom ở đầu. Eg. - Cook's was the shop that everybody went to for shoes. - There were bunk beds that we slept in. 109


Camden is the area (which) I grew up in. Is he the boy (who/whom) you were telling us about? Chúng ta thường đặt giới từ ở cuối sau động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ. Ex. - There are things (which) he's had to cut back on. (NOT ... things on which he's had to cut back.) He is a person (who/whom) I've always looked up to. (NOT ... a person to whom I've looked up.) Khi chúng ta đặt giới từ ở đầu mệnh đề quan hệ, chúng ta sử dụng which (không dùng that) hoặc whom (không dùng who). Ex. - A clothes horse is a frame on which clothes are hung to dry. (NOT ... a frame on that clothes...) A lot will be expected from people to whom a lot is given, (NOT ... people to who a lot is given.) Có một số giới từ mà chúng ta chỉ sử dụng ở đầu (không phải ở cuối) mệnh đề quan hệ. Ex. - The mid-nineteenth century was a period during which many people left Ireland. (NOT ... a period which many people left Ireland during.) Notes: Với giới từ WITHOUT, ta không thể đưa ra sau mệnh đề quan hệ. Ex: That is the man without whom we’ll get lost. Exercise 6: Choose the best option among A, B, C, or D to complete each of the following sentences. 1. The house in ________ I was born and grew up was destroyed in an earthquake ten years ago. A. which B. where C. that D. where 2. Do you know the man about ___________ they’re talking? A. whom B. whose C. that D. who 3. The film about _____ they are talking is fantastic. A. who B. which C. whom D. that 4. I must thank the man from _____ I got the present. A. who B. whom C. that D. which 5. He is the singer about ____ I often tell you. A. that B. who C. whom D. him 6. The concert ____ I listened last weekend was boring. A. to that B. to which C. for what D. for which 7. That’s the girl to ____ my brother got engaged. A. which B. who C. whom D. her 8. I like the village ____ I used to live. A. in that B. in where C. which D. in which 9. I don’t know the reason ____ she hasn’t talked to me recently. A. on which B. for which C. of which D. about which 10. The little girl ____ I borrowed this pen has gone. A. whose B. from who C. from that D. from whom 11. The boy ________ I lent my money is poor. A. to that B. to who C. to whom D. whom 12. The knife ________ we are cutting bread is very sharp. A. with that B. which C. with which D. that 13. Your career should focus on a field _________ you are generally interested. A. on which B. in which C. which D. that 14. I like the village ____ I used to live. A. in that B. in where C. which D. in which 110


15. The concert ____ I listened last weekend was boring. A. to that B. to which C. for what

D. for which

V. OMISION OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS Ex: + The man who I want to see was away on holiday. The man I want to see was away on holiday. Have you found the keys that you lost? Have you found the keys you lost? The dress which Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. Form:

...... that which + S + V whom

……. S+V

Use: Relative pronouns "whom, which, that" which are used as objects in defining R.C can be omitted, especially in spoken English. *Note: Whose is not used in this case. Exercise 7: Tick (√) the sentences in which the relative pronoun can be ommitted. A calendar is something which tells you the date. Strikers are soccer players who try to score goals for their team. Jane is a person who everybody likes. A stamp is something which you put on a letter if you want to send it. The Thames is a river which runs through London. Cheese is food which mice like eating. A racket is something which you use to hit a ball when you play tennis or badminton. Socks are things which you wear on your feet. A guide is a person who shows tourists around around a place. Love is a feeling which nobody can describe. The book which is on the table belongs to Brandon. The museum which we visited last month is closed now. The man who you saw in the house is my cousin. Bob, who I know very well, is going out with Mary. I cannot forget the song which they played last night. The woman who is talking to Sue is my aunt. I cannot remember the hotel that we stayed at. Lucy, who I haven't seen for ages, rang me last night. A person that you don't trust won't trust you either. My father, whom I helped to install his computer, always forgets his password.

MI X EX 111


ERCISES Exercise 1: Choose the best option among A, B, C, or D to complete each of the following sentences. 1. Tell me __________you want and I will try to help you. A. that B. what C. who D. which 2. The bed __________I slept in was too soft. A. whose B. which C. what D. who 3. Nora is the only person__________understands me. A. which B. who C. what D. whose 4. The hotel __________we stayed was not clean. A. who B. that C. where D. when 5. What was the name of the people __________car had broken down. A. which B. who C. whom D. whose 6. I recently went back to the town__________I was born. A. what B. where C. who D. which 7. I don’t agree with __________ you have just said. A. what B. who C. when D. which 8. Do you know the girl __________Tom is talking to? A. whom B. what C. which D. whose 9. I gave her all the money __________ I had. A. that B. what C. when D. whose 10.The stories __________Tom tells are usually very funny. A. when B. that C. where D. who 11. I met the woman__________can speak 6 languages. A. who B. when C. which D. whom The periodic table contains all the elements, ________ has a particular atomic weight and atomic number. A. which of each B. each of which C. which each D. each Ansel Adams was a landscape photographer ________ photographs of the western United States show nature on a grand scale. A. whose B. of whom C. of his D. his 14. Jan didn't check she had enough petrol before she left, ________ was careless of her. A. what B. it C. that D. which 15. Have you ever seen the photographs __________ Ann took? A. that B. where C. when D. who 16. Everybody __________went to the party enjoyed it very much. A. that B. whose C. which D. whom 17. Is there a shop near hear __________I can buy a postcard? A. when B. which C. where D. who 18. Mr. Pike, __________ is our boss, has just come back from Paris. A. who B. whom C. that D. which 19. Dien Bien Phu is a place __________ our army won a resounding victory in 1954. A. where B. what C. which D. that 20. We don’t know the reason __________Peter is absent today. A. who B. which C. that D. why 112


21. The reading table __________I put my books is in the corner of the room. C. why D. whose A. when B. where 22. It is him __________helped me last night. A. whom B. that C. which D. whose 23. Post office is a place __________you can buy stamps, mail letters and packages, and receive mail. A. that B. which C. where D. who 24. Do you know the date __________we have to hand in the essay? A. which B. in which C. on that D. when 25. My uncle, __________you met yesterday, is a lawyer. A. which B. who C. whose D. to whom 26. I’m not the man ____ you are looking for? A. that B. x (nothing) C. whom D. A, B or C 27. I have two brothers, ________ are professional athletes. A. two of which B. two of whom C. both of whom D. two of them 28. One of the people _________ I admire most in the history of the world is Gandhi. A. that B. which C. whose D. of them 29. Sunday is the day _______ which we usually go fishing. A. during B. at C. in D. on st

30. “Is April 21 the day _____________?” A. you’ll arrive then

~ “ No, the twenty second”. B. when you’ll arrive

C. on that you’ll arrive

D. when you’ll arrive on

31. He is the singer about ____ I often tell you. A. that B. who C. whom D. him 32. That’s the girl to ____ my brother got engaged. A. which B. who C. whom D. her 33. The little girl ____ I borrowed this pen has gone. A. whose B. from who C. from that D. from whom 34. The children, _____________parents work late, are taken home by bus. A. that

B. whose

C. their

D. whom

35. _____________told me this refused to give his name. A. The man whom B. The man whom was C. The man who was D. The man who 36. The authority gathered those villagers ____ they explained the importance of forests. A. who B. whom C. to whom D. to that 37. The school has been given 20 computers, half of __________are brand new. A. that B. those C. them D. which 38.There were many scientists at the meeting, several of ____ were very young. A. That B. whom C. who D. which 39.This is the novel ____ I’ve been expecting. A. that B. which C. x (nothing) D. A, B or C 40. Ann failed her exam, _____________surprised everyone. A. which

B. who

C. that is

D. that

th

41. Fencing was first introduced at the 13 Asian Games, ____ in Bangkok, Thailand in 1998. 113


A. to be held B. holing C. when was held D. which was held 42. Each country sends its best athletes ____ participation expresses the friendship and solidarity. A. who B. which C. that D. whose 43. ____ came from France were really more friendly than any others. A. The athletes, that B. The athletes whom C. The athletes who D. The athletes which 44. That is Mr. Pike, a referee, ____ I told you about. A. that B. which C. whom D. whose 45. This is a picture in the newspaper of a high jumper ____ leg was seriously hurt. A. who B. who C. whose D. that 46. I like the book ____ you lent me last week. A. who B. when C. where D. Φ 47. He rang James, ____ a good friend as well as his trainer. A. who was B. that was C. being D. to be 48. Experts ________feel that they are related to the deep wishes and fears of the dreamer. A. study dreams B. who dream study C. whose dream study D. who study dreams 49.The man _____________on the plane talked all the time. A. who I am sitting next to

C. that I was sitting next to

B. that I was sitting next to him

D. who I was sitting next to him

50.Vegetarian is someone _____________ doesn’t eat meat. A. whom B. who C. whose D. which 51. Tom’s father, _____________ is 78, goes swimming everyday. A. who B. whose C. which D. whom 52. I know the man ____ Miss White is talking to. A. him B. which C. whose D. Φ 53. Nam passed his driving test, _____________ surprised everybody. A. whom B. which C. whose D. who 54. A friend of mine, _____________ father is the manager of a company, helps me to get a job. A. whom B. which C. whose D. who 55. I have to leave for London tomorrow, _______ means I cannot go to the party with you. A. that B. which C. when D. why Exercise 2: Choose the underlined part among A, B, C or D that needs correcting. 1. The waiter whom served us yesterday was polite and friendly. A B C D 2. This class is only for people who’s first language is not Chinese. A B C D 3. This is the boy who sister studied with me in high school A B C D 4. He is moving to Lang Son city, that is in the north-east of Viet Nam. A B C D 5. May is the month when the weather is usually the hostest then. A B C D 7. Hai phong is the place which I grew up between the age of two and ten. A B C D 114


8. My father, that has a special craze for cars, has just bought another sport car A B C D 9. Earnes Hamwi, who invention of the ice-cream cone brought him a lot of money, was a pastry vendor. A B C D Marilyn Monroe, who a famous actress, died of drug overdose. A B C D 11. Hawaii, which is a part of a group of islands, that has active volcanoes A B C D 12. The man whom remained in the office was the manager. A B C D 1975 was the year in when the revolution took place. A B C D Mr. Brown, that teaches me English, is coming today. A B C D The car who I bought used to be my father’s. A B C D 16. The radio program to whom I listened last night was so interesting. A B C D 17. Nancy’s mother, to who I talked in the party, has a big restaurant. ABC D 18. The manager about which Mary told was wealthy. A B C D 19. I have two brothers, both of them are studying in England. A B C D 20. It was a kind of machine with that we were not familiar. A BCD 21. Bill went to class late, that was unusual for him A B C D A person who study science is a scientist A B C D The picture painting by my brother was bought by a foreigner. A B C D The story to that I listened yesterday was very interesting A B C D 25. He’s the man that his novel won the Nobel Prize last year A B C D 26. I don’t know the reason what he wanted to leave his home country. A B C D 27. At that time, all commercial centers are very crowded with people who comes to buy food and A B C D things to prepare for Tet. 28. Do you ever feel that life is not being fair to you because you cannot seem to get the job where ABCD you want or that really suits you? Anyone where works is regarded as a useful member of our society. 115


A B C D 30. We are working, that means that we are contributing goods and services to our society. A B C D Exercise 3: Choose one sentence that is most similar in meaning to the original one. There are a lot of people. The people like to do things together. There are a lot of people who like to do things together. There are a lot of people who like do things together. There are a lot of people whom like to do things together. There are a lot of people like to do things together. Sue lives in a house. The house is opposite my house. Sue lives in a house which is opposite my house. Sue lives in a house who is opposite my house. Sue lives in a house where is opposite my house. Sue lives in a house and which is opposite my house. People’s carelessness can cause forest fires. They are dangerous. People’s carelessness can cause forest fires are dangerous. People’s carelessness can cause forest fires which is dangerous. People’s carelessness can cause forest fires is dangerous. People’s carelessness can cause forest fires which are dangerous. It was a great summer. I’ll never forget that summer. It was a great summer that I’ll never forget it . It was a great summer I’ll never forget . It was a great summer of which I’ll never forget. It was a great summer of that I’ll never forget. I received a letter this morning. It really upseted me. I received a letter this morning really upseted me. I received a letter this morning in which really upseted me. I received a letter this morning which really upseted me. I received a letter this morning of which really upsets me. The table should be repaired. It’s legs were broken yesterday. A. The table which legs were broken yesterday should be repaired The table whose legs were broken yesterday should be repaired. The table of which legs were broken yesterday should be repaired The table legs of whose were broken yesterday should be repaired Do you remember the girl? We talked to her last night. Do you remember the girl to who we talked last night ? Do you remember the girl whom we talked to her last night ? Do you remember the girl whom we talked to last night ? Do you remember the girl whose we talked to last night? The student is very tall. His father is an athlete. The student whose father is an athlete is very tall. The student his father is an athlete is very tall. The student who father is an athlete is very tall The student of whom father is an athlete is very tall. 116


We stayed at the hotel. He recommended it We stayed at the hotel which recommended it. We stayed at the hotel which recommended. We stayed at the hotel he recommended . He recommended the hotel which we stayed at. The restaurant was very modern. We had lunch at the restaurant. The restaurant where we had lunch was very modern. The restaurant which we had lunch was very modern. The restaurant that we had lunch was very modern. The restaurant where we had lunch at was very modern. I live in a flat in London. I paid a high rent for it. I live in a flat in London where I paid a high rent for. I live in a flat in London for that I paid a high rent . I live in a flat in London which I paid a high rent. I live in a flat in London for which I paid a high rent. It was a kind of accident. Nobody was really to blame for it. It was a kind of accident for whom was really to blame it. It was a kind of accident why nobody was really to blame. It was a kind of accident for which nobody was really to blame it. It was a kind of accident, which nobody was really to blame for . I must thank the man. I got the present from him. I must thank the man from whom I got the present . I must thank the man from which I got the present. I must thank the man from whom I got the present from him. I must thank the man whom from I got the present. Washington is the man. The Americans owe their independence to him. Washington is the man whose independence the Americans owe to him. Washington is the man that the Americans owe their independence. Washington is the man to whom the Americans owe their independence. Washington is the man to that the Americans owe their independence. The Sales Manager is a young woman. We have great confidence in her. The Sales Manager is a young woman whose confidence we have in. The Sales Manager is a young woman in whom we have great confidence her The Sales Manager is a young woman in which we have great confidence. The Sales Manager is a young woman in whom we have great confidence. The man is my teacher. I am grateful to him. The man whom I am grateful to him is my teacher. C. The man is my teacher who I am grateful B. The man whom I am grateful to is my teacher D. The man to him I am grateful is my teacher. 17. Ngoc is friendly. We are talking about her. A. Ngoc, we are talking about, is friendly. C. Ngoc, about her we are talking, is friendly. B. Ngoc, whom we are talking about is friendly. D. Ngoc, about whom we are talking, is friendly. 117


That is the student. I borrowed his book last week. That is the student I borrowed whose book last week. The student whose book I borrowed that is. That is the student, whose book I borrowed last week. That is the student whose book I borrowed last week. The book is very expensive. My father is interested in it. The book in which my father is interested is very expensive. The book which in my father is interested is very expensive. The book which my father is interested is very expensive. The book in that my father is interested is very expensive. He likes the dress. Huong is wearing it. He likes the dress which Huong is wearing it. He likes the dress Huong is wearing it. He likes the dress who Huong is wearing. He likes the dress Huong is wearing. Most of the classmates couldn't come. He invited them to the birthday party. Most of the classmates he invited to the birthday party couldn't come. Most of the classmates he was invited to the birthday party couldn't come. Most of the classmates that he invited them to the birthday party couldn't come. Most of the classmates which he invited to the birthday party couldn't come. What was the name of the man? You met and talked to him this morning. What was the name of the man who you met and talked to him this morning? What was the name of the man you met and talked to this morning? What was the name of the man you met and talked to whom this morning? What was the name of the man whose you met and talked to this morning? The church is over 500 years old. Our class visited it last summer. The church which our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old. The church that our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old. The church which our class visited last summer is over 500 years old. The church our class visit last summer is over 500 years old. The song says about the love of two young students. She is singing the song. The song which she is singing it says about the love of two young students. The song she is singing says about the love of two young students. The song says about the love of two young students which she is singing. The song says about the love of two young students that she is singing it. The old man is working in this factory. I borrowed his bicycle yesterday. The old man is working in this factory which I borrowed his bicycle yesterday. The old man whom is working in this factory I borrowed his bicycle yesterday. The old man whom I borrowed his bicycle yesterday is working in this factory. The old man whose bicycle I borrowed yesterday is working in this factory.

REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES 1. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách dùng participle phrases (V-ing phrase)

118


Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động (active), ta dùng cụm hiện tại phân từ (present participle phrase) thay cho mệnh đề đó. Thao tác: Bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu và thêm đuôi – ing. Ex: + The man who is standing there is my brother => The man standing there is my brother Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night? => Do you know the boy breaking the windows last night? who N + which + V (active) that who N + which + V-ing that Exercise 1. Rewrite the following sentences, replace the relative clauses by present participle phrases. 1. Who was that good looking man who is talking to Alison? ________________________________________________________________ 2. The road which joins the two villages is very narrow. ________________________________________________________________ 3. Students who arrive late will not be permitted to enter the classroom. ________________________________________________________________ 4. The nurse who is looking after my aunt is very kind to her. ________________________________________________________________ 5. All the rubbish that is floating in the sea is a real danger to health. ________________________________________________________________ 6. Thompson is the most famous actress who appears on stage here. ________________________________________________________________ 7. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. ________________________________________________________________ 8. Daniel was the most suitable candidate who applied for the job. ________________________________________________________________ The helicopter which was flying toward the lake made a low droning sound. ________________________________________________________________ The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet. ________________________________________________________________

2. Rút gọn bằng cách dùng past participle phrase (V-ed phrase) Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (passive) ta dùng cụm quá khứ phân từ (past participle phrase). Ex: The books which were written by Nam Cao are interesting => The books written by Nam Cao are interesting. The students who were punished by teacher are lazy =>The students punished by teacher are lazy. who N + which + V (passive) that who 119


N + which + Ved/ V3 that Exercise 2. Rewrite the following sentences, replace the relative clauses by past participle phrases. Left-handed children who are forced to write with their right hands often develop psychological problems. ________________________________________________________________ Luggage that is left unattended will be taken away by police. ________________________________________________________________ 3. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm. ________________________________________________________________ 4. The system which is used here is very successful. ________________________________________________________________ 5. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page. ________________________________________________________________ 6. I come from a city which is located in the southern part of the country ________________________________________________________________ The wild ox which is kept at Nam Cat Tien National Park is of a special kind ________________________________________________________________ John, who was taken by surprise, hardly knew what to say. ________________________________________________________________ 9. They live in a house that was built in 1990. ________________________________________________________________ The vegetables which are sold in this supermarket are grown without chemicals. ________________________________________________________________

3. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng to infinitive Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước có các chữ sau đây bổ nghĩa: the only, the first, the second,… the last, so sánh nhất, mục đích. Ex: Tom is the last person who enters the room = Tom is the last person to enter the room. John is the youngest person who takes part in the race =>John is the youngest person to take part in the race. first second who V The last +(N)+ which + only that Ved/V3 superlatives first The only

second last

+(N)+ that superlatives

who to V which + to be + Ved/ V3

- Động từ là HAVE/HAD Ex: I have much homework that I must do. 120


=> I have many homework to do. - Đầu câu có HERE (BE), THERE (BE) Ex: There are six letters which have to be written today. => There are six letters to be written today. Exercise 3. Rewrite the following sentences, replace the relative clauses by to-infinitive phrases. 1. The secretary was the only person who was offered a pay rise. ________________________________________________________________ 2. He was the first man who left the burning building. ________________________________________________________________ 3. Lan is the second student who entered the classroom this morning. ________________________________________________________________ 4. He is always the first who comes and the last who goes. ________________________________________________________________ 5. The fifth man who was interviewed was completely unsuitable. ________________________________________________________________ 6. This is the third who is late for the meeting today. ________________________________________________________________ Hoa was the second student who won the first prize in the English speaking contest. ________________________________________________________________ We had a river in which we could swim. _________________________________________________________ 9. You are the last person who saw her alive. _________________________________________________________ 10. He was the second man who was killed in this way. _________________________________________________________ 4. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ dùng cụm danh từ (đồng cách danh từ) Dùng khi mệnh đề quan hệ tình từ có dạng: S + BE + DANH TỪ /CỤM DANH TỪ/CỤM GIỚI TỪ Cách làm: bỏ who ,which và be. Ex: Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health => Football, a popular sport, is very good for health. Do you like the book which is on the table? => Do you like the book on the table? Mệnh đề rút gọn tính từ có dạng be và tính từ/cụm tính từ - Có 2 công thức rút gọn: * Công thức 1: Bỏ who, which…to be -> giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau. - Điều kiện 1: Nếu phía trước that là đại từ phiếm chỉ như something, anything, anybody… Ex: There must be something that is wrong => There must be something wrong. - Điều kiện 2: Có dấu phẩy phía trước và phải có từ 2 tính từ trở lên. Ex: My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house => My grandmother, old and sick, never goes out of the house. * Công thức 2: Những trường hợp còn lại ta đem tính từ lên trước danh từ. Ex: My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house => My sick grandmother never goes out of the house. I buy a hat which is very beautiful and fashionable => I buy a very beautiful and fashionable hat. Tuy nhiên nếu cụm tính từ gồm cả danh từ ở trong nó thì ta chỉ còn cách dùng V-ing mà thôi. Ex: I met a man who was very good at both English and French => I met a man being very good at both English and French. => Tóm lại cách rút gọn loại này khá phức tạp vì nó tùy thuộc vào đến 3 yếu tố: có một hay nhiều tính 121


từ – danh từ đứng trước có phải là phiếm chỉ không có dấu phẩy hay không 6. Mệnh đề tính từ thành tính từ ghép Cách làm: Ta sẽ rút gọn mệnh đề thành một tính từ ghép bằng cách tìm trong mệnh đề một số đếm và danh từ đi sau nó, sau đó ta để chúng kế nhau và thêm dấu gạch nối ở giữa. Đem tính từ ghép đó ra trước danh từ đứng truớc who, which…- những phần còn lại bỏ hết. Lưu ý: + Danh từ không được thêm “s” + Chỉ dùng được dạng này khi mệnh để tính từ có số đếm + Các cụm như tuổi thì sẽ viết lại cả 3 từ và gạch nối giữa chúng (two years old à two-yearold) Ex: I have a car which has four seats => I have a four-seat car. I had a holiday which lasted two days => I had a two-day holiday. MIXED EXERCISES Exercise 1: Choose the best option among A, B, C, or D to complete each of the following sentences. 1. The man ____________ there is a clown. A. standing

B. stands

C. is standing

D. who standing

2. I saw many houses ________________ by the storm. A. were destroyed

B. destroyed

C. which destroyed

D. destroying

3. The street ___________ to the school is very wide. A. to lead

B. leading

C. leaded

D. is leading

4. He was the second man _____________ in this way. A. to kill

B. killed

C. to be killed

D. killing

5. The candidates ______________ for the exam are all from Vietnam. A. waits

B. who waiting

C. to wait

D. waiting

6. My brother, ___________ you yesterday, works for a big firm. A. met

B. who meets

C. meeting

D. to be met

7. The gentleman ______________ next door to me is a well-known orator. A. lives

B. living

C. to leave

D. lived

8. The system ________________ here is very sucessful. A. used

B. using

C. to be used

D. to use

9. We are driving on the road _________________ in 1980. A. building

B. to build

C. built

D. build

C. written

D. to write

C. overlooks

D. overlooked

10. I have some letter _________________ . A. write

B. writing

11. They have an apartment _________the park. A. overlooking

B. that overlooking

12.He took me to an expensive restaurant where we enjoyed a good meal. A. enjoyed a good meal

C. and enjoying a good meal

B. to enjoy a good meal

D. we enjoyed a good meal in .which

13. He is believed _______by terrorists two months ago. A. was killed B. to be killed C. being killed 14. The weather is expected ______ good tomorrow. A. will be B. to be C. is

D. had been killed D. being 122


15. The students____ for the train are good ones. A. waited B. waiting C. which is waiting D. to wait 16. This is the seventh person____ late. A. coming B. to come C. come D. all are correct 17. The book____ by Jack, is very famous. A. which written B. written C. was written D. writing 18. He is only one boy____ in this game. A. who participating B. participated C. to participate D. who participate. 19. I have a message for people __________ by the traffic chaos. A. to delay B. who delay C. delayed D. who delaying 20. Airplanes _______ in the twentieth century is one of the sources of pollution. A. which invented B. to invent C. invented D. that is invented 21. The pilot was the only man __________ after the crash. A. was rescued B. rescued C. rescuing D. to be rescued 22. The nuclear power plant _______ last year will come to operate tomorrow. A. completing B. to complete C. completed D. which completed 23. Lady Astor was the first woman _______her seat in Parliament. A. take B. to take C. taking D. who takes 24. I live in a pleasant room ____________ the garden. A. to overlook B. overlooking C. overlooked D. which overlooking 25. The house ______ in the storm has now been rebuilt. A. destroyed B. destroying C. which destroyed D. that is destroyed 26. Melanie was the only person __________ a letter of thanks. A. wrote B. written C. to write D. writing 27. Tom was the last ______the classroom yesterday. A. to leave B. leaving C. left D. leaves 28. Linda was the last student ______ at the oral exam. A. to be asked B. asking C. asks D. to ask 29. The bridge _____ by French architects is very nice. A. was designed B. designing C. to design D. designed 30. The people __________ for the bus in the rain are getting well A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D. wait 31. Nellie Ross of Wyoming was the first woman ______ governor in the United States. A. who elected B. to be elected C. was elected D. her election as 32. Pioneers, ______ in isolated areas of the United States, were almost totally self-sufficient. A. who living B. living C. lived D. that Iived Completed in 1756, Nassau Hall is the oldest building now ______ on the campus of Princeton University. . A. standing B. it stands C. has stood D. stood 34. Jerome Kern's most famous work is Showboat, ______ , most enduring musical comedies. A. it is one of the finest B. of the finest one C. the finest one D. one of the finest ______ in large quantities in the Middle East, oil became known as black gold because of the large profit it brought. 123


A. Discovering B. which was discovered C. Discovered D. That when discovered Neil Armstrong, ______ person to set foot on the moon, reported that the surface was fine and powdery. A. the first B. to be the first C. was the first D. as the first The Massachusetts State House, ______ in 1798, was the most distinguished building in the United States at that time. A. completing B. which was completed C. was completed D. to be completed 38. New words are constantly being invented ______ new objects and concepts. A. to describe B. a description of C. they describe D. describe Norman Weiner, ______ mathematician and logician, had an important role in the development of the computer. A. who as a B. was a C. whom a D. a War and Peace, ______, was published in 1869. Leo Tolstoy's most celebrated novel that is Leo Tolstoy's most celebrated novel which most celebrated novel of Leo Tolstoy is a Leo Tolstoy's most celebrated novel Hydroelectric power is produced by the fall of water ________in a dam. A. trapping B. trapped C. to be trapped D. that trapped 42. Coal was the first fuel __________ to power machinery. A. is used B. using C. to use D. to be used Mohandas K. Gandhi, ______ Mahatma, lived a noble life of fasting and poverty in order to work for peace and independence. A. that was called B. was called C. called D. calling 44. The bridge _____ by French architects is very nice. A. was designed B. designing C. to design D. designed 45. He is only one boy____ in this game. A. who participating B. participated C. to participate D. who participate. Exercise 2: Choose the underlined part among A, B, C or D that needs correcting. She always wears clothes are made by a famous fashion designer. A B C D 2. A dam is a wall building across a river to stop the river’s flow and collect the water. A B C D Nuclear power stations are costly which to build but they efficiently produce large amounts of AB electricity without polluting the atmosphere. D Are you usually the first guest coming to a party? A B C D We had to eat standing up because we hadn’t anything to sitting on. ABCD 6. The girl is standing over there is from Australia A B C D 124


7. Louisa May Alcott, she best known for her books for children, served as a nurse during the Civil A B C D War. 8. I went to a reunion for students educating in the physics department during the 1980s. A B C D 9. Natural resources provide the raw material are needed to produce finished goods. A B C D 10. In an essay writing in 1779, Judith Sargeant Murray promoted the cause of women's education. AB CD 11. Grover Cleveland was the only American president served two nonconsecutive terms. A B C D The man to speak to me is John’s brother. A B C D He is the second person be killed in that way. B C D They work in a hospital sponsoring by the government. AB C D It’’s an essay writing in 1779, Judith Sargeant Murray promoted the cause of women’s education. A B C D Exercise 3: Choose one sentence that best rewrites the sentence given There was a candle which burnt in the room. There was a candle burning in the room. There was a candle burnt in the room. There was a candle to burn in the room. There was a candle to be burnt in the room. I see a boy who is running in the street. A. I see a boy running in the street. B. I see a boy to running in the street. C. I see a boy to run in the street. D. None is correct. He drew from the bag a watch which had been given for his birthday. He drew from the bag a watch given for his birthday. He drew from the bag a watch been given for his birthday. He drew from the bag a watch had given for his birthday. He drew from the bag a watch had been given for his birthday. One of the drivers who was brought by Steward came over to me. One of the drivers that were brought by Steward came over to me. One of the drivers was brought by Steward came over to me. One of the drivers brought by Steward came over to me. One of the drivers bring by Steward came over to me. Your son was the second child who was kidnapped in this way. Your son was the second child kidnapped in this way. Your son was the second child was kidnapped in this way. Your son was thesecond child kidnapping in this way. Your son was the second child to be kidnapped in this way.

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13. INVERSION Để nhấn mạnh ý nào trong câu mà mình muốn diễn đạt, ta dùng phép đảo ngữ. Thông thường, phép đảo ngữ được thực hiện bằng cách đưa một trạng từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ ra đầu câu, đồng thời đảo trợ động từ hay động từ khiếm khuyết lên trước chủ ngữ hoặc tự động thêm trợ động từ “DO/ DOES” cho câu ở thì hiện tại hay “DID” cho câu ở thì quá khứ. V+S+V+O Cấu trúc của câu nhấn mạnh bắt đầu bằng: Only, Only by, Never, Until, Not until, Not only, No sooner, In no circumstances(chẳng trong trường hợp nào), in no where else (chẳng có ở một nơi nào khác), No longer, Only when (chỉ khi)... E.g: We can never live without air and water. => Never can we live without air and water. (Không bao giờ chúng ta có thể sống được nếu không có không khí và nước). Eg: She never eats out ==> Never does she eat out. * Đảo từ với câu điều kiện: 1. Đảo từ với câu điều kiện loại 1 Câu điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng “ should” thay hiện tại không xác định chỉ khả năng xảy ra ít hơn ở tương lai. Đảo “should” lên đầu câu thay “If” Eg: If it rains tonight, I will stay at home ==> Should it rain.......... Điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng thời hiện tại hoàn thành Lấy “should” thay “If” sau đó để nguyên thể hoàn thành với “have done” ở tất cả các ngôi Eg: If she has finished the work, she can go home ==> Should she have finished .......... 2. Điều kiện loại 2 Mệnh đề điều kiện loại 2 có dùng động từ “tobe” ở số nhiều “were” dùng “were” thay”if” Eg: If I were you, I would love him ==> Were I you................. Trong mẫu câu điều kiện loại 2 đặc biệt có dùng “If” đầu câu ( nếu không phải vì................. “were” khỏi “not’’sau đó đảo lên đầu câu thay “if”) Eg: If it weren’t for your progress, I wouldn’t be here ==> Were it not your .... Mẫu câu điều kiện loại 2 đặc biệt If + S+ were+ to do Thay động từ ở quá khứ của mệnh đề điều kiện loại 2 Eg: If I were to speak....... ==> Với mẫu câu này đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If” 3. Điều kiện loại 3 a) Dùng “Had” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If” Eg: If she had worked harder last year, she wouldn’t have failed the exam ==> Had she worked harder last year............ Câu điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt đi với đại từ “it” đầu câu If it hadn’t been for + N ==> Nếu không phải vì....... ==> Tách “had” ra khỏi “not” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If” Eg: If it hadn’t been for hot weather,we would have had a wonderful holiday ==> Had it not been for............................ Mệnh để điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt có sử dụng” were to have done” thay quá khứ hoàn thành 126


Eg; If she had driven carefully, she wouldn’t have cause the accident ==> If she were to have driven...... Đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If” ==> Were she to have driven * Đảo ngữ với….. So….that…./ ……such……… that……. So + adj : Trong mẫu câu trạng từ chỉ kết quả eg; She is so rich that she can buy what she likes Đảo “so + adj” lên đầu câu ==> So rich is she that................... So + adv that............. : Mệnh đề trạng ngữ kết quả sau trạng từ Đảo “ so to+ adv” lên đầu câu eg: He worked so hard in the past that he is now weak ==> So hard did he work in the past that....... 3. Câu có sử dụng “such” thường gặp các dạng: Trong câu có dùng “ so great, so much” biến đổi “ so great, so much” ==> “ such” đảo lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh eg; The question was so great that he had to think it over ==> Such was the question............... b)Trong câu có dùng “such” S + tobe+ such+ that+ mệnh đề Đảo “such” lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh eg: She is so poor that she can’t go school Her poverty is such that........ ==>Such is her poverty that........ Các cấu trúc đảo ngữ khác: 1. Never Ex: I never come to work late → Never do I come to work late 2. At no time = never Ex: They never suspected him of being a spy → At no time did they suspect him of being a spy 3. Seldom, rarely, scarcely Ex: Rarely has Big Ben gone wrong I remember very few thing about my early childhood → scarcely do I remember things about my early childhood 4. Only by + Ving, Aux + SV Ex: You can’t succeed unless you try hard → Only by trying hard can you succeed 5. Only with + Noun, Aux + SV Ex: The bank lent him some money, which enabled him to buy a car Only with the bank’s money could he buy a car 6. Only after + Noun, Aux + SV Ex: He only realized what his father meant to him after his death Only after his father’s death did he realize what he meant 7. Only when/after SV, Aux + SV Ex: I only recognized who he was when he called hi name 127


Only when he called his name, did I recognize who he was 8. On no account Aux + SV: không vì bất cứ lí do gì Ex: You should never come to work late On no account should you come to work late 9. Not until: mãi đến tận a. Not until + Noun, Aux + SV Ex: Man didn’t fly into pace until the early 1960s Not until the early 1960s did man fly into space b. Not until + S + V, Aux + S + V Ex: They continued to feel unsafe until they got home Not until they got home did they feel safe 10. Little Aux + S + V Ex: I don’t know much about astronomy → Little do I know about astronomy. Hardly Aux + S + V: hầu như không Ex: They hardly had arguments → Hardly did they have arguments + Hardly anyone wears a hat nowadays Hardly anything is worth buying In/Under no circumstances Aux + S + V: dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào (không dùng phủ định trong mệnh đề sau) Ex: Under no circumstances must you betray your country Hardly had S done when S did: vừa mới…………..thì đã No sooner had S done than S did: chưa kịp………….thì đã Ex: - He had just gone out when his friend called Hardly had he gone out when when his friend called - The doorbell rang the moment she lay down No sooner had she lain down than the door bell rang 14. No longer Aux + SV Ex: They no longer keep in touch with each other No longer do they keep in touch with each other 15. So/Such + adj/adv Aux + SV Ex: - He became so suspicious that he didn’t let anyone in So suspicious did he become that he didn’t let anyone in He was such a fast speaker that it was difficult for us to follow him Such was he a fast speaker that it was difficult for us to follow him/ So fast did he speak that that it was difficult for us to follow him 16. Not only + Aux + S + V, but + S + also + V Ex: They robbed him. They beat him Not only did they rob him, but they also beat him 17. Nor Aux + S + V: cũng thế Ex: She couldn’t speak Italian nor could she speak Spanish 18. Neither and so A:"I am not into hip hop." "Neither am I." (Or: "Nor am I.") "So am I." A: "I am fond of flamenco dancing." 128


19. Conditionals with inversions - Should + S + V, S + V; - Were + S + C, S + V Had + S + done, S + would + have + done Ex: - Should you meet him in Ha noi, give him my regards. Were I you, I would try again. Had he kept calm, he would have Were they to escape, they would be arrested again. succeeded. 20. Here/ There ở đầu câu: Ex: There is a letter for you on the desk. Here is your pen. 21. Here/ There trong câu cảm Ex: There goes the bus! Here comes George! 22. Inversions after adjectives Ex: Blessed are the children who are still unaware of what the future holds. Gone are the days when I could have been happy 23. Under/in/out/above V+S Ex: The dog lay under the chair → Under the chair lay the dog 24. Inversions with "as". Ex: Elisabeth was too shy to dance, as was Gerald. EXERCISES: I. Choose the most suitable words underlined. Jim promised that he would never/ never would he tell anyone else. Not until it was too late I remembered / did I remember I call Susan. Hardly had we settle down in our seats than/when the lights went out. Only after checking three times I was/was I certain of the answer. At no time I was aware/was I aware of anything out of usual. Only Mary sang Sally passed/ did they pass the final examination. So the waves were high/ So high were the waves that swimming was dangerous. Only when Peter has arrived / has Peter arrived can we begin the program. No sooner had it stopped raining than/when the sun came out. If should you leave early/ should you leave early could you leave me a lift? Rewrite these sentences, using NEVER. 1. She has never been so happy before. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2. I have never heard such nonsense! …………………………………………………………………………………… 3. I have never seen such a mess in my life. …………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Our profits this year are higher than they have ever been. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5. She would never again trust her own judgment when buying antiques. …………………………………………………………………………………… 6. The firm has never before laid on such a sumptuous celebration. …………………………………………………………………………………… 129


I’ve never come across such a horrifying film. …………………………………………………………………………………… I have never been so moved by a Shakespeare production. …………………………………………………………………………………… I never for one moment thought the consequences would be so far- reaching. …………………………………………………………………………………… I had never tasted such a wonderful combination of flavors before. …………………………………………………………………………………… Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT , UNDER, or ON. 1. Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2. The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster. ………………………………………………………………………………… 3.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report. ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4. I was never shown how to operate the machinery. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5. He never suspected that she was a witch. …………………………………………………………………………………… 6. There has never been a time when the English language was not in a state of change. …………………………………………………………………………………... 7. Miss Weaver will not be offered the job under any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 8. You should not send money to us by post under any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 9.We can’t exchange tickets in any circumstances. …………………………………………………………………………………… 10.I won’t go out that way to visit him again on my account! …………………………………………………………………………………… IV. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT. 1. He is my friend as well as yours. …………………………………………………………………………………… 2. He booked tickets for the afternoon performance and the evening performance as well. …………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Burglars stole a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, and left the flat in an awful mess. …………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind. …………………………………………………………………………………… 5. You will enhance your posture and improve your acting ability on this course. …………………………………………………………………………………… 6. It isn’t worth considering his suggestion for a moment. …………………………………………………………………………………… 7. She didn’t shed a tear when the story ended in tragedy. …………………………………………………………………………………… 130


The manager not once offered us an apology. …………………………………………………………………………………… She made no sound as she crept upstairs. …………………………………………………………………………………… He only thought about having a holiday abroad after he retired. ………………………………………………………………………………… V. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home. ………………………………………………………………………………… It wasn’t until last week that the Agriculture Minister admitted defeat. …………………………………………………………………………………… I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage. …………………………………………………………………………………… They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating. …………………………………………………………………………………… They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left. …………………………………………………………………………………… I didn’t realize who he was until later. …………………………………………………………………………………… The door could not be opened without using force. …………………………………………………………………………………… I won’t agree until Tom’s apologized. …………………………………………………………………………………… To get the 40% discount, you must buy all twelve books at the same time. …………………………………………………………………………………… The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day. …………………………………………………………………………………… VI. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD. If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favourite to win. …………………………………………………………………………………… If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 00. …………………………………………………………………………………… If you should have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice. …………………………………………………………………………………… st

If you should decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1 April. …………………………………………………………………………………… If we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately. ………………………………………………………………………………… If you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order form. …………………………………………………………………………………… If the film should be a post office success, they may be sequel. …………………………………………………………………………………… If you should change your mind, there will always be a job for you here. …………………………………………………………………………………… 131


VII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE OR HAD If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated. …………………………………………………………………………………… If Germany were to beat Romania, they would face Italy in the final. …………………………………………………………………………………… If Mr Morgan were still head master, he would not permit such bad behavior. …………………………………………………………………………………… If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark. …………………………………………………………………………………… If she had become a lawyer, as her parents wished, she would have earn a large salary. …………………………………………………………………………………… If anything has gone wrong with my plan, I would have held responsibility. …………………………………………………………………………………… If it hadn’t been for Henry,I might not have met you. …………………………………………………………………………………… If only they had confirmed by phone, the airline could have warned them. …………………………………………………………………………………… The coast guards could have saved the vessels if they had been notified. …………………………………………………………………………………… If his solicitor hadn’t advised him, he would have made a serious mistake. …………………………………………………………………………………… VIII. Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it. 1. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me. Not only_______________________________________________________ 2. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang. No sooner _____________________________________________________ 3. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back. Hardly _______________________________________________________ 4. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang. Not until ______________________________________________________ 5. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months. Only _________________________________________________________ 6. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you. Never ________________________________________________________ 7. A sleeping dog was lying under the table. Under the table _________________________________________________ 8. His brother had rarely been more excited. Rarely_________________________________________________________ 9. The facts were not all made public until later. Only__________________________________________________________ 10. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job. Had___________________________________________________________ IX. Complete each sentences with a suitable word or phrase. 1.…………..had we arrived at the hotel, when there was a power cut. 132


2………..are members of staff to accept gratuities from clients. ……….Detective Dawson realized what she was to discover!. ………….so many employees taken sick leave at the same time. ……… to pay the full amount now, there would be a ten per cent discount. I supposed, as……….most people, that I would be retiring at 60. ………………..the doctor seen more difficult case. ………….Jean win first prize, but she was also offered a promotion. ……….will late arrival be admitted to the theatre before the interval. …………one missing child been found, than another three disappeared. X. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase. Scarcely …………………………….the pilot had to make an emergent landing. Little ………………………….what has been going on in her absent. No sooner ……………………….tan I realized I’d left my bag on the platform. Only when ……………………….on the light did we notice the hole of the ceiling. Not until I asked a passer –by …………………. where I was. Seldom does ………………………below freezing at this time of the year. Hardly ………………….. his speech, when the minister interrupted. On no account am ………………..while I am in a meeting. Rarely has ………………………this school written a better composition. In no way …………………….. bear responsibility for injured passengers. ……………………………………………………………………………… XI. Choose the best answer. (1) (2) John promised that ( he would never smoke/ never would he smoke) again. (1) (2) Not until it was late ( I remembered / did I remember) to do the shopping. (1) (2) At no time ( was she fond / she was fond) of going shopping with Jane. (1)

Only when ( has William finished / (1)

(2)

William has finished) work can he begin to play sports. (2)

Hardly had I done my homework ( than/ when) I went out. (1) (2) ( If should you leave early / Should you leave early ) could you give me a lift? (1) (2) Only Maria and Peter ( passed / did they pass) the final examination. (1) (2) ( So the waves were high / So high were the waves) that swimming was very dangerous last week. (1) (2) Only after checking three times ( I was / was I ) certain of the answer. (1) (2) No sooner had it stopped raining ( than/ when) the sun came out. XII. Choose the best answer. Exercise 1 1. Never ________ me again. A. will she love B. she loves C. she won't love D. she will love 2. Not only_______ but she is also very intelligent A. she is beautiful B. beautiful she is C. is she beautiful D. beautiful is she 3. No sooner___________ out that it rained. A. did I go B. I went C. had I gone D. I had gone 4. Seldom___________ the guitar. A. he plays B. does he play C. he doesn't play D. he does play 5. Hardly___________a work whether son came back. A. couldn't she say B. she could say C. she couldn't say D. could she say 133


6. Often___________ a meeting. A. do we have B. we do have C. have we D. we have 7. Many a time___________ he wants to marry me A. said he B. he said C. has he said D. he has said 8. Only at weekend___________ my kids to Water Park A. I don't take B. do I take C. I take D. I do take 9. So old ___________ that she couldn't dance. A. She wasn't B. she was D. wasn't she D. was she 10._______ here yesterday, you would have met me. A. Were you B. you were C. Had you been D. You had been 11. On the battle field___________ A. the tanks did lie B. the tanks lay C. did the tanks lie D. lay the tanks 12. At no time___________ greater opportunities. A. did women had B. has women had C. does women have D. have women had 13. Not once________ into her eyes. A. he looked B. does he looked C. did he look D. looked he 14. ___________ has the work bee so easy. A. Never B. only by C. When D. For 15. Nowhere___________ such cooperative staff. A. you can find B. you found C. you could find D. can you find Never before___________ in a carnest attempt to resolve their differences. have the leaders of these two countries met the leaders of these two countries have met have the leaders of these two countries meet met the leaders of these two countries Not only the child, but also the grandparents___________ A. is joining B. joins C. were joining D. has joined 18. Seldom___________ a newspaper. A. buys Anna B. does Anna buy C. bought Anna D. Anna does buy 19. Not only__________ at the post office, ___________ at the grocery store. A. does Mary work/but she also works B. works Mary/but she also works C. does Mary work/but does she also work D. had entered she 20. No sooner___________ the house than the phone started to ring. A. had she entered B. she had entered C. entered she D. had entered she Exercise 2 1. Only by saving money___________ a house. A. he buys B. he can buy C. can he buy D. buy she 2. Not even once___________ the truth A. he tells B. he tell C. tells he D. has she told Choose the correct inverted form. Into the room came the teachers Not only lazy she is but she is naughty No sooner had he drunk a cup of coffee than he asked another. A and c are correct Not only___________ beautiful but she is graceful as well. 134


A. did she B. she was C. is she D. she is 5. Only when at home___________ her children A. does she scold B. she scolds C. has she scolded D. she has scolded 6. Seldom___________ treated like that. A. I have been B. am I C. I am D. I had been 7. Over there___________ the shop that sells souvenirs. A. is B. are C. has D. have 8. Never before___________ such a disaster. A. they suffer B. they have suffered C. had they suffered D. they had suffered 9. Only if I had known the difference___________ the more expensive car. A. would I bought B. I would have bought C. would I buy D. would I have bought 10. Neither Mary nor her friends___________ going to the party. A. is B. are C. was D. a or b 11. Only once a day___________ home. A. does Mary leave B. left Mary C. Mary leaves D. will Mary left 12. Only once a day___________ home. A. we can speak B. can we speak C. we speak D. we cannot speak 13. Many a time___________ this mistake. A. he makes B. he has made C. did he make D. will he make 14. Never___________ the exact cause of earthquakes. A. scientists discovered B. did scientists discovered C. do scientists discover D. have scientists discovered 15. Nowhere else___________ A. they can go B. can they go C. they can't go D. can't they go 16. Never ___________ a greater day in the history of mankind. A. did there be B. was there C. there was D. there has been 17. At no time ___________ that he was the killer. A. I didn’t suspect B. was I suspect C. I had suspected D. did I suspect 18. Little ___________ that I knew his secret. A. did John know B. John did know C. was John know D. John knew 19. Not until ___________ her did I realise how beautiful she was. A. I saw B. did I see C. was I saw D. saw I 20. Seldom ___________such a rude person! A. have I met B. I have met C. did I met D. am I meeting Exercise 3 "This store has such high prices". "I agree. Never again___________ here". A. I will shop B. will I shop C. I do shop D. shop I 2. "Is this machine often in need of repair?" "No, ___________ problems to arise". A. Seldom don't we expect B. We expect seldom C. Seldom we expect D. Seldom do we expect 3. "I can't see the stage very well from here". 135


"___________" A. Neither can't I B. Neither I can C. I can't neither D. Neither can I 4. Not until the early 1900s___________ to vote in the United States. A. women were allowed B. were women allowed C. they allowed women D. when women were allowd 5. Only recently___________ a favourite sport in the United States. A. has jogging become B. has become jogging C. when jogging became D. as jogging has become "This is one of the oldest trees in the world" "___________ such a big tree". A. Never I have seen B. I haven't never seen C. Never have I seen D. I have seen never "What happened to jean' new car?" "No sooner___________ it than someone ran into her" A. had she bought B. she bought C. did she bought D. she ad bought "I would like to apply for the sales position you advertised" "I'm sorry. No longer___________ applications for that position". A. are taking we B. we are taking C. are we taking D. we taking 9. "Did you like your trip Niagara Falls?" "It was beautiful. Hardly ever ___________ such a spectacular sight". A. can see you B. can you see C. see you D. you can see 10. "Can children swim in this pool?" "Yes. However, at no time___________ alone". A. shouldn't they swim B. they should swim C. should swim they D. should they swim

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ TRẠNG NGỮ * Mệnh đề trạng ngữ là mệnh đề có chức năng ngữ pháp của 1 trạng ngữ (bổ nghĩa cho 1 mệnh đề khác); Các mệnh đề trạng ngữ thường được gọi là mệnh đề phụ (Subordinate Clause là những mệnh đề không diễn tả được 1 ý trọn vẹn) và các mệnh đề được bổ nghĩa thường được gọi là mệnh đề chính (Main clause - là mệnh đề có thể tồn tại độc lập và diễn tả 1 ý trọn vẹn). * Mệnh đề trạng ngữ trong tiếng anh gồm có: + Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian-Adverbial clause of time + Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lí do-Adverbial clause of reason Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ quan hệ tương phản/ nhượng bộ -Adverbial clause of contrast/concession) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thể cách-Adverbial clause of manner Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ kết quả-Adverbial clause of result Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích-Adverbial clause of purpose II. LUYỆN TẬP CÁC DẠNG CỦA MỆNH ĐỀ TRẠNG NGỮ

136


Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian (Adverbial clause of time) là mệnh đề bổ nghĩa cho mệnh đề chính bằng cách xác định thời gian mà hành động của mệnh đề chính thực hiện/xảy ra. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian bắt đầu bằng: when (khi), as (trong khi, khi), as long as (tới khi), since (từ khi), until / till (cho đến khi), while (trong khi), as soon as (ngay khi), once (một khi), whenever (bất cứ lúc nào), by (lúc, vào lúc), before (trước khi), after (sau khi), every time (mỗi khi), no sooner … than (ngay khi … thì), hardly … when (ngay khi … thì) Ví dụ: When I arrived, he was talking on the phone. (Khi tôi đến anh ấy đang gọi điện thoại.) She was cooking while I was doing my homework. (Cô ấy nấu ăn trong khi tôi đang làm bài tập.) Before you go home, remember to turn off the air-conditioner. (Trước khi về nhà nhớ tắt máy điều hòa nhiệt độ.) Lưu ý: Không dùng thì tương lai trong mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ thời gian. Ví dụ: I’ll drink a cup of coffe before I leave. (NOT … before I’ll leave) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do (Adverbial clause of reason) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do bắt đầu bằng: because, as, since, seeing that, due to the fact that, now that (do, bởi vì). Ví dụ: As we forgot to take the map, we got lost. (Vì chúng tôi quên mang theo bản đồ nên chúng tôi bị lạc.) Because he was seriously ill, they took him to hospital. (Vì ông ấy bệnh nặng nên họ đưa ông ấy đi viện.) [NOT Because he was serious ill, so they took him to hospital.] Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do có thể rút gọn thành cụm từ chỉ lý do (phrase of reason), bắt đầu bằng các giới từ because of, due to, owing to. because of / due to / owing to + noun / pronoun / gerund phrase Ví dụ: Due to the bad weather, the match was cancelled. (Do thời tiết xấu nên trận đấu bị hủy bỏ.) I stayed at home because of feeling unwell. (Tôi ở nhà vì thấy không được khỏe.) Lưu ý: Dùng because khi muốn nhấn mạnh mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ lý do; dùng as, since, seeing that, due to the fact that, now that khi muốn nhấn mạnh mệnh đề chính. For được dùng như because, nhưng trước for có dấu phẩy (,) Ví dụ: John shook, for he was scared. (John run vì anh ấy sợ.) 3. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ (Adverbial clause of concession) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ bắt đầu bằng: though, although, even though, even if, in spite of / despite the fact that (dù, mặc dù) Ví dụ: Although the course was difficult, he passed with the highest marks. (Dù khóa học rất khó nhưng anh ấy vẫn đậu điểm cao nhất.) [NOT Although the course was difficult, but he passed with …] I’d quite like to go out, though it is a bit late. (Tôi rất muốn đi chơi dù đã hơi khuya.) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ có thể rút gọn thành cụm từ chỉ sự nhượng bộ (phrase of concession), bắt đầu bằng in spite of, despite. 137


despite / in spite of + noun / pronoun / gerund Ví dụ: The airport is being built despite the residents’ objection. (Bất chấp sự phản đối của cư dân, sân bay vẫn đang được xây.) In spite of working hard, she failed her university exams again. (Mặc dù học hành rất chăm chỉ, cô ấy vẫn lại thi rớt đại học.) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ sự nhượng bộ cũng có thể bắt đầu bằng no matter, whatever, however hoặc adjective / adverb + as / though. Ví dụ: No matter what you do, don’t touch this switch. (Bất kể bạn làm gì đi nữa thì cũng không được chạm vào nút này.) Rich as / though he is, he is unhappy. (Dù rất giàu, ông ta vẫn không hạnh phúc.) 4. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức (Adverbial clause of manner) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ cách thức bắt đầu bằng: as (như là, giống như là), as if / as though (như thể là) He could not come as he promised. (Anh ấy không thể đến như đã hứa.) It looks as if / as though it’s going to rain. (Trời trông như thể sắp mưa.) As if / as though cũng có thể được dùng để diễn đạt một điều không có thật hoặc trái với thực tế. Điều không có thật ở hiện tại S + V + as if / as though + S + V (past simple) Ví dụ: She dresses as if she was an actress. (Cô ấy ăn mặc như thể cô ấy là diễn viên)=>but she isn’t an actress He talks as though he knew where she was. (Anh ấy nói như thể anh ấy biết cô ta ở đâu.) =>but he doesn’t know Were có thể được dùng thay cho was (với các chủ từ I, he, she, it) trong mệnh đề giả định. Ví dụ: She dresses as if she were an actress. b. Điều không có thật ở quá khứ S + V + as if / as though + S + V (past perfect) Ví dụ: He talked about New York as though he had been there before. (Anh ta kể về New York như thể anh ta đã ở đó trước đây.) 5. Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ kết quả (Adverbial clause of result) So … that (quá … đến nỗi, đến nỗi mà) so + adjective / adverb + that Ví dụ: He was so tired that he had to stop working. (Anh ấy mệt đến nỗi phải ngừng làm việc.) * Đôi khi, để nhấn mạnh, so + adj được đặt ở đầu câu và theo sau là hình thức đảo ngữ của động từ. Ví dụ: So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off. (Cơn bão khủng khiếp đến nỗi tất cả các mái nhà bị cuốn bay.) Khi tính từ là many, much, few, little thì có thể có danh từ theo sau. so + many / few + plural countable noun + that so + much / little + uncountable noun + that Ví dụ: She has so few friends that she often feels sad and lonely. (Cô ấy có ít bạn bè đến nỗi cô ấy thường thấy buồn và cô đơn.) He drank so much wine that he felt sick. 138


(Anh ấy uống nhiều rượu đến nỗi cảm thấy buồn nôn.) so + adjective + a + singular countable noun + that Ví dụ: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors. (Trời nóng đến nỗi mà chúng tôi quyết định ở nhà không đi đâu cả.) Such … that (quá … đến nỗi, đến nỗi mà) such (+ a / an) + adjective + noun + that Ví dụ: It was such an interesting novel that I have read it three times. (Quyển sách hay đến nỗi tôi đã đọc ba lần.) It was such good milk that we couldn’t stop drinking it. (Sữa ngon đến nỗi chúng tôi không thể ngừng uống.) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích (Adverbial clause of purpose) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích bắt đầu bằng: so that, in order that (để, để mà) so that / in order that + S + will / would / can / could / … + V(bare-inf.) Ví dụ: She got up early so that / in order that she would not miss the bus. (Cô ấy dạy sớm để không trễ xe buýt.) Tom booked the tickets early so that / in order that he could get the seats near the stage. (Tom đặt vé sớm để có được chỗ ngồi gần sân khấu.) Mệnh đề trạng ngữ chỉ mục đích có thể rút gọn thành cụm từ, bắt đầu bằng to-infinitive, in order / so as (+not) + to-infinitive. Ví dụ: I’m going to Australia to learn German. (Tôi sẽ đi Áo để học tiếng Đức.) She got up early so as / in order not to miss the bus. (Cô ấy dạy sớm để không trễ xe buýt.) III. BÀI TẬP Exercise 1: Combine sentences. The house was beautiful . I took a picture of it. (so ........that) There was a lot of food. Everyone ate too much. ( so much ............that) There were a lot of guests. There wasn’t enough food. (so many .........that) Hung was a powerful swimmer. He always won the races. (such .....that) She is very rich. She isn’t happy (Although) His life is hard. He is determined to study well. (Although) Although he got good jobs, he was not satisfied. (despite) Although he often tells lies, many people believe him. ( in spite of) Mr Thomson is learning Vietnamese. He wishes to read the Tale of Kieu. (to – V) Lan often goes home as soon as the class is over. She doesn’t want her mother to wait for her. (Use so that) Exercise 2: Choose the best answer to fill in the gaps. 1. I can’t come out tonight ___________I’ve got too much homework. A. but

B. while

C. because

D. although

2. Three nuclear power stations were built ___________ widespread opposition. A. so

B. whether

C. in case

D. despite

3. He is an excellent student. His recent behavior, ___________, has been terrible. A. despite

B. while

C. however

D. even though 139


4. I think he’s telling the truth. ___, I don’t trust him. A. so

B. when

C. therefore

D. nevertheless

5. He went to the library ____________. A. so as to borrow a book

B. in order that I borrow a book

C. to borrowing a book

D. both A&B

6. _________ the Asian crisis, the company’s profits fell by 15% during 1997. A. In case

B. Because of

C. In spite of

D. Even though

7. _____ it was raining, we decided to go for a walk. A. While

B. Whether

C. Although

D. Therefore

8. Could you look after the children ____I cook lunch? A. though

B. while

C. whether

D. because

C. Due to

D. In spite of

9. _____it rained a lot, they enjoyed their holiday. A. Despite

B. Although

10. ________ there was no electricity, I was able to read because I had a candle. A. Unless

B. Until

C. Because

D. Even though

C. because of

D. in spite of

11. I managed to get to sleep____ a lot of noise. A. Although

B. because

12. I invited him to join us for lunch, ___________ he refused. A. however

B. but

C. so

D. and

He went to work early this morning _________he had to translate an urgent letter into English for his boss. A. although

B. because

C. in spite of

D. because of

14. Last summer, we went our holiday by the sea. __________it rained a lot, we enjoyed ourselves. A. In spite of

B. Although

C. Because

D. Because of

C. Because

D. because of

15. We didn’t go anywhere yesterday____the rain. A. in spite of

B. Though

16. _____ what she said yesterday, he still loves her. A. In spite of

B. Though

C. Because

D. Because of

17. Houses are very expensive nowadays. ___________, they have managed to buy one. A. So

B. However

C. But

D. Therefore

18. Studying in the USA is good for your son. __________, I think you should let him go. A. Therefore

B. But

C. And

D. However

19. He went to the cinema ____________he had done his homework. A. before

B. until

C. by the time

D. after

20. My sister didn’t get the job____________she had all the qualifications. A. therefore

B. although

C. however

D. in spite of

21. You won’t pass the examination____you study more. 140


A. unless

B. as long as

C. if

D. whether

22. Mary searched all over the house,___________she could not find the key. A. but

B. although

C. however

D. because

23. She neither talked nor___________her feeling. A. show

B. shown

C. showing

D. showed

They told me much about him. When I met him, however, I was disappointed to find that he is _____handsome______polite.

A. either/ or

B. neither/nor

C. both/and

D. either/ nor

25. Neither I nor she _________enjoying the party now. A. is

B. are

C. was

D. were

C. having

D. has had

26. Either she or they______seen the film. A. has

B. have

27. Don’t be so unreasonable. I can’t_________cook __________iron your clothes. A. either/ or

B. neither/nor

C. both/and

D. either/ nor

28. The teacher speaks slowly___________ the pupils may understand him. A. because

B. in order to

C. so that

D. or

29. They got up very early __________ to the top of the hill before sunrise. A. so as to get

B. in order not to get

C.A&D

D. in order to get

30. You can use my bicycle ______ you bring back tomorrow. A. as long as

B. although

C. nevertheless

D. in spite of

31. She spoke quietly to him _______ nobody else could hear a word. A. because

B. if

32. I’m going to Britain _____ learn English. A. so as to B. in order to

C. although C. both A&B

D. so that D. in order that

Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct option to fill each of the following blanks. 1. Our seats were _____ far from the stage that we couldn't see the actors and actresses clearly. A. very

B. too

C. enough

D. so

2. He was _____ he never washed his clothes by himself. A. too lazy

B. so lazy that

C. very lazy that

D. such lazy that

C. enough / to

D. not only / but also

C. very

D. too

3. They are _____ young _____ drive the car. A. so / that

B. too / to

4. It was _____ a boring speech that I felt asleep. A. such

B. so

5. Is there _____ for everyone? A. food and drink enough

B. enough food and drink

C. enough of food and drink

D. enough food and drink enough

6. He was _____ he could not continue to work. 141


A. very tired that

B. such tired that

C. too tired that

D. so tired that

7. John’s eyes were _____ bad that he couldn’t read the number plate of the car in front. A. such

B. too

C. so

D. very

8. - Why don’t we make a fire? - It’s not cold _____ to make a fire. A. too

B. enough

C. such

D. much

C. too good

D. very good

9. Most of the pupils are _____ to pass the examination. A. enough good

B. good enough

10. You can send me a letter if you want to, but your phone call is _____ for me. A. enough good

B. good as enough

C. good enough

D. good than enough

11. Davis has _____ many patients _____ he is always busy. A. too / that

B. very / until

C. such / that

D. so / that

12. It was _____ a difficult question that they couldn't explain. A.so

B. such

C. very

D. too

13. The lesson _____ for me to understand. A. is very difficult

B. too difficult

C. difficult too

D. is too difficult

14. The tent show is _____ for us to see. A. enough interesting

B. very interesting

C. interesting enough

D. interesting

15. They are _____ that they can't buy a bicycle. A. enough poor

B. poor enough

C. so poor

D. too poor

Exercise 4: Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences by circling the corresponding letter A, B, C or D. 1. I will call you before I ________ over. A. come

B. will come

C. will be coming

D. came

C. had got

D. get

C. will see

D. see

C. had stopped

D. stopped

2. After she graduates, she ________ a job. A. got

B. will get

3. When I _________ him tomorrow, I will ask him. A. saw

B. have seen

4. As soon as it _________ raining, we will leave. A. stops

B. stop

5. By the time he comes, we will have already __________. A. leave

B. leaving

C. left

D. leaves

C. will have seen

D. saw

6. Whenever I ________ her, I will say hello. A. see

B. will see

7. The next time I go to New York, I am going ________ a ballet. A. seeing

B. see

C. saw

D. to see

C. am living

D. live

8. I will never speak to him again so long as I _______. A. lives

B. will live

142


9. By the time Bill ____ to bed tomorrow, he will have had a full day and will be ready for sleep.

A. had gone

B. will go

C. goes

D. went

10. As soon as I finish my report, I will call you and we ________ out for dinner. A. went

B. will go

C. will have gone

D. go

11. By the time I return to my country, I _____ away from home for more than three years. A. would be

B. will have been

C. will be

D. am

12. After he _______ breakfast tomorrow, he will get ready to go to work. A. will have had

B. has

C. will be having

D. have

13. As soon as he finishes dinner, he _______ the children for a work to a nearby playground. A. will take

B. takes

C. will be taking

D. took

14. When Bill gets home, his children ___________ in the yard. A. played

B. will play

C. will be playing

D. play

15. He will work at his desk until he ______ to another meeting in the middle of the afternoon. A. went

B. go

C. will go

D. goes

C. had finished

D. finishing

16. She ________ lunch by the time we arrived. A. finished

B. has finished

17. Bob will come soon. When Bob _______, we will see him. A. come

B. will come

C. will be coming

D. comes

18. I will get home at 5:30. After I get home, I ________ dinner. A. will have

B. will be having

C. had

D. have

19. As soon as the taxi _________, we will be able to leave for the airport. A. arrives

B. arrive

C. will arrive

D. arrived

C. will finish

D. finishes

C. could be

D. will be

20. I will go to bed after I _________my work. A. finish

B. finished

21. I ________ here when you arrive tomorrow. A. am

B. had been

22. I am going to wait right here until Jessica ________. A. comes

B. will have come

C. is coming

D. came

23. As soon as the war ________over, there will be great joy throughout the land. A. are

B. will be

C. is

D. would be

24. Right now the tide is low, but when the tide comes in, the ship ______ the harbor. A. left

B. will leave

C. will have left

D. leave

25. I am going to start making dinner before my wife ______ home from work today. A. get

B. gets

C. will get

D. got

Exercise 5: Identify the underlined part that needs correction When it raining, I usually go to school by bus. A B C D I learned a lot of Japanese while I am in Tokyo. 143


A B C D I have not been well since I return home. A B C D I’ll stay here until will you get back. A B C D When Sam was in New York, he stays with his cousins. A B C D Last night, I had gone to bed after I had finished my homework. A B C D I will call you before I will come over. A B C D 33. Ever since I was a child, I had been afraid of dogs. A B C D By the time I left my apartment this morning, someone looked for me. A B C D Whenever Mark will be angry, his nose gets red A B C D I had fried chicken when I am at the restaurant. A B C D The first time that I went to New York, I go to an opera. A B C D Before I arrived, he was talking on the phone. A B C D When she will see him tomorrow, she will ask him. A B C D As I was walking home, it begin to rain. A B C D We stayed there after we finished our work. A B C D Once it will stop raining, we will leave. A B C D Exercise 6: Choose the sentence which has the closest meaning to the original one. We stayed in that hotel despite the noise. A. Despite the hotel is noisy, we stayed there.

B. We stayed in the noisy hotel and we liked it.

C. Although the hotel was noisy, we stayed there. D. Because of the noise, we stayed in the hotel. 2. They can’t work and travel because they are old. A. Because of their old age, they can’t work and travel. B. In spite of their old age, they can work and travel. C. Despite their old age, they still work and travel.

D. Even though they work and travel, they are old.

3. Despite the bad weather, people travel by air. A. Even though the weather is bad, people travel by air. B. Because the weather is bad, people travel by air. C. In spite of people travel by air, the weather is bad.

D. Although the bad weather, people travel by air.

She is learning English because she wants to get a better job. A. She is learning English so that she gets a better job. 144


B. She is learning English so as she gets a better job. C. She is learning English in order she can get a better job. D. She is learning English so that she will be able to get a better job. He was very tired but he kept on working. A. Despite he was very tired, he kept on working. B. In spite of he was very tired, he kept on working. C. Though his tiredness, he kept on working.

D. Although he was very tired, he kept on working.

Although she was very old, she looked very grateful. A. Despite she was very old, she looked very grateful.

B. Despite her old age, she looked very grateful.

C. In spite of very old, she looked very grateful.

D. In spite her being old, she looked very grateful.

She was so busy that she couldn’t answer the phone. A. Because she was very busy, she couldn’t answer the phone. B. Because she was very busy, she could answer the phone. C. Although she was very busy, she couldn’t answer the phone. D. Although she was very busy, she could answer the phone. Despite feeling cold, we kept walking. A. Although we felt cold, but we kept walking

B. Although we felt cold, we kept walking

C. However cold we felt, but we kept walking

D. However we felt cold, we kept walking

The children laughed a lot because of the funny story. A. The children laughed because the story is funny.

B. The children laughed because of the story funny.

C. The children laughed because it was funny.

D. The children laughed because the story was funny.

Although she tells lies, I believe her. A. In spite of telling lies, I believe her. C. In

B. In spite her telling lies, I believe her.

spite of her telling lies, I believe her.

D. In spite of her tell lies, I believe her.

11. Although he is intelligent, he doesn't do well at school.

A. Despite being intelligent, he doesn't do well at school.

B. In spite he is intelligent, he doesn't do well at school.

C. Although his intelligence, he does well at school.

D. In spite of intelligent, he doesn't do well at school.

We stayed in that hotel despite the noise. A. Despite the hotel is noisy, we stayed there.

B. We stayed in the noisy hotel and we liked it.

C. Although the hotel was noisy, we stayed there. D. Because of the noise, we stayed in the hotel. Although his legs were broken, he managed to get out of the car before it exploded. A. Despite his legs to be broken, he managed to get out of the car before it exploded. B. Despite his broken legs, he was able to get out of the car before exploding. C. Despite his legs were broken, he managed to get out of the car before it exploded. C. Despite of his broken legs, he managed to get out of the car before it exploded.

I usually drive to work, but today I go by bus. A. Although I can drive to work, I go by bus today.

B. Although I can go by bus, I drive to work today.

C. Instead of driving to work, I go by bus today.

D. Instead of going by bus, I drive to work today.

The woman was too weak to lift the basket. 145


A. She was so weak that she couldn’t lift the basket B. The woman shouldn’t have lift the basket because she was so weak. C. Although she was very weak, she could lift the basket D. The woman lift the basket, so she wasn’t very weak.

14. REPORTED SPEECH Các bước tiến hành - Đổi ngôi, thì, từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn Ex: “ I was here last night”

→ Tom said he had been there the night before.

a. Ex: “ I (ngôi 1) want to meet you (2) and your (2)sister at the meeting” → Jack (chủ từ) told me(tân ngữ) he wanted to meet me and my sister. Subject

Object

Possessive Adjective

I (1)

me

my

You (2)

you

your

He (3)

him

his

She (3)

her

her

It (3)

it

its

We (1)

us

our

You (2)

you

your

They (3)

them

their

b. Đổi thì Direct Speech 1. Present Simple:

V1

Reported Speech 1. Past Simple:

V2/ed

2. Present Progressive: am/ is/ are +V-ing

2. Past Progressive : was/ were +V-ing

3. Present Perfect:

has/have + V3/ed

3. Past Perfect:

had + V3/ed

4. Past Simple:

4. Past Perfect:

had + V3/ed

5. Past Progressive:

V2/ed was/were + V-ing

6. Past Perfect:

had + V3/ed

7. Future Simple: 8. can

will/shall + Vo

5. Past perfect progressive had + been +V-ing had + V3/ed 6. Past Perfect: 7. would/should + Vo 8. could

9. may

9. might

10. must

10. had to

c. Đổi trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn Direct Speech

Reported Speech

1. today/tonight

1. that day/ that night

2. yesterday

2. the day before 146


3. last week

3. the week before/ the previous week

4. ago

4. before

5. now

5. then

6. tomorrow

6. the following day

7. next week

7. the following week

8. this

8. that

9. these

9. those

10. here

10. there

Forms of reported speech : Các dạng câu tường thuật Statements : ( câu trần thuật, câu kể) Ex: She said, “ I don’t know what happened.”→ She said she didn’t know what had happened.

S + said / told + O + that S + V (one tense back) Change these sentences into Reported Speech: 1. Thu said “All the students will have a meeting next week” Thu said that all the students would have a meeting the next week. 2. Phong said “My parents are very proud of my good marks” Phong said that his parents were very proud of his good marks. Her father said to her “You can go to the movie with your friend” Her father told her that she could go to the movie with her friend”

Hoa said “I may visit my parents in the summer” Hoa said that she might visit her parents in the summer . 5. She said “She doesn’t buy this book” She said that she didn’t buy that book The boys said “We have to try our best to win the match” The boys said that they had to try their best to win the match”

Yes- No questions ( Câu hỏi Yes- No) Ex: He said to me, “Will you go with her father next week?” He asked me if/whether I would go with her father the following week. S + asked + O/ wondered, wanted to know + if/whether + S + V ( one tense back) Change these questions into Reported Speech: “Do you enjoy reading?” Phong asked Peter Phong asked Peter if he enjoyed reading. “Are there some oranges in the fridge?” She asked her mom She asked her mom if there were some oranges in the fridge.

“Will it rain tomorrow morning?” He asked his friend He asked his friend if it would rain the next morning. 4. “Did you go to Hue three years ago?” Tam asked Peter 147


Tam asked Peter if he had gone to Hue three previous years. 5. She said to me “Can you speak Chinese?” She asked if I could speak Chinese. Wh- questions ( Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi) Ex: He said to me, “Why did you go with her father last week?” He asked me why I had gone with her father the week before. S + asked + O/ wondered, wanted to know+ wh - word + S + V (one tense back) Change these questions into Reported Speech: “Where does your father work?” The teacher asked me The teacher asked me where my father worked. “How many people are there in your family?” She asked Lan She asked Lan how many people there was in her family. Tam’s friend asked him “How long will you stay in England?” Tam’s friend asked him how long he would stay in England.

Tuan asked Ba “Why did you go to the bank yesterday?” Tuan asked Ba why he had gone to the bank the day before. 5. “How long have you used this card?” Nga asked Hoa

Nga asked Hoa how long she had used that card. Imperative ( Câu mênh lệnh) Ex: “Hurry up, Lan”, said he.

He told Lan to hurry up.

“ Don’t eat too much,” Mary said to me.

Mary told me not to eat too much

S + told/ asked/ ordered/ requested… + O + to Vo ( mệnh lệnh khẳng định) + not to Vo ( mệnh lệnh phủ định) Change these questions into Reported Speech: Henry said too his mother “ Come and spend a week with us.” Henry told his mother to come and spend a week with them.

The mother said to her son: Don’t move, please.” The mother told her son not to move. Mike said to Henry, “ Give me my book back, please.” Mike asked Henry to give him his book back.

“ Don’t play on the grass, boys,” said she. She asked boys not to play on the grass. “ Keep a seat for me in the lecture hall,” he said to me. He told me to keep a seat for him in the lecture hall.

“ Don’t make so much noise,” said he. He told me not to make so much noise. Choose the best option that best completes each sentence: 1. Ba said he______________ some good marks last semester. A. gets

B. got

C. getting

D. have got 148


2. They asked me how many children_______________ . A. I had

B. had I

C. I have

D. have I

3. Thu said she had been_____________ the day before. A. here

B. there

C. in this place

D. where

4. The student said that the English test_____________ the most difficult. A. is

B. was

C. will be

D. have been

5. They told their parents that they______________ their best to do the test. A. try

B. will try

C. are trying

D. would try

6. She asked me where I_____________ from. A. come

B. coming

C. to come

D. came

7. She______________ me whether I liked classical music or not. A. ask

B. asks

C. asked

D. asking

8. He asked me who the editor of that book____________ . A. was

B. were

C. is

D. has been

9. He wants to know whether I_____________ back tomorrow. A. come

B. came

C. will come

D. would come

10. I wonder why he______________ love his family. A. doesn’t

B. don’t

11. He asked her ------------- if someone A. what she would say

C. didn’t

D. hasn’t

stepped on her feet . B. what would she say

C. what will she say

D. she would say what

12. Jack asked his sister…………….. A. where she would go the following day

B. where you will go tomorrow

B. where you have gone tomorrow

D. where would she go the following day

13. She said she _______. A. was very tired last night

B. was very tired the night before

C. had been very tired last night

D. had been very tired the night before

14. Emily said that her teacher _______ to London _______. A. will go / tomorrow

B. went / tomorrow

C. would go / the next day

D. had gone / the next day

15. She asked _______. A. where was her umbrella C. who had given her umbrella

B. if who has given her umbrella D. that who had given her umbrella

16. Robert said that his father _______ to Dallas the year before. A. goes

B. went

C. has gone

D. had gone

17. The mother asked her son _______. A. where he has been B. where he had been C. where has he been D. where had he been 18. Martin asked me _______. A. how is my father B. how my father is C. how was my father

D. how my father was 149


19. The host asked Peter _______ tea or coffee. A. whether he preferred B. that he preferred C. did he prefer D. if he prefers 20. She asked me _______ my holidays _______. A. where I spent / the previous year

B. where I had spent / the previous year

C. where I spent / last year

D. where did I spend / last year

21. The guest told the host that _______. A. I must go now B. he must go now C. he had to go now D. he had to go then Reported Speech with infinitive -Khi lời nói trực tiếp là lời đề nghị, ý định, lời hứa, lời yêu cầu, lời khuyên,……. động từ tường thuật cùng với động từ nguyên mẫu theo sau nó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói trên. -Tùy theo nhóm động từ tường thuật, ta có vị trí của động từ nguyên mẫu (to-V) như sau Ask(đề nghị) Advise(khuyên) Beg(cầu xin) Command( ra lệnh) Encourage (cổ vũ) Expect (mong đợi) Instruct (hướng dẫn)

+to V

Subject Invite (mời)

+Object +not to V

Order (ra lệnh) Persuade (thuyết phục) Recommend (khuyên) Tell (bảo) Urge (thúc giục) Warn (cảnh báo) Want (muốn) ………………………………………… Ex: He ordered: “ Do it!”

He ordered me to do it.

Ex: “Don’t forget to locked the door,” my mother said to me. My mother reminded me to lock the door. Lời đề nghị Would you/Could you/Will you/Can you asked+ sb+ to V Would you mind/do you mind

asked+ sb+ to V

Ex: “Will you lend me your dictionary?” Mai told me. Mai asked me to lend her my dictionary. Lời mời: Would you like/ Will you

invited + sb + to V

Ex: “ Will you have breakfast with me?” he said. He invited me to have lunch with him. C. Lời khuyên 150


Should/ought to/had better/why don’t you/ If I were you advised+ sb + to Ex: “ Why don’t you send her a bouquet of flower?” He advised me to send her a bouquet of flower. Reported with Gerund -Khi lời nói trực tiếp là lời đề nghị, lời chúc mừng, lời cám ơn, lời xin lỗi, ………động từ tường thuật cùng với danh động từ (V-ing) theo sau đó thường được dùng để chuyển tải nội dung lời nói trên. A. V( suggested, denied, admitted)+ V-ing Ex: They said: “Let’s not drink a lot of wine when we feel tired.” They suggested not drinking a lot of wine when they feel tired. Verb +(sb) +Preposition +V-ing / not V-ing Ex: “I’m happy to know that you pass the examination.Congratulation.” Mary congratulated me on passing the examination. -thank sb for : cảm ơn ai về việc gì -object to

: phản đối

-accuse sb of : buộc tội ai về -insist on

: khăng khăng

-congratulate sb on : chúc mừng ai về việc gì -complain about

: phàn nàn ai về việc gì

-warn sb against

: cảnh báo ai về việc gì

-think of

: nghĩ về

-apologize (to sb ) for : xin lỗi ai về -dream of -prevent sb from

: mơ về : ngăn ai không làm gì

- stop sb from: ngăn không cho ai làm gì Change these questions into Reported Speech: 1. Joe said, “ Please come to my party.” ……………………………………………………………………………… 2. Bill said, “ Don’t touch the hot pot.” ……………………………………………………………………………… 3. “ You should not drink too much coffee at night,” said Bob. ……………………………………………………………………………… 4. “ I will come to see you when I have free time,” he said to me ……………………………………………………………………………… 5. “ Remember to call me tonight,” Mary said to Tom. ………………………………………………………………………………. 6. “ How about going for a picnic this weekend,” my brother said ……………………………………………………………………………… Choose the best answer 1. He said: “ Let’s go out tonight” - He ……… going out that night. A. asked B. suggested C. told 2. The lifeguard---------- them not to swim too far from the shore.

D. said

151


A .warned B. said C. suggested D. proposed me to have dinner with him that night. 3. He --------A. hoped B .agreed C. offered D. invited to help me redecorate the room. 6. She---------A. enjoyed B. agreed C. insisted D. advised 7. John reminded me ---------- his motorbike by 8 o’clock. A. please return B. not forget to return C. to return D. remember to return on seeing the manager of the hotel. 8. He--------A. asked B. convinced C. insisted D. expected having stolen Mary’s pocket calculator. 9. Bob-----------A. admitted B. agreed C. dreamed D. accepted 10. We warmed him against----------to the capital bytrain. A. to travel B. travel C. traveling D. traveled climbing to the top of the mountain. 11. The rain prevented us -----------A. for B. from C. at D. on 12. She said that if it ---------- the next day, She ------- to see us. A. doesn’t rain / will come B. didn’t rain / would come C. hadn’t rained / would have come D. wouldn’t rain / could come 13. If you………..breakfast, you wouldn’t be hungry now. A. would have B. would have had C. had D. had had 14. John-----------to return my book the next Friday. A. suggested B .promised C. proposed D. reminded 15. They congratulated me ----------- the exams with high marks. A. passed B. having passed C. to pass D. on passing 16. “You should not drink too much beer.” He --------- me not to drink too much beer. A. promised B. advised C. asked D. told 17. “ Please don’t smoke in my car” He asked me ----------in his car. A. not to smoke B. to not smoke C . not smoking D. not smoke 18. The thief admitted -----------Mr. Brown’s car. A. to steal B. stealing C. steal D. stole 19. The boy ----------- breaking the window of the woman’s house . A. said B. denied C. told D. reminded 20. Peter apologized………………… A. me for phoning not earlier B. for not phoning me earlier C. not for phoning me earlier D. not to phone me earlier 21-The teacher told Joe _______. A. to stop talking B. stop talking C. stops talking D. stopped talking 22-She told the boys _______ on the grass. A. do not play B. did not play C. not playing D. not to play 23-He advised _______ too far. A. her did not go B. her do not go C. her not to go D. she did not go 24-He asked _______ him some money. A. her to lend B. she to lend C. she has lent D. she lends 25-Andrew told me that they _______ fish two _______ days. A. have not eaten / ago B. had not eaten / previous 152


C. did not eat / before D. would not eat / last 26-Jason told me that he _______ his best in the exam the _______ day. A. had done / following B. will do / previous C. would do / following D. was going / previous II. Choose the sentence which has the closed meaning to the original one: “ Don’t talk in class” the teacher said. The teacher told his students do not talk in class. The teacher told his students did not talk in class. The teacher told his students not to talk in class. The teacher told his students not talking in class. Mary said to Ann “ Shall I get you a glass of orange juice ?” A. Mary offered to get Ann a glass of orange juice. B. Mary said to Ann if she got a glass of orange juice. C. Mary told Ann she got a glass of orange juice. D. May told Ann she getting a glass of orange juice. “ Susan, can you remember to buy me some sugar.?” Bill said. A. Bill advised Susan to buy him some sugar. B. Bill reminded Susan to me some sugar. Bill reminded Susan to buy him some sugar. D. Bill invited Susan to buy me some sugar. 4 “ I won’t do this work under any circumstances” the worker said. A. The worker promised to do that work. B. The worker advised me to do that work. D. The worker agreed to do that work. D. The worker refused to do that work. 5“ Thank you very much for your help , John.” Said Daisy. Daisy thanked John for helping her. B. Daisy told John help her . Daisy wanted John to help her and said thanks. D. Daisy would like John to help her. The police warned me against coming near the barrier. A. “ Please come near the barrier” the police said. B. “ Don’t come near the barrier” the police said. C. “ I would like to come near the barrier” the police said. D. “ Let’s come near the barrier” the police said. “ How about spending the day at the beach?” said Tom. Tom said he wanted to spend the day at the beach. Tom suggested spending the day at the beach. Tom insisted on spending the day at the beach. Tom advised us to spend the day at the beach. 8. “ Let’s eat out tonight” said my father . A. My father suggested eating out that night.B. My father invited us to at out that night. C. My father ordered to eat out to night. D. My father told to eating out to night. 9. “ Will you come to my birthday party?” she said to me. A. She asked me would I come to her birthday party. B. She invited me to come to her birthday party. C. She asked me I would come to her birthday party. D. She invited that I would come to her birthday party 10.”Have you ever been to Singapore?”, he asked me. A. He told me if I have ever been to Singapore. B. He asked me if I had ever been to Singapore. 153


C. He advised me to go to Singapore. D. He told me to go to Singapore. 11.”Don’t come home late, Jenny, it’s dangerous!”, her father said. A. Jenny’s father told her not go home late and it was dangerous. B. Jenny’s father told her not to go home late because it was dangerous. C. Jenny’s father advised her go home early. D. Jenny’s father asked her against being home late because it may be dangerous. 12.”I’m sorry I forgot your birthday”, Harry told Mary. A. Harry said sorry to Mary for forgetting her birthday. B. Harry felt sorry to forget Mary’s birthday. C. Harry apologized Mary for having forgotten her birthday. D. Harry really felt a pity not to remember Mary’s birthday. III. FINDING MISTAKES We were advised not drinking the water in the bottle. A B C D 2. The man told the children didn’t play too loudly A B C D 3. The Nelsons asked us look over their plants for them while they were away on vacation. A B C D 4. They asked me what had happened last night, but I was unable to tell them. A B C D My little sister suggested to go to the beach for a change. A B C D He asked them what time did the plane arrived. A B C D 7. He said that he will be there again the day after. A B C D The woman accused the boy to break her house’s window. A B C D Betty said Bill that she didn’t like this film. A B C D 10. Did you say that you will have a lot of things to do the following week? A B C D

PREPOSITIONS AND ARTICLES KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN A. Definition Giới từ là từ hay cụm từ thường được dùng trước danh từ hay đại từ để chỉ mối liên hệ giữa các từ này với các thành phần khác trong câu. B. Kinds of prepositions PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: (Giới từ chỉ thời gian) On th On Sunday (morning) / 25 April / New Year’s Day … 154


On holiday / business / duty / a trip / an excursion / fire / sale / a diet… In In April / 1980 In summer / spring / autumn / winter In five minutes / a few days / two years In the morning / afternoon / evening At At 8 o’clock / the weekend / night / Christmas At the end of ... / at the age of From...to... From 1977 to 1985 Since Since 1985 / Monday / 2 o’clock For For three days / a long time / one hour. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: (Giới từ chỉ nơi chốn, địa điểm) On On a table / a wall / a bus / a train / a plane / the floor / a horse / television / the radio / the telephone In In a garden / a park / a town / the water / my office / hospital / a car In the middle of... At At home / work / school / university / the station / the airport / a concert / a party / a football match At 10 Pasteur Street By By car / bus / plane (on foot) By accident / chance : tình cờ, ngẫu nhiên For For a walk / a swim / a drink For breakfast / lunch / dinner

-

SOME OTHER PREPOSITIONS : From : từ … Ex : I am from Vietnam, I get the book from the man From … to … : từ … đến . Ex: From 4 o’clock to 6 o’clock; from my house to school Next to = near : ở cạnh Ex: I live near her house : ở phía sau Ex: the shop is behind the postoffice Behind : ở trước Ex: my house is in front of the school In front of : ở trên Ex :the book is on the table On : ở dưới Ex : the pen is under the book Under In the middle of : ở giữa. Ex :the tree is in the middle of the yard : ở trong Ex: he is in the room In : ở ngoài Ex: he is out of the room Out 155


- Opposite

: đối diện

Ex: my house is opposite the shop

3. VERB + NOUN + PREP: (Động từ + danh từ + giới từ) - give way to : nhượng bộ, chịu thua - give place to : nhường chỗ cho - lose sight of : mất hút, không nhìn thấy nữa - lose track of : mất dấu vết - lose touch with: mất liên lạc với - make allowance for: xét đến, chiếu cố - make use of : dùng, tận dụng - make fun of : chọc ghẹo, chế nhạo - make room for : dọn chỗ cho - make a fuss over / about: làm om xòm về

- catch sight of - keep pace with - pay attention to - put a stop to - set fire to: burn - take advantage of - take care of - take account of - take note of - take notice of

: thoáng thấy : theo kịp : chú ý đến : put an end to: chấm dứt : phóng hỏa : lợi dụng : chăm sóc : quan tâm tới, lưu ý tới : lưu ý đến : chú ý thấy, nhận thấy

4. VERB + PREP: (Động từ + giới từ) 1. VERB + TO - apologize to sb for sth - belong to - complain to sb about sb / sth - happen to - introduce to - listen to - speak / talk to sb - write to - prefer ... to ... - explain ... to ... - invite ... to ...

2. VERB + FOR - apply for - care for - pay for - look for - wait for - blame ... for - leave ... for - search ... for - ask ... for

3. VERB + ABOUT - care about - dream about sb / sth - think about - hear about: be told about - warn ... about

4. VERB + ON - concentrate on / focus on - depend on / rely on - live on - congratulate ... on - spend ... on

5. VERB + OF - consist of - die of - take care of - accuse ... of - remind ... of

6. VERB + AT - laugh at / smile at - shout at - look at / stare at / glance at - point at / aim at

7. VERB + IN - succeed in - arrive in / at

8. VERB + WITH - provide ... with - charge ... with

9. VERB + FROM - suffer ... from / borrow ... from - save / protect / prevent ... from

5. ADJECTIVE + PREP: (Tính từ + giới từ) 1. ADJ + TO - accustomed to - addicted to - harmful to - similar to / agreeable to - good / nice / kind / polite / rude

2. ADJ + FOR - available for - responsible for - famous for - late for

3. ADJ + ABOUT - angry about - anxious about - worried about - excited about

156


/‌.to sb - important to 4. ADJ + ON - keen on - dependent on

5. ADJ + OF - afraid of / full of - aware of / tired of - ashamed of - capable of

6. ADJ + AT - surprised at - quick at - bad / good at - brilliant at

7. ADJ + IN - confident in - successful in - interested in - rich in

8. ADJ + WITH - equipped with - bored with - busy with - acquainted with

9. ADJ + FROM - different from - absent from - safe from

1. PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING VERBS belong to

hope for

pay for

consist of

insist on

happen to

agree on/with

suffer from

complain to sb bout/of

qualify for apologize for

conform to/with

think about/of

lead to

refer to

appeal to/for

remind about/of

sympathize with.

hint at

listen to

relate to

care about/of

result from/in

shout at

crash into

count on

rely on

run into

disagree with

smile at

drive into

depend on

glance at

search for

congratulate on

stare at

bump into

Plan on

glare at

agree with

point at

suspect sb of sth

2. PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING NOUNS Access to

A threat to

Credit for

Restriction on

A solution to

A witness to

Cure for

An exception to

An attitude to

Link with

Desire for

An contrast with

Ban on

Sympathy for

Disregard for

Quarrel with

Effect on

Room for

Provision for

Relationship with

Influence on

Comment on

Recipe for

Admiration for

Tax on

Craving for

Respect for

Responsibility for

3. PREPOSITIONS FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES afraid of

annoyed about

certain about

connected with prone to

commensurate with

ashamed of

full of

excited about

be good at

married to

incompatible with

full of

be good of

upset about

happy with

liable to

baffled by

aware of

indicative of

sorry about

keen on

immune to

surprised at

capable of

irrespective of

angry with

pleased with

kind to

indifferent to

157


conscious of

jealous of

annoyed with

be bad at

attentive to

grateful to sb for sth

fond of

anxious about

angry at

annoyed at

addicted to

preoccupied with

early for

deficient in

eligible for

famous for

late for

liable for

interested in

absorbed in

safe from

experienced in absent from

different from

ready for

distressed by

responsible for

derived from

implicated in

obsessed with

4. EXPRESSIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS In advance

At the end

By mistake

On the verge of

By coincidence

In the balance

With intent to

At large

Beyond belief

With the exception of

In all likelihood With regard to On average

Under control

For the time being

In charge of

With a view to

On approval

Out of control

In comparision with

In decline

At any rate

On behalf of

Out of danger

Under repair

By the time

At fault

On the contrary

Out of breath

Under an obligation

In harmony

At first sight

On good terms

Out of doors

Without delay

By rights

By surprise

For fear of

Out of work

Without a chance

PREPOSITIONS OF TIME, PLACE AND MOVEMENT At: * For time: + At 4 o’clock, at 5 p.m … + At night + At Christmas, at Easter, at Whitsun + At once:

+ At last: + At the moment: + At present: + At weekends:

* For place: + At home + At the theatre + At the seaside + At the grocer’s, at the hairdresser’s, … + At school + At the corner of the street

+ At the top + At the bottom + At the foot of the page + At the beginning of…, + At the end of… + At the shop + (arrive) at the airport, at the station, …

II. LUYỆN TẬP Choose the correct prepositions. 1. She was very surprised __________ the grade she received. A. at B on C. of D. about 2. Tom’s grandfather died __________ 1977 __________ the age of 79. A. for/at B. on/in C. at/in D. in/at 3. Jane doesn't spend much money __________ clothes. A. over B. about C. at D. on 4. She always takes good care __________ her children. 158


A. for B. in C. of D. with 5. There are usually a lot of parties__________ New Year’s Eve. A. in B for C. on D. with 6. Mr. Smith is not accustomed ________ hot weather. A. to B. at C. for D. in 7. Tom has to try hard to keep pace __________ his classmates. A. to B. with C. at D. for 8. The librarian advised us to take full advantage__________ all the facilities available. A. of B. at C. for D. about 9. Don't make fun __________ that disabled boy. A. upon B. in C. to D. of 10. Did you know that Linda is engaged __________ a friend of mine? A. to B. at C. for D. towards 11. She stood there, saying nothing until she lost sight __________the plane. A. to B. of C. inside D. about 12. The Vietnamese participants always take part ______sports events with great enthusiasm. A. in B. on C. at D. to 13. He isn’t independent _____ any means. He depends _____ his father _____ everything. A. by/ on/ in B. for/ on/ in C. of/ in/ for D. on/ in/ with 14. He may be quick _____ understanding but he isn’t capable _____ remembering anything. A. in/ of B. on/ at C. at/ of D. of/ at 15. Mum is always busy __________ her work in the laboratory. A. with B. at C. in D. of 16 Lan will stay there _____ the beginning in September _____ November. A. from/ to B. till/ to C. from/ in D. till/ of 17. I would like to apply _____ the position of sales clerk that you advised in the Sunday newspaper. A. for B. to C. with D. in 18. I have been looking _____ this book for months, and at last, I have found it. A. over B. up C. for D. at 19. My sister is very keen _____ eating chocolate candy. A. on B. with C. about D. at 20. Who’s going to look _____ the children while you’re away? A. at B. up C. after D. Over III. CÁC CÂU HỎI TRẮC NGHIỆM Choose the correct prepositions. 21. I’m not going out yet. I’m waiting __________the rain to stop. A. for B. away C. from D. up 22. Sorry I haven’t written __________ you for such a long time. A. into B. to C. for D. round 23. Who was that man I saw you talking __________in the pub? A. up B. back C. from D. to 24. What happened __________the gold watch you used to have? A. with B. against C. for D. to 159


25. I look stupid with this haircut. Everyone will laugh __________me. A. in B. at C. into D. away 26. George’s salary is very low. It isn’t enough to live __________ A. about B. round C. on D. down 27. I’ve lost my keys. Can you help me look __________them? A. up B. after C. for D. into 28. I believe __________saying what I think. A. on B. in C. with D. for 29. When I realized I was wrong, I apologized to him __________my mistake. A. at B. for C. up D. before 30. Would you care _________a cup of coffee? A. for B. about C. of D. with 31. When I heard he had passed his examination, I phoned him to congratulate him ____his success. A. back B. over C. on D. with 32. Three students were accused _________cheating in the examination. A. on B. off C. with D. of 33. We had an enormous meal. It consisted_________seven courses. A. off B. of C. in D. up 34. I’m really satisfied _________.what I have. A. with B. along C. back D. out 35. I feel sorry __________ Bob. He has no friends and no money. A. with B. about C. for D. by 36. I’m sorry __________the noise last night. We’re having a party. A. with B. about C. for D. by 37. I wasn’t very impressed __________the film. A. back B. up C. by D. through 38. I’m sure you are capable __________passing the examination. A. round B. along C. among D. of 39. Are you interested __________art and architecture. A. from B. for C. up D. in 40. Mary is very fond __________animals. She has three cats and two dogs. A. about B. since C. of D. between 41. We are grateful ________ our teacher A. with B. about C. to D. out 42. I’m a bit short __________money. Can you lend me some? A. at B. over C. of D. down 43. I was amazed __________her knowledge of French Literature. A. by B. about C. of D. off 44. He is excellent __________playing the flute. A. at B. over C. to D. behind 45. Why are you always so jealous __________other people? A. on B. of C. in D. below 46. He was proud __________himself for not giving up. A. of B. during C. after D. under 47. Are you excited __________going on holiday next week? 160


A. into B. about C. above D. over 48. You get fed up __________doing the same thing every day. A. between B. up C. against D. with 49. I’m really satisfied _________what I have. A. with B. along C. back D. out 50. It’s silly _________you to go out without a coat. You’ll catch cold. A. to B. of C. since D. by 1. I shall meet you………..the corner ……….. the street. A. at/in B. at/of C. in/in 2. I always come……….. school………..foot. A. at/on B. to/by C. to/on 3. It never snows here………..Christmas. A. on B. in C. for 4. The country looks beautiful……….. spring. A. in B. on C. by 5. I can see you……….. Monday. A. in B. on C. with 6. I live ……….. the country, but she lives ……….. the seaside. A. in/at B. in/on C. of/to 7. Have you any money……….. you? A. of B. for C. to 8. He always comes ……….. bus. A. on B. for C. by 9. I don’t like getting up ……….. the morning. A. on B. into C. in 10. He had learned the whole poem ……….. heart. A. in B. with C. by 11. This book was written ……….. Dickens. A. by B. of C. in 12. Is Miss Smith……….. home? A. at B. in C. with 13. I have breakfast……….. 7:30 every morning. A. in B. at C. of 14. Can you translate that……….. German? A. in B. to C. by

D. in/on D. to/of D. at D. of D. at D. with/at D. with D. of D. with D. for D. for D. to D. on D. into

th

15. My birthday is……….. May 5 . A. of B. with th

16. My birthday is ……….. the 5 . A. on B. in 17. They come……….. the room. A. to B. from 18. I like swimming……….. summer. A. on B. in 19. We get a lot of rain ……….. November. A. on B. of

C. on

D. in

C. before

D. for

C. into

D. on

C. after

D. with

C. in

D. about 161


20. He never comes……….. time for the class. A. in B. for C. with 21. I’m very busy……….. present. A. in B. at C. for 22. I have no time…….. the moment. A. about B. after C. at 23. He was standing……….. the middle of the room. A. at B. in C. between 24. Please write your name………..the top of the page. A. in B. on C. to 25. There is vocabulary………..the end of the book. A. at B. on C. with 26. I shall see her……….. the beginning of the week. A. in B. for C. at 27. What would that be ………..German? A. to B. in C. at 28. ……….. my opinion, it is a very good book. A. in B. from C. for 29. She is ……….. the garden. A. with B. in C. of 30. We are going ……….. the theatre this evening. A. from B. by C. with 31. The train arrives……….. Victoria station……….. 4:30. A. in/at B. at/on C. at/at 32. Please tell me ……….. once. A. at B. to C. for 33. I waited for half an hour, and……….. last she came. A. at B. to C. between 34. The book is……….. the table. A. in B. on C. with 35. He is sitting……….. an armchair. A. on B. in C. with 36. The picture is ……….. the wall. A. on B. in C. for 37. I put my hands……….. my pockets. A. with B. into C. for 38. She is drinking ……….. a cup. A. by B. in C. with 39. She took ten shillings(đồng siling)……….. her bag. A. in B. to C. between 40. For the last few days I haven’t been able to sleep……….. night. A. on B. for C. in 41. She always agrees……….. everything he says. A. with B. to C. of 42. Are you acquainted ……….. the lady?

D. by D. from D. in D. of D. at D. after D. of D. with D. on D. about D. to D. to/at D. with D. for D. of D. about D. at D. of D. before D. from D. at D. to 162


A. with B. for C. about 43. You will soon get accustomed………..English cooking. A. of B. to C. for 44. She is very angry……….. me. A. to B. at C. with 45. I apologize ……….. keeping you waiting. A. of B. to C. with 46. The dog begged……….. a piece of cake. A. for B. from C. to 47. Does this belong ……….. you? A. with B. to C. of 48. She is always borrow money……….. me. A. to B. for C. from 49. My cat is very fond………..fish. A. with B. in C. of 50. I’m grateful ……….. her………..her help. A. to/for B. to/from C. at/for

to D. after D. for D. for D. of D. about D. of D. to D. with/ for

Exercise 2. Fill in the missing prepositions: 1. The room was full………..people. A. of B. with C. for 2. I’m quite different………..her. A. with B. from C. to 3. She insists………..coming. A. on B. from C. after 4. He is quite incapable………..such a thing. A. in B. with C. of 5. I should like to be independent………..everyone. A. on B. from C. with 6. May I introduce you………..Miss Brown? A. to B. with C. for 7. I’m afraid………..this dog. A. to B. of C. with 8. Are you interested………..literature? A. on B. with C. by 9. She is very jealous………..her sister. A. for B. to C. of 10. Won’t you join………..the game? A. with B. in C. of 11. Clean air provides us………..a healthy supply of oxygen. A. for B. with C. about 12. I’m very sorry………..what I have done. A. about B. for C. from 13. His son succeeded………..throne.(ngai vµng, ng«i vua)

to before D. of D. on D. of D. about D. between D. in D. about D. to D. of D. by 163


A. in B. for C. about D. of 14. My hat is quite similar………..yours. A. with B. to C. of D. into 15. I’m tired………..waiting for her. A. with B. in C. of D. from 16. I’m so worried………..my sister who is ill. A. of B. with C. for D. about 17. It is very bad………..you to eat so quickly. A. at B. with C. to D. for 18. I’m not good………..tennis. A. for B. at C. by D. from 19. My birthday is………..the first………..the month. A. on/of B. on/in C.in/of D. on/to 20. This will come in very useful………..her. A. of B. in C. for D. with 21. Out………..sight, out………..mind.(xa mÆt c¸ch lßng) A. of/with B. of/of C. to/of D. from/of 22. The sun rises………..the east, and sets………..the west. A. in/of B. of/of C. in/in D. from/from 23. Were your friends successful………..getting a loan(tiÒn cho vay) from the bank. A. in B. of C. with D. by 24. I’m sure the explanation in the book will be quite clear………..you. A. for B. to C. with D. of 25. Miss White was very upset……….the news of her father’s death. A. about B. of C. to D. for 26. I’m not familiar………..his name. A. to B. about C. with D. from 27. We were very grateful ………..our friends………..all of their assistance. A. to/from B. to/for C. to/with D. of/for 28. Don’t you think you should try to be friendly……….your classmates. A. with B. to C. of D. about 29. Mr Green is responsible……….hiring employees. A. for B. to C. about D. from 30. That type of music is quite popular……….teenage boys and girls. A. to B. with C. for D. between 31. My daily expenses(sù chi tiªu) are just about equal……….my income. A. with B. by C. to D. of 32. Fred is capable……….doing better work than he is doing at present. A. to B. for C. with D. of 33. We were very doubtful……….his ability. A. of B. about C. in D. with 34. Ken was proud……….his good marks on English. A. about B. to C. of D. with 35. My plan is similar……….yours, but it is different……….Ken’s. A. to/ of B. to/from C. for/from D.with/from 164


36. Piere said he had become quite fond……….American hamburgers. A. in B. on C. to 37. We are still hopeful……….hearing from you friends before Saturday. A. about B. on C. of 38. That fashion magazine is full……….advertising for women’s clothes. A. of B. with C. for 39. This glove aren’t very suitable……….that kind of work. A. with B. for C. to 40. They were happy……….the results of the election.(cuéc tuyÓn cö) A. for B. about C. from 41. It was certainly kind……….you to help me. A. of B. with C. on 42. Mr Brown is often worried……….money. A. about B. for C. of 43. Her parents are very pleased……….her French. A. for B. at C. with 44. I’m not interested……….politics. A. to B. in C. with 45. She was sad because he was rude……….her. A. with B. from C. by 46. She was angry……….Tom. A. to B. about C. with 47. Travelling by air is preferable……….travelling by train. A. to B. about C. for 48. Thank you. You are kind……….me. A. to B. of C. with 49. Everybody was surprised……….the news. A. about B. at C. for 50. I was delighted……….the present you gave me. A. about B. to C. with

D. of D. with D. from D. on D. with D. to D. at D. to D. of D. to D. for D. of D. for D. to D. for

Exercise 3. Fill in the missing prepositions: 1. Are you excited……….going on holiday next week. A. with B. about C. at 2. Tom is excellent……….repairing things. A. at B. about C. for 3. You get bored……….doing the same every day. A. of B. for C. to 4. I’m sure you are capable……….tourists. A. from B. after C. of 5. Mary is very fond……….animals. A. in B. of C. on 6. Ann wasn’t very keen……….going out in the rain, so we stayed at home. A. on B. with C. at

D. from D. ot D. with D.on D. at D. from 165


7. Hurry, or you’ll be late……….school. A. to B. for C. about 8. Were they present……….the meeting. A. at B. from C. for 9. Jane was absent……….class yesterday. A. from B. for C. at 10. She was confused……….the date. A. for B. of C. about 11. The house was crowded……….students. A. of B. on C. to 12. Miss White is very kind……….her colleagues. A. of B. to C. with 13. She is accustomed……….rising early. A. with B. of C. to 14. He was successful……….his job. A. in B. with C. on 15. Tom is very quick……….maths. A. of B. about C. by 16. I’m rather anxious……….her, I haven’t received a letter. A. with B. for C. at 17. He was sad……….his failure. A. about B. to C. from 18. This countryis rich……….oil. A. of B. in C. on 19. Are you aware……….the time? A. about B. with C. of 20. The museum is now open……….all visitors. A. with B. for C. to 21. Smoking is harmful……….your health. A. to B. since C. after 22. Are you afraid……….snakes? A. of B. in C. on 23. Is she serious……….learning to be a pilot. A. with B. about C. to 24. Is this matter important……….you? A. for B. to C. with 25. I just couldn’t believe what he said. It was contrary……….his thought. A. with B. for C. to 26. Don’t give up hope yet. Be confident……….the success. A. of B. about C. by 27. Please wait here. I’ll have some tickets available……….them. A. with B. for C. to 28. Make yourself useful……….others. A. of B. with C. about 29. It’s very kind……….you to help them.

D. from D. with D. of D. to D. with D. for D. about D. at D. at D. about D. at D. for D. before D. about D. with D. with D. of D. after D. about D. at D. before D. for 166


A. of B. to C. for D. with 30. Hurry up, or you’ll be late……….school. A. from B. for C. at D. with 31. He said he had given……….drinking. A. up B. in D. under C. to 32. Don’t put……….until tomorrow what you can do today. A. on B. off C. in D. for 33. What does NATO stand……….? A. at B. of C. for D. about 34. This is different car……….the one I drove yesterday. A. with B. from C. to D. for 35. Everyone is aware……….air pollution. A. with B. for C. at D. of 36. This building belongs……….those who live in it. A. with B. about C. to D. by 37. They are good……….learning English. A. at B. for C. about D. from 38. A man usually takes off his hat when he is introduced……….a woman or a girl……….the street. A. to/of B. to/in C. with/in D.with/of 39. Drinking is harmful……….your health. A. to B. with C. for D. since 40. We are interested……….swimming.. A. of B. in C. with D. about 41. He has waited……….her for a long time. A. for B. on C. in D. about 42. I agree……….you completely. A. with B. to C. at D. for 43. His opinion differs……….mine. A. with B. to C. from D. by 44. She said that she had been absent……….school the day before. A. for B. at C. to D. from 45. There were crowds……….people in the park yesterday. A. with B. of C. for D. between 46. The park was crowded……….people. A. with B. of C. on D. at 47. The convict(tï nh©n) escaped……….prison. A. off B. for C. from D. to 48. I’m fed up……….my job. A. with B. of C. for D. to 49. My parents are pleased……….my results. A. to B. on C. at D. with 50. I think you are qualified……….this job. A. for B. after C. before D. with Exercise 4. Fill in the missing prepositions: 167


1. Mr Smith is very kind……….us. A. to B. of C. about 2. We are pleased……….the result of our work. A. about B. for C. with 3. We are confident……….the success. A. about B. in C. of 4. Most people are afraid……….snakes. A. with B. to D. for 5. Our country is rich……….natural resources. A. in B. about C. of 6. Hue is famous……….his historical vestiges. A. about B. for C. at 7. My mother is always busy……….her housework. A. in B. of C. with 8. Dirty air is harmful……….health. A. of B. with C. to 9. We are proud……….our people’s heroic tradition. A. of B. about C. after 10. The teacher’s advices is profitable……….the students. A. to B. of C. with 11. The streets are crowded……….vehicle at the rush hour. A. by B. with C. about 12. The climate of our country is favorable……….agriculture. A. to B. for C. with 13. The air at the seaside is good……….health. A. at B. with C. for 14. My friend is good……….maths and physics. A. for B. to C. about 15. John is skilful……….dancing. A. about B. in C. for 16. This opportunity is luck……….us. A. for B. to C. from 17. I’m not acquainted……….those fellows. A. with B. about C. from 18. Mr Smith is not accustomed……….hot weather. A. to B. for C. of 19. Your words are contrary……….your acts. A. to B. with C. for 20. My home is far……….school. A. since B. from C. of 21. He is sad……….his son’s laziness. A. in B. for C. about 22. Many young people want to be independent……….their parents. A. on B. in C. for 23. We are grateful……….our teacher.

D. for D. at D. to D. of D. before D. with D. for D. since D. to D. on D. before D. by D. to D. at D. at D. by D. on D. with D. after D. about D. on D. of 168


A. for B. of C. on D. to 24. I’m interested……….current events. A. in B. of B. with C. by 25. Your profession is similar……….mine. A. with B. of C. to D. at 26. This chemical is dangerous……….humans. A. with B. for C. about D. at 27. This work is not suitable……….him. A. in B. for C. with D. since 28. Her voice sounds familiar……….me. A. to B. on C. with D. for 29. My house is next……….the post office. A. to B. with C. near D. in 30. This man is greedy(tham lam)……….fame.(danh tiÕng) A. for B. with C. for D. of 31. I was absent……….class yesterday. A. from B. with C. to D. for 32. Children are fond……….candies. A. in B. of C. with D. to 33. Teachers are responsible……….the principal……….their teaching. A. to/with B.with/ for C.to/for D. to/of 34. The beach is full……….tourists in summer. A. with B. by C. from D. of 35. We are present……….the lecture yesterday. A. at B. in C. on D. with 36. We must hurry, otherwise we should be late……….school. A. from B. for C. with D. before 37. Air is necessary……….life. A. with B. to C. about D. for 38. He is friendly……….everybody. A. with B. to C. near C. for 39. The day seems perfect……….a picnic. A. of B. for C. at D. on 40. That singer has become very popular……….the youth. A. for B. since C. of D. with 41. This sweater will keep you safe……….the cold. A. for B. of C. from D. with 42. She said she came two hours ahead……….the performing time. A. of B. about C. to D. before 43. Everything looks sad……….autumn. A. about B. in C. by D. on 44. Your plan will be acceptable……….some respect. A. in B. with C. for D. at 45. Was she aware……….not doing anything contrary ……….her parents’ expectations? A. in/of B. with/to C. of/to D. to/with 169


The lesson was difficult……….us, but the teacher was capable……….making us understand it thoroughly. A. for/ in B. for/of C. to/of D.with/of 47. My brother wasn’t confident……….passing the exam. A. of B. in C. for D. at 48. After many months of living in Canada he got accustomed……….the cold. A. for B. with C. of D. to 49. He was absent……….work yesterday because he was ill. A. by B. from C. for D. about 50. He are ashamed……….his behaviour. A. for B. with C. of D. in

ARTICLES I. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN Định nghĩa: Mạo từ là từ dùng trước danh từ và cho biết danh từ ấy đề cập đến một đối tượng xác định hay không xác định. Chúng ta dùng “the” khi danh từ chỉ đối tượng được cả người nói lẫn người nghe biết rõ đối tượng nào đó. Ngược lại, khi dùng mạo từ bất định a, an; người nói đề cập đến một đối tượng chung hoặc chưa xác định được: Mạo từ trong tiếng Anh chỉ gồm ba từ và được phân chia như sau: Mạo từ xác định (Denfinite article): the Maọ từ bất định (Indefinite article): a, an Maọ từ Zero (Zero article): thường áp dụng cho danh từ không đếm được (uncountable nouns) và danh từ đếm được ở dạng số nhiều: coffee, tea; people, clothes Mạo từ không phải là một loại từ riêng biệt, chúng ta có thể xem nó như một bộ phận của tính từ dùng để bổ nghĩa – chỉ đơn vị (cái, con chiếc). Mạo từ bất định (Indefinite articles) – a, an – Dùng trước danh từ đếm được (số ít) – khi danh từ đó chưa được xác định (bất định). “an” dung cho danh từ bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm (nhưng phụ thuộc vào cách phát âm). Ví dụ: a book, a table an apple, an orange – Đặc biệt một số từ “h” được đọc như nguyên âm. Ví dụ: an hour, an honest man Mạo từ xác định (Definite article) 3.1 Cách đọc:“the” được đọc là [di] khi đứng trước danh từ bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm (a, e, i, o, u) và đọc là (dơ) khi đứng trước danh từ bắt đầu bằng phụ âm (trừ các nguyên âm): The egg the chair The umbrellae the book The được đọc là [dơ] khi đứng trước danh từ có cách viết bắt đầu bằng nguyên âm nhưng có cách đọc bằng một phụ âm + nguyên âm: /ju:/ và /w^n/ như: The United Stated The Europeans The one-eyed man is the King of the blind. 170


The university The được đọc là [di] khi đứng trước danh từ có h không đọc: The [di] hour (giờ) The [di] honestman The được đọc là [di: ] khi người nói muốn nhấn mạnh hoặc khi ngập ngừng trước các danh từ bắt đầu ngay cả bằng phụ âm: Ví dụ:I have forgotten the [di:], er, er the [di:], er, check. (tôi đã bỏ quên cái, à, à…, cái ngân phiếu rồi) 3.2 Một số nguyên tắc chung: a/ The được dùng trước danh từ chỉ người , vật đã được xác định : Mạo từ xác định “the” được dùng trước danh từ để diễn tả một ( hoặc nhiều) người , vật, sự vật nào đó đã được xác định rồi, nghĩa là cả người nói và người nghe đều biết đối tượng được đề cập tới. Khi nói ‘ Mother is in the garden’(Mẹ đang ở trong vườn), cả người nói lẫn người nghe đều biết khu vườn đang được đề cập tới là vườn nào, ở đâu. Chúng ta xem những ví dụ khác: The Vietnamese often drink tea. We like the teas of Thai Nguyen. I often have dinner early. The dinner we had at that retaurant was awful. Butter is made from cream. He likes the butter of France . b/ The dùng trước danh từ chỉ nghĩa chỉ chủng loại: The có thể dùng theo nghĩa biểu chủng (generic meaning), nghĩa là dùng để chỉ một loài: I hate the television. The whale is a mammal, not a fish. 3.3 Những trường hợp đặc biệt: a/ Các từ ngữ thông dụng sau đây không dùng the : Go to church: đi lễ ở Nhà thờ go to the church: đến nhà thờ (ví dụ: để gặp Linh mục) Go to market: đi chợ go to the market: đi đến chợ (ví dụ: để khảo sát giá cả thị trường) Go to school : đi học go to the school : đến trường (ví dụ: để gặp Ngài hiệu trưởng) Go to bed : đi ngủ go the bed : bước đến giường (ví dụ: để lấy quyển sách) Go to prison : ở tù go to the prison : đến nhà tù (ví dụ: để thăm tội phạm) Sau đây là một số ví dụ tham khảo: We go to church on Sundays We go to the church to see her (chúng tôi đến nhà thờ để gặp cô ta) We often go to school early. (chúng tôi thường đi học sớm) 171


My father often goes to the school to speak to our teachers. (Bố tôi thường đến trường để nói chuyện với các thầy cô giáo của chúng tôi) Jack went to bed early. (Jack đã đi ngủ sớm) Jack went to the bed to get the book. (Jack đi đến giường lấy cuốn sách) Trong khi, các từ dưới đây luôn đi với “the” : cathedral (Nhà thờ lớn) office (văn phòng) cinema (rạp chiếu bóng) theatre ( rạp hát) Chú ý:Tên của lục địa, quốc gia, tiểu bang, tỉnh , thành phố, đường phố, mũi đất, hòn đảo, bán đảo , quần đảo , vịnh , hồ, ngọn núi không dùng mạo từ “the”: b/ Các trường hợp dùgn mạo từ the 1/ use of the definite article: The + noun( noun is defined) Ví dụ: I want a boy and a cook the boy must be able to speak 2/ A unique thing exists (Một người, vật duy nhất tồn tại) Ví dụ: The earth goes around the sun. The sun rises in the East. 3/ Khi một vật dùng tượng trưng cho cả loài Ví dụ: The horse is a noble animal The dog is a faithful animal 4/ So sánh cực cấp Ví dụ: She is the most beautiful girl in this class Paris is the biggest city in France 5/ Trước 1 tính từ được dung làm danh từ để chỉ 1 lớp người và thường có nghĩa số nhiều Ví dụ: The one-eyed man is the King of the blind. The poor depend upon the rich. 6/ Dùng trong thành ngữ: BY THE (theo từng) Ví dụ: Beer is sold by the bottle. Eggs are sold by the dozen. 7/ Trước danh từ riêng (proper noun) số nhiều để chỉ vợ chồng hay cả họ ( cả gia đình) Ví dụ: The Smiths always go fishing in the country on Sundays. Do you know the Browns? 8/ Trước tên: rặng nú, song, quần đảo, vịnh, biển, đại dương , tên sách và báo chí, và tên các chiếc tàu. Ví dụ: The Thai Binh river; the Philippines , the Times … 9/ Trước danh từ về dân tộc tôn phái để chỉ toàn thể Ví dụ: The Chinese, the Americans and the French were at war with the Germans 172


The Catholics and the protestants believe in Christ The Swiss; Dutch; the Abrabs 10/ Both, all, both, half, double + The + Noun Notes: All men must die (everyone) All the men in this town are very lazy 11/ Use “the” for Musical Instruments The guitar (I could play the guitar when I was 6.), The piano, The violin 12/ Khi sau danh từ đó có of The history of England is interesting. trong khi các môn học không có “the” I learn English; He learns history at school. B¶ng dïng the vµ kh«ng dïng the trong mét sè tr−êng hîp ®Æc biÖt. Dïng the

Kh«ng dïng the

Tr−íc c¸c ®¹i d−¬ng, s«ng ngßi, biÓn, vÞnh vµ c¸c hå ë sè nhiÒu. VÝ dô: The Red sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Great Lakes.

Tr−íc tªn 1 hå (hay c¸c hå ë sè Ýt). VÝ dô: Lake Geneva, Lake Erie

Tr−íc tªn c¸c dyy nói. VÝ dô: The Rockey Moutains

Tr−íc tªn 1 ngän nói VÝ dô: Mount Mckinley

Tr−íc tªn 1 vËt thÓ duy nhÊt trªn thÕ giíi hoÆc vò trô. VÝ dô: the earth, the moon, the Great Wall

Tr−íc tªn c¸c hµnh tinh hoÆc c¸c chïm sao

Tr−íc School/college/university + of + noun VÝ dô: The University of Florida.

The college of Arts and Sciences. Tr−íc c¸c sè thø tù + noun. VÝ dô: The first world war. The third chapter. Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc cã tõ 2 tõ trë lªn. Ngo¹i trõ Great Britain. VÝ dô: The United States, the United Kingdom, the Central Africal Republic. Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc ®−îc coi lµ 1 quÇn ®¶o.

VÝ dô: Venus, Mars, Earth, Orion

Tr−íc tªn c¸c tr−êng nµy khi tr−íc nã lµ 1 tªn riªng. VÝ dô: Cooper’s Art school, Stetson University.

Tr−íc c¸c danh tõ mµ sau nã lµ 1 sè ®Õm. VÝ dô: World war one chapter three Tr−íc tªn c¸c n−íc cã 1 tõ nh− : Sweden, Venezuela vµ c¸c n−íc ®−îc ®øng tr−íc bëi new hoÆc tÝnh tõ chØ ph−¬ng h−íng. VÝ dô: New Zealand, South Africa.


173


VÝ dô: The Philippines. Tr−íc tªn c¸c nh¹c cô. VÝ dô: To play the piano. Trước tên các môn học cụ thể VÝ dô: The applied Math. The theoretical Physics

Tr−íc tªn c¸c lôc ®Þa, tiÓu bang, tØnh, thµnh phè, quËn, huyÖn. VÝ dô: Europe, California. Tr−íc tªn bÊt cø m«n thÓ thao nµo. VÝ dô: Base ball, basket ball. Trước các môn học chung

Tr−íc tªn c¸c danh tõ trõu t−îng mang nghĩa cụ thể Ví dụ: The happiness he had after the marriage is very important. Trước tên các bữa ăn cụ thể Ví dụ: The beakfast we had yesterday was delicious

Ví dụ: Mathematics

Tr−íc tªn c¸c danh tõ trõu t−îng mang nghĩa chung. VÝ dô: Freedom, happiness.

Trước tên các bữa ăn: breakfast, lunch , dinner Trước các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể trong các cụm giới từ ON, IN, OVER, BY Ví dụ: He cut himself on the thumb.

The victim was shot in the chest

Trước các từ chỉ bộ phận cơ thể (dùng tính từ sở hữu thay thế) Ví dụ: She cut her finger

II. LUYỆN TẬP Exercise 1: Complete using a, an, the 1.We had……really good science lesson at school today I found……unusal insect on the wall outside our house. It’s your birthday next week. Are you going to have….party? We waited for hours,but we finally saw…Queen. Why don’t we listen to….radio? Mum has gone to……….bank, but she’ll be back soon. Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for over….hour! Exercise 2: Circle the correct word or phrase. 1.I love this time in evening/ the evening when the sun is going down. It’s too far to walk so I think I’ll catch bus/ the bus. Jane had to go home from school because she had a headache/ the headache. I like listen to music/ the music in my free time. My favourite subject at school is chemistry/ the chemistry. Jazz music appeared in America in 1920s/ in the 1920s. My cousin works as waiter/ a waiter in cafe near where we live. Exercise 3: Choose the best option to complete the following sentences 174


My mother goes to church in ______ morning. A. x B. every C. the 2. I eat ______orange everyday. A. an B. orange C. the orange 3. Harry is ______ sailor. A. a B. an C. the 4. We had _____ dinner in a restaurant. A. a B. an C. x 5. Mary loves _____ flowers. A. a B. an C. the 6. ______ is a star. A. Sun B. A sun C. The sun 7. London is _____ capital of England. A. an B. a C. x 8. I want ______ apple from that basket. A. a B. an C. the 9. She works six days _____ week. A. in B. for C. a 10. I bought ______ umbrella to go out in the rain. A. a B. an C. x 11. My daughter is learning to play ______violin at her school. A. a B. an C. x 12. Please give me ______pen that is on the counter. A. a B. an C. the 13. Our neighbour has ______cat and ______ dog. A. a/ a B. an/ a C. the/ the 14. It is ______funniest book that I have ever read. A. a B. an C. the 15. I usually go to school by______bike. A. a

B. an

C. x

III. CÁC CÂU HỎI TRẮC NGHIỆM Exercise 4:Choose the best answer to complete the sentences: There are billions of stars in _____ space. A. a B. an C. X 2. He tried to park his car but _____ space wasn’t big enough. A. the B. a C. an 3. Can you turn off _____ television, please? A. X B. a C. an 4. We had _____ meal in a restaurant. A. a B. X C. the 5. Thank you. That was ______ very nice lunch. A. a B. an C. the My daughter plays _____ piano very well.

D. a D. any orange D. X D. the D. X D. Suns D. the D. X D. X D. the D. the D. X D.X/X D. X

D. the

D. the D. X D. the D. an D. X 175


A. the B. a C. X D. an Jill went to ______ hospital to see her friend. A. x B. the C. a D. an Mrs Lan went to ______ school to meet her son’s daughter. A. x B. the C. a D. an We visited _______ two years ago. A. Canada and the United States B. the Canada and the United States C. the Canada and United States D. Canada and United States 10. Are you going away next week? No, _______ week after next. A. a B. the C. some D. X 11. We haven’t been to ______ for years. A. cinema B. the cinema C. a cinema D. any cinema 12. It took us quite a long time to get here. It was ______ journey. A. three hour B. a three- hours C. a three- hour D. threehours 13. I can’t work here. There’s so much ______. A. noise B. noises C. the noise D. a noise 14. I’ve seen ______ good films recently. A. a B. the C. some D. an 15. I often watch ______ television for two hours every night. A. some B. the C. any D. X 16. The injured man was taken to _____. A. hospital B. any hospital C. the hospital D. hospitals 17. She went out without _____ money. A. any B. an C. a D. x 18. Did _______ police find ______ person who stole your bicycle? A. a /a B. the / the C. a / the D. the / a 19. Can anyone give me .......................... hand, please because I have just fallen over? A. a B. an C. the D. X 20. I don’t know what to do. It’s ................................ problem. A. quite difficult B. a quite difficult C. quite a difficult D. the quite difficult 21. I have left my book in .......................... kitchen and I would like you to get it for me. A. a B. an C. the D. X 22. Please meet me at the train station in ............................ hour from now. A. a B. an C. the D. X Exercise 5: Identify the one underlined word or phrase ( A,B,C or D ) that must be changed in order to make the sentence correct . I visited Mexico and United States last year. A B C D France and Britain are separated by channel. A B C D Next year we are going skiing in Swiss Alps. A B C D The word ‘restroom’ is an euphemism for toilet. A B C D 176


The mechanic in the orange shirt put the quart of oil into the engine. A B C D If you are in the hurry, I can get it for you now. AB C D My grandmother had a bad heart and a arthritis. A BC D The most people believe that marriage and family life are the basis of our society. A B C D In Britain the coffee is more expensive than tea. A B C D Exercise 6:Choose the best answer to complete the sentences: 1. _____driver was_____strong athletic young man. A. The/the B. The/a C. A/ the D. A/a 2. He took_____cigar from his mouth and blew away_____long trail of smoke. A. the/a B. a/a C. the/the D. a/the 3. We sat_____side by_____side smoking and thinking. A. /a B. /the C. the/ D. / 4. We got back to _____inn as _____night was falling. A. the/the B. a/the D. the/a C. the/ 5. It was_____ late afternoon and their shadows lay long across _____road. C. the/the D. a/the B. / A. /the 6. _____invitations to_____dinner for 16 people were sent out. C. the/the D. a/the A. /the B. /a He worked hard and often got out of _____bed at _____night to make sure that he had written _____point down. A. /the/a B. / /a C. the/the/ D. a/the/ 8. They stood for _____moment, then all together slowly moved towards_____church. C. the/a D. a/the A. /the B. / 9. “Do you usually go to _____church?” “Occasionally” A. a B. an C. the D. 10. They are at_____sea now. They write that they are having_____marvelous time. A.the/the B. a/the D. the/a C. / 11. I’ll drive you to _____town this morning. A. a C. the D. an B. 12. Although it was_____early afternoon, all_____lights in_____restaurant were on. A. /the/the B. / /a C. the/the/ D. a/the/ 13. _____Nile flows right through_____city A. /the B. /a C. the/the D. a/the 14. It was _____sort of_____occasion when one wants to help but doesn’t know how.

A.the/the

B. a/the

C. the/a

D. the/

16. COLLOCATIONS

177


Collocations là những cặp hoặc nhóm từ luôn luôn đi với nhau, và các cặp từ đó làm cho người bản xứ thấy câu hoặc từ đúng như cách họ dùng từ, tức khi bạn dùng Collocations đúng thì câu nó tự nhiên và đúng tiếng Anh hơn. Chẳng hạn như bạn sẽ dùng a fast car chứ không phải là a quick car hoặc là dùng watch TV chứ không dùng look at TV Exercise 1: Choose the best answer to fill the gap in each of the following. 1. The meeting took almost five hours so it was impossible to _______ attention all the time. A. pay B. give C. have D. make 2. The problem is difficult to ___________ under control. A. hold B. keep C. do D. make 3. It took us all day to clean up the office after the burglary - the thieves_________ a terrible mess. A. did B. took C. had D. made 4. I don't think we should___________ a decision yet; we should wait. A. make B. do C. take D. create 5. Only 31% of the students who___________ the final exam passed it. A. had B. made C. wrote D. took I think we should look for a new supplier - the one we have at the moment___________ us too many problems. A. causes B. makes C. does D. solves 7. Could you__________ me a favour and post these letters on your way home? A. do B. make C. give D. get I've told him ten times that he's got the wrong telephone number. I'll___________ crazy if they call again. A. go B. be C. become D. get * go crazy: to become very excited about something The company offers its employees free language training but not many people ___________ advantage of it. A. make B. take C. do D. keep *take advantage of sth; to use the good things in a situation 10. Our personal assistant is leaving next month - she's___________ a baby. A. waiting B. waiting for C. making D. expecting Exercise 2: Choose the best option A or B, C, D to complete each of the following sentences: 1. Most doctors and nurses have to work on a _______ once or twice a week at the hospital. A. solution B. night shift C. household chores D. special dishes We enjoy _______ time together in the evening when the family members gather in the living room after a day of working hard. A. spending B. caring C. taking D. doing 4. He is a _______ boy. He is often kind and helpful to every classmate. A. frank B. lovely C. obedient D. caring 4. According to the boss, John is the most _______ for the position of executive secretary. A. supportive B. caring C. suitable D. comfortable 5. Billy, come and give me a hand with cooking. A. help B. prepared C. be busy D. attempt 6. Whenever problems come up, we discuss them frankly and find solutions quickly. A. happen B. encounter C. arrive D. clean 178


7. You should not burn _______. You had better dig a hole and bury it. A. dishes B. lab C. garbage D. shift 8. One of Vietnamese traditions is a belief in _______ families and in preserving their cultures. A. wealthy B. secure C. safe D. close-knit 9. The .................. that our family members share closely is watching film A. concern B. interest C. pleasure D. entertainment We share the house with my mother and father and my wife‘s sister and her kids, it is a..........family A. nuclear B. extended C. crowed D. single-parent 11. My mother.............the responsibility for running the household. A. holds B. takes C. runs D. bears 12. My husband and I both go out to work so we share the……………… A. happiness B. household chores C. responsibility D. employment 13. Family is a base from which we can go into the world with confidence. A. part B. place C. position D. foundation 14. Lee, who is Chinese, learns English as a ……………… language. A. native B. second C. foreign D. first 15. This villa is the ……………. of my parents A. belong B. possession C. having D. wealth 16. I really cannot accept your ……………. demands. A. easy B. usual C. hard D. unreasonable 17. Don’t share the matter with anyone else. Please keep it in ………………. A. private B. possession C. property D. tongue 18. Millions of people all over the world ……… English as their native language. A have B. talk C. choose D. produce 19. I have learned a lot about the value of labor from my .................... at home. A. pot plants B. chores C. energy D. credit 20. If you practice regularly, you can learn this language skill in a short ................ of time. A. activity B. arrangement C. period D. aspect 21. London is home to people of many cultural _______. A. diverse B. diversity C. diversify D. diversification 22. She sent me a _______ letter thanking me for my invitation. A. polite B. politely C. politeness D. impoliteness Some researchers have just _______ a survey of young people's points of view on contractual marriage. A. sent B. directed C. managed D. conducted 24. It will take more or less a month to prepare for the wedding. A. approximately B. generally C. frankly D. simply Many young people have objected to _______ marriage, which is decided by the parents of the bride and groom. A. agreed B. shared C. contractual D. sacrificed 26. He is not really friendly and makes no attempt to be _______. A. society B. social C. socialize D. sociable 27. It is thought that traditional marriage _______ are important basis of limiting divorce rates. A. appearances B. records C. responses D. values 179


Mr. Pike held his wife's hands and talked urgently to her in a low voice, but there didn't seem to be any response. A. feeling B. emotion C. reply D. effect 29. Family is the place where _______ children is not only tolerated but welcomed and encouraged. A. taking B. having C. giving D. showing 30. Socially, the married _______ is thought to be the basic unit of society. A. couple B. pair C. twins D. double 31. Professor Berg was very interested in the diversity of cultures all over the world. A. variety B. changes C. conservation D. number 32. You are not _______ to say anything unless you wish to do so. A. obliged B. willing C. equal D. attracted 33. A woman can never have a happy married life without _______ her husband. A. demanding B. agreeing C. trusting D. determining 34. Many Vietnamese people ______ their lives for the revolutionary cause of the nation A. sacrifice B. sacrificed C. sacrificial D. sacrificially Most of us would maintain that physical ______ does not play a major part in how we react to the people we meet. A. attract B. attractive C. attractiveness D. attractively 36. They had a ______ dinner last night and she accepted his proposal of marriage. A. romance B. romantic C. romantically D. romanticize Reading the story of the ______ having her dress torn off in the lift reminded me of my friend's wedding. A. groom B. bride C. celebrate D. groomsman 38. I do not think there is a real ______ between men and women at home as well as in society. A. attitude B. value C. measurement D. equality 39. The ______ to success is to be ready from the start. A. key B. response C. agreement D. demand 40. They decided to divorce and Mary is ______ to get the right to raise the child. A. equal B. determined C. obliged D. active She is a kind of woman who does not care much of work but generally _______ only with colleagues for meals, movies or late nights at a club. A. supposes B. socializes C. attention D. discussed 42. I didn't think his comments were very appropriate at the time. A. correct B. right C. exact D. suitable 43. You should _______ more attention to what your teacher explains. A. make B. get C. set D. pay 44. Body language is a potent form of _______ communication. A. verbal B. non-verbal C. tongue D. oral 45. Our teacher often said, "Who knows the answer? _______ your hand." A. Raised B. Lift C. Raise D. Heighten 46. This is the instance where big, obvious non-verbal signals are appropriate. A. situation. B. attention C. place D. matter The boy waved his hands to his mother, who was standing at the school gate, to _______ her attention. A. attract B. pull C. follow D. tempt 48. If something _______ your attention or your eye, you notice it or become interested in it. 180


A. pays B. allow C. catches D. wave 49. When you are in a restaurant, you can raise your hand slightly to show that you need assistance. A. bill B. menu C. help D. food 50. After a _______ hesitation, she began to speak with such a convincing voice. A. rude B. slight C. small D. impolite He is one of the most _______ bosses I have ever worked with. He behaves rudely to not only me but also others in the staff. A. thoughtful B. impolite C. attentive D. communicative 52. In many cultures, people signify their agreement by _______ their head. A. turning B. raising C. pointing D. nodding 53. When you see your teacher approaching you, a slight wave to attract his attention is appropriate. A. coming nearer to B. catching sight of C. pointing at D. looking up to When you catch someone's _______ you do something to attract his attention so that you can talk to him. A. head B. hand C. eye D. ear 55. When the play finished the audience stood up and _______ their hands loudly. A. clapped B. nodded C. shook D. hold 56. It is _______ not to say "Thank you" when you are given something. A. small B. rude C. slight D. formal 57. A whistle is the _______ for the football players to begin the match. A. communication B. instance C. attention D. signal 58. It is often considered to be impolite to _______ at someone. A. look B. smile C. point D. raise 59. TV and film characters on TV have a great ........... on children. A. function B. influence C. strength D. result 60. The World Wild Fund’s aim is to protect……. wild animals and their habitat. A. endangered B. endanger C. endangerment D. danger 61. All the children should learn to speak a foreign…… A. story B. country C. language D. tongue 62. A(n)……in the number of rare animals can help attract more tourists here. A. drop B. fall C. decrease D. increase 63. This is a valuable book. You must look after it ……and you mustn’t lose it. A. care B. carefully C. careful D. carelessly

17. TAG QUESTIONS I. CÁCH THÀNH LẬP Câu hỏi đuôi gồm có: chủ ngữ (phải là đại từ nhân xưng) và trợ động từ hay động từ đặc biệt. Nếu câu phát biểu ở thể khẳng định thì câu hỏi đuôi ở thể phủ định và ngược lại. Nếu câu hỏi đuôi ở thể phủ định thì phải dùng hình thức tĩnh lược (contractive form). Ex: STATEMENTS He is a good boy,

QUESTION-TAGS ’

isn t he? 181


The girl didn't come here yesterday, They will go away, She hasn't left,

did she? won't they? has she?

II. ĐẶC BIỆT: a. Phần đuôi của “I am” là “aren’t I” . Eg: I’m going to do it again, aren’t I? b. Imperatives and Requests ( Câu mệnh lệnh và câu yêu cầu): + Có phần đuôi là “won’t you?” khi câu phát biểu diễn tả lời mời: Eg: Take your seat, won’t you? (Mời ông ngồi) + Có phần đuôi là “will you?” khi câu phát biểu diễn tả lời yêu cầu hoặc mệnh lệnh phủ định. Eg: Open the door, will you? ( Xin vui lòng mở cửa) Don’t be late, will you? (Đừng đi trễ nha.) c. Phần đuôi của câu bắt đầu bằng “ Let’s ...” : là “shall we ?” Eg: Let’s go swimming, shall we? Nhưng phần đuôi của “Let us / Let me” là “will you” Nothing, anything, something, everything được thay là thế bằng “ It” ở câu hỏi đuôi: Eg : Everything will be all right, won’t it? No one, Nobody, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everybody, everyone được thay thế bằng “They” trong câu hỏi đuôi. Eg: Someone remembered to leave the messages, didn’t they? Lưu ý: Nothing, Nobody, No one được dùng trong mệnh đề chính, động từ ở câu hỏi đuôi sẽ phải ở dạng thức khẳng định. (Vì Nothing, Nobody, No one có nghĩa phủ định) Eg: Nothing gives you more pleasure than listening to music, does it ? e. This/ That được thay thế là “It”. Eg: This won’t take long, will it? f. These/ Those được thay thế là “They”. Eg: Those are nice, aren’t they? g. Khi trong câu nói có từ phủ định như: seldom, rarely, hardly, no, without, never, few, little… phần đuôi phải ở dạng khẳng định. Eg: He seldom goes to the movies, does he? Nếu câu phát biểu có dạng : You ‘d better → câu hỏi đuôi sẽ là : hadn’t you ? You’d rather → câu hỏi đuôi sẽ là : wouldn’t you ? You used to → câu hỏi đuôi sẽ là : didn’t you ? Ý nghĩa của câu hỏi đuôi: Ý nghĩa của câu hỏi đuôi phụ thuộc vào ngữ điệu diễn đạt nó: Xuống giọng và hy vọng người nghe trả lời “yes” Lên giọng và người nghe có thể trả lời “yes or no” 1. Quy tắc chung: - Câu nói và phần đuôi luôn ở dạng đối nhau câu nói khẳng định, đuôi phủ định? câu nói phủ định, đuôi khẳng định? Ex: The children are playing in the yard, aren’t they? They can’t swim, can they? Chủ từ của câu nói là đại từ, ta lặp lại đại từ này Ex: She is a doctor, isn’t she? Chủ từ là danh từ, ta dùng đại từ tương ứng thay thế Ex: People speak English all over the world, don’t they? 182


Đại từ bất định nothing, everything: được thay bằng “it” Ex: Everything is ready, isn’t it? Các đại từ no one, nobody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody: được thay bằng “they” Ex: Someone called me last night, didn’t they? Đại từ this / that được thay bằng “it”; these / those được thay bằng “they” Ex: That is his car, isn’t it? These are your new shoes, aren’t they? “There” trong cấu trúc “there + be” được dùng lại ở phần đuôi Ex: There aren’t any students in the classroom, are there? Câu nói có trợ động từ (will / can / shall / should / is / are …): trợ động từ được lặp lại ở phần đuôi Ex: You will come early, won’t you? Câu nói không có trợ động từ: trợ động từ do / does / did được dùng ở phần đuôi Ex: It rained yesterday, didn’t it? She works in a restaurant, doesn’t she? - Câu nói có chứa các từ phủ định (never, seldom, rarely, hardly, …) thì phần đuôi khẳng định Ex: He never comes late, does he? Note: Động từ trong phần đuôi ở phủ định thì luôn được viết ở dạng rút gọn. 2. Một số trường hợp đặc biệt: Phần đuôi của I AM là AREN’T I Ex: I am writing a letter, aren’t I? Phần đuôi của Let’s là SHALL WE Ex: Let’s go out tonight, shall we? Câu mệnh lệnh khẳng định: dùng phần đuôi WON’T YOU để diễn tả lời mời dùng phần đuôi WILL / WOULD / CAN / CAN’T YOU để diễn tả lời yêu cầulịch sự Ex: Have a piece of cake, won’t you? Close the door, will you? Câu mệnh lệnh phủ định: dùng phần đuôi WILL YOU để diễn tả lời yêu cầu lịch sự Ex: Please don’t smoke her, will you? Phần đuôi của ought to là SHOULDN’T Ex: She ought to do exercise every morning, shouldn’t she? EXERCISE 1. Choose the word or phrase A, B, C or D that best completes the sentence 1. No one is better cook than his mother, ______? A. is she B. isn’t she C. are they D. aren’t they 2. Do it right now, ______? A. will you B. shall you C. do you D. don’t you 3. There are no easy ways to learn a foreign language, _______? A. are they B. are there C. aren’t they D. aren’t there 4. He seldom goes to the library, ______? A. doesn’t he B. is he C. does he D. isn’t he 5. Let’s go for a long walk, ______? A. will we B. shall we C .don’t you D. do you 6. I think he will join us, _____? A. doesn’t he B. won’t he C. will he D. don’t I 183


7. The film is good, _______________? A. is it B. are they C. isn’t it D. aren’t they You are going to the party, ____________? A. is you B. are you C. aren’t you D. were you He can speak English, _________________ ? A. can he B. can’t he C. can’t him D. could he 10. You don’t know him,__________________ ? A. do you B. don’t you C. are you D. aren’t you 11. Lan speaks Chinese very well, __________? A. does she B. doesn’t she C. is she D. was she 12. John has worked hard, _________________? A. does he B. did he C. has he D. hasn’t he 13. They invited him to the party, ___________? A. do they B. don’t they C. did they D. didn’t they 14. They are leaving here tomorrow________? A. do they B. are they C. aren’t they D. did they 15. I’m a bit late, ______? A. am not I B. aren’t you C. are you D. aren’t I 16. No one is indifferent to praise, ______? A. is one B. isn’t one C. is he D. are they 17. Somebody has left these socks on the bathroom floor, ______? A. have they B. haven’t they C. has he D. hasn’t he 18. James owns a restaurant, ______? A. does he B. is he C. doesn’t he D. didn’t he 19. You aren’t too busy to talk, ______? A. are you B. have you C. aren’t D. do you 20. The ticket to London doesn’t cost a lot, ______? A. do they B. does it C. is it D. isn’t it 21. You don’t need me any more, ______? A. do I B. don’t I C. do you D. don’t you 22. Nobody knows who invited the wheel, ______? A. do they B. don’t they C. does it D. doesn’t it 23. Harry was working in Bristol then, ______? A. was Harry B. wasn’t he C. was he D. didn’t he 24. You’ll be home before midnight, ______? A. will you B .won’t you C. are you D. won’t you be 25. David is bringing some wine, ______? A. is he B. isn’t he C. is David D. isn’t David 26. Don’t leave anything behind, ______? A. do you B. don’t you C. will you D. shall we 27. That isn’t Bill driving, ______? A. is it B. is that C. isn’t that D. isn’t it 28. Nobody likes the play, __________? A. do they B. don’t they C. didn’t they D. did they 29. The children can read English, __________? A. can’t they B. can they C. they can D. they can’t 30. Your grandfather was a millionaire, ______? 184


A. was he B. is he C. wasn’t he D. isn’t he 31. Your brother’s here, ______? A. is he B. are he C. isn’t he D. aren’t he 32. That was Ann on the phone, ______? A. was it B. was that C. wasn’t that D. wasn’t it 33. Tom didn't see her, ______? A. did Tom B. did he C. do Tom D. does he 34. Mary wasn't angry, ______? A. was she B. is she C. wasn’t she D. was Mary 35. Susan doesn't like oysters, ______? A. did she B. does she C. doesn’t she D. she does EXERCISE 2 : Add tag questions to the following. 1/ They want to come,………………….? 2/ Elizabeth is a dentist, ……………….. ? 3/ They won’t be here, …………………? 4/ That is your umbrella, ………………….? 5/ There aren’t many people here yet, …………….. ? 6/ He has a bicycle,……………………? 7/ Peter would like to come with us to the party, ……………………..? 8/ Those aren’t Fred’s books, ………? 9/ You have never been to Paris,…………? 10/ Something is wrong with Jane today, ………… ? 11/ Everyone can learn how to swim, ……………… ? 12/ Nobody cheated in the exam, ………………….. ? 13/ Nothing went wrong while I was gone, ………… ? 14/ I am invited, ………………….? 15/ This bridge is not very safe,……………..? 16/ These sausages are delicious, …………….? 17/ You haven’t lived here long, …………? 18/ The weather forecast wasn’t very good, ……………. ? 19/ He’d better come to see me, .............. ? 20/ You need to stay longer, ................................? EXERCISE 3 : Add tag questions to the following. 1. Lan enjoys watching TV after dinner, does she? 2. Tam didn’t go to school yesterday, did he? 3. They’ll buy a new computer, won’t t hey? 4. She can drink lots of tomato juice everyday, can ’t she? 5. She may not come to class today, ? 6. We should follow the traffic rules strictly, shouldn’t we? 7. Your mother has read these fairy tales for you many times, .hasn’ t she? 8. He seldom visits you, doe s he? 9. You’ve never been in Italy, .hav e you? 10. That’s Bob, isn’ t it? 11. No-one died in the accident, did they? 12. I’m supposed to be here, aren’ t I? 13. Nothing is wrong, is it? 14. Nobody called the phone, did they? 185


15. Everything is okay, isn’t it they? 16. Everyone took a rest, didn’t they ? 17. Going swimming in the summer is never boring, is it ? 18. Let’s dance together, shall we? 19. Don’t talk in class, wil l you? 20. Sit down, won’t you? 21. This picture is yours, isn’ t it? 22. Hoa never comes to school late, do es she? 23. You took some photos on the beach, .didn’t y ou? 24. He hardly ever makes a mistake, does he? 25. We must communicate with you by means of e-mail or chatting, mustn’t w e? 26. Nobody liked the play, did t hey? 27. She’d saved money if she bought fresh food, cou ldn’t she? 28. The area was evacuated at once, wasn’t it? 29. She’s very funny. She’s got a great sense of humor, hasn’ t she? 30. It never works very well, does it? 31. Mr.Smith usually remembered his wife’s birthdays, did n't he? 32. Neither of them offered to help you, did t hey? 33. He ought to have made a note of it, shouldn’t he? 34. There’ll be plenty for everyone, won’t the re? 35. Let’s go out for dinner tonight, shall w e? 36. That isn’t Bill driving, is it? 37. Nothing went wrong, did I t? 38. There used to be trees here, didn’ t there? 39. This won’t take long, will I t? 40. Don’t touch that button, will y o u? 41. I’m not too late, aren’t I? 42. Not a very good film, is I t? 43. Somebody wanted a drink, didn’t they? 44. They think he’s funny, don’t the y?

18. PHRASAL VERBS THEORY A phrasal verb is essentially a verb and one or two additional particles EX: look for, look after, look up, look forward to, look down on … There are four types of phrasal verbs. These are as below: 1. Type 1 = verb + adverb (no object) (The verb and adverb cannot be separated and there is no passive form in this type.) carry out break down = stop working EX: The car broke down and we had to walk. 2. Type 2 = verb + adverb + object verb + object + adverb EX: Put off = postpone We must put off the meeting for another week. We must put the meeting off for another week If the object is a pronoun the adverb must come after the object We must put it off for another week 186


But not: We must put off it for another week. (wrong sentence) 3. Type 3 = verb+ preposition + object (The preposition cannot be separated from the verb.) EX: call on =visit look after take after = be similar to older relative (resemble) He takes after his mother. He takes after her. But not: He takes his mother after. He takes her after. 4. Type 4 = verb + adverb + preposition keep up with= maintain pace with go on with = continue think back on= recall talk back to= answer impolitely cut down on= reduce get on with=have a good relationship with run out of=have none left drop in on =pay a short visit come up with= give a good idea/solution watch out for=look out, take care! be careful!( coi chừng) face up to= cope with ( đương đầu,đối mặt) look forward to=exciting drop out of= leave/give up put up with = tolerate +The object (underlined below) always comes immediately after the preposition. EX: I can’t put up with his behavior any more He dropped out of school at fifteen. +If another verb is used after a phrasal verb,it must be in the -ing form EX: We’re really looking forward to seeing you.(= We’re pleased and excited because we are going to see you.) II. PRACTICE Exercise 1: Choose the best answer for each gap. 1. UNESCO _____ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. A. stands for B. brings about C. takes after D. gets across 2.Who will ________ the children while you go out to work? A. look for B. look up C. look after D. look at 2. Please ________ the light, it’s getting dark here. 187


A. turn on B. turn off C. turn over D. turn into 3. There is an inflation. The prices __________. A. are going on B. are going down C. are going over D. are going up 4. Remember to _______ your shoes when you are in a Japanese house. A. take care B. take on C. take over D. take off 5. You can __________ the new words in the dictionary. A. look for B. look after C. look up D. look at 6. It’s cold outside. __________ your coat. A. Put on B. Put down C. Put off D. Put into 7. Frank never turns up on time for a meeting. A. calls B. arrives C. reports D. prepares 8. Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today. A. do B. let C. delay D. leave 9. My father still hasn’t really recovered from the death of my mother. A. looked after B. taken after C. gone off D. got over 10. The bomb exploded with a loud bang which could be heard all over the town. A. went on B. went out C. went off D. went away 11. John, could you look after my handbag while I go out for a minute. A. take part in B. take over C. take place D. take care of 12. Bill seems unhappy in his job because he doesn’t get _______ his boss. A. up to B. on for C. on well with D. in with 13. Why do they ______ talking about money all the time? A. keep on B. give up C. take after D. stop by 14. My father gave up smoking two years ago. A. liked B. continued C. stopped D. enjoyed 15. The government hopes to _________ its plans for introducing cable TV. A. turn out B. carry out C. carry on D. keep on 16. When the tenants failed to pay their bill, the authorities decided to _____ the gas supply to the flat. A. cut down B. cut out C. cut off D. cut up 17. I was born in Scotland but I ________ in Northern Ireland. A. grew up B. raised C. brought up D. rose 18. Both Ann and her sister look like her mother. A. take after B. take place C. take away D. take on 19. I’ll be back in a minute, Jane. I just want to try out my new tape recorder. A. resemble B. test C. arrive D. buy 20. I came ………..this ring while I was doing the gardening A. across B on C to D along The plane from Dallas ....................two hours late, so I missed my connecting flight from Frankfurt to London. A. took on B. took in C. take over D. took off 22. It took him a long time to ________ the death of his wife. A. take away B. get over C. take off D. get through 23. Mrs. Jones's husband passed away fast Friday. We are all shocked by the news. A got married B . divorced C. died D. were on business 24. Billy hasn't been working; he won't________ his examinations. 188


A. get off B. get through C. keep up D. keep off The national curriculum is made _______of the following subject: English, Math , Chemistry and so on... . A. from B. on C. up D. in 26.If orders keep coming in like this, I'll have to________ more staff. A. give up B. add in C. gain on D. take on 27. She was tired and couldn’t keep ________the group. A. on to B. up against C. up with D. out of 28.We were too tired to wash ________ after the meal. A. over B. out C. up D. on 29.I don't know whether I'll go out tonight. It depends ________ how I feel. A. in B. at C. on D. over 30.The police made an appeal ________ the public to remain calm. A. by B. to C. at D. for 31.Part of the path had been ________ by the sea. A. washed over B. washed away C. washed down D. made in 32.Paula applied for the post but she was________ A. turned down B. checked out C. kept under D. pushed ahead 33.The committee ____________ of different people of different views. A. composes B. comprises C. consists D. contains 34.Try to study harder to catch …………….your classmates . A up B .up with C out D with 35.I've been trying to ________ him all day. A. fall in love with B. take track of C. take advantage of D. get in touch with 36.Please _________ an eye on the baby when I am cooking. A. put B. keep C. lay D. catch 37.The bomb ________ when he rang the bell. A. went over B. went on C. went out D. went off 38.Does this jacket ________ my trousers? A. go with B. go through with C. go ahead D. go off 39.He is very mean and impolite. I don’t know how she can________ him. A. keep up with B. go up with C. put up with D. climb up with 40. If you want to be health, you should ………….your bad habits in your lifestyles A give up B call off C break down D get over 41.We have permission to ________ with the plan. A. go ahead B. go over C. go on D. go off 42.I don’t want people to________ me without calling in advance. A.drop out of B. drop up on C. drop down on D. drop in on 43.The doctor said that he had to________ his drinking or his health would get worse A.cut down on B.run out of C.go on with D.get on with 44. If it is a good book, you might say, "It's so good. I can't ________." A. put it out B. put it down C. take it out D. take it down 45. What may happen if John will not arrive in time? A go along B . count on C keep away D. turn up 46. Johnny sometimes visits his grandparents in the countryside. 189


A. calls on B. keeps off C. takes in D. goes up 47. They decided to postpone their journey till the end of the month because of the epidemic. A. take up B. turn round C. put off D. do with 48.At the station, we often see the sigh “________ for pickpockets”. A. watch on B. watch out C. watch up D. watch at 49.WHO’s main activities are carrying _____ research on medical development and improving health care. A. out B. in C. for D. of While I was looking through my old albums the other day, I ______ this photograph of my parents' wedding. A. made up B. came across C. took after D. turned down *HOMEWORK Exercise 1: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. When the police investigate a crime, they ________evidence such as fingerprints, hair, or clothing A. look after B. look up to C. look for D. look into 2. “Do you ________ your new roommate, or do you two argue?” A. keep in touch with B. get along with C. on good terms with D. get used to After months of testing, the Russian space scientists ______ a space suit that works better than any other in history. A. came to B. came up with C. came up to D. came out with 4. Let’s check our hotel room _______before we pay for it. A. out B. away C. up D. off 5. He lost the tennis match, so we will try to cheer him ______. A. off B. away C. on D. up 6. The mechanic broke the engine_______ its many components A. up into B. into C. down into D. off into 7. The couple broke _______ their engagement after they had a huge argument. A. in B. over C. off D. away 8. The new mayor will bring ______a change in local government policies. A. with B. out C. up D. about 9. Sara said she took golf _______ so that she could meet more interesting people. A. on B. over C. back D.up 10. Try _____ this bicycle to determine if you feel comfortable on it. A. out B. on C. off D. at Exercise 2: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions 1. She turned the first offer _____ because she wanted more money for her house. A. off B. away C. out D. down 2. They decided to name the new baby boy ________Grandpa. A. of B. after C. with D. as 190


3. Mom told her little boy to put all his toys ________ before coming to dinner. A. out B. off C. away D. in 4. The couple put their wedding ______ until next year. A. off B. up C. on D. away 5. The gunman told the victim to hand _____ all his money. A. out B. over C. in D. off 6. Don’t throw your jacket on the bed. Hang it _____ A. up B. over C. on D. in 7. The supervisor told her to keep _______ the good work. A. over B. on C. with D. up 8. Man is killing _______ all the fish in the sea. A. out B. away C. off D. up 9. If you leave ______any information, the form will be returned to you. A. down B. out C. up D. away Security is very important in this building. Don’t let anyone ____unless they show you proper indentification. A. in B. out C. off D. on Exercise 3: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each od the following questions 1. Look this document ________carefully before you sign it. A.up B. on C. at D. over 2. If you don’t know what a word means, look it _____ in the dictionary. A. over B. up C. on D. at 3. I couldn’t make ______ all the words on the sign because my glasses were dirty. A.up B. out C. clear D. up with 4. Tony and Nancy always kiss and make ______after their arguments. A. up B. off C. with D. up with 5. Cross _____ my name because I won’t be able to attend. A. out B. down C. up D. away 6. She will cut ____ the number of cigrarettes she smokes. A. off B. in C. up D. down 7. Have you figured _______ how to solve the problem yet? A. out B. on C. in D. of 8. After you fill the application form______, sign it and date it. A. on B. off C. out D. with 9. You should always fill _______ your tank when it gets down to a quarter full. A. off B. up C. in D. out 10. All students must hand _____ their homework the day after it is assigned. A. out B. on C. to D. in Exericse 4: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions

191


The daughter looked______ her mother after her mom was sent home form the hospital with a broken hip. A. upon B. after C. on D. at Why don’t you look ______ this situation and see if you can figure out a way to fix it without spending too much money? A. out B. over C. away D. off 3. My grandfather passed ______when I was only six years old. He had lung cancer. A. out B. over C. away D. off 4. Every day many of us have to put ______people that we don’t like. A. on with B. off with C. up D. up with 5. Nancy ran ____ Bob while both were shopping at the supermarket. A. over B. across C. upon D. onto If you go hiking, you should watch ______for poison oak and snakes. Both can cause you problems. A. over B. up C. out D. on Let’s get _______ the bus at the next stop. We can’t visit the museum and catch another bus in a couple of hours. A. onto B. out C. in D. off 8. When the student got ____ the test, he gave it to the teacher. A. over with B. through with C. through at D. over 9. If you’re going to give ______ smoking, you must have a lot of will power. A. away B. up C. in to D. off After you write your report, give it to your boss. He will go________ it and make any necessary changes. A. upon B. through with C. over D. with Exercise 5: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions 1. She kept ____ taking the real estate exam until she finally passed it and got her license A. on B. onto C. in D. at 2. Kids have to talk fast if they want to ____their parents on a stroll through the park. A. keep with B. keep up with C. keep onto D. keep over with 3. You’d better cut______animal fat if you want to lower your cholesterol. A. down with B. off with C. out in D. down on 4. I wish my friends would call me first before they drop _______. A. in B. out C. at D. off Sales of the toy dropped ________ sharply when the TV news reported that a child had swallowed part of the toy and almost died. A. out B. over C. away D. off 6. People who don’t get _______their coworkers sometimes don’t lasr long at their jobs. A. up with B. along with C. on to D. by with At a crime scene, the police will tell you to get back. They don’t want civilians to interfere ______ the investigation. A. at B. on C. with D. into

192


The boy was always getting ________ trouble as a youth. Then, to everyone’s surprise, he became a policeman. A. into B. onto C. on D. with 9. Mankind has managed to wipe _____many kinds of animals. A. away B. off C. out D. over 10. My car broke ______ on the way to work. I had to call a tow truck. A. down B. up C. off D. away Exercise 6: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions 1. Before you finish this project, check ______ your supervisor for further instructions A. on B. on with C. back with D. up 2. As soon as we got to the motel, we checked _______. A. at B. in C. on D. off 3. While looking for my nail clipper, I came _______a knife that I thought I had lost. A. at B. with C. up D. across 4. We’ve ________ out of milk. You’ll have to drink your tea without it. A. come B. taken C. gone D. run 5. It’s difficulty to _______luxuries when you’re used to having them. A. cut down on B. cut down at C. cut off on D. cut down into 6. I missed the seven o’clock news on the radio this morning. I _____ up too late. A. came B. turned C. grew D. woke 7. Governments should ______ international laws against terrorism. A. bring up B. bring about C.bring in D. bring back 8. You can’t possibly say no to such a wonderful job offer. It’s too good to ______. A. turn it up B. turn it down C. put it up D. put it down 9. Eve was born in the South, but she grew ________ in the North. A. up B. on C. about D. at “What ______ your flight?” “There was a big snowstorm in Denver that delayed a lot of flights”. A. delayed up B. postponed up C. held up D. hung up Exercise 7: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions: 1. “Can you read that sign?” “Just a minute . Let me ______ my glasses”. A. put off B. put on C. put with D. put away This is Bob speaking. I need my pocket calculator. Can I have it back tomorrow? I can’t ________ it. A. do with B. do without C. deal with D. deal without. “That old paint that you have stored in your garage is a fine hazard”. “You’re right. I should ______it”. A. get away from B. get rid of C. get through with D. get along with. 4. “You must be anxious to go on your vacation.”. “I certainly am. I am really ______this trip”. A. looking for B. looking forward C. looking forward to D. looking up to 193


5. “Who ______ out that tie for you?” No one. I choose it myself.” A. bought B. brought C. turned D. picked 6. We didn’t like John when we first met him, but he has turned_______ to be a good friend to us. A. down B. up C. on D. out 7. “Have you_______ this contract yet?” “Not yet. I’ll try to read this weekend” A. looked over B. looked into C. looked up D. looked out 8. After ten times, the students _____in their quizzes to the instructor. A. gave B. had C. held D. handed 9. “Hello, is Bill there?”. Yes, ________a minute, and I’ll get him A. hang in B. hang up C. hold on D. hang off 10. I was talking to my aunt when suddenly my cousin George _____ in on our conversation. A. interrupted B. broke C. went D. intervened

19. PRONUNCIATION VOWELS AND DIPTHONGS A. THEORY: [æ] Trong những từ 1 âm tiết, tận cùng là 1 hay nhiều phụ âm : lad, dam Trong âm tiết mang trọng âm của từ nhiều âm tiết và đứng trước 2 PÂ ( Phụ âm) : Candle [ei] Từ một âm tiết có tận cùng là: A+ PÂ( Phụ âm) + E : Bate - Động từ có tận cùng ATE : intimate, deliberate Trong âm tiết trước tận cùng -ION và –IAN: Nation, Translation Ngoại lệ: Companion [k∂m`pænj∂n], Italian [i`tælj∂n], [ɔ:] Trong từ một âm tiết tận cùng là “LL” Examples: all, call, tall, small 1

A

[ɔ] Trong những âm tiết có trọng âm của một từ , hoặc từ một âm tiết bắt đầu bằng W: Was, Want [a:] Trong những từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng R hoặc R+ PÂ hoặc trong âm tiết của từ khi A đúng trước R+ PÂ Examples: Bar, Far Ngoại lệ: scarce [ske∂] [i] Trong tận cùng - ATE của tính từ Examples: Itimate [`intimit], Animate, Delicate [`delikit] Trong tận cùng - AGE của danh từ 2 âm tiết. Examples: Village, Cottage [∂] Trong những âm tiết không có trọng âm. Again, Balance

2

E

[e] Trong những từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng 1 hay nhiều PÂ(trừ R).Hoặc trong âm tiết có trọng âm của 1 từ : Bed, get Ngoaị lệ: Her, term

194


[i:] Khi đứng liền trước tận cùng PÂ+ E và trong những từ be, she, he, me: Cede, Scene Trong những tiền tố BE, DE, RE; begin, become, decide, return [∂] : silent, open

3

AI

[ei] Khi AI đứng trước 1 PÂ trừ R Examples: Mail, Sail [e∂]: Khi đứng trước R: air, fair [ɔ:]Trong hầu hết các từ chứa AU : Fault, Launch

AU

[a:]Trong một số từ mà ta phải ghi nhớ Examples: Aunt, laugh

AW

Tất cả các từ chứa AW thường đọc là [ɔ:]: law, draw, crawl, drawn

AY

[ei] trong hầu hết các từ chứa AY: clay, day, play Ngoại lệ: Quay, Mayor, Papaya Head, Bread, Breakfast, Steady, Jealous, Measure, Leather [i:] East, Easy, Heat, Beam, Dream, Breathe, Creature

7

[ə:] learn, earth, heard.. EA [eə] bear, pear, swear [iə] tear, clear [ei] great, break, steak i:] gee, free EE [iə] beer, cheer, deer [i:] Ceiling, Deceive, Receipt [ei] eight, weight EI [eə] Their Leisure, Heifer “eks” Khi EX là âm tiết mang trọng âm: exercise, Excellent

10EX

Iks Khi EX là âm tiết không mang trọng âm, đứng trước 1 PÂ: Explain, Experience 195


“igz” Khi EX là âm tiết không mang trọng âm, đứng trước 1 nguyên âm hoặc âm H câm: Examine, Existence “ei” they, prey, grey EY “i:” money, key [ai] Trong những từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng i + PÂ: Bike, side I Trong những từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng i + PÂ + E : bit, sit [i:] machine, magazine IE [i:] Khi nó là nguyên âm ở giữa 1 từ: Grief, Chief, Believe [ai] Khi nó là nguyên âm cuối của từ 1 âm tiết : die, lie, tie [əʊ] Khi nó đứng cuối một từ: no, go, so Khi nó đứng trong từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng 2 PÂ hay PÂ+ E và trong âm tiết có trọng âm của từ nhiều âm tiết: comb, cold Ngoại lệ: long, strong, bomb 14

O

[ɔ] Khi nó đứng trong từ 1 âm tiết tận cùng bằng 1 PÂ và trong âm tiết có trọng âm của một số từ nhiều âm tiết : dot, nod [ɔ:] Khi nó đứng trước R+ PÂ : born, north [Λ] Khi nó đứng trong từ 1 âm tiết và trong âm tiết có trọng âm của một số từ nhiều âm tiết : come, some [ʊ:] / [u:] do, move [oʊ]Trong những từ một âm tiết tận cùng bằng 1 hay 2 phụ âm : coal, coat

15

OA

[ɔ: ] Khi đứng trước R : roar, Board : book, look

16

OO

[u:] cool, food [Λ] : blood, flood [ɔ:] door, floor [aʊ] bound, clound

17

OU

[aʊə] our, hour [ʊə] tour, tourist

196


[ɔ:] four, pour oʊ] Soul, Shoulder [au] how, power

18

OW ou] grow, know pull, full [u:] blue, lunar [ju:] tube, humour

19

U

[jʊə] Trong những từ có U+ R+ nguyên âm : Cure, pure [ə:] Trong những từ một âm tiết tận cùng bằng U+ R hoặc U+ R+ PÂ : fur, burn [Λ] Trong những từ có tiền tố là UM-, UN- hoặc 1 số từ thông dụng : but, cup, Unhappy, Umbrella [ai] Trong những từ có UI+ PÂ+ E : guide, quite

UI built, guitar

Y

[ai] khi nó là âm cuối của từ có 1 âm tiết : dry ; cry các từ có đuôi là ify và các từ deny , reply, rely, khi nó là âm cuối của từ có nhiều âm tiết: copy

B. PRACTICE Choose the word whose underlined part is different from the others 1. A. fun B. sum C. utter

union

2.

A. noon

B. tool

C. blood

D. spoon

3.

A. thought

B. tough

C. taught

D. bought

4.

A. pleasure

B. heat

C. meat

D. feed D.

5.

A. knit

B. hide

C. tide

site D.

6.

A. put

B. could

C. push

moon D.

7.

A. how

B. town

C. power

slow D.

8.

A. hear

B. clear

C. bear

ear

9.

A. heat

B. great

C. beat

beak

10.

A. blood

B. pool

C. food

D. tool D.

11.

A. university

B. unique

C. unit

undo D.

12.

A. faithful

B. failure

C. fairly

fainted D.

13.

A. course

B. court

C. pour

courage 197


14.

A. new

B. sew

15.

A. month

B. son

C. come

D. home

16.

A. wood

B. food

C. look

D. foot D.

17.

A. genetics

B. generate

C. kennel

gentle D.

18.

A. cleanse

B. please

C. treat

retreat D.

19.

A. thank

B. band

C. complain

insert D.

20.

A. sign

B. minor

C. rival

trivial

21.

A. beard

B. rehearse

22.

A. dynamic

B. typical

C. cynicism

D. hypocrite

23.

A. bore

B. more

C. explore

D. boss

24.

A. candy

B. sandy

many

D. handy

25.

A. earning

B. learning

searching

D. clearing

26.

A. given

B. risen

C. ridden C.

D. whiten

27.

A. cough

B. tough

rough C.

D. enough

28.

A. accident

B. jazz

stamps C.

D. watch

29.

A. bought

B. naught

plough C.

D. thought

30.

A. spear

B. gear

fear

D. pear D.

31

A. pudding

B. put

C. pull

puncture

32.

A. promise

B. devise

33.

A. liable

B. vivid

C. revival

D. final D.

34.

A. bush

B. brush

C. bus C.

cup

35.

A. boat

B. broad

coast C. lost

D. alone

36.

A. more

B. north

C. triangle

D. water

37.

A. distribute

B. tribe

C. bought

D. trial D.

38.

A. thought

B. tough

C. become

fought D.

39.

A. homeless

B. done

C. written

month D.

40.

A. hidden

B. minor

C. handle

kitten D.

41.

A. many

B. lamb

C. wear C.

camera D.

42.

A. there

B. appear

ready C.

prepare

43.

A. occupy

B. puppy

guidance C.

D. study

44.

A. private

B. irrigate

eruption C.

D. environment

45.

A. instruction

B. shrub

exception

D. supply

46.

A. necessarily

B. mechanic

C. dirtying

D. apprentice

47.

A. worry

B. infer

C. smile C.

D. fertilizer

48.

A. mile

B. militant

lend

D. kind

49.

A. women

B. bench

50.

A. food

B. good

C. look

blood D.

51.

A. property

B. access

C. possession

American

few

hearsay

surprise

nephew

D. endearment

D. realize

D. spend D.

198


52. A. much

B. number

C. cut

D. put

53. A. particular

B. park

C. smart

D. hard

54. A. adverb

B. access

C. ache

D. man

55. A. respect

B. send

C. set

D. then

56. A. hunt

B. run

C. use

D. lunch

57. A. occupation

B. occasion

C. shake

D. miraculous

58. A. easy

B. seat

C. learn

D. eat

59. A. chew

B. news

C. crew

D. screw

60. A. cow

B. low

C. how

D. round

------------------------------------------------------------------------------CONSONANTS AND ENDING CONSONANTS THEORY I. PHỤ ÂM Chúng ta hãy chú ý đến một số trường hợp sau. Chữ cái c thường được phát âm là: /k/: can, close /s/ (đặc biệt khi nó đứng trước i, e hoặc y): city, certify, cycle /ʃ/: special, ocean Chữ cái d thường được phát âm là: /d/: day, demand /dʒ/: educate, graduate Chữ cái g thường được phát âm là: /g/: gain, regular /dʒ/ (đặc biệt khi nó đứng trước i, e, hoặc y):origin, germ, gymnast /ʒ/: garage, beige Chữ cái n thường được phát âm là: /n/: not, fun /ŋ/: uncle, drink Chữ cái s thường được phát âm là: /s/: son, economist /z/: rise, resumption /ʃ/: sure, sugar /ʒ/: usually, occasion Chữ cái t thường được phát âm là: /t/: ten, pretend /tʃ/: culture, question /ʃ/: mention, initial Chữ cái x thường được phát âm là: /gz/: example, exist /ks/: box, mixture /kʃ/: luxury, anxious Một số nhóm chữ cái phụ âm thường gặp:

Nhóm chữ cái Cách phát âm thường gặp

Ví dụ 199


/k/

chemist, mechanic

/tʃ/

chair, lunch

/ʃ/

machine, chef

-gh- hoặc -ph-

/f/

rough, laugh photograph, paragraph

-qu-

/kw/

-sh-

/ʃ/

share, smash

-th-

/θ/ /ð/

think, depth them, without

-ch-

queen, require

Cách phát âm tận cùng -s hoặc -es Đối với cách phát âm của tận cùng -s hoặc -es của động từ ngôi thứ ba số ít thì Hiện tại đơn hoặc danh từ số nhiều, ta có 3 cách đọc khác nhau dựa vào âm cuối của từ đó. Phát âm là /s/ khi âm cuối của từ đó là: /f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, /θ/. Ví dụ: laughs /la:fs/, parks /pa:ks/, hopes /həʊps/, hates /heɪts/, cloths /klɒθs/. Phát âm là /z/ khi âm cuối của từ đó là: /b/, /d/, /g/, /1/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /v/, /ð/, /ŋ/ và các nguyên âm. Phát âm là /iz/ khi âm cuối của từ đó là /s/, /ʃ/, /t ʃ/, /z/, /dʒ/. Ví dụ: crosses /'krɔ:sɪz/, pushes /'poʃɪz/, watches /'wɒtʃɪz/, buzzes /'bʌzɪz/, changes /'tʃeɪdʒɪz/. Cách phát âm của tận cùng -ed của động từ có quy tắc Đối với cách phát âm của tận cùng -ed của động từ có quy tắc (regular verbs), ta có 3 cách phát âm khác nhau dựa vào âm cuối của động từ nguyên mẫu. Phát âm là /t/ khi âm cuối của động từ nguyên mẫu là: /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /tʃ/, và /ʃ/. Ví dụ: coughed /kɒft/, talked /tɔ:kt/, stopped /stɒpt/, watched /wɒtʃt/, brushed /brʌʃt/. Phát âm là /d/ khi âm cuối của động từ nguyên mẫu là: /b/, /g/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /dʒ/, /r/, /v/, /z/ và các nguyên âm. Phát âm là /id/ khi âm cuối của động từ nguyên mẫu là: /t/, /d/. Ví dụ: waited /'weɪtɪd/, added /'ædɪd/. II. ÂM CÂM Một số chữ cái trong một số từ bao gồm phụ âm và nguyên âm không được phát âm thành tiếng được gọi là âm câm (silent sounds). Sau đây là một số âm câm thường gặp: Chữ cái – Trường hợp thường gặp

Ví dụ

b đứng cuối trong một số từ (thường đi sau m) b đứng trước t

climb, dumb, comb doubt, debt

c đứng trước k c đứng sau s trong một số từ

snack, dock scene, muscle, science

d trong một số từ

handsome, Wednesday

h trong một số từ

hour, exhausted

gh trong một số từ (đặc biệt là sau i)

weigh, sight

k đứng trước n

know, knee, knife

l trong một số từ

half, could

n đứng sau m

autumn, condemn

200


đứng đâu một từ, theo sau là một phụ âm và một sốpsychology, receipt trường hợp khác r đứng trước một phụ âm khác hoặc đứng cuối từ đó card, park, farm, burn, neighbour, volunteer t trong một số từ

listen, castle

w đứng trước r hoặc h trong một số từ

wreck, who

B. PRACTICE: Circle the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions. Exercise 1: 1. A. receipt

B. concept

adopt

script D.

2.

A. please

B. measure

C. rise

pause D.

3.

A. resume

B. statistics

C. position

designer D.

4.

A. prison

B. discipline

C. digest

scarf D.

5.

A. season

B. sugar

C. suit C.

sale

6.

A. transition

B. resort

desert C.

D. conserve

7.

A. basic

B. positive

sunshine

D. seashore

8.

A. rose

B. disease

C. impose

D. increase

9.

A. pleasure

B. measure

C. ensure

D. leisure

10.

A. divisible

B. decision

C. disease

D. design

11.

A. same

B. sour

C. summer

D. season

12.

A. kidney

B. knowledge

C. killer C.

D. kite

13.

A. folk

B. milk

walk C.

D. half D.

14.

A. naughty

B. hymn

button C.

fence D.

15.

A. column

B. lunar

noon C.

noun D.

16.

A. comment

B. solemn

fasten C.

applicant

17.

A. income

B. incredible

ink

D. infer D.

18.

A. sigh

B. thigh

C. high C.

cough D.

19.

A. enough

B. cough

plough C.

tough D.

20.

A. laughter

B. bought

brought C.

fought D.

21.

A. accurate

B. accept

accident

success D.

22.

A. fasten

B. listen

C. soften

enter D.

23.

A. tomb

B. comb

C. doubt

chamber D.

24.

A. honorable

B. honesty

C. historic

rhythm D.

25.

A. gentle

B. goose

C. game

gift

26.

A. hour

B. honest

C. heir C.

D. hospital D.

27.

A. exchange

B. ache

stomach

architect D.

28.

A. number

B. column

C. neighbour

anonymous 201


29.

A. this

B. thick

30.

A. country

B. cover

maths C. economy

thin D. ceiling

Exercise 2: 1. A. neighbors 2. A. snacks 3. A. streets 4. A. cities 5. A. develops 6. A. explains 7. A. phones 8. A. proofs 9. A. involves 10. A. serves 11. A. remembers 12. A. miles 13. A. sports 14. A. makes 15. A. albums 16. A. gets 17. A. collects 18. A. stamps 19. A. envelops 20. A. washes

B. friends B. follows B. phones B. satellites B. takes B. wakes B. streets B. regions B. believes B. blocks B. cooks B. words B. plays B. views B. tanks B. loves B. cooks B. friends B. tunes B. flies

relatives C. titles C. books C. series C. laughs C. phones C. books C. lifts C. suggests C. banks C. walls C. accidents C. households C. reads C. shops C. sings C. swims C. relatives C. books C. catches

photographs D. writers D. makes D. workers D. volumes D. names D. makes D. rocks D. steals D. tourists D. pyramids D. names D. minds D. decides D. plants D. buys D. claps D. guitars D. guitarists D. watches

Exercise 3: 1. A. invited 2. A. removed 3. A. knocked 4. A. looked 5. A. wanted 6. A. laughed 7. A. believed 8. A. lifted 9. A. practiced 10. A. collected 11. A. walked 12. A. watched 13. A. approached 14. A. admired 15. A. played 16. A. collected 17. A. placed 18. A. hoped 19. A. equipped

B. attended B. washed B. watched B. laughed B. parked B. passed B. prepared B. lasted B. ranged B. changed B. entertained B. stopped B. stocked B. looked B. admired B. discarded B. practiced B. attracted B. delivered

celebrated C. hoped C. stopped C. moved C. stopped C. suggested C. involved C. happened C. washed C. formed C. reached C. pushed C. developed C. missed C. liked C. watched C. stopped C. added C. transferred

displayed D. missed D. called D. stepped D. watched D. placed D. liked D. decided D. touched D. viewed D. looked D. improved D. painted D. hoped D. called D. wanted D. named D. participated D. received 202


20. A. worked

B. pumped

C. watched

D. contented

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------STRESS A. THEORY TWO-SYLLABLE WORDS Đa số các động từ 2 âm tiết , trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 for'get , re'lax Ngoại lệ : 'enter , 'happen , 'open , 'listen 2. Đa số danh từ và tính từ 2 âm tiết trọng âm rơi vào âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ nhất : 'butcher , 'standard , 'porter ( trừ mis'take , ma'chine ) 3 ) Trọng âm của từ chỉ số đếm thir'teen, four'teen 'thirty, 'forty, 'fifty 4 ) Hầu hết danh từ ghép trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 1 'raincoat , 'airport , 'tea-cup 5 ) Tính từ ghép có từ đàu là tính từ hoặc trạng từ → trọng âm rơi vào âm thứ 2 tận cùng là ed bad-'tempered ' short-'sighted 6 ) Các trạng từ + động từ ghép: trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 adv : up'stairs verb : ill'-treat Đa số tính từ, giới từ, và trạng từ có âm tiết thứ 1 là “A” thì trọng âm rơi vào âm tiết thứ 2 a'gain, a'live, a'fraid, a'sleep, a'bove, a'lone, apart, THREE - SYLLABLE WORDS OR MORE THAN THREE-SYLLABLE ONES Những từ tận cùng bằng các đuôi sau có trọng âm chính rơi vào âm tiết ngay trước âm tiết chứa đuôi đó a ) -TION pro'tection appli'cation b ) -SION de'cision permission trừ 'television c ) -IC , -ICAL : ar'tistic e'lectric 'musical scien'tific po'litical ngoại lệ : a'rithmetic : số học 'politics d ) -ITY : a'bility, ac'tivity, possi'bility e ) - IAL , -IALLY : artificially, official, es'sential, social f ) -ITIVE : com'petitive , 'sensitive g ) - LOGY : tech'nology, e'cology, physi'ology h ) - GRAPHY : ge'ography 2 . Những từ có đuôi là ATE và ARY thì tròng âm chính rơi vào âm tiết thứ cách nó 2 âm a ) ATE : con'siderate , com'municate 'illustrate , 'fortunate b ) ARY : 'january , 'literary 'necessary , 'dictionary Trừ: docu'mentary , supple'mentary , ele'mentary , ex'traodinary 3. Những từ có đuôi là những từ sau thì trọng âm rơi vào chính nó a ) EE : refu'gee, nomi'nee ( trừ com'mittee, 'coffee ) b ) EER : pio'neer, mountai'neer , engi'neer 203


c ) ESE : Vietna’mese, Portu'gese , Chi'nese d ) AIRE : million'naire, question'naire e ) IQUE : tech'nique, u'nique, an'tique f ) ESQUE : pictu'resque B. PRACTICE Choose one word whose stress pattern is different. Identify your answer by circling the corresponding letter A, B, C or D. 1.

A. compulsory

B. technology

C. curriculum

D. independent

2.

A. children

B. subject

C. certain

D. divide

3.

A. disruptive

B. primary

C. secondary

D. educate

4.

A. applicant

B. maximum

C. important

D. lecturer

5.

A. tutorial

B. certificate

C. philosophy

D. application

6.

A. solicitor

B. spacious

C. sequence

D. separately

7.

A. intuitive

B. decorative

C. accusative

D. acquisitive

8.

A. international

B. assassinated

C. differentiate

D. preferential

9.

A. dynasty

B. dialect

C. diamond

D. diagonal

10.

A. committee

B. referee

C. absentee

D. engineer

11.

A. understanding

B. experience

C. rapidity

D. intensity

12.

A. supply

B. propose

C. agree

D. garden

13.

A. extent

B. advent

C. access

D. process

14.

A. basic

B. bamboo

C. structure

D. profit

15.

A. available

B. absolutely

C. certificate

D. appropriate

16.

A. combined

B. social

C. surprised

D. mature

17.

A. interpret

B. horizon

C. pagoda

D. sympathy

18.

A. engineering

B. application

C. preferential

D. identity

19.

A. household

B. concern

C. garbage

D. conflict

20.

A. appropriate

B. confidence

C. maximum

D. applicant

21.

A. electrician

B. appropriate

C. majority

D. traditional

22.

A. supervisor

B. agriculture

C. catastrophe

D. dictionary

23.

A. entertain

B. celebrate

C. influence

D. decorate

24.

A. arrangement

B. contractual

C. disappear

D. opponent

25.

A. opportunity

B. determination

C. experimental

D. communication

26.

A. behaviour

B. punishment

C. influence

D. interview

27.

A. advantage

B. preference

C. attraction

D. infinitive

28.

A. majesty

B. marine

C. machine

D. mature

29.

A. decay

B. settle

C. appeal

D. affect

30.

A. contour

B. content

C. continent

D. continue

31.

A. permission

B. reaction

C. apologize

D. mutually

32.

A. documentary

B. multimedia

C. education

D. environment 204


33. A. finally

B. approaching

C. probably

D. obvious

34. A. youngster

B. integral

C. terrific

D. visually

35. A. responsibility

B. conversation

C. documentary

D. trigonometry

36. A. conference

B. lecturer

C. researcher

D. reference

37. A. resident

B. tolerance

C. hopelessness

D. athletics

38. A. subsequent

B. immature

C. memory

D. implement

39. A. millennium

B. application

C. criteria

D. curriculum

40. A. commercial

B. survival

C. endangered

D. industry

41. A. Asian

B. gather

C. advanced

D. decade

42. A. globalize

B. creditor

C. priority

D. tolerate

43. A. activity

B. intelligence

C. observation

D. development

44. A. wonderful

B. confident

C. regular

D. impressive

45. A. bamboo

B. hello

C. hotel

D. beauty

46. A. believe

B. couple

C. decide

D. connect

47. A. independence

B. experiment

C. individual

D. reputation

48. A. physical

B. musical

C. possible

D. domestic

49. A. alive

B. ancient

C. central

D. vacant

50. A. poverty

B. pottery

C. decision

D. astronaut

51. A. different

B. important

C. impressive

D. attractive

52. A. medicine

B. protection

C. conclusion

D. attention

53. A. destroy

B. threaten

C. collect

D. begin

54. A. possible

B. excellent

C. industrial

D. attitude

55. A. attract

B. marry

C. demand

D. connect

56. A. capture

B. destroy

C. discharge

D. respect

57. A. infinite

B. renewable

C. gigantic

D. impressive

58. A. improvement

B. cosmonaut

C. reminder

D. belongings

59. A. acquaintance

B. apartment

C. confidence

D. donation

60. A. sneaky

B. childish

C. cosy

D. remote

20. Synonyms and antonyms * SYNONYMS join hands = work together gets on one’s nerves = annoys sb compulsory = obliged/mandatory optimistic = hopeful assistance = help concentrate on = pay all attention to fantastic = wonderful 205


come up = happen diversity = variety suggestion = hint pollute = contaminate calm oneself down = to stop feeling excited accomplished = well-done take part in = participate in rĂŠsumĂŠ = curriculum vitae * ANTONYMS shortcoming >< strength chance >< deliberate acceptance >< refusal concern >< ease come to an end >< begin threatened >< defended punctuality >< being late pessimist >< optimist outstanding >< humble advanced >< low level admitt >< deny vanish >< appear nervousness >< confidence promoted >< restricted secure >< unsure depressed >< cheerful Exercise 1: Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word in each of the following questions. Question 1: Please stop making that noise. It really gets on my nerves. A. cheers me up

B. wakes me up

C.amuses me

D. annoys me

Question 2: Our parents join hands to give us a nice house and a happy home. A. deal with B. manage C. help together D. work together Question 3: We have lived there for years and grown fond of the surroundings. That is why we do not want to leave. A. possessed by the surroundings B. planted many trees in the surroundings C. loved the surroundings D. haunted by the surroundings Question 4: Schooling is compulsory from the age of 6 to 16 for Vietnamese children. A. traditional B. obliged C. difficult D. free Question 5: Although our opponents are stronger, the fans of our team are optimistic about the chance of winning the match. A. hopeful B. interested C. hopeless D. depressed Question 6: When you are in a restaurant, you can raise your hand slightly to show that you need assistance.

A. bill

B. menu

C. help

D. food

206


Question 7: When being interviewed, you should concentrate on what the interviewer is saying or asking you. A. be related to B. be interested in C. pay all attention to D. express interest to Question 8: I’ll take the new job whose salary is fantastic. A. reasonable

B. wonderful

C. pretty high

D. accept

Question 9: I could see the finish line and thought I was home and dry. A. successful

B. hopeless

C. hopeful

D. unsuccessful

Question 10: Whenever problems come up, we discuss them frankly and find solutions quickly. A. happen B. encounter C. arrive D. clean Question 11: Humans depend on species diversity to provide food, clean air and water, and fertile soil for agriculture. A. destruction B. contamination C. fertilizer D. variety Question 12: I felt down when my parents broke their promise to buy me a pet on my birthday. A. discouraged B. disappointed C. frustrated D. upset Question 13: Punctuality is imperative in your new job. A. Being efficient B. Being courteous C. Being on time D. Being cheerful Question 14:The teacher gave some suggestions on what could come out for the examination. A. effects B. symptoms C. hints D. demonstrations Question 15: She is always diplomatic when she deals with angry students. A. strict B. outspoken C. firm D. tactful Question 16: Ask Mum for permission to go out now. She looks like she’s in a good mood. A. fashionable B. unconcerned C. healthful D. happy Question 17: To calm myself down before the interview, I decided to wait a while in a nearby park and read the newspaper. A. To stop feeling excited B. To stop my fear C. To stop my uneasiness D. To fight my hunger Question 18: He drove so fast that I really felt my life was in danger. A. at the target B. in accident C. at stake D. in comfort Question 19: We can use either verbal or non-verbal forms of communication. A. using gesture

B. using speech

C. using verbs

D. using facial expressions

Question 20: Let’s wait here for her; I’m sure she’ll turn up before long. A. arrive B. return C. enter D. visit Question 21: Polluted water and increased water temperatures have driven many species to the verge of extinction. A. enriched

B. contaminated

C. purified

D. strengthened

Question 22: Hunting for meat and burning forests for soil cause destruction to wildlife. A. organization B. contamination C. protection D. damage Question 23: My uncle, who is an accomplished guitarist, taught me how to play it. A. well-done B. well-trainedC. well-educated D. well-equipped Question 24: Chicken pox results in an eruption on the skin and sometimes it leaves permanent marks. 207


A. rash B. hole C. erosion D. division Question 25: Unselfishness is the very essence of friendship. A. important part B. difficult part C. romantic part D. interesting part Question 26: Only 489 athletes took part in the first Asian Games. A. added to B. gave up C. participated in D. got rid of Question 27: English, Maths and Literature are core subjects, which are compulsory in the national examination. A. unimportant B. main C. minor D. nonessential Question 28: I finished my exam 30 minutes early. It was a piece of cake! A. difficult B. incredible C. easy D. interesting Question 29: Water and fresh air are very necessary for every living thing. A. essential B. difficult C. expensive D. wasteful Question 30: The augmentation in the population has created a fuel shortage. A. increase B. necessity C. demand D. decrease Question 31: I received housing benefit when I was unemployed. A. out of work B. out of practice C. out of fashion D. out of order Question 32: Before the interview, you have to send a letter of application and your rĂŠsumĂŠ to the company. A. recommendation B. photograph C. reference D. curriculum vitae Question 33: We must cooperate closely in order to finish the project on time . A. help B. work together C. agree D. assist Question 34: Many scientists agree that global warming poses great threats to all species on Earth. A. irritations B. annoyances C. fears D. risks Question 35: I was asked to acount for his presence at the scene of crim. threats to all species on Earth. A. complain B. exchange C. explain D. arrange Exercise 2: Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word in each of the following questions. Question 1: It is advisable that you should not tell the interviewer about your shortcomings. A. weaknesses

B.drawbacks

C. faults

D. strengths

Question 2: I clearly remember talking to him in a chance meeting last summer. A. unplanned

B. deliberate

C. accidental

D. unintennational

Question 3: He is very interested in watching football matches on TV at weekends. A. bored with B. fond of C. keen on D. enjoyable with Question 4: Their classmates are writing letters of acceptance. A. confirmation B. agreement C. refusal D. admission Question 5: There is growing concern about the way man has destroyed the environment. A. ease B. attraction C. consideration D. speculation Question 6: Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the same region. A. restrain B. stay unchanged C. remain unstable D. fluctuate Question 7: At about six in the evening the birthday party came to an end. We were all tired but happy. 208


A. completed B. finished C. began D. stopped Question 8: The earth is being threatened and the future looks bad. A. defended B. made C. done D. varied Question 9: “That is a well-behaved boy whose behavior has nothing to complain about” A. behaving nice B. behaving cleverly C. good behavior D. behaving improperly Question 10: Punctuality is imperative in your new job. A. Being late B. Being cheerful C. Being courteous D. Being efficient Question 11: We offer a speedy and secure service of transferring money in less than 24 hours. A. slow B. open C. unsure D. uninterested Question 12: There was a long period without rain in the countryside last year so the harvest was poor. A. famine B. flood C. drought D. epidemic Question 13: He was one of the most outstanding performers at the live show last night. A. easy - looking B. humble C. well- known D.impressive. Question 14: Advanced students need to be aware of the importance of collocation. A. great importance B. high level C. Low level D. reputation Question 15: Hiroko's feeling a bit under the weather. He thinks he might have the flu. A. tired B. strong C. ill D. fine Question 16: “Don’t be such a pessimist. I’m sure you’ll soon get over it. Cheer up!”. A. optimist B. activist C. hobbyist D. feminist Question 17: Mr. Brown is a very generous old man. He has given most of his wealth to a charity organization. A. kind B. hospitable C. mean D. honest Question 18: He admitted breaking his mother's vase. A. agreed B. regretted C. confessed D. denied Question 19: She had a cozy little apartment in the heart of downtown. A. uncomfortable

B. warm

C. lazy

D. dirty

Question 20: My cousin tends to look on the bright side in any circumstance. A. be optimistic

B. be pessimistic

C. be confident

D. be smart

Question 21: Life on Earth is vanishing fast and will continue to do so unless urgent action is taken. A. appearing

B. damaging

C. polluting

D. destroying

Question 22: Vietnam’s admission to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has promoted its trade relations with other countries. A. boosted B. restricted C. balanced D. expanded Question 23: He always treats me very well. I really look up to him. A. look down on B. put up with C. take away from D. give on to Question 24: We ofer a speeedy and secure service of transferring money in les than 24 hours. A. unhappy B. unsure C. uncomfortable D. unlimited Question 25: The three animals have made an incredible journey to find their owners. A. believable B. forgettable C. unforgettable D. unbelievable Question 26: Remember not to show your nervousness during a job interview. 209


A. challenge B. confidence C. anxiety D. creativeness Question 27 : I could see the finish line and thought I was home and dry. A. hopeless B. hopeful C. successful D. unsuccessful Question 28: Cholera is rare in less developed countries due to poor water and sanitation conditions. A. common B. ordinary C. general D. normal Question 29: One by one the old buildings in the city have been constructed and replaced with new tower blocks. A. repaired B. demolished C. improved D. dissolved Question 30: We ought to keep these proposals secret from the chairman for the time being A. revealed B. frequented C. accessible D. lively Question 31: They protested about the inhumane treatment of the prisoners A. vicious B. warmhearted C. callous D. coldblooded Question 32: I clearly remember talking to him in a chance meeting last summer A. unplanned

B. intention

C. deliberate

D. odd

Question 33: The International Organizations are going to be in a temporary way in the country A. soak B. permanent C. complicated D. guest Question 34: Maureen usually felt depressed on Mondays, because she never got enough sleep on the weekends. A. unhappy B. cheerful . C. glum D. understanding Question 35: This new washing machine is not a patch on our old one. These clothes are still dirty. A. to be expensive B. to be strange C. to be broken D. to be better

21. EDUCATION PART I: VOCABULARY, STRUCTURES * Topic vocabulary - compulsory - applicant - optional - application form - academic - certificate/ degree - parallel - qualification - core/ main - semester/ term - independent/private/public - category - tuition fees - acceptance - scholarship - Curriculum - candidate *Phrasal verbs and structures - apply to/for - get on well with - cheat in - make fun of

- educate - graduate (from) - separate - divide (into) - attend - research/ study - pass/ fail (an exam) - revise/ summarize/ consolidate - earn/achieve/gain/get

- speak to/about - do exercise 210


- drop out of - make friend with - take an exam - fall behind - learn by heart

- responsible for - make a progress - be in term of - catch/keep up with

- make mistake - make a good example for - contribute to - pass with flying colours

PART II: PRACTICE Exercise 1. Complete each of the following sentences by using the phrases from the box. Give the correct form of the phrases if necessary. make a good example for

get on well with

make friends with

make fun of

make mistakes

make a progress

cheat in exams

pass with flying colours

drop out of

Tom has to rewrite his essay because he ________ a number of______. Jack is overweight, so his classmate always ________ him. It is necessary for students to work hard in order to ________ with high marks. My monitor is always early for class to ________ the other students in my class. Students mustn’t ________. It is one of the rules of any exams. I am a newcomer here. I am not very happy because I haven’t _________ many students. Some boys have got addicted to playing video games, so they want to_______ school. The children who are ______ household chores usually do better at school and _____ their teachers and their friends. Congratulations! You ________ in the final exam! I started learning English last month, but I haven't ________. Key: 1. made… mistakes, 2. make fun of, 3. make a progress, 4. make a good example for, 5. cheat in exams, 6. make friends with, 7. drop out of, 8. responsible for/ get on well with, 9. passed with flying colours, 10. make a progress ) Exercise 2. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the best answer to complete each sentence. In Vietnam, children from the age of six must go to school. A. compulsory B. optional C. choosing D. volunteered In England, an _______ year runs from September to July. A. academy B. academic C. academically D. academies A school year in England _______ into three terms. A. is dividing B. divides C. are divided D. is divided In England, each term _______ by a one-week break called half term. A. divides B. educates C. puts into force D. is separated In a school year in Vietnam, there are two terms called the first term and the second term. A. infants B. semester C. semesters D. system There are two _______ school systems in England: state school system and public school ones. A. parallel B. paragraph C. paradise D. pyramid 211


State school system in England is _______ for all students and _______ by the state. A. free / pays B. free / paid C. fee-paying / paid D. fee-paid / pays School system in England is divided into two_______ consisting of the state and the public ones. A. levels B. schools C. years D. categories The state school system in England has two _______ of education: primary education and secondary education. A. levels B. subjects C. terms D. semesters 10. The National _______ is set by the Government and must be followed by in all state schools. A. Stadium B. Curriculum C. Gallery D. Circus 11. In English schools, English, Math and Science are_______ subjects. A. more B. store C. score D. core 12. Core subjects in Vietnamese schools_______ of Math, Literature and English. A. makes for B. makes of C. are made up D. will make by 13. Schooling is _______ for all English children from the age of six to sixteen. A. optional B. pioneer C. compulsory D. plastically 14. When do children in Vietnam go to _______? – They begin to go to school at the age of six. A. High School B. Nursery C. Secondary School D. Primary School 15. In Vietnam, a stage of study for children aged from 11 to 17 is called_______. A. Primary Education B. Pre-school C. Secondary Education D. Higher Education 16. My nephew is four years old, he may enter a _______ in Vietnam. A. High School B. Kindergarten C. Secondary School D. Primary School 17. In England, schooling is compulsory for all children from the age of 5 to 16. A. put into blush B. put on clothes C. put into force D. taken off 18. In Vietnam, schooling is _______ for all children from the age of three to four. A. optional B. obliged C. compulsory D. compulsive 19. Many high school students in Vietnam have to work very hard to _______ at a university. A. win a place B. get a cold C. lose touch with D. keep pace with Nowadays, Vietnamese students have to study more _______ than those of twenty years ago to keep pace with the developments of modern society. A. substitute B. subjects C. subways D. subjunctives 21. The _______ year in Vietnam runs from September to June and is divided into 2 terms A. academically B. academical C. academic D. academy Children receive its early ____ at home so parents should buy some _______ magazines to put them in the bookcase. A. educational / educate. B. educational /education. C. education / educational D. education / educated. 23. Schools in which all students can attend without paying tuition _______ are public schools. A. fees B. charge C. payment D. bill 24. In Vietnam a school year lasts for nine months and is divided _______ 2 terms. A. into B. to C. from D. on 25. _______ the end of the school year, students take an exam in each subject. A. On B. To C. In D. At 26. Students usually _______ their GCSE at the age of eighteen. A. pass B. make C. take D. follow

212


School boards are usually made _______ of people who live in the area, often parents of children in the school. A. up B. of C. into D. over 28. Tom left high school _______ the age _______ seventeen. A. at / of B. in / for C. on / with D. of / in 29. The academic year in Vietnam is over _______ the end _______ May. A. from / in B. for / on C. on / in D. at / of 30. The school library is open _______ all of the students and the teaching staff of the school. A. for B. over C. to D. among Fee-paying schools are often called "independent schools", "private schools" or “_______ schools" A. college B. primary C. secondary D. public In the UK, _______ schools refer to government-funded schools which provide education free of charge to pupils. A. state B. secondary C. independent D. primary 33. School uniform is compulsory in most of Vietnamese schools. A. depended B. required C. divided D. paid 34. In England schooling is compulsory _______ all children from the age of 5 to 16. A. with B. for C. to D. over 35. For the government, education is now at the top of _______. A. agenda B. outline C. order D. plan 36. We want the kids to have the best _______ education A. probable B. possible C. possibly D probably 37. Watching TV can be very _______. A. education B. educated C. educate D. educational The expansion of _______ education at college and university should be a powerful force for change A. further B. higher C. extra D. extended 39. Most children in the UK remain in _______ education until they are at least 16 years old. A. full B. full – period C. full time D. part time 40. We have to _______ an exam at the end of the course. A. write B. do C. take D. make 41. If you want to learn a new language, you must _______ foreign language classes. A. follow B. present C. attend D. assist 42. My favorite _______ at school is history. A. topic B. class C. theme D. subject 43. Students in public school in England have to pay _______. A. free B. tuition fees C. fee-paying D. freedom You can meet Mr. Pike, who is _______ behalf _______ the university to solve the problems of foreign students. A. on / of B. in / for C. with / at D. for / at You can choose four subjects either in Arts _______ in Sciences. A. nor B. or C. and D. as He has not been offered the job because he cannot meet the _______ of the company. A. requirements B. applicants C. information D. education Parents can express a _______ for the school their child attends. 213


A. prefer B. preference C. preferential D. preferable 48. These students are wondering what university they should _______ for. A. apply B. ask C. go D. attend All _______ to universities or colleges in England are made through UCAS. A. applicants B. applications C. application D. applicant Students who study far from home often have problems with _______. A. houses B. rooms C. flats D. accommodation Universities send letters of _______ to successful candidates by post. A. agreement B. acceptance C. announcement D. reply 52. What is minimum entrance _______ for this course? A. condition B. requirement C. certificate D. ability 53. Not only did he win the first prize, _______. A. and he was given a place at the university B. so he was given a place at the university C. but he was also given a place at the university D. for he was offered a holiday abroad The questions on the test were too long and difficult. I found it_______ to finish them on time. A. possible B. impossible C. possibility D. possibly 55. He owed his success not to privilege but to self-education and a driving desire for _______. A. achieve B. achiever C. achievement D. achievable

ENVIRONMENT VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE *TOPPIC VOABULARY - acid rain: - animal welfare: - carbon monoxide: - conservation(n) - endangered species: - fertilizers( n) - greenhouse effect - (non)-renewable resources - nuclear fallout - nuclear reactor - oil-slick - ozone layer - pollution (n) - protected animal - unleaded petrol - nuclear waste

- environmental group - dispose (of) - pollute( v) - recycle( v) - tidal wave - typhoon(n) - volcanic eruption - Biodiversity - Survival - Environmental groups - Harmful - Economy - Argriculture - Investment(n) - Commercial exploration - wildlife

*PHRASAL VERBS

214


- cut down - throw away - use up - Turn into look after pick on run into take after pass for stand by brought up think over getting over getting st over thinking over thinking st over

dress down give in hang out hand in put up with looking forward to bearing down on teeing off on loaded up on sitting in for across bank on bank sb on. take on take sb on.

*PREPSITIONAL PHRASES - Be in danger of + Ving - Shortage of water *WORD FORMATION - Danger - Endanger - Endangered - Dangerous antipollution pollution self-pollution pollute unpolluted contaminate contaminated decontaminate

mercury-contaminated uncontaminated deforestation conservation conservation of charge conservation of electricity conservation of energy conservation of mass conservation of matter conservation of momentum conservation of parity conservationist

*WORD PATTERNS Dangerous for Impact on Kill off Verge of Dependent on II. EXERCISES Exercise 1. Mark the letter A or B on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 215


1. Exhaust fumes cause a lot of ________, especially in big cities. B. pollution A. recycling Everyone should learn to ________ energy. Using lights/lamps only when needed is a good way to do this. A. conserve B. converse 3. Nancy is ________ about pollution. This is why she walks to work instead of driving. A. cornered B. concerned 4. ________ is much healthier than driving, and it doesn't pollute the air. A. Baking B .Biking 5. David conserves water by not letting it ________ when he's not using it. A. run B. jog 6. I'd like to conserve water... But I feel dirty if I don't ________ three times a day! A. bath B. shower 7. Many unethical companies ________ their waste into rivers. A. dump B. give ________, which is partly caused by exhaust fumes from cars, is a very big problem in many big cities across the world. A. Smog B. Smoke 9. ________ rain occurs when pollution in the air is absorbed by water droplets in clouds. A. Dirty B. Acid 10. Oil ________ pollute sea water and kill marine life. A. soil B. spills Exercise 2: Choose the right words: windmill/ protection/ effect/ biodiversity / warming / pollution/ used up /gases /deforestation /recycle There is a growing concern over the ________of species habitat and _______. The earth's resources are being ________ at an alarming rate. The greenhouse ________ is an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide and other _______ in the atmosphere which is believed to be the cause of a gradual __________ of the surface of the Earth. The energy generated by the __________ is both very efficient and clean. There have been many reports about ______ which is destroying large areas of tropical rain forest. The Japanese ________ more than half their waste paper. We're not doing enough to protect the environment from ______ Exercise 3: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. 1. We should protect plants and animals of the sea to keep its _________. A. resource B. energy C. existance D. biodiversity 2. _______ are used to catch fish and other sea creatures. A. Explodes B. Explosion C. Explosive D. Explosives Be sure to wash these vegetables thoroughly. A lot of pesticede residue _____ on unwashed produce. A. can find B. can found C. can be found D. can be finding A shortage of water is a problem in many parts of the world. In some areas, water _______ from the ground faster than naturre can replanish the supply. A. is being taken B. has been taking C. is taking D. has taken 5. Hundreds of species of plants and animals ________ A. are already be eliminated B. have already being eliminated C. have already been eliminated D. are already been eliminated 6. One species is dependent on another for _______. A. survival B. arrival C. national D. approval 216


7. It would have been a good crop_________ through. A. if a storm didn't sweep B. had a storm not swept C. would a storm not have swept D. didn't a storm sweep If the oceans _________ of fresh water, there ________ plenty of water to irrigate all the deserts on earth. A. is - will be B. were - would be C. had been - would have been D. would be - were The rhinoceros, whose numbers have dropped alarmingly recently, has been declared a/an ________ species. A. danger B. endanger C. endangered D. dangerous 10. Environmental groups try to stop farmers from using harmful ________ on their crops. A. economy B. argriculture C. investments D. chemicals 11. My mother ______ for an environment group. She helps raise money to protect wildlife. A. identifies B. encourages C. shares D. volunteers The environmental impact on tourism can be shocking and upsetting, but many governments think it is _______. A. negative B. comprehensive C. bad D. acceptable 14. Governments have ______ laws to protect wildlife from commercial trade and overhunting. A. practised B. acted C. enacted D. observed 15. Forests all the world are being _______ into deserts. A. switched B. turned C. sent D. transferred 16. Commercial exploration has driven many species to the _______ of extinction. A. verge B. bank C. limit D. edge 17. The tsunami in 2004 _______ some countries and caused a lot of damage. A. reached B. beat C. defeated D. hit 18. Man is killing ______ all the fish in the sea. A. out B. away C. off D. up 19. The beach was so crowded the other day that we ________ difficulty finding an empty spot. A. have B. have had C. had D. have been having 20. Some fish can survive only in salt water, ______ other species can live only in fresh water. A. whereas B. unless C. if D. since 21. We must do more to protect __________. A. environment B. an environment C. the environment D. environments 22. The chemical that his company is producing is dangerous ______ humans. A. to B. for c. with D. against 23. A fund will be set up for the ______ species. A. endangered B. endangering C. popular D. dangerous 24. Killing endangered animals for fur , skin and food should be ________. A. encourage B. protected C. banned D. established 25. Great apes are in _________ of becoming extinct. A. crisis B. threat C. danger D. warming 26. The blue whale is _______ endangered species. A. on B. a C. the D. an 27. Why do people keep ______ whales? A. to hunt B. hunting C. hunted D. hunts 217


28. The animals and plants _______ in the zoo. A. protect B. protected C. are protected D. being protected 29. Scientists say that 5,000 species of plans and animals ____ each year. A. elimate B. is elimited C. eliminating D. are eliminated 30. Snakes and crocodiles are _________. A. animals B. poison C. reptiles D. worms Concern for whales is worldwide. Some governments will not let people sell whales _____ in their countries. A. producing B. production C. product D. products 32. The animals in a modern zoo live together in an environment that is _____ to nature than a cage. A. close B. closer C. clolest D. closely 33. The number of animal species that have died out _____ 1600 has increased shraply. A. before B. yet C. since D. for 34. The __________ruined the soil for the next three generations. A. disrupted B. disordered C. acid rain D. negated 35. By cutting down trees we ________ the natural habitat of birds and animals. A. hurt B. harm C. damage D. injure 36. Many of the world’s people concern about the _____ number of whales in the oceans and seas. A. dwindling B. dwindle C. to dwindling D. dwindled 37. The giant pandas which _______ in the zoo will soon become extinct. A. are fed B. fed C. is fed D. are feed 38. Human depend ____ species to provide food, clean air and water, and fertile soil for agriculture. A. at B. on C. in D. about 39. The details about the zoo’s closure were obtained from an unnamed ______ A. origin B. focus C. source D. store 40. Human being ________ stop polluting the environment. A. must B. musn’t C. will D. need 41. We must consider animal _________as we strive to create a balance between man and nature. A. fertilizers B. acid rain C. greenhouse effect D. welfare 42. It's important to have a _____________detector in your home for safety. A. injure B. dispose C. carbon monoxide D. renewable resources 43.The ___________of an area can change over long periods of time. A. climate B. injure C. carbon monoxide D. fertilizers 44. ____________focuses on making sure we protect the nature we haven't already lost. A. renewable resources B. carbon monoxide C. Conservation D. dangerous 45. There are many___________ all over the planet that need our help. A. dangerous B. conservation C. origin D. endangered species 46. _____________used by huge farms can pollute drinking water for miles around. A. Fertilizers B. injure C. greenhouse effect D. origin 47. ____________ can burn out of control and create hazy weather conditions. A. Economy B. Forest fires C. dispose D. disordered 48. The _________ is said to heat up the earth. A. carbon monoxide B. dangerous C. greenhouse effect D. dispose conservation 49. As we move forward, we need to become more dependent on renewable ________ A. energy resources. B. renewable resources 218


C. greenhouse effect D. disordered 50. The exploration of nuclear science has created great boons, as well as horrific humanity_______. A. conservation B. carbon monoxide C. fertilizers D. dangers for Exercise 4. Word formation Complete these sentences using the word on the right. The word has to be changed into the correct form. The first one has been done for you. 1. Smoke from factories is polluting the atmosphere. 2. This is one of many problems. 3. Pollution is very to people's health. 4. Fortunately there are now many groups. 5. Their aim is the of all natural things. 6. Pollution is the environment. 7. The effects of radiation can be very . 8. waste is a big problem.

POLLUTION ENVIRONMENT HARM CONSERVE PROTECT DESTROY DAMAGE INDUSTRY

23. Jobs and hobbies A. Vocabulary interview : phỏng vấn stressful : căng thẳng pieces of advice : vài lời khuyên pressure : áp lực impression : ấn tượng express : biểu lộ suitable : thích hợp candidate : ứng viên position : vị trí certificate : chúng chỉ, bằng cấp letters of recommendation : thư giới thiệu previous : trước đây employer : người thuê, chủ qualification : chất lượng dismiss: sa thải (việc làm)

dress neatly : ăn mặc chỉnh tề formally : một cánh trang trọng concentrate : tập trung effort : nỗ lực technical aspect : về phương diện kỹ thuật admit : thú nhận enthusiasm : lòng nhiệt tình pest side : mặt tốt nhất sense of responsibility : tinh thần trách nhiệm comment : lời nhận xét available : sẵn có experience : kinh ngiệm relate to : liên quan đến make sure : bảo đảm reject (v): đuổi ra (thể thao)

B. Phrasal verbs blame sib for sty : đổ lỗi ai việc gì jot down : ghi nhanh move in : dọn (nhà ) đến move out : dọn (nhà ) đi relate to : liên quan đến prepare for : chuẩn bị cho

concentrate on : tập trung vào work as (a teacher/doctor) : nghề : làm nghề take care of : chăm sóc apply for/to : nộp đơn xin/cho ai be out : đi vắng sack for: sa thải vì

C. Structures Like/ love/ẹnjoy

noun/ V-ing

219


be keen on/ interested in/ fond of/ crazy about not like/dislike/hate be tired of/bored with/ fed up with Available for : sẵn sàng cho In term of : về mặt Be unemployed/employed He loves football/ He loves watching football An by you bong a/ an by you thigh gem bong a Tom is keen on getting together Tom thigh to top (ban be) Jessica enjoys your book so much. Jessica rat thigh queen such can ban. – I like (+ N/Vying) để mow to so thigh chug. – I’d like + (to V) để no eve hang dip co the. I like going to the cinema. D. Exercises I. Mark the letter a, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer in each of the following questions. 1. According to the boss, John is the most for the position of executive secretary. A. supportive B. caring C. suitable D. comfortable 2. The lecturer explained the problem very clearly and is always in response to questions. A. attention B. attentive C. attentively D. attentiveness 3. Not all teenagers are well for their future job when they are at high school. A. interested B. satisfied C. concerned D. prepared 4. Most doctors and nurses have to work on a once or twice a week at the hospital. A. solution B. night shift C. household chores D. special dishes 5. He has been very interested in doing research on since he was at high school. A. biology B. biological C. biologist D. biologically 6. It is of great importance to create a good impression _______ your interviewer. A. on B. about C. for D. at 7. Good preparations _______ your job interview is a must. A. with B. upon C. in D. for 8. Many children are under such a high _______ of learning that they do not feel happy at school. A. recommendation B. interview C. pressure D. concentration She likes meeting people and traveling so she wants to apply for a _______ of a receptionist or tourist guide. A. location B. position C. site D. word 10. To my _______, I was not offered the job. A. happiness B. dream C. joy D. disappointment 11. Being well-dress and punctual can help you create a good _______ on your interviewer. A. impression B. pressure C. employment D. effectiveness She often reads newspapers and look through the Situations _______ columns every day, but up to now she has not found any job yet. A. Article B. Space C. Vacant D. Spot 220


13. Many people will be out of _______ if the factory is closed. A. work B. career C. profession D. job 14. His dream of becoming _______ doctor became true after seven years of learning hard. A. a B. an C. the D. Ø 15._______ information you need is. In this book. Read it carefully. A. A B. An C. The D. Ø 16. Doctors have to assume _______ for human life. A. responsible B.responsibly C. responsibility D. responsibles 17._______ is increasing, which results from economic crisis. A. Employment B. Unemployment C. Employ D. Unemployed 18. He was offered the job thanks to his _______ performance during his job interview. A. impress B. impression C. impressive D. impressively 19. There was no one _______. A. I could ask for help B. when I could ask for help C. I could ask whom for help D. for that I could ask for help 20. The children were quite attracted by the tamer and his animals _______ were performing on the stage. A. that B. which C. whom D. who 21. His work involves helping students to find temporary _______ during their summer vacation. A. decision B. employment C. choice D. selection 22.To prepare for your job interview, you should jot down your qualifications and experience as well as some important information about yourself. A. draw B. place C. put D. write 23. When being interviewed, you should concentrate on what the interviewer is saying or asking you. A. be related to B. be interested in C. pay all attention to D.express interest to 24. Before _______ for a position, check whether you can fulfill all the requirements from the employer.

A. deciding B. applying C. requiring D. demanding If you are _______ for a particular job, someone asks you questions about yourself to find out if you suitable for it. A. paid B. chosen C. interviewed D. recommended 26. You should ask the interviewer some questions about the job to show your _______ and keenness. A. anger B. thrill C. amazement D. interest 27. You should show the interviewer that you are really keen _______ the job you have applied. A. in B. for C. on D. over 28. They held a party to congratulate _______ their son's success to become an engineer. A. with B. on C. for ` D. about 29. He was refused because he had no _______ experience related to _______ job he applied. A. a / the B. an / Ø C. the / a D. Ø / the 30. Show your interviewer your sense of responsibility for work. A. a B. an C. the D. Ø 31. The interviewer gave his consent to John's _______ for work and promised to give him a job. A. keen B. keenly C. keener D. keenness 32._______! I have heard of your success in the new project. A. Congratulate B. Congratulating C. Congratulation D. Congratulations 33. It is _______ to fail a job interview, but try again. A. disappoint B. disappointing C. disappointedly D. disappointment 221


34. Frank invited Janet, _______, to the party. A. met in Japan B. meeting in Japan C. whom he had met in Japan D. that he had met in Japan 35. He wasn't able to cope _____ the stresses and strains of the job. A. with B. to C. in D. on 36. These ideas have now been completely discarded. A. come up with B. got rid of C. put forward D. put into practice 37.The most important thing is to keep yourself occupied. A. busy B. relaxed C. comfortable D. free 38. Marta Graham, ___ of the pioneers of modern dance, didn't begin dancing until she was 21. A. who as one B. she was C. one D. was one 39. _____ who was elected the first woman mayor of Chicago in 1979. A. It was Jane Byrne B. Jane Byrne C. That Jane Byrne D. When Jane Byrne 40.The first American novelist to have a major impact on world literature _____. A. who was James Fenimore Cooper B. James Fenimore Cooper was C. it was James Fenimore Cooper D. was James Fenimore Cooper 41. It was in 1875 _____ joined the staff of the astronomical observatory at Harvard University. A. that Anna Winlock B. Anna Winlock, who C. as Anna Winlock D. Anna Winlock then 42. _____ that the capital of South Carolina was moved from Charleston to Columbia. A. In 1790 was B. There was in 1790 C. In 1790 D. It was in 1790 43. It was Mr. Harding _____ the bill to yesterday. A. who sent my secretary B. to whom my secretary sent C. that my secretary sent D. my secretary sent II. Choose the word or phrase - A, B, C or D – that needs correcting. Small distinctions among stamps, unimportant to the person average, would mean a great deal to the A B C stamp collector.(average person) D Calcium, the most abundantly mineral in the body, works with phosphorus in maintaining bones and A B C D teeth. (abundant) 46. Mark's known for ages that his parents are coming to stay with us this weekend, but it was only A B yesterday did he told me. (that he) D On May 20, 1932, Amelia Earhart became the first woman fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. (to fly) A B C D Nitrogen and oxygen are too important that most living organisms cannot survive without these A B C D 222


elements. (so important) III. READING 1. Choose the word or phrase (A, B, C, or D) that best /its each space in the following passage. Manuel Gonzalez comes from Spain. He usually lives in Madrid and works (49)_________a journalist for a Spanish newspaper, but two years ago he decided to take a year (50)__________work to live in different countries in Europe and write a book about Europeans. He spent the first two months in Scandinavia (51) ___________information and then moved to Germany for a month. At present he is staying in Paris, where he is renting a flat for five weeks. Four years ago he wrote a (52)___________travel guide to Spain and now he is working hard to have the same (53)____________with his book about Europeans. 49. A. in B. for C. by D. as 50. A. off B. to C. away D. from 51. A. collected B. to collect C. collecting D. collection 52. A. best-sell B. best-sold C. best-selling D. best-to- sell 53. A. succeed B. success C. successful D. Successfully Choose the item (A, B, C or D) that best completes the unfinished statement (or best answers the question) about each passage. It is often said that books are always a good friends and reading is an active mental process. Unlike TV, books make you use your brain. By reading, you think more and become smarter. Reading improves concentration and focus. Reading books takes brain power. It requires you to focus on what you are reading for long periods. Unlike magazines, Internet posts or e-Mails that might contain small pieces of information. Books tell the whole story". Since you must concentrate in order to read, you will get better at concentration. Many studies show if you do not use your memory; you lose it. Reading helps you stretch your memory muscles. Reading requires remembering details, facts and figures and in literature, plot lines, themes and characters. Reading is a good way to improve your vocabulary. Do you remember that when you were at elementary school you learned how to infer the meaning of one word by reading the context of the other words in the sentence? While reading books, especially challenging ones, you will find yourself exposed to many new words. Reading is a fundamental skill builder. Every good course has a matching book to go with it. Why? Because books help clarify difficult subjects. Books provide information that goes deeper than just classroom discussions. By reading more books you become better informed and more of an expert on the topics you read about. This expertise translates into higher self-esteem. Since you are so well-read, people look to you for answers. Your feelings about yourself can only get better. Books give you knowledge of other cultures and places. The more information you have got, the richer your knowledge is. Books can expand your horizons by letting you see what other cities and countries have to offer before you visit them. Question 54: Books have great influence on ________. A. TV B. friendship C. brain D. muscles Question 55: What is NOT mentioned in the first paragraph to indicate the comparison with books? A. magazine B. internet C. radio D. E-mail Question 56: When you are reading a book, ________. A. you have to read small pieces of information B. you use your brain in concentration and focus C. you have to read during a very long time D. you lose your memory Question 57: A challenging book ________. 223


A. helps you to improve your vocabulary C. is only for primary pupils B. contains a lot of difficult vocabulary D. can translate all new words Question 58: Books ________. A. are compulsory in every course B. are not needed in most of course C. contain less information than class discussions D. make a sick patient feel better Question 59: Books cannot give you ________. A. knowledge B. information C. self-esteem D. muscles Question 60: What does this passage mainly talk about? A. The habits of reading books C. The ways of reading books B. The benefits of reading books D. What kinds of books you should read

24. You and me solution

whistle / nod/wave

upset/ frightened/ disappointed

confident/ self-reliant

argument/discussion

sympathetic

obey

well-inform/intelligent

anniversary/ celebration

curfew

acquaintance/friend

attract/draw someone’s attention

assistance/help

self-respect

make a fuss make a joke

* Phrasal verbs break up /split up

end a relationship

grow up

mature

get on with

have a good relationship

call on

visit

throw away

put sth in a rubbish bin

bring up

raise (a child)

fall out (with)

have an argument with sb and stop being friends

come across

find sth by chance

catch up (with)

reach the same point/ level as

* Word patterns judge (by/from)

make friend with sb

rely on sb/depend on

be capable of doing sth/ be able to do sth

oblige sb to do sth

base on sth

224


join hands to do sth

be content with/ be satisfied with

take responsibility for/ be responsible for

reconciled with sb

glance at sth * Word formation attract

attraction, attractive, attractiveness

solve

solvable, solution, solvability

confide

confident, confidence

communicate communication, communicative, communicator tradition

traditional, traditionally

change

changeable

sympathy

sympathize, sympathetic, sympathetically

decide

decision, decisive

concentrate

concentration, concentrative EXERCISES ON VOCABULARY “YOU AND ME�

*Exercise 1. Choose one of the four options A, B, C or D to complete each of the following sentences. Identify your answers by circling the corresponding letter A, B, C or D. 1. Each of us must take ______ for our own actions.

A. probability

B. ability

C. possibility

D. responsibility

2.These quick and easy _______ can be effective in the short term, but they have a cost. A. solve

B. solvable

C. solutions

D. solvability

3. My family is the base from which we can go into the world with _______. A. confide

B. confidence

C. confident

D. confiding

The Americans are much more concerned than the Indians and the Chinese with physical ______________. A. attraction

B. attractiveness

C. attractively

D. attractive

To make sure a happy marriage , equal ___________is one of the important things that you should appreciate A. maintenance

B. attractiveness

C. responsibility

D. partnership

6. When you ride a motorbike, you must ________ the general road rules. A. judge

B. force

C. obey

D. concentrate

7. You will get into trouble if you come back home after the ________. A. norm

B. curfew

C. value

D. objection

8. Many teenagers ________ heavily on their parents, so they cannot live independently. A. admire

B. rely

C. decide

D. impose

9. In a restaurant, we can raise our hand to show the waiter that we need his________. A. fame

B. sponsor

C. assistance

D. donation 225


10. You shouldn’t ________ or clap your hands to get the person’s attention in a restaurant. A. whistle

B. smile

C. nod slightly

D. keep silent

11. He broke the glass vase during a(n) ____ with his cousin. A. argument

B. relationship

C. decision

D. motivation

My cousin is a very ________ person because he has a lot of knowledge about current topics and particular situations. A. determined

B. decisive

C. well-informed

D. motivated

13. I don't understand why you like ________ clothes. They are too bright and young for your age. A. flashy

B. fashionable

C. comfortable

D. casual

14. Mary __________ with her boyfriend last week. She couldn't stand his complaining anymore. A. broke up

B. reconciled with

C. broke out

D. quarreled at

15. All of the students are ________to pass the entrance examination in order to attend the university. A. obsessed

B. obliged

C. obtained

D. observed

16. Children who are isolated and lonely seem to have poor language and ________. A. communicate

B. communication

C. communicative

D. communicator

17. Why don’t you make it bigger and more careful to __________people’s attention ? A. keep

B. raise

C. attract

D. make

18. In many countries , people signify their agreement by _______________their head. A. turning

B. raising

C. pointing

D. nodding

One of the most important skills is time management which can help you build your confidence and ___________. A. self- reliant

B. self-discipline

C. self-respect

D. self-assertive

20. Sometimes when I hear the news, I feel very _________. A. confused

B. frightened

C. upset

D. disappointed

21. Instead of _____someone by their appearance, you should get to know them better. A. swearing

B. judging

C. controlling

D. sibling

22. Whistling and _________in a restaurant is considered to be impolite and even rude. A. talking

B. clapping hands

C. smiling

D. sighing

23. In some special situations, pointing at someone is completely _______. A. lovely

B. acceptable

C. gentle

D. formal

24. Mary looks very attractive in her _________ clothes. A. terrible

B. old fashioned

C. fashionable

D. out-dated

25. My mother is a _______woman. She does all the household chores to make us more comfortable. A. caring

B. careless

C. harmful

D. boring

26. In my family, both my parents _______to give us a nice house and a happy home. A. join hands

B. get out

C. shake hands

D. deal with

27. Mark enjoys having fun by causing trouble. He’s very _______ boy. A. stubborn

B. spoiled

C. mischievous

D. bright

28. She doesn't want to waste her money on clothes, so she ignores the ________ fashion trend. 226


A. comfortable

B. current

C. mature

D. elegant

29. Our teacher often said, "Who knows the answer? _______ your hand." A. Rise

B. Lift

C. Raise

D. Heighten

30.________, women are responsible for the chores in the house and taking care of the children.

A. With tradition

B. On tradition

C. Traditional

D. Traditionally

31. She's made friends ________ a little girl who lives next door. A. to B. of C. by D. with 32.The children seem to be totally capable ________ working by themselves. A. on B. of C. in D. for 33.Your friendship should be based on ________ trust. A. basic B. fragile C. mutual D. blind 34. I've got lots of ________, but only a few are really good friends A. close friends B. acquaintances C. neighbors D. partners 35. Does he tell you how he is getting ________ his new friends? A. on with B. on of C. away with D. out of 36.We stayed friends even after we ________ and left home. A. brought up B. turned up C. grew up D. took up 37.The aim of the culture festival is ________ friendship between the two countries A. promote B. promoting C. to promote D. being promoted 38.They were extremely ________ to my plight. A. sympathized B. sympathetic C. sympathy D. sympathetically 39.Let me know if you see anyone acting ________. A. properly B. constantly C. suspiciously D. carefully 40. Business leaders gave an ________ welcome to the proposal. A. official B. exciting C. enthusiastic D. warmly 41.The school appeared essentially ________ since my day. A. changed B. unchanged C. changeable D. unchangeable 42. ‘How about going to the theater?' 'OK,' but I would rather ______ a concert.' A. attend B. to attend C. attending D. have attended 43. She glanced briefly ________ his lapel badge. A. in B. on C. at D. up 44. I’m going to throw these old shoes ________. I’ve never wear them anymore. A. off B. away C. down D. back 45.She made a big ________ about not having a window seat on the plane. A. complaint B. fuss C. excitement D. interest 46. He has a very outgoing ________ and makes friends very easily. A. person B. personal C. personality D. personage 47. He ________ to the spot where the house used to stand. A. pointed B. showed C. directed D. glanced 48. Does he tell you how he is getting ________ his new friends? A. on with B. on of C. away with D. out of 49. An only child often creates an ________ friend to play with. A. imagery B. imaginable C. imaginary D. imaginative 50. I believe that everyone has had ________ experiences in their life. 227


A. memorable B. observable C. acceptable D. reflexible 51. He rose from his chair and ________ her warmly. A. protected B. replaced C. embraced D. appreciated 52. David has fallen ___________ with Jason and they’re not talking to each other at the moment. A. out B. off C. of D. on 53. May be we should _________ Mr. Smith to see his rose garden. A. Call at B. call on C. call for D. call out 54. We tried to make a _______ of our situation, but it wasn't funny. A. joke B. trick C. tension D. risk 55. They held a concert to mark the _______ of Mozart's death. A. occasion B. anniversary C. situation D. remembrance 56. Minh was brought __________ by his aunt because his parents lived abroad A. in B. of C. up D. down 57. The novel is based on his ________ in the war. A. attitudes B. images C. situations D. experiences 58. I _________ across this book about the moon in the library. It’s really interesting! A. went B. came C. found D. looked 59. I missed a few lessons but I’m catching ________ with the rest of the class quite quickly. A. on C.from C. up down 60. She showed her ________ by asking lots of trivial questions. A. experience B. experienced C. inexperienced D. inexperience Exercise 2: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions. 1. Unselfishness is the very essence of friendship.

A. romantic part B. important part C difficult part D. interesting part 2. The President expressed his deep sorrow over the bombing deaths. A. sadness B. anxiety C. disappointment D. interest 3. I don't like that man. There is a sneaky look on his face. A. furious B. humorous C. dishonest D. guilty 4. I had a glance at the article, but I haven't read it yet. A. close look B. quick look C. direct look D. furtive look 5. John isn't content with his present salary. A. excited about B. satisfied with C. disappointed about D. interested in 6. She purchased a number of shares in the company. A. invested B. sold C. exchanged D. bought 7. Most people start to lose their memory as they get older. A. ability to remember B. ability to impress C. feeling of admiration D. ability to affect 8. My mom is always bad-tempered when I leave my room untidy. A. feeling embarrassed B. talking too much C. very happy and satisfied D. easily annoyed or irritated A revolution in women's fashion during the second half of the twentieth century made trousers acceptable for almost all activities. A. available B. permissible C. attractive D. ideal 228


10. When you are in a restaurant, you can raise your hand slightly to show that you need assistance. A. bill B. menu C. help D. food Exercise 3: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE in meaning to the italic part in each of the following questions. 1. The earth is being threatened and the future looks bad. A. done B. made C. defended D. varied 2. Now, when so many frogs were killed, there were more and more insects. A. lesser and lesser B. fewer and fewer C. lesser and fewer D. less and less 3. Mr. Brown is a very generous old man. He has given most of his wealth to a charity organization. A. hospitable B. honest C. kind D. mean 4. Fruit and vegetables grew in abundance on the island. The islanders even exported the surplus. A. excess B. large quantity C. small quantity D. sufficiency 5. Population growth rates vary among regions and even among countries within the same region. A. fluctuate B. stay unchanged C. restrain D. remain unstable Exercise 4: Fill in each blank with the correct form of the words in brackets. There are at least three ____________living under the same roof in my family. (Generational) She had an argument with one of her close friend, but she's managed to be _______________ with her.(RECONCILIATION) 3. When you have a romantic relationship, you're having a relationship based on love and ___________ attraction.(EMOTION) My parents always worry that I am in a ____________ with Nam, my close friend.(RELATION) My best friend and I had an _______________ because she had revealed my secret.(ARGUE) My parents and teachers are always telling me that I have to ____________ on my study.(CONCENTRATION) Teenagers like catching up with ______________ clothes, which puts a financial burden on their parents. (fashion) Have you made up your mind? We need to know your __________ as soon as possible. (DECIDE) If you make a good___________ at the interview, you will get the job. (IMPRESS) The elderly are more _______________ about their eating habit. (conservatively)

25. SPORTS Vocabulary Sports Rowing(n) : đua thuyền Synchronized swimming(n) Bơi nghệ thuật Water polo(n) Bóng nước Swimming (n) Môn bơi Water skiing(n) lướt ván nước Windsurfing (n)Lướt ván có buồm Scuba diving(n)Lặn có bình khí Wrestling(n) vật 229


Bodybuilding (n) thể hình Weightlifting(n) cử tạ Badminton(n) cầu lông Gymnastics(n) thể dục dụng cụ Aquatic sports (n) thể thao dưới nước Diving(n) lặn Referee (n) trọng tài Fan (n) người hâm mộ Spectator (n) khán giả Goalie = goolkeeper (n) Gymnast (n) vận động viên thể dụng dụng cụ Defensive (n) Cầu thủ hậu vệ Attacker (n)Cầu thủ tấn công Midfielder (n) Cầu thủ tiền vệ Opponent = rival(n) Đối thủ Competitior(n)Người thi Participant(n)Người tham gia Enthusiast(n) Người hăng say, nhiệt tình Athlete(n) Vận động viên host(n) Nước chủ nhà Penalize(v) Phạt penaty Eject(v) Đuổi khỏi sân Score(v) Ghi bàn Take part in = Participate in(v) Tham gia Be held = take place(v) Tổ chức Kick(v) đá Pass(v) Chuyền bóng Perform(v) Thực hiện Dive(v) Lặn Defeat(v) Đánh bại Jump(v) Nhảy Advance(v)Chuyền về phía trước Interfere(v)Can thiệp crossbar: Xà ngang Net(n) lưới Event(n): sự kiên Foul(n): lỗi Solidarity:(n) sự đoàn kết, tình đoàn kết Useful structures Hold the ball with two hands: Giữ quả bóng bằng hai tay Underneath the crossbar: Bên dưới xà ngang Win the gold/silver/bronze medal in… : Đạt huy chương vàng/bạc/đồng trong…. Be called for a foul: Được gọi là mắc lỗi Be excluded from: Bị loại khỏi từ.. Make a deep impression on …..: Tạo ấn tượng sâu sắc đối với … 230


depend on his preference: tùy thuộc vào sở thích của mình Take part in = Participate in(v) Tham gia Be held = take place(v) Tổ chức Defeat so/ sth : Đánh bại ai/ cái gì Set a new record : Thiết lập một kỷ lục mới Exercise 1. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. Question 1: How many _________took part in the 29th SEA Games? A. compete B. competition C. competitor D. competitors Question 2: The referee had no hesitation in awarding the visiting team a _______. A. penalty B. penalize C. penal D. penalization Question 3: In water polo, a shot is successful if the ball completely passes between the goal posts and underneath the _______. A. net B. crossbar C. ball D. goalie Question 4: A defensive player may only hold, block or pull a / an _______ who is touching or holding the ball. A. audience B. referee C. goalie D. opponent Question 5: Beckham scored the _______ but it was Fowler’s brilliant_______that created the opportunity. A. goal/pass B. kick/pass C. goal/pitch D. pass/ goal Question 6: Nguyen Thi Anh Vien ______ the gold medal in women’s swimming. She set a new Seagame 29th record time of 1 minuse 59 seconds. A. win B. won C.winning D. has won Question 7: _______ is a sport in which people or teams race against each other in boats with oars. A. Rowing B. Windsurfing C. Swimming D. Water polo Question 8: I have never taken part in any water sports _______ I cannot swim. D. partly because of A because B. because of C. due to Question 9: Many people do not like scuba diving _______. A. because it is dangerous B. because of it is dangerous C. because its danger D. due to it is dangerous Question 10: _______ is a sport in which two or more people perform complicated and carefully planned movements in water in time to music. A. Rowing B. Windsurfing C. Diving D. Synchronized swimming Question 11: If the tie is not broken after two overtime _______, a penalty shootout will determine the winner. A. opponents B. waves C. parts D. periods Question 12: Minor _______ occur when a player impedes or otherwise prevents the free movement of an opponent including swimming on the opponent's shoulders, back or legs. A. penalties B. shots C. fouls D. motions Question 13: _______ is a game played in a swimming pool in which two teams of swimmers try to score goals with a ball. A. Water polo B. Rowing C. Swimming D. Water skiing Question 14: Offensive players may be called for a foul by pushing off a defender to provide space for a _______ or shot. A. pass B. crossbar C. box D. goal 231


Question 15: _______ is a sport in which you move along the surface of the sea or a lake on a long narrow board with a sail on it. A. Water polo B. Diving C. Windsurfing D. Scuba diving Question 16: Water polo balls _______ with a special texture so it will not slip from the hands of a player. A. cover B. are covered C. are being covered D. covered Question 17: John could not continue the match _______ his badly injured leg. A. because B. since C. as D. because of Question 18: In water polo game, only the goalie can hold the ball _______ two hands. A. at B. in C. with D. from Question 19: If the score is tied at the end of regulation play, two _______ periods of three minutes each are played. A. half B. halftime C. quarter D. overtime Question 20: lf a defender _______ with a free throw, holds or sinks an attacker, he is excluded from the game for twenty seconds. A. punches B. passes C. plays D. interferes Question 21: Water polo is a team water game, with six field players and one goalie in each team. The winner of the game is the team that scores more _____. A. nets B. goals C. plays D. balls Question 22: _______ is the activity of swimming underwater using special breathing equipment. A. Synchronized swimming B. Rowing C. Water polo D. Scuba diving Question 23: Johnny used to be one of the most _______ athletes in my country. A. succeed B. success C. successful D. successfully nd

Question 24: The 22 SEA Games consisted of athletes from eleven _____ countries. A. participate B. participant C. participation D. participating Question 25: _______, the athlete broke the world's record with two attempts. A. Surprise B. Surprised C. Surprising D. Surprisingly Question 26: On behalf of the referees and athletes, referee Hoang Quoc Vinh and shooter Nguyen Manh Tuong swore to an oath of "_______, Honesty and Fair Play". A. Performance B. Delegation C. Participation D. Solidarity Question 27: The ASEAN Para-Games is a biannual multi-sport _______ held after every Southeast Asian Games for athletes with physical disabilities. A. games B. event C. work D. situation Question 28: In beach volleyball, Indonesia defeated Thailand in straight sets to take men's gold _______. A. present B. award C. medal D. reward nd Question 29: The 22 SEA Games was the first time when Vietnam finished top of the medal _______. A. standings B. events C. spirits D. programs Question 30: Viet Nam's successful hosting of the 22nd SEA Games is considered a/an _____ example for other countries to follow, particularly in honesty, consistence and organizing method. A. festival B. peaceful C. energetic D. outstanding Question 31. Our field _______ have performed very well. A. Artists B. athlestes C. specialists D. sportment Question 32: The football match was so dull that most of ……… left at half-time. A. attendents B. audiences C. paricipants D. spectators 232


1. Question 33: In addition to pleasure, ______ excitement, challenge and relaxation. A. games provide B. games if providing C. the games which provide D. the providing of games Question 34: The _______ wanted to reduce the breadth of the games, with many events currently having small fields and weak competition. A. organize B. organization C. organizable D. organizers Question 35: In 2006, Viet Nam made a deep impression ______ other countries in the region by successfully hosting the Southeast Asian Student Sport Festival. A. with B. for C. in D. on Question 36: The Southeast Asian Student Sport Festival is the biggest sport event _______ the youths in the region. A. for B. on C. in D. of Question 37: At his last attempt the athlete was successful _______ passing the bar. A. in B. for C. with D. on Question 38: At the 23rd SEA Games, Viet Nam proved its position in the region by ____ third behind the host - the Philippines and second-ranked Thailand. A. finishing B. playing C. preparing d. performing Question 39: In the 22nd SEA Games in 2003, the country _______ the competition with 340 medals, including 156 golds, 91 silvers and 93 bronzes. A. defended B. cost C. topped D. ranked Question 40: To improve its athletes' _______, Viet Nam has regularly exchanged delegation of sport officials, coaches, referees and athletes with other countries. A. team B. competitor C. appearance D. performance Question 41: _______ is the activity of doing special exercises regularly in order to make your muscles grow bigger. A. Wrestling B. Bodybuilding C. Weightlifting D. Badminton Question 42: He is a great sports _______. He rarely misses any sport games although he was busy. A. enthusiast B. player C. energy D. programmer Question 43: He became Jamaica's first Olympic gold medalist when he won the 400-meter _______ in 1948. A. distance B. title C. runner D. sport Question 44: She won the race in _______ time and got the gold medal. A. included B. durable C. rank D. record Question 45:A water polo cap is used to ____ the players' heads and to identify them. A. tie B. penalize C. protect D. move Question 46: What kind of sport one chooses to play mostly depends _______ his preference and health. A. with B. for C. in D. on Question 47: World Cup is the most popular sporting _______ today. A. event B. series C. incident D. team Question 48: The game was ______ nationwide once every four years. A. taken place B. happened C. made D. held Question 49: France won Brazil _____3 ___ 0 in the final match of the 1998 world cup. A. by – to B. to – by C. by – by D. to – to Question 50: Manchester United is practicing hard_______ the coming UEFA Cup . A. for B. at C. in D. to 233


Excercise2. Complete sentences with words in the box. popular , match, by , to become ,set up, host, defeated, win popular, in, held, promoting, adventurous, aquatic sports

Question 1: Football is certainly the most ________ sport in Vietnam. Question 2: The ____ at the football match cheered their taem on. Question 3: In the world Cup hosted by Japan and South Korea, Brazil defeated Germany ___ 2 to 0. Question 4: Uruguay is the first country _____ the World Cup champion in 1930. Question 5: Rowing,Synchronized swimming,Water polo is,Swimming is _____ . Question 6: The international football _______ is held every four years. Question 7: FIFA was _______ in 1904 in England. Question 8: Germany was the _______ nation of the 2006 world cup final. Question 9: Uruguay ______ Argentina in the final match of the first world cup. Question 10: Brazil became the first team to ______ the trophy five times. Question 11: World cup is considered the most ______ sporting event in the world. Question 12: Pele participated _______ three world cup. th

Question 13: The 13 World Cup was ______ in Mexico in 1986. Question 14: Sporting games held a great deal in ______ friendship among nations. Question 15: Many young men prefer scuba-diving because it is _______. Exercise 3. Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions. Question 1. The goalkeeper can also be ejected for twenty seconds if a major foul is committed. A. advanced B. sprinted C. played D. excluded Question 2. The ASEAN Para-Games are hosted by the same country where the SEA Games took place. A. organized B. impressed C. participated D. defended Question 3. The number of Vietnamese sport officials and referees of international standard taking part in regional tournaments has increased rapidly. A. hosting B. participating C. achieving D. succeeding Question 4. The host nation was Uruguay and it defeated Argentina in the final. A. creamed B. vanquished C. suppressed D. overwhelmed Question 5. Where was the 2006 Word Cup held? A. supported B. maintained C. possessed D. organized Question 6. Which team became the champion? A. victor B. leader C. guardian D. defender Question 7. He was the captain of the football team for 5 years and led the team to some impressive victories. A. boss B. referee C. head D. striker Question 8. As expected, she could not come first in the annual tennis tournament. A. crowd B. profession C. match D. competition Question 9.Therry Henry is a world famous soccer star. A. swimming B. tennis C. movie D. football

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Question 10. Founded in 1930 with just 13 teams, the tournament now attracts more than 140 countries. A. Established B. Produced C. Started D. Erected

26. RECREATION VOCABULARY: Recreation (n) giải trí Home-based ( a) ở nhà leisure (n) thời gian rỗi sophisticated (adj) Phức tạp solitude (n) Sự biệt lập, cô độc spectacular (a) ngoạn mục, hùng vĩ Spectator (n) khán giả - Entertaine (v) giải trí accomplished (a) có tài, tài hoa occupied (a) = busy

entertainement (n)

Exercise1. Fill in each blank with one suitable word from the box. Recreation leisure spectacular stock market pursuits spectators sophisticated memento solitude home-based She has time now to follow her various artistic ______. Many people indulge in ______ leisure pursuit such as watching television. I play golf and football for ______ only. She enjoyed a few moments of peace in the ______ of the garden. Crowds of ______ were massed along the route of the parade. I'm looking forward to more ______ time in my retirement. He invested everything in the ______. Jane kept the coin as a ______ of her trip. We had a ______ view of the coastline from the airplane. Medical techniques are becoming more ______ all the time. Exercise 2: Choose the word or phrase that can substitute for the underlined word. 1. His recreations include golf, football and shooting. . a. sports b. activities c. pastimes d. pleasures Walking and swimming are the two most popular sporting activities undertaken by men and women. a. taken over b. taken in c. taken up d. taken out 3. I bought the ring as a memento of Greek. a. souvenir b. relic c. heirloom d. remainder 4. In Britain, the most common leisure activities are home-based. a. regular b. popular c. standard d. distinctive 5. My other pursuits include listening to music, reading and gardening. a. chases b. occupations c. specialities d. hobbies 235


6. The most popular spectator sports are football and baseball. a. onlooker b. competitor c. individual d. professional 7. The train passed through a rich variety of spectacular scenery. a. amazing b. powerful c. impressive d. considerable The course can be as simple as bricklaying or as sophisticated as making your own stock market decisions. a. external b. complicated c. intensive d. advanced 9. She enjoyed a few moments of peace in the solitude of the garden. a. privacy b. bottom c. center d. end 10. Most households now own at least one television set. a. farms b. campuses c. families d. courses 11My uncle, who is an accomplished guitarist, taught me how to play. a. skilful b. famous c. perfect d. modest 12. The most important thing is to keep yourself occupied. a. busy b. relaxed c. comfortable d. free Exercise 3: Choose the antonym of the underlined word. 1. There are number of things I like to do in my free time. a. pleisure b. precious c. busy d. idle 2. My uncle, who is an accomplished guitarist, taught me how to play. a. unimpaired b. unskilled c. ill-educated d. unqualified 3. Now I can playa few simple tunes. a. compound b. plain c. easy d. complicated 4. He advised me to practise playing the guitar regularly. a. unusually b. commonly c. freely d. completely 5. I have a modest little glass fish tank where I keep a variety of small fish. a. limitted b. excessive c. conceited d. moderate 6. I always remove the stamps before discarding the envelopes. a. dispensing b. disposing c. dumping d. keeping 7. Another hobby of mine is keeping fish. a. omitting b. discharging c. releasing d. delivering 8. I usually throwaway the common stamps. a. distinctive b. beautiful c. unpopular d. ordinary II. Grammar 1. Correlative Conjunctions: Các cụm “both ... and ...” (vừa ... vừa), “not only ... but also ...” (không những ... mà còn...), “either ... or ...” (hoặc ... hoặc ...), “neither ... nor” (không ... mà cũng không ...) được dùng để nối hai từ đồng loại (danh từ, tính từ, động từ hoặc các cụm từ ...) với nhau. Both ... and: a1: Both + noun + and + noun: Eg : She plays both tennis and badminton. He is both singer and an actor. a2: Both + verb + and + verb: Eg : He both sings and dances. 236


We both cried and laughed. a3: Both + adj + and + adj: Eg : She is both intelligent and beautiful. The film is both boring and long. a4: Both + adverbial phrase + and + adverbial phrase: Eg : We go to school both in the morning and in the evening. They work hard both at home and at work. Notes: Động từ đi sau both ... and ... được chia ở số nhiều: Both Mary and Linda are students. Not only .... but also: Cách dùng cũng tương tự như Both ... and: Eg : There are problems not only with teachers but also with students themselves. She not only wrote the text but also selected the illustrations. Not only workers but (also) farmers take part in the strike He studies not only Japanese but (also) Chinese. *Note: Trong câu sử dụng “Not only ….but also…” thì động từ phải chia phù hợp với chủ ngữ đứng trước nó. E.g. Not only does he speak English but also speaks German. E.g. Not only his friend but also his brother gives him presents 3.Either ... or: c1: Cách dùng của “either ... or ...” cũng tương tự như “both ... and ...” và “not only ... but also...”: Eg : I’m going to buy either a camera or a CD player with the money. Either he could not come or he did not want to. Either you or your friend is responsible for the damage. My brother likes either footbal or volleyball. c2: Tuy nhiên, ta lưu ý cách hoà hợp chủ ngữ và động từ: Eg : Either you or he is right. Either he or I am wrong. => Động từ trong “either ... or ...” hoà hợp với chủ ngữ đứng gần động từ nhất: 4.Neither ... nor: d1: Cách dùng của “neither ... or ...” cũng tương tự như “both ... and ...”, “not only ... but also...” và “either ... or ...”: Eg : I am neither rich nor poor. He likes neither the city nor the country. She likes neither tea nor coffee. Neither Tom nor his friends want to go camping. Neither Tom nor Tim wants to go camping d2: Tuy nhiên, ta cũng lưu ý cách hoà hợp chủ ngữ và động từ: Eg : Neither you nor he is right. Neither he nor I am wrong. => Động từ trong “neither ... nor ...” cũng hoà hợp với chủ ngữ đứng gần động từ nhất: d3: Và khi “neither” đứng một mình động từ được chia ở số ít hoặc số nhiều: 237


Eg

: Neither answer is correct. Neither of them has/ have a car

5. Inversion E.g 1. My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, I don’t like, either. My mother doesn’t like drinking coffee, neither do I. E.g 2. Linh is interested in learning English. I am interested in learning English, too. Linh is interested in learning English, so am I. E.g 3. Not only did they take care of me, but they also treated me as if I were their own daughter. When a clause with neither or nor is used after a negative clause, we invert the subject and the verb after neither and nor: E.g 4. He hadn’t done any homework, neither had he brought any of his books to class. E.g 5. We didn’t get to see the castle, nor did we see the cathedral. Exercise 1 Choose the word or phrase- a, b, c or d - that best completes the sentences. He neither drank …………… smoked so he had good health. A. nor B. or C. but D. also She ……………hard but also gets on well with her classmates. A.doesn’t only study B. studies not only C. not only studies D.not studies only 3. Either you leave now……. A.I will also call the police B. or will I call the police C. or I will call the police D. but I will call the police). 4. Not only John but also his two brothers ……..football as their recreation every weekend. A.play B.plays C. were playing D.has played 5.……..Julia………….her sister are going to the park. A.Both-and B.neither-nor C Either-or D.Not only – but also 6. I left it ……on the table……on the bookshelf…….. A. either-nor B. neither-or C. either-or D. Either-either 7. Now women work both before ……… after having children. A.or B. also C.nor D.and 8. She has neither read the book …….the film. A.or seen B. nor see C. or see D. nor seen 9. ………. were punished because they were late. A.Both Tom and Ann B. Either Tom or Ann, C. Neither Tom nor Ann D. All of Tom and Ann 10. The film was …..boring …..long. A.either/or, B.neither/and C. both/and D. either/nor 11. She neither talked nor …….her feelings A.show B.showed C.showing D.shown 12. You must either go at once or ……..till tomorrow. A.waiting B. must wait C. wait D. to wait 13. Either I or they enjoying the party now. A.are B. is C. was D. were 14. Neither I nor she ……… seen the film before A. has B. have C. was D. were. Thomas Eakins studied not only painting ______ anatomy when he was training to become an artist. A. moreover B. but also C. as well D. and Exercise 2 Write the sentences with either... or or neither... nor. 238


The library doesn't have the book I need. The bookstore doesn't have the book I need. _____________________________________________________ We can fix dinner for them here or we can take them to a restaurant _____________________________________________________ I'll never speak to you again if you don't apologise. _____________________________________________________ Brian doesn't play sports and he doesn't watch them on TV. _____________________________________________________ Did Mrs Michael feed Lulu? Did Mrs Michael feed Archie? _____________________________________________________ We didn't hear the window break. We didn't hear the thief come in. _____________________________________________________ You may begin working tomorrow or you may begin next week. _____________________________________________________ I suppose we could watch TV this evening or we could go out for a snack. _____________________________________________________ My cousin can't draw well. He can't paint well, too. _____________________________________________________ I haven't seen him. I haven't heard him speak. Exercise 3 Combine the sentence with not only... but also or both...and. The city suffers from air pollution. The city suffers from water pollution. ( both... and) _____________________________________________________ He is interested in gardening. He is interested in collecting stamps. ( not only... but also) _____________________________________________________ Solar energy is free. Solar is inexhaustible. ( both... and) _____________________________________________________ In the summer school he studied writing. He studied how to increase his vocabulary. (not only... but. also) _____________________________________________________ I was usually tired when I arrived home from school. I was usually hungry too. (both... and) _____________________________________________________ My sister can sing beautiful. She can play the guitar very well. (not only... but also) _____________________________________________________ On the trip you can enjoy spectacular scenery. You can have a lot of outdoor activities. (both... and) _____________________________________________________ He is good at math. He is good at English. (not only... but also) _____________________________________________________ Joanna enjoys listening to rock music, so does her brother. (both... and) _____________________________________________________ She cleaned the house and she cooked the dinner. ( not only... but also) 2. Cleft constructions Cleft constructions with the pattern below Form: It + be+ danh từ / đại từ + mệnh đề quan hệ xác định. 1. Subject focus 239


It is/was + S+ that/who +verb: 2. Object focus It is she who/that teaches me to learn English 2. Object focus It is/was + O+ that/who(m)+ S +verb It was the boy that we met yesterday 3. Adverbial focus It is/was + adverbial of place + that+ S+verb+… It was at the shop that I met her a few years ago Passive: it is/ was... that + passive voice. eg: it is/ was the dog that was hit in the gardent. It is the house that was talked a lot about. Exercise1. Rewrite the following sentences using the structure it is/ was... that + passive voice. It was Mr. Johnson that every student respected to. _______________________________________________________ It was in Bristol where they made the film. _______________________________________________________ It was the manager that we saw. _______________________________________________________ It was wine that we ordered. _______________________________________________________ It is the English exam that the students most worry about. _______________________________________________________ It is pop music that my brother prefers. _______________________________________________________ It is Tet that Vietnameses celebrate, as the greatest occasion in a year. _______________________________________________________ It was the computer that my parents gave me as a birthday present. _______________________________________________________ It is Santa Clause who most children are waiting for on Christmas Eve. _______________________________________________________ It is English that people all over the world use. _______________________________________________________

Exercise 2 : Choose the best answer for each of the following question. 1. It is the room _______ we usually hold our meetings. A. that B. why C. where D. when 2. It’s my brother ________ gave me this hat on my birthday. A. he B. whose C. which D. who 3. It was a letter __________ she received from her aunt yesterday. A. that B. whom C. it D. where 4. It is __________ who I want to make friend with. A. she B. her C. hers D. she’s 5. It was in New York ___________ I first met her ten years ago. A. there B. where C. that D. which 240


6. It ___________ English that the man is learning in the classroom. A. is B. was C. be D. were 7. It ___________ at the bank that the wanted man changed the money. A. is B. was C. being D. were 8. It was the dog ___________ the boy hit in the garden. A. where B. in which C. who D. that 9. It is the student who _________ toward us. A. is running B. was running C. ran D. were running 10. It ___________ Peter and Sandra who travelled together on the ship to Asia. A. is B. was C. be D. were

Thứ tự sắp xếp tính từ trong tiếng anh chuẩn nhất Khi dùng từ 2 tính từ trở lên để miêu tả cho một danh từ, nếu các tính từ cùng loại thì ta phân cách chúng bằng dấu phẩy, còn nếu khác loại thì ta xếp chúng cạnh nhau. Trật tự các tính từ được quy định theo thứ tự sau: Opinion – Size – Age – Shape – Color – Origin – Material – Purpose. 1

2

General

Specific

opinion

opinion

Tính từ chỉ quan điểm, ý

3

4

Size

Age

5

6

7

Shape Colour Nationality/origin

Tính từ chỉ Tính Tính quan điểm, ý từ chỉ từ chỉ Tính từ Tính từ chỉ hình

Tính từ chỉ quốc

8 Material

Tính từ chất

kiến một cách kiến một cách kích tuổi dạng màu sắc tịch, nguồn gốc liệ chung chung cụ thể cỡ tác Opinion – tính từ chỉ quan điểm, sự đánh giá. Ví dụ: beautiful, wonderful, terrible… Size – tính từ chỉ kích cỡ. Ví dụ: big, small, long, short, tall… Age – tính từ chỉ độ tuổi. Ví dụ: old, young, old, new… Color – tính từ chỉ màu sắc. Ví dụ: orange, yellow, light blue, dark brown …. Origin – tính từ chỉ nguồn gốc, xuất xứ. Ví dụ: Japanese,American, British,Vietnamese… Material – tính từ chỉ chất liệu . Ví dụ: stone, plastic, leather, steel, silk… Purpose – tính từ chỉ mục đích: swimming, wedding, riding, sleeping, flower,… Danh từ (noun) Một ví dụ khác: Japanese/ a/ car/ new/ red / big/ luxurious/ Ta sẽ sắp xếp như sau: a luxurious big new red Japanese car. Hi vọng helpful tips trên sẽ thật sự hữu ích với các bạn trong việc ghi nhớ trật tự các tính từ trong tiếng anh. Eg: In my nice big flat there’s an old round box for my green Swiss hat my my wooly walking stocks 1.opinion 2.size 3.age 4.shape 5.color 6.country 7.material 8.purpose Ví dụ: A blue English plastic swimming glasses Một cái kính bơi bằng nhựa màu xanh da trời xuất xứ từ Anh A red Spanish wine cup Một ly rượu đỏ từ Tây Ban Nha An white American cotton shirt Một chiếc áo sơ mi cotton từ Mỹ Exercise 1: Choose an adjective below to put in the suitable box on the right To me, one of my good friends is Phong. Phong is seventeen. He has brown hair, a broad forehead, a straight nose and blue eyes. He is very good-looking. He has a kind heart and is easy to get on with everybody. We have been friends for a very long time. We are the best pupils in our class. Nam is always at the top. He is good at every subject, but he never shows pride in his abilities and always tries to learn harder. 241


Loại tính từ Opinion (ý kiến) Size (kích thước) Age (tuổi thọ) Shape (Hình dạng) Color (Màu sắc) Origin (Nguồn gốc) Material (Chất liệu) Purpose (Mục đích)

Exercise 2: Choose an adjective below to put in the suitable box on the right interesting round great pink young old long oval rectangular square thick Vietnamese grey woolen thin attractive black racing walking Loại tính từ

Tính từ

Opinion (ý kiến) Size (kích thước) Age (tuổi thọ) Shape (Hình dạng) Color (Màu sắc) Origin (Nguồn gốc) Material (Chất liệu) Purpose (Mục đích) Exercise 3: Put the words below in the right order to complete the sentence. 1. wedding/ dress/ she/ long/ wore/ white/ a. -> ……………………………………………………….. 2. woman/ English/is/an/ young/ intelligent/ it. -> ……………………………………………………….. 3. is/ bag/ this/ sleeping/ black/ a/ new. -> ……………………………………………………….. 4. pink/ he/ house/ bought/ big/beautiful/ a. -> ……………………………………………………….. 5. gave/ wallet/ him/ she/ brown/ small/ leather/ a. -> ……………………………………………………….. 242


Homework: Exercise 1: Choose the word or phrase - a, b, c or d - that best fits the blank space in the following passage FUN AND GAMES Do you think computer games is just for kids? Then you should think again. You might be (1) ______ to learn that the game industry now (2) ______ more money than Hollywood. (3) ______ a family buys a new PC, all they really want to do is to play games. It is hardly surprising that video gaming has ______ one of the most popular (5) ______ of entertainment today. A good game is like a good film; it will hold your (6) ______, capture your imagination and play with your emotions. The big (7) ______, however, is that watching a movie is a passive (8) ______. You have no say in how the plot ______ or which characters dominate the story. With computer games, you direct the (10) ______ and that is what makes them so exciting. Finding the (11) ______ game is likely to signal the beginning of a lasting love (12) ______ with the interactive (13) ______ of make-believe. It is (14) ______ to think of gaming as something simply for children and teenagers. In fact, the (15) ______ growth area of the market is the 25-35 age group. 1. A. concerned B. admired C. startled D. surprised 2. A. has B. makes C. does D. gains 3. A. As soon as B. as well as C. As far as D. As long as 4. A. begun B. grown C. become D. sounded 5. A. makes B. branches C. shapes D. forms 6. A. gaze B. attention C. breath D. control 7. A. gap B. variety C. difference D. direction 8. A. pastime B. task C. routine D. employment 9. A. becomes B. produces C. turns D. develops 10. A. movement B. change C. action D. performance 11. A. accurate B. right C. complete D. proper 12. A. affair B. story C. secret D. match B. area C. society D. world 13. A. region 14. A. immoral B. wrong C. false D. dishonest 15. A. longest B. widest C. biggest D. deepest

Exercise 2.Choose word or phrase - A, B, C or D - that needs correcting. 1.Children enjoy telling and listening to ghosts stories, especially on Halloween night. (ghost stories) A B C D 2. Not only Laura's parents but also her husband think she should return to school and A B C finish her graduate degree. D 3. Each year million of tons of fertile topsoil that could produce good crops washed away by rains. A B C D 4. It was in 1971 that transatlantic supersonic transportation became commercially availability. A B C D 5.Success in karate requires not only balance and skill but also concentration and mental alert. A B C D (alertness) 243


Her brother seems to be totally incapable in looking after himself. A B C (of looking) D 7. Either Mr. Andersin or Ms Wiggins are going to teach our class today. A B C (is) D 8. Pollution is a topic of such important today that even elementary A B (importance) School children are well-informed about its danger C D Exercise 3: Choose the word or phrase- a, b, c or d - that best completes the sentences. 1. Which one do you want? -I don't want ______. a. both b. neither c. either d. each 2. She has neither read 'the book ______ the film. a. or seen b. nor see c. or see d. nor seen Thomas Eakins studied not only painting ______ anatomy when he was training to become an artist. a. moreover b. but also c. as well d. and 4. Endive can be used ______ as a salad green or as a cooking vegetable. a. such b. both c. either d. neither 5. They invited ______ to their golden anniversary. a. my wife and I b. I and my wife c. both my wife and I d. my wife and me 6. Have you finished your work? - No, I haven't and ______. a. she has not too b. neither she has c. she has either d. neither has she. 7. I believe not only people are important to the world, ______. a. nature is important, too b. nature is important either c. neither is nature important d. but nature is important Not only ______ shade and beauty, but they also reduce carbon dioxide. a.do trees provide b. trees provide c. provide trees d. trees do provide It was the musical performance on TV that ______ by our family. a. was most enjoying b. was most enjoyed c. most enjoyed d. was most enjoyable 10. Neither the teacher nor his students ______ pleased with the performance of the team. a. was b. were c. has been d. being Exercise 4 Choose the word or phrase - a, b, c or d - that best completes the sentences. 1. She plays tennis ______ recreation only. a. in b. to c. on d. for 2. I'm very fond ______ natural spectacular scenery. a. of b. in c. with d. at 3. We were all attracted ______ the beauty of nature there. a. in b. to c. with d. on 4. Watching television is by far the most popular ______. a. intensity b. occupation c. recreation d. passion 5. I am very ______ in the information you have given me. a. interested b. surprised c. depressed d. concerned 244


6. I like him ______ for his shyness. a. by far b. far better c. furthermore d. all the better 7. He ______ us for hours with his stories and jokes. a. supported b. entertained c. regarded d. raised 8. I've already had one holiday in Africa, and I'm not ______ on going there again. a. willing b. keen c. eager d. ready 9. We have bought extra food ______ our friends stay to dinner. a. provided b. if c. in case d. as long as 10. Football, rugby and baseball are the most popular ______ sports in Britain. a. watcher b. looker c. amateur d. spectator

27. COMMUNITY PART 1 A. Theory I. Phrases of concession: In spite of + Noun/ Noun phrase/ Gerund phrase, … Despite Ex1. Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman. Ex2. In spite of her bad grades, Jane will be admitted to the university. Ex3. In spite of two broken leg, he managed to get out of the car. II. Clauses of concession: 1. Although, though, even though: Although + S+V,… Though Even though Ex1. Although the weather was very bad, we had a picnic. Ex2. We took many pictures though the sky was cloudy. Ex3. Nam didn’t pass the exam even though he worked very hard. 2. No matter, Whatever: No matter + Who/ what/ when/ where/ how (adj, adv) + S + V, … Whatever (+ Noun) + S + V, … Ex1. No matter who you are, I still love you. Ex2. No matter what she says, I don’t believe her. Ex3. Whatever others may say, you are certainly right. However + adj + S + linkverb, … Ex1. However strong you are, you can’t move this rock.

245


B. Exercise: Choose one suitable preposition to fill in the following sentences by circling its correspoding letter A, B, C or D. 1. The new policies include cutting _______ subsidies and trade barriers. A. agriculture B. agricultural C. agriculturalist D. agriculturally 2. The control of _______ has been carried out through measures rooted in monetarism. A. inflate B. inflationist C. inflation D. inflator 3. In spite _______, the baseball game was not cancelled. A. the rain B. of the rain C. it was raining D. there was a rain 4. _______ he had enough money, he refused to buy a new car. B. In spite B. In spite of C. Despite D. Although 5. _______, he walked to the station. A. Despite being tired B. Although to be tired C. In spite being tired D. Despite tired 6. She left him _______ she still loved him. A. even if B. even though C. in spite of D. despite 7. _______ her lack of hard work, she was promoted. A. In spite B. Even though C. In spite of D. Despite of 8. _______ they are brothers, they do not look like. A. Although B. Even C. Despite D. In spite of 9. Economic reforms are often carried _______ to promote the developing of a country. A. out B. on C. for D. in Being aware _____ the importance of economic reforms, the Vietnamese Communist Party initiated an overall economic reform policy. A. for B. at C. of D. in 11. For more than ten years, we have seen the significant _______ in the economy of our country. A. develop B. development C. developing D. developed During the time of economic reforms, the economy has grown _______ with only a few major setbacks. A. constant B. constantly C. constants D. constancy 13. The Doi Moi reforms have _______ new possibilities in farming systems research in Vietnam. A. risen B. opened C. renovated D. called 14. New neighbours are quite nice _______ they are sometimes talkative. A. despite B. in spite of the fact C. though D. as though 15. _______ of the difficulty, they managed to climb to the top of the mountain. A. In spite B. Despite C. But D. Although 16. In spite of his hard work, he could not finish the job. A. As hard as he work B. Despite he worked hard C. Though he worked hard D. Although hard work 17. Despite the fact that _______, we enjoyed our trip. A. the weather is bad B. it is a bad weather C. the bad weather D. the weather was bad 18. Julie failed the exam _______ of working very hard. A. despite B. in spite C. even if D. though 19. Tom went to work despite _______. A. that he did not feel very well C. he did not feel very well 246


B. of the fact not feeling well D. not feeling very well 20. Though _______, they are good friends. A. their sometimes quarrel B. to have a quarrel sometimes C. they sometimes have a quarrel D. of having a quarrel sometimes 21. Despite _______, we arrived on time. A. heavy traffic B. of heavy traffic C. there was heavy traffic D. of there was heavy traffic 22. John rarely sees Paul _______ they live in the same town. A. notwithstanding B. despite C. in spite of D. although 23. I have not finished that report yet despite _______. A. of working overtime last night B. to work overtime last night C. working overtime last night D. I worked overtime last night 24. Though he was appointed to a higher promotion _______. A. and he decided to quit his job. B. but he still decided to quit his job C. but he decided to quit his job D. he decided to quit his job 25. I didn't get the job _______. A. even as my qualifications B. in spite of I had some qualifications C. without my qualifications D. despite my qualifications PART 2 A. Theory: PREPOSITIONS At

In

on

Chỉ thời gian

Chỉ thời gian

Chỉ thời gian

At 6 o’clock

In 2008

On Monday

at night at lunch time

In July In the 1990s

On July 21 2009 On the New Year Eve

At noon

In the future

At Christmas

In the morning/evening, …

At the weekend/the moment/the age of ...

In time

On time

Chỉ nơi chốn

Chỉ nơi chốn

Chỉ nơi chốn

At home

In the sky

On the table

At work

In the room

On the way to

At school

In Le Loi Street

On the train

At the station

In the river

st

At the end of (the road/film/…) At the beginning * Note: Không dùng “in”, “at”, “on” trước this, next, last..... B. Exercise: Choose one suitable preposition to fill in the following sentences by circling its correspoding letter A, B, C or D. 247


1. There is something I want to watch ____________ television. A. on

B. in

C. at

D. to

2. We have had a few nice days, but ______________ general it’s been a poor summer. A. on

B. in

C. at

D. to

C. at

D. to

3. They decided to go ____________ foot. A. on

B. in

4.What time did the lesson stop? ______ five to twelve. A. on

B. in

C. at

D. to

5.I often wake up ______ five o’clock ______ the morning. A. on/at

B. in/on

C. at/on

D. at/in

th

6. Columbus discovered America _________ the 15 century. A. on B. in C. at

D. to

Ex 2:Choose the underlined word or phrase in each sentence that need correcting. 1. InVietnam children have to start school on the age of six. A B C D 2. Our classroom is in the second floor of the building. AB C D 3. In Sunday afternoon I usually go for a walk in the country. A BC D 4. What time is convenient forour appointment? It may be from 5 and 6 pm. AB CD 5. - When do the American celebrate the Independence Day? A B - It is celebrated inthe fourth of July. D Ex 3. Choose the best anser to fill in the following sentences by circling its correspoding letter A, B, C or D. 1. The letter I wrote was full …..... mistakes. A. on B. of C. to D. in 2. I don’t like going up ladders. I’m ........ of heights. A. afraid B. interested C. excited D. keen 3.. The station platform was crowded ................ people waiting for the train. A. out B.into C.for D. with 4. She is a very honest person. I don’t think she is capable ........... telling a lie. A. to B. of C. with D. about 5. Our house is similar........... yours. A. from B. to C. for D. about 6. Ms. Sanders is friendly ............... everyone. A. with B. in C. to D. of 7. I’m accustomed.................. living here. A. about B. with C. to D. for 8. The editor is responsible ……….. what appears in a newspaper. A. for B. on C. of D. to 9. Can you tell me how many men were absent ................ work last week? 248


A. from B. to C. of D. with 10. I certainly hope that David is aware ........... all the problems involved. A. for B. of C. to D. up 11. We might need more food, depending ……how many people turn up. A. for

B. on

C. at

D. with

C. at

D. on

C. for

D. up

12. Lan doesn’t spend much money …..clothes. A. over

B. about

13. Do you belong …..any clubs or organizations? A. on

B. to

14. Williams insisted…..getting up early, even on weekend. A. on

B. to

C. toward

D. for

C. to

D. in

15. Many companies participated….the trade fair. A. for

B. up

Ex4: Fill in each space with a correct preposition to complete the following sentences. Jane is very strict __________ the children in her class. She’s perticularly strict ______ punctuality. However, her relationship _______ the children is a happy one. Helen was very jealous ________ her sister’s popularity. Her sister was very popular _______ the teachers at school. She impressed them ___________ her work and her personality. You say we’re a country rich _________ tradition. Surely that’s true________ most country . What’s important __________ us is that we should remain true _________ our best traditions. I’d like to congratulate you _________ your cooking. You’ve centainly succeeded ________ turning out a wonderful meal. You’d have no difficulty _________ finding a first – class job as a chef. There’s going to be an improvement _________ the weather. The weather has a great influence ______ my mood. PART 3 A. Theory: Article: a / an / the Cách dùng quán từ không xác định “a” và “an” a) Dùng “an” với: Quán từ an được dùng trước danh từ đếm được số ít bắt đầu bằng một nguyên âm, âm h câm hoặc một phụ âm có âm là nguyên âm. Bao gồm: Các từ bắt đầu bằng các nguyên âm a, e, i, o: an aircraft, an empty glass, an object Một số từ bắt đầu bằng h câm: an heir, haft an hour Các từ mở đầu bằng một chữ viết tắt: an S.O.S/ an M.P b) Dùng “a” với: Dùng a trước danh từ đếm được số ít bắt đầu bằng một phụ âm, nguyên âm có âm là phụ âm. VD: a house, a university, a home party, a heavy load, a uniform, a union, a year income,… Đứng trước một danh từ mở đầu bằng “uni…” phải dùng “a” (a university/ a uniform/ universal/ union) Dùng trong các thành ngữ chỉ số lượng nhất định như: a lot of/a great deal of/a couple/a dozen. Dùng trước những số đếm nhất định thường là hàng ngàn, hàng trăm như a/one hundred – a/one thousand. Dùng trước “half” (một nửa) khi nó theo sau một đơn vị nguyên vẹn: a kilo and a half, hay khi nó đi ghép với một danh từ khác để chỉ nửa phần (khi viết có dấu gạch nối): a half – share, a half – holiday (ngày lễ chỉ nghỉ nửa ngày). 249


Dùng với các đơn vị phân số như 1/3 a/one third – 1/5 a /one fifth. Dùng trong các thành ngữ chỉ giá cả, tốc độ, tỉ lệ: $5 a kilo, 60 kilometers an hour, 4 times a day. Cách dùng quán từ xác định “The” Dùng the trước một danh từ đã được xác định cụ thể về mặt tính chất, đặc điểm, vị trí hoặc đã được đề cập đến trước đó, hoặc những khái niệm phổ thông, ai cũng biết. The boy in the corner is my friend. (Cả người nói và người nghe đều biết đó là cậu bé nào) Với danh từ không đếm được, dùng the nếu nói đến một vật cụ thể, không dùng the nếu nói chung. Sugar is sweet. (Chỉ các loại đường nói chung) Với danh từ đếm được số nhiều, khi chúng có nghĩa đại diện chung cho một lớp các vật cùng loại thì cũng không dùng the. Oranges are green until they ripen. (Cam nói chung) a) Sau đây là một số trường hợp thông dụng dùng The theo quy tắc trên: The + danh từ + giới từ + danh từ: The girl in blue, the Gulf of Mexico. Dùng trước những tính từ so sánh bậc nhất hoặc only: The only way, the best day. Dùng cho những khoảng thời gian xác định (thập niên): In the 1990s The + danh từ + đại từ quan hệ + mệnh đề phụ: The man to whom you have just spoken is the chairman. The + danh từ số ít tượng trưng cho một nhóm thú vật hoặc đồ vật: The whale = whales (loài cá voi), the deep-freeze (thức ăn đông lạnh) Đối với man khi mang nghĩa “loài người” tuyệt đối không được dùng the: Since man lived on the earth …(kể từ khi loài người sinh sống trên trái đất này) Dùng trước một danh từ số ít để chỉ một nhóm, một hạng người nhất định trong xã hội: The small shopkeeper: Giới chủ tiệm nhỏ/ The top offcial: Giới quan chức cao cấp The + adj: Tượng trưng cho một nhóm người, chúng không bao giờ được phép ở số nhiều nhưng được xem là các danh từ số nhiều. Do vậy động từ và đại từ đi cùng với chúng phải ở ngôi thứ 3 số nhiều: The old = The old people; The old are often very hard in their moving The + tên gọi các đội hợp xướng/ dàn nhạc cổ điển/ ban nhạc phổ thông: The Back Choir/ The Philharmonique Philadelphia Orchestra/ The Beatles. The + tên gọi các tờ báo (không tạp chí)/ tàu biển/ các khinh khí cầu: The Times/ The Titanic/ The Hindenberg The + họ của một gia đình ở số nhiều = giađình nhà: The Smiths = Mr/ Mrs Smith and children Thông thường không dùng the trước tên riêng trừ trường hợp có nhiều người hoặc vật cùng tên và người nói muốn ám chỉ một người cụ thể trong số đó: There are three Sunsan Parkers in the telephone directory. The Sunsan Parker that I know lives on the First Avenue. Tương tự, không dùng “the” trước bữa ăn: breakfast, lunch, dinner: We ate breakfast at 8 am this morning. Trừ khi muốn ám chỉ một bữa ăn cụ thể: The dinner that you invited me last week were delecious. Không dùng “the” trước một số danh từ như home, bed, church, court, jail, prison, hospital, school, class, college, university v.v… khi nó đi với các động từ và giới từ chỉ chuyển động chỉ đi đến đó là mục đích chính hoặc ra khỏi đó cũng vì mục đích chính: Students go to school everyday. Nhưng nếu đến đó hoặc ra khỏi đó không vì mục đích chính thì dùng “the”. Students go to the school for a class party. b) Bảng sử dụng “the” và không sử dụng “the” trong một số trường hợp điển hình 250


Có “The”

Không “The”

Dùng trước tên các đại dương, sông ngòi, biển, vịnh và các cụm hồ (số nhiều)The Red Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Persian Gufl, the Great Lakes + Trước tên các dãy núi:The Rocky Mountains Trước tên những vật thể duy nhất trong vũ trụ hoặc trên thế giới: The earth, the moon The schools, colleges, universities + of + danh từ riêng The University of Florida The + số thứ tự + danh từ The third chapter. Trước tên các cuộc chiến tranh khu vực với điều kiện tên khu vực đó phải được tính từ hoá The Korean War (=> The Vietnamese economy) Trước tên các nước có hai từ trở lên (ngoại trừ GreatBritain) The United States, The Central African Republic Trước tên các nước được coi là một quần đảo hoặc một quần đảo The Philipines, The Virgin Islands, The Hawaii Trước tên các tài liệu hoặc sự kiện lịch sử The Constitution, The Magna Carta Trước tên các nhóm dân tộc thiểu số the Indians Trước tên các môn học cụ thể The Solid matter Physics Trước tên các nhạc cụ khi đề cập đến các nhạc cụ đó nói chung hoặc khi chơi các nhạc cụ đó. The violin is difficult to play Who is that on the piano

+Trước tên một hồ Lake Geneva+ Trước tên một ngọn núi Mount Vesuvius Trước tên các hành tinh hoặc các chòm sao Venus, Mars Trước tên các trường này nếu trước nó là một tên riêng Stetson University Trước các danh từ đi cùng với một số đếm Chapter three, Word War One Trước tên các nước chỉ có một từ: China, France, Venezuela, Vietnam Trước tên các nước mở đầu bằng New, một tính từ chỉ hướng: New Zealand, North Korean, France Trước tên các lục địa, tỉnh, tiểu bang, thành phố, quận, huyện: Europe, Florida Trước tên bất kì môn thể thao nào baseball, basketball Trước các danh từ trừu tượng (trừ một số trường hợp đặc biệt): freedom, happiness Trước tên các môn học nói chung mathematics Trước tên các ngày lễ, tết Christmas, Thanksgiving Trước tên các loại hình nhạc cụ trong các hình thức âm nhạc cụ thể (Jazz, Rock, classical music..) To perform jazz on trumpet and piano

B. Exercise: Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions. My friend’s uncle has been _________ MP (Member of Parliament for 5 years. A. a B. an C. the D. Ø 2. This year’s conference coincided ___________ two other major conventions. A. on B. to C. for D. with 3. ___________ Mr Smith helped her start the motorbike. A. The B. A C. An D. Ø 4. I __________ in the middle of the film and woke up at the end. A. hung up B. fell out C. dropped off D. put down 251


5. __________ handball is the fast becoming __________ popular sport worldwide. A. The – the B. Ø – a C. A – Ø D. Ø – the David paid __________ everyone’s lunch yesterday, as he’s just won some money ______ the lottery. A. for – on B. for – for C. on – on D. on – for 7. She spends hours ________ talking to all her friends. A. on phone B. on the phone C. at a phone D. at phone 8. In the future factories will be ________ largely by robots. A. jogged B. done C. played D. run 9. Artificial intelligence is ___________ to have a large influence on our lives. A. subject B. alike C. bound D. busy 10. On the ___________, optimists believe that life will be much better than it is today. A. contrary B. contrast C. opposition D. opponent 11. We are really ________ about the peace process in the region. A. optimism B. optimistic C. optimist D. optimistically 12. People believe that he was killed by a group of __________ A. terrorize B. terror C. terrorists D. terrorism 13. The earth is being _____________ by pollution. A. threat B. threaten C. threatening D. threatened As a child’s head went under the water for the third time, I stood and watch ___ to help. I can’t swim. A. powerless B. power C. powerful D. powerfully 15. In the future cars can run on anything from _________ to methane gas. A. electric B. electricity C. electrician D. electrical 16. I’m afraid you’ll have to see Mr. Pound. All matters concerning finance are his ______. A. response B. responsible C. responsibility D. responsibly 17. Although she arrived __________, we made her welcome just the same. A. expected B. unexpected C. expectedly D. unexpectedly 18. Tom fell into a deep __________ on hearing the news. A. impress B. impression C. impressing D. impressed 19. He was very sad because he was told that his best friend got an _________ disease. A. incurable B. curabe C. cure D. incurably 20. I’m sorry I haven’t phoned. I’ve been ________ busy this week. A. credible B. incredible C. incredibly D. credibility

28. PEOPLE AND PLACES PRESENTATION I. Vocabulary a) Vocabulary in contrast

relationship/connection

support/assist

company/group

blame/fault

kind/polite

popular/famous

old/ancient

sympathetic/ likeable

typical/usual/ordinary

crowd/audience

nervous/ bad-tempered

close/near 252


enjoy/ please

sensitive/sensible

unknown/infamous

b) Phrasal verbs Ask after ask for news about

Make up become friends again after an argument

Bring up look after a child until he or she becomes an adult

Pass away die

Fall for fall in love with; believe (a lie/ trick)

Pick on keep treatingsomeone badly or unfairly

Fall out (with) have an argument with and stop being friends

Put down criticise, make someone feel stupid

Get on (with) have a good relationship (with)

Settle down become calm after being upset, ect; stay in one place or get married and live quietly

Grow up become older

Stand up for support in an argument or fight

Look down on think that you are better than

Take back surprise (usually in passive voice)

Look up to admire and respect c) Word formation Able unable, (in)ability, disabled, Happy unhappy, disability (un)happiness, (un)happily

Obey disobey,(dis)obedient(ly), (dis)obedience

Achieve achievement

Jealous jealousy, jealously

Person (im)personal(ly), personality

Argue argument, argumentative

Kind unkind,(un)kindness, kindly

Polite impotite,(im)politely, (im)politeness

Marry marriage, Care careful(ly),careless(ly),(un)caring (un)married,(un)married

Relate relative(ly), relation, relationship

Correspond correspondence

Willing unwilling, (un)willingness, (un)willingly

Nerve nervous(ly), nervousness

II. Structures S + V + too + adj/adv + (for someone) + to do something: (quá....để cho ai làm gì...) e.g. This structure is too easy for you to remember.e.g. He ran too fast for me to follow. It + be + time + S + V (-ed, cột 2) / It’s +time +for someone +to do something : (đã đến lúc ai đó phải làm gì...) e.g. It is time you had a shower. e.g. It’s time for me to ask all of you for this question. To be/get Used to + V-ing: (quen làm gì) e.g. I am used to eating with chopsticks. Used to + V (infinitive): (Thường làm gì trong quá khứ và bây giờ không làm nữa) e.g. I used to go fishing with my friend when I was young.e.g. She used to smoke 10 cigarettes a day. would like/ want/wish + to do something: thích làm gì... e.g. I would like to go to the cinema with you tonight. It + be + something/ someone + that/ who: chính...mà... e.g. It is Tom who got the best marks in my class. e.g. It is the villa that he had to spend a lot of money last year. 253


7. It’s the first time smb have ( has ) + PII smt ( Đây là lần đầu tiên ai làm cái gì ) eg: It’s the first time we have visited this place.( Đây là lần đầu tiên chúng tôi tới thăm nơi này ) Would ( ‘d ) rather (not) do smt (Thà làm gì ) VD: I’d rather stay at home. I’d rather not stay at home. Would ( ‘d ) rather smb did smt ( Muốn ai làm gì ) eg: I’d rather you ( he / she ) stayed at home today.( Tôi muốn bạn / anh ấy / cô ấy ở nhà tối nay) Would rather ('d rather) + V (infinitive) + than + V (infinitive): (thích làm gì hơn làm gì) e.g. She would rather play games than read books. e.g. I’d rather learn English than learn Biology. CHỈ SỰ NHƯỢNG BỘ No matter + what / who / when / where / why + S + V No matter + how (adj / adv) + S + V Whatever (+ noun) / whoever / whenever / wherever + S + V However (+ adj) + S + V No matter who you are, I still love you. Don’t trust him, no matter what he says. Phone me when you arrive, no matter how late it is. Whatever problems you have, you can phone me. Whatever you say, I don’t believe you. I’m not opening the door, whoever you are. However much he eats, he never gets fat. - adj / adv + as / though + S + V: mặc dù, dù Rich as he is, he is unhappy. = Rich though he is, he is unhappy. 12. WISH / IF ONLY Hiện tại: S + wish + S + QKĐ If only + S + QKĐ I am poor now. → I wish / If only I were rich. Quá khứ: S + wish + S + QKHT If only + S + QKHT I didn’t meet her . I wish / if only I had met her. Tương lai: S + wish + S + would / could + V1 If only + S + would / could + V1 I wish I could attend your wedding next week. 13. CHỈ KẾT QUẢ: – so many / so few + danh từ đếm được số nhiều + that + clause – so much / little + danh từ không đếm được + that + clause There were so few people at the meeting that it was canceled. I have got so little time that I can’t manage to have lunch with you. – Cấu trúc khác của so … that S + V + so + adj + a + Noun (đếm được số ít) + that + S + V S + V + so + adj/ adv + that + S + V: (quá... đến nỗi mà...) = So + Adjective/ Adverb +( Auxiliary) / be + S ( Verb) that S+ Verb e.g. This box is so heavy that I cannot take it. e.g. He speaks so soft that we can’t hear anything. It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors. It + V + such + (a/an) + Adj+ N(s) + that + S + V: (quá... đến nỗi mà...) 254


e.g. It is such a heavy box that I cannot take it. e.g. It is such interesting books that I cannot ignore them at all. – Có thể dùng such trước danh từ không có tính từ She is such a baby that we never dare to leave her alone. (Nó trẻ con đến nỗi chúng tôi không bao giờ dám để nó ở nhà một mình). – So được dùng với many, much, few, little; such được dùng với a lot of Why did you buy so much food? = Why did you buy such a lot of food? – So được đặt ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh, theo sau phải đảo ngữ So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped out. B. PRACTICE Exercise 1: Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D. 1. Everyone said they had…………………….themselves at the wedding. A. enjoyed B. impressed C. pleased D. excited 2. Mary seems to go out with a different ……………of friends almost every night. A. group B. company C. band D. collection 3.People can become very………..when they are stuck in traffic for a long time. A. nervous B. bad-tempered C. stressful D. pressed 4. More and more people are living into ………..age and it’s a serious social problem. A. high B. ancient C. far D. old 5. Stephanie seems to be very………….with her classmates. A. likeable B. famous C. known D. popular 6. Most……….people have no idea what it’s like to be famous. A. usual B. ordinary C. typical D. medium 7.When my parents got divorced, my best friend was very ………and listened to all my problems. A. likeable B. amusing C. sympathetic D. enjoyable 8. Rita’s very……….and easily gets upset when people criticise her. A.level-headed B. sensitive C.sensible D. open-minded 9. Police were called in when the………..of people began to get violent. A. crowd B. company C. audience D. herd 10. My dad says he once met Robbie Williams when he was still………… A. unknown B. hidden C. infamous D. unrelated 11.The city is quite a…………away from my house. A. journey B. space C. length D. distance 12.The supermarket is trying ………..people to use paper bags. A. to bar B. to ban C. to encourage D. to prohibit 13. Our mother Earth has now been………only planet in the solar system to support human life. A. a B. an C. the D. no article 14. Rob has a lot of ……………problems at the moment, and it’s affecting his schoolwork. A. person B. personal C. personalized D. personnel 15. The national ……………of the Phillipines is Christianity. A. culture B. nationality C. religion D. tradition Exercise 2: Complete using the words from the box. You need to use one word twice.

255


get

make

put

look

bring

fall

grow

PERSONALITY Some of us seem to be infinitely kind, while others seem to (1)…..….down on everyone around them. Some of us never forget an argument, while others (2)…………up and forgive easily. As we (3)……….up, our personality develops and we find that we (4)…....on with cetain people more than others. Who we seem to have a large genetic element, but is also influenced by those who (5)……us up. If we (6)….…..up to our parents seem to (7)……us down all the time and we (8)……out with them a lot, then perhaps we will develop quite different personalities. Exercise 3: Choose the best answer A, B, C or D. PLACES When I first arrived here to take up my new job, I stayed in a hotel, but I soon started looking for some permanent(1)………. The first flat (2)………over was in a basement and was obviously extremely damp in winter. Quite apart from the fact that the only (3)……was of thick wall. Then I had a look at a small flat in a modern block. It had a (4)…..space and a garden, but the rent was far too high for me. I didn’t want to end up in a tiny place, so I answered an ad for house-sharing. The house was in a quiet (5)…….., and as soon as I saw it I fell in love with it. There was a high overgrown (6)……..around the front garden, and (7)…..to park cars in the drive. The room to let looked out (8)…. The back garden, and had a big bay window. Although it meant (9)…..the kitchen and living room, I did have my own bathroom, really just a shower and washbasin (10)…..into what must have once been a cupboard. 1. A. home 2. A. passed 3.A. A. view 4. A. living 5. A. surroundings 6. A. fence 7. A. room 8. A. in 9. A. sharing 10. A. crammed

B. accommodation B. viewed B. entrance B. breathing B. context B. bush B. permission B. at B. in B. crowded

C. house C. came C. distance C. working C. neighbourhood C. hedge C. areas C. over C. without C. cluttered

D. landlords D. looked D. bathroom D. parking D. premises D. lawn D. place D. for D. having D. poured

Exercise 4: Choose the best answer A, B, C or D. 1.I study harder…………I can pass the university entrance examination. A. as if B. so that C. in order to D. although I would rather Jane ……………..my brother so much money. I know for sure that I will have to pay his debt. A. not lend B. would not lend C. had not lent D. did not lend 3.My friend said she was very glad…………..real Hollywood star. A. to meet B. in meeting C. for meeting D. that she could meet 4. The drum player ………….play with a dance band when he was young. A. usually B. is used C. used to D. is used to 5. At first Jam was reluctant, but we finally got him ………..his piano at our opening ceremony. A. played B. playing C. play D. to play 6. It was ……………..day that I want to hang out with my classmates. A. so wonderful day B. such a wonderful 256


C. so a wonderful day D. such wonderful a 7……………your help, I would have been late for the urgent meeting yesterday. A. Thanks to B. Because of C. But for D. Despite 8. You …………….. You’ve made your point clearly enough already. A. needn’t continue B.mustn’t continue C. don’t have continue D. won’t continue 9. I wish they ………….me for the coffee tasting group. I didn’t sleep all night. A. didn’t choose B. wouldn’t choose C. hadn’t chosen D. don’t choose 10. It is the only kind of books …………people do not read but are immersed in. A. which B. that C. who D. whom 11. ……..hard he has worked, he hardly support his family of ten people. A. However B. Although C. Despite D. In spite 12. I’d rather you……..…those important documents with you. A. don’t take B. didn’t take C. won’t take D. not take 13. It’s high time the children………….to bed. A. should go B. go C. went D. would rather go 14. I’d prefer to find out the truth my self……………here to wait for him. A. than to stay B. rather than to stay C. than stay D. rather than stay “ Did you go to the shopping mall to see a movie last night?” “ Yes, I ………….home, because I had a little fever.” A. would rather stay B. would rather stayed C. would stay D. would rather have stayed 16………………that Marie was able to retire at the age of fifty. A. So successful her business was B. So successful was her business C. Her business was so successful D. B&C are correct 17.Michelle’s got so………to opera that it has become a constant companion of her life. A. used to listening B. used to listen C. used in listening D. use to listen 18. The cook made …………..that some people were not served. A. too little B. so little food C. so few food D. so much food 19. It was not until recently…………….how truthful he was. A. did we realize B. that we realized C. which we realized D. when we realized 20. The problem ws difficult; therefore, …………….students could answer it. A. few B. a lot of C. a great number D. a few Exercise 5: Choose the sentence which has the closest meaning to the original one. Janet is so creative that we all can rely on her for original ideas. A. Being creative, we all can rely on Janet for original ideas. B. Creative as Janet is, we all can rely on her for original ideas. C. So creative is Janet that we all can rely on her for original ideas. D. Janet is such creative girl that we all can rely on her for original ideas. It was careless of you to leave the windows open last night. A. You shouldn’t leave the windows open last night. B. You are so careless that you left the windows open last night. C. You shouldn’t have left the windows open last night. D. You might have been careless because you left the windows open last night. 3. I wish you hadn’t said that. 257


A. I wish you not to say that B. If only you didn’t say that C. I hope you will not say that. D. It would be nice if you hadn’t said that. Wealthy as they were, they were far from happy. A. They were as wealthy as they were happy. B. They were not happy as they were wealthy. C. Even if they were wealthy, they were not unhappy. D. Although they were wealthy, they were not happy. Despite the fact that it was snowing, I felt warm. A. In spite of snowing, I felt warm. B. In spite of feeling warm, it was snowing. C. Although it was snowing, I felt warm. D. Although I felt warm, it was snowing. This is the first time I attend such an enjoyable wedding party. A. The first wedding party I attended was enjoyable. B. I had the first enjoyable wedding party. C. My attendance at the first wedding party was enjoyable. D. I have never attended such an enjoyable wedding party before. Barry continued to smoke even though we had advised him to quit. A. Barry took our advice so he stopped smoking. B. If we had advised Barry, he would have quit smoking. C. Barry did not quit smoking because of our advice. D. Despite being told not to smoke, Barry continued to do. 8.Many people think Steve stole the money. A. It was not Steve who stole the money. B. Steve is thought to have stolen the money. C. Many people think the money is stolen by Steve. D. The money is thought to be stolen by Steve. If I were taller, I could reach the top shelf: A. I am not tall enough to reach the top shelf. B. I am too tall to reach the top shelf. C. I cannot reach the top shelf because I am very tall. D. In spite of being tall, I cannot reach the top shelf. If only I had studied hard enough to pass the final exam. A. I regret not studying hard enough to pass the final exam. B. I had studied hard enough and I passed the final exam. C. I studied too hard to pass the final exam. D. I studied hard otherwise I would fail the final exam. It was your assistance that enabled us to get achievement. A. But for you assistance, we could not have got achievement. B. Your assistance discouraged us from get achievement. C. If you assisted us, we could not get achievement. D. Without your assistance, we could get achievement. Mary tried to keep calm although she was very disappointed. A. Mary was too disappointed to keep calm. B. Disappointed as she was, Mary tried to keep calm. C. Mary lost her temper because of her disappointment. D. Feeling disappointed, Mary tried to keep calm, but she failed. Because it was an interesting novel, I stayed up all night to finish it. A. I stayed up all night to finish the novel, therefore, it was interesting. 258


B. Unless it were an interesting novel, I would stay up all night to finish it. C. Though it was an interesting novel, I stayed up all night to finish it. D. So interesting was the novel that I stayed up all night to finish it. 14. He cannot afford a new computer. A. The new computer is so expensive that he cannot buy it. B. Therefore, he would buy a new computer. C. So, he would buy a new computer. D. The new computer is so expensive but he can buy it It’s time we left for the disco. A. We may leave for the disco now. B. We needn’t leave for the disco now. C. We should leave for the disco now. D. We must have leave for the disco now. If I were you, I would take the train instead of the bus. A. You should have taken the train instead of the bus. B. You should take the train instead of the bus. C. I advise you to take the bus. D. You must have taken the train instead of the bus. The boy was too fat to run far. A. The boy was very fat and couldn’t run far. B. The boy’s fatness didn’t stop him running far. C. The boy had to run a lot because he was too fat. D. The boy became ill because he was too fat. No matter how hard I tried, I couldn’t open the door. A. Try as hard as I might, I couldn’t open the door. B. I tried hard to open the door. C. It was difficult for me to open the door. D. I could open the door with difficulty. I’d like you to wait until they bring out a new model. A. I’d rather you waited until they bring out a new model. B. I’d rather you to wait until they bring out a new model. C. I’d rather you wait until they bring out a new model. D. I’d rather you waiting until they bring out a new model. I used to work as a security guard. A. I am used to working as a security guard. B. I no longer work as a security guard. C. I worked as a security guard and I am used to it.

D. I am going to work as a security guard.

29. Cloze tests Exercise 1: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. I don’t believe in ghosts! 259


Last year I stayed for a few days in an old house in Scotland which was famous for its ghost. I don’t really believe in ghosts, so I’m not afraid of them of course. So when my hosts suggested (1)________ up all night to see their ghost, I simply laughed at them. Then they told me about the woman who haunted their house. She had been accused (2)________ murdering her husband in the eighteenth century because she had been jealous of him, but she had avoided (3)_________tried, and had disappeared. She appeared quite regularly, walking through the house as if she was searching for something. I agreed to watch that night, although it would (4)_________ sitting for hours in the cold. I expected one of my friends to appear dressed as the ghost, and so when the figure of a woman finally came towards me, I (5)_______to be terrified. You can imagine my surprise when the figure took a knife from her dress, and then vanished. I decided to disappear myself, and drove home to London as quickly as I could. 1. A. walking B. getting C. staying D. coming 2. A. that B. of C. for D. while 3. A. and B. being C. but D. having 4. A. mean B. be C. have D. uncomfortable 5. A. wanted B. imagined C. pretended D. supposed Exercise 2: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Holidays Is it better to go on a package tour, or to travel on your own? I suppose the answer depends on what kinds of (1) _________ you are. A complicated tour organized by a travel agent has some advantages. You have an itinerary, which give you definite departure (2) _________ arrival dates, and a list of all your destination. The accomodation may be cheaper, as it has been (3)_________ in advance, so you spend less time worrying about where you are going to stay. If you book your own hotel, you might have trouble finding a/an (4) _________ , unless you are going to stay for a fortnight, for example. On the other hand, organizing your own trip can be fun. Many students hitch-hike or buy cheap train tickets, and (5)_________ the night in student hotel or guess-house. 1. A. voyager B. passenger C. tourist D. mover 2. A. and B. but C. or D. so 3. A. booking B. booked C. book D. to book 4. A. empty B. free C. vacancy D. available 5. A. have B. make C. do D. spend Exercise 3: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Choosing a job One of the most difficult decision is choosing what to do for a living. For example, do you want to follow a definite career, and (1) _________ a low salary at the beginning but have a good prospect in a company (2) ___________trains its staff? Or you are more interested in taking away any kind of work, because you need an income? You may have to (3) ___________the fact that a good job can be difficult to find. In that case, why not take a (4) ___________ one? You will gain some useful experience. Remember that even if you have the right qualification, you may have to fill in lots of application forms before you are asked to (5)__________ an interview. But don’t worry if you don’t know what you want to do exactly. You’ll enjoy finding out! 1. A. earn B. gain C. win D. take 2. who B. whose C. that D. where 3. A. face up to B. go over C. come up with D. call off 4. A. temporary B. overtime C. profitable D. short 5. A. be B. attend C. make D. advertise Exercise 4: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. 260


Sport Someone once said that there are three kinds of people who are interested in sport: people who are (1) __________ part, people who watch and people who watch on television. It’s very easy to make fun of stay-at-home sports fans, but (2)__________the other hand, television does enable us to enjoy all kinds of sports events. We can watch a racing car overtake another, see a cyclist cross the finishing line, or enjoy the goals of our favorite football (3) _______. The first time I watched a tennis match was on television, and I found it (10)_______ interesting. It’s not always easy to travel long distances to football grounds, and television is good solution. Of course, you can get used to sitting indoors all the time, and this is dangerous. We should all try to (5) _______ fit, and have other interests and pasttimes. 1. A. take B. have C. make D. get 2. In B. on C. with D. on 3. A. group B. class C. band D. team 4. A. valuable B. imaginatively C. unexpectedly D. real 5. A. keep B. make C. do D. have Exercise 5: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Choosing clothes Are you one of the thousands of people who eagerly follow every new fashion that appears? Or are you one of those who go to the shops and just buy what ever they can find in their (1)________that suits them? Or perhaps you order from a mail-order catalogue, and then have to send everything back because nothing fits? Whatever (2) ________of shopper you are, one thing is certain. Everyone finds clothes important. According to a recent survey, people spend more time either buying clothes, or thinking about buying them, or looking at them in shop windows than they do on most other products, ________ from food. And the reason is obvious. Clothes are an important part of our appearance. At work, you may need to impress a customer, or persuade the boss that you know what you are doing, and clothes certainly help. (4) ________ dressed people, so they say, get on in the world. And as far as attracting the opposite sex is concerned, clothes also play a vital role. If a friend who has been wearing the same old jacket of the same old dress suddenly appears in the latest fashion, you can be sure that romance is in the air. And apart form work and romance, there are influences of sport, music and leisure on the way we dress. So excuse me while I (5) ________ on my tracksuit and training shoes. I’m just dashing off for some fast window-shopping. 1. A. place B. price C. size D. self 2. A. means B. typical C. idea D. kind 3. A. or B. apart C. according D. taken 4. A. Well B. Good C. Best D. Fancy 5. A. put B. dress C. wear D. have

Exercise 6: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Moving in The entrance to the flat was at the side of the house. Jane had to walk along a path across the lawn and past a shed full of gardening equipment. Inside the back door there was a flight (1) ________ stair and then another door on the landing. It was a furnished flat with a bedroom, living room, kitchen and bathroom. There was not a lot of (2) ________ but certainly enough for a student like Jane. There was a fireplace in the living room with an electric fire, and the kitchen had a small (3) ________ and a fridge. The bathroom did not have a bath, only a shower and a basin, but Jane didn’t mind. She was thinking about other problems. There wasn’t a washing machine, and there was (4) ________central heating. It was raining outside, and the flat felt damp and chilly. On the bed there were some blankets and a duvet, but no sheets. It was lucky that Jane had brought a sleeping bag. As she was wondering what to do next, there was a knock (5) ________ the door. 261


1. A. in B. on C. off D. of 2. A. furniture B. rent C. neighbours D. housing 3. A. cook B. cookery C. cooker D. cooking 4. A. no B. much C. any D. many 5. A for B behind C to D at Exercise 7: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Past, present and future. A hundred years ago, most people traveled on foot, by train, or on horse back. Railways had made it possible to travel rapidly over long distances. Bicycles were also becoming popular, after the (1)_________ of the air-filled tyre, which made cycling a lot more comfortable. Buses, trams and underground railways had already been invented, and cities all over the world already had traffic ________ . There were very few private cars, and city streets were still full of horses. What a difference a hundred years have (3) ________! Nowsadays we have got used to the problem of private cars, and some cities are so noisy and (4) ________ that in many places vehicles have been banned from the city centre. How will we be traveling in a hundred years’ time? Perhaps by then there will be only personal helicopters. There may be no beed to (5) ________ to work or school in the future, since everyone will have a computer at home. There might even be more people walking and horse-riding, for pleasure and exercise. 1. A. invention B. invented C. inventor D. inventing 2. A. blocks B. sticks C. knots D. jams 3. A. taken B. done C. made D. got 4. A. even B. polluted C. so D. poisoned 5. A. have B. transport C. decide D. commute Exercise 8: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Do it yourself What do you do when something breaks down? Are you the kind of person who knows how things ________? Or do you prefer to have them repaired by an expert? Personally when I use a hammer I always hit my finger, and I can never unscrew anything with my screwdriver (2)__________I can never find it. Despite having all the wrong equipment, and despite being a useless mechanic, I recently decided to take my bike to pieces and fix it. I had (3) ________out of money as usual, and as I use my bike for getting to college, I had no choice. It was making a terrible noise, and the front tyre was (4) ________. I had a few tools but I didn’t have any apsre parts. I managed to undo the wheel and take it (5)__________, but then I lost my spanner, and couldn’t put the wheel back on properly. At least I am taking more exercise, as I now have to walk to college. 1. A. do B. make C. fix D. work 2. A. because B. however C. so D. although 3. A. spent B. paid C. run D. fallen 4. A. flat B. empty C. over D. bad 5. A. on B. back C. down D. off Exercise 9: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. A letter to the editor Dear Sir, We are writing to suggest that all cars should be bannedfrom t he centre of the city as soon as possible. The amount of pollution from the car exhaust fumes is now (1) ________, and we believe that the public must be protected. Apart from this, the streets are crowded (2)________ cars, and our lives are at risk when we try to cross the road! There has been a huge (3)________ in the 262


amount of traffic recently, and the government just seems to put off the problems, instead of dealing with it. Unless we (4) ________ the traffic problem, and seriously consider some of the sollutions, life in our city will become impossible. Our organization, Cities for People, has been set up to make the government do something! We are holding a (5) ________ next week in the city centre, and hope that many people will join us. 1. A. unbearable B. much C. overcrowded D. exceeded 2. A. from B. in C. with D. between 3. A. size B. number C. growing D. increase 4. A. look for B. make out C. face up to D.come round to 5. A. demonstrate B. demonstrator C. demonstrative D. demonstration Exercise 10:: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. The London Underground map is extremely well designed. Simple, clear to understand and (1)__________, it performs its primary tasks of guiding both inhabitants and tourists round the underground systems in London very well. The man behind this great (2)________was called Henry Beck, an employee of the London Underground Drawing office, (3)___________designed the map in 1931. The design of the map showed great speciality because it represented a complex network of communication clearly. This design was later used by most of the world’s underground systems. The map used before 1931 was messy and unclear, (4)__________ Beck decided to sketch out a better one using a diagram rather than a traditional map. This new map was an enormous success with the public, when, In 1931,it made its first (5)___________on underground platforms and at station entrances. 1. A. attract

B. attractive

C. attractively

D. attraction

2. A. finding

B. result

C. gain

D. achievement

3. A. that

B. who

C. whose

D. whom

4. A. so

B. because

C. but

D. as

5. A. look

B. turn

C. show

D. appearance

Exercise 1: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. You have probably never heard of Charles Burgess Fry but in the early years of this century, he was the most famous while still at university, mainly on (1)________of his achievements in sport. He was, at the same time, captain of the university football, cricket and athletics teams and (2)________the world record for the long run jump. He was also a popular sports journalist. He was so famous that letters addressed to Mr Fry, Oxford were delivered to him without any difficulty. His college, (3)__________it had quite a different name, was known as “Fry” College. Some people have criticized Fry’s sporting achievements. They point out that he lived at a time when standards were quite low and it was much easier to (4)_________well in several sports. It is certainly true that athletes of that time did not have the totally dedicated skills of modern athletes. However, it is only fair to judge him (5)________the standards of his own time. There is no doubt that he had extraordinary skill combined skill with an ability to write about sport with style and intelligence.

1. A. case

B. account

C. view

D. regard

2. A. held

B. did

C. made

D. reached

3. A. despite

B. although

C. however

D. otherwise

4. A. make

B. be

C. go

D. do 263


5. A. for

B. by

C. with

D. as

Exercise 12: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Polar bears are in danger of dying out. Unlike some other endangered animals, it's not hunters that are the problem, it's climate change. Since 1979, the ice cap at the Arctic Circle where the polar bears has reduced in size (1)_______ about 30 per cent. The temperature in the Arctic has slowly been rising and this is (2)_______ the sea ice to melt, endangering the polar bears' home. The polar bears' main sources of food are the different types of seals found in the Arctic. They catch them by waiting next to the air holes seals have made in the ice. (3)_______ the bears are very trong swimmers, they could never catch seals in water. This means that the bears really do rely on the ice to hunt. Polar bears also need sea ice to travel. They can cover a huge territory and often swim from one part of the ice to another. They have been (4)_______ to swim up to 100 km, but when there is less ice, they may have to swim further and this can (5)_______ fatal to the bears. A number of bears have drown in the last few years and scientists believe that it is because they were not able to reach more ice before they became too tired and couldn't swim any further. 1. A. for B. by C. in D. within 2. A. making B. resulting C. causing D. turning B. As C. Despite D. Although 3. A. Even 4. A. known B. experienced C. learnt D. noticed 5. A. end B. prove C. come D. happen Exercise 13: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Do you ever wish you were more optimistic, someone who always expected to be successful? Having someone around who always fears the worst isn't really a lot of (1)________-we all know someone who sees a single cloud on a sunny day and says, 'It looks like rain.' But if you catch yourself thinking such things, it's important to do something about it. You can change your view of life, according to psychologist. It only takes a little effort, and you'll find life more rewarding as a (2)________ .Optimism, they say, is partly about self-respect and confidence but it's also a more positive way of looking at life and all it has to (3)___________. Optimists are more likely to start new projects and are generally more prepared to take risks. Upbringing is obviously very important in forming your attitude to the world. Some people are brought up to depend too much on others and grow up forever blaming other people when anything (4)_________ wrong. Most optimists, on the other hand, have been brought up not to (5)_________ failure as the end of the world - they just get on with their lives. 1. A. amusement B. play C. enjoyment D. fun B. reason C. purpose D. product 2. A. result 3. A. supply B. suggest C. offer D. propose 4. A. goes B. falls C. comes D. turns 5. A. respect B. regard C. suppose D. think Exercise 14: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Left-handers are the odd ones out. Sure, lefties make up about 10 percent of the population — but, frankly, it seems (1)________society has forgotten about them. Just consider all of the right-handed gadgets, awkwardly designed desks, and cooking tools that fit comfortably only in your right hand. What (2)__________ someone to become a lefthand ? Scientists aren’t exactly sure, but research points to a complex (3)__________ between genes and environment. While no exact set of “leftie genes” have been discovered, people who dominantly use their left hands do have more left-handed family members. And researchers have found different brain wirings in righties vs. lefties. But no matter (4) ________ it is that drives someone to use their antipodal paw, science has also uncovered a 264


particular set of personality traits that left-handed people tend to have. So for all of you lefties, leftie-loving righties, and ambidextrous folks out there — it’s time to brush up on your left-handed knowledge and help (5) ________ an end to leftie discrimination once and for all. 1. A. as B. like C. untrue D. common 2. A. causes B. does C. makes D. gets 3. A. collaborate B. collaborated C. collaboration D. collaborating 4. A. who B. which C. that D. what 5. A. put B. make C. take D. bring Exercise 15: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Tomato originated in Central and South America. The Nahuatl (Aztec language) word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word "tomate", from which the English word tomato originates. Numerous varieties of tomato are (1) ______ grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing its production throughout the year and in cooler areas. The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (2) _________ height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennialin its native habitat, and grown as an annual in temperate climates. An average common tomato (3) ________ approximately 100 grams. Its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Tomato is (4) _______ in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. (5) ________ tomatoes are botanically berry-type fruits, they are considered culinary vegetables, being ingredients of savory meals. 1. A. wide B. widely C. widen D. width 2. A. in B. on C. at D. about 3. A. rises B. raises C. weighs D. grows 4. A. bought B. sold C. stored D. consumed 5. A. While B. Although C. Because D. When Exercise 16: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Clear communication between the pitcher and catcher is (1) __________ important to successful baseball. Obviously the catcher and pitcher cannot verbally communicate, so, they must communicate through a series of (2)________ signals. The most common way for the catcher to relay a sign to the pitcher, or call a pitch, is using the fingers of his throwing hand. The signal is given from the squatting position and the hand should be positioned between the legs and be back up against or close to your cup. Watch that your hand is not too low or your signs will be visible under your body. The signal should be given with deliberate finger movements to (3)________ the pitcher to see the signs. Do not give your sign too quickly or you will confuse your pitcher. The catcher's legs should be opened wide _______ so only the pitcher and middle infielders can see what pitch is being called. Do not open your legs too far or the coaches from the (5) ________ team can see your signs and relay the pitch to the hitter. Your glove hand should be positioned to the outside and just below the knee of your left leg (for right-handed catchers) to aid in blocking your signs. 1. A. vital B. vitally C. vitality D. vitals 2. A. hand B. head C. arm D. eye 3. A. let B. have C. get D. allow 4. A. too B. so C. such D. enough 5. A. home B. visiting C. opposing D. winning Exercise 17: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. The majority of people assume an autograph is the same (1)_______ a signature. There are some very important differences. A legal signature can be anything at all and does not have to be 265


legible. As long as you sign all your legal documents in the same general manner, it is binding in a court of law. An autograph on the other hand, must be legible enough to (2)___________ your fans and it should not be confused with your signature. As a case in point, a fan may hand you a pretty document and in your rush to get to an appointment, you might just scribble your name. If you autograph it as if it were a book jacket, that shows you were there in your celebrity persona. If that document happens to be an agent agreement or power-of-attorney contract, it can easily be argued that you did not legally sign it. (3)_________, if you use the same signature for both legal documents and fan collectibles, you may one day find yourself in a tight spot. Consider as well, that an autograph should be (4)_______ quick and easy to create. That is why an aspiring author should practice it regularly. After all, once you’re famous, you’ll (5)_______ yourself facing a horde of adoring fans at the next convention and won’t have time to think about it. 1. A. as B. like C. with D. to 2. A. discourage B. disappoint C. satisfy D. encourage 3. A. As a result B. On the other hand C. In addition D. Likewise 4. A. fair B. unfair C. fairly D. unfairly 5. A. find B. think C. see D. look Exercise 18: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Tattooing is an old art. In ancient Greece, people who had tattoos were regarded as members of the (1) __________ classes. On the other hand, tattooing was banned in Europe by the early Christians, th who thought that it was a sinful thing to (2) __________. It was not until the late 18 century, when Captain Cook saw South Sea Islander decorating their bodies with tattoos that attitudes began to change. Sailors came back from these islands with pictures of Christ on their backs and from then on, tattooing (3)__________ in popularity. A survey by the French army in 1881 showed that among the 387 men questioned there were 1,333 designs. Nowadays, not everybody finds tattoos acceptable. Some people thing that getting one is silly because tattoos are more or less permanent. There is also some (4) __________ about catching a blood disease from unsterilized needles. Even for those who do want a tattoo, the (5)__________ of getting one is not painless, but the final result, in their eyes, is worth the pain. 1. A. upper B. greater C. high D. extreme 2. A. be B. create C. do D. make 3. A. gained B. won C. earned D. made 4. A. danger B. concern C. trouble D. threat 5. A. progress B. system C. pace D. process Exercise 19: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. Nearly 200 of the 1500 native plant species in Hawaii are at risk of going extinct in the near future because they have been (1)_______ to such low numbers. Approximately 90 percent of Hawaii's plants are found nowhere else in the world but they are (2)_______ by alien invasive species such as feral goats, pigs, rodents and non-native plants. The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group is striving to prevent the extinction of the 182 rare Hawaiian plants with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the wild. Since 1990, (3)_______ a result of their "Plant Extinction Prevention Program", sixteen species have been brought into production and three species have been reintroduced. Invasive weeds have been removed in key areas and fencing put up in order to (4)_____ plants in the wild. In the future the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Program aims (5)_______ collecting genetic material from the remaining plants in the wild for storage as a safety net for the future. They also aim to manage wild populations and where possible reintroduce species into (42)_______ . 1. A. developed B. reduced C. disappeared D. increased 2. A. conserved B. guarded C. invested D. threatened 266


B. due C. as D. but 3. A. so 4. A. derive B. vary C. remain D. protect 5. A. at B. on C. with D. for Exercise 20: Read the following pasage and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space. GOING ON A DIET A typical person needs about 1,800 calories per day to stay running.. They keep your organs operating (1) _______ and your brain running. They also keep your body warm. A person gains weight because he or she consumes more calories per day than (2) ________. The only way to lose fat is to reduce the amount of calories that you consume per day. This is the basic principle behind going on a diet. Unfortunately, diets don’t work for most people. They do lose weight but then go off the diet and put it back. Building a sensible diet and exercise plan is the key (3) ________ maintaining a consistent weight. You need to figure out how many calories you need in a day and how many you actually (4) ________. The next step is to add exercise so that you can raise the number of calories you can consume per day. Burning 250 or 500 calories per day can make a big difference. You can ride an exercise bike while you are watching television (5) ________ you can take the stairs instead of the elevator. Find an exercise partner. Exercises can be a lot easier if there is someone to talk to. It’s a good idea to wear firm-fitting clothes if you are on a diet. Tight clothing acts as a reminder of what you are trying to accomplish. 1. A. proper B. properly C. improper D. improperly 2. A. necessity B. need C. needed D. necessary 3. A. for B. with C. at D. to 4. A. take off B. take in C. take up D. take away 5. A. and B. or C. but D. so II. Practice: Exercise 1. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 New Home – New School (By Megan Williams, aged 13) Last year my Dad got a new job. It was in a town where was 100 km from our home. Mum and Dad ____________ we would have to move, because it was a long way for Dad to tour every day. When they explained me about their plan I was upset (2) ____________ I loved my home and school. I was worried that I would (3) ____________ all my friends and teachers a lot. Anyway, six months after that, my family moved to the town of Hexford. The house was much bigger than our old one, and alongmy bedroom window I (4) ____________ see the sea. I wasn’t looking forward to the first day at my new school. I felt really angry about meeting lots of new people. But when I got there everyone was great! My class teacher was nice and I (5) ____________ friends with two girls in my class. Moving home isn’t that bad, after all! 1 A .chose B decided C selected D picked 2 A. because B so C but D and 3 A. forget B lose C leave D miss 4 A. shall B could C must D would 5 A. knew B found C made D met Exercise 2: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 We are using up the world’s petroleum. We use it in our cars and to heat our building in winter. Farmers use petrochemicals to (1) _______ the soil rich. They use them to kill insect (2) ______ eat 267


plants. These chemicals go into rivers and lakes and kill the fish there. Thousands of pollutants also go into the air and pollute it. Winds carry this (3) _______ air to other countries and other continents. Poor farmers use the same land over and over. The land needs a rest so it will be better next year. However, the farmers must have food this year. Poor people cut down forests (4) ______ firewood. In some areas when the trees are gone, the land becomes desert. Poor people can’t save the environment for the future. This is not a problem for one country or one area of the world. It is a problem for all- humans. The people and the nations of the world must work together to (5) _______ the world’s resources. Question 1: A. work B. change C. make D. let Question 2: A. what B. who C. whom D. which Question 3: A. pollute B. polluting C. polluted D. pollution Question 4: A. of B. for C. with D. at Question 5: A. recycle B. preserve C. keep D. use

Exercise 3: Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. The United State has many different types of families. While most American families are traditional,(1) _______a father, mother and one or more children, 22 percent of all American families in 1980 were dead by one parent, usually a woman. In a few families in the United States, there are no children. These (2) _______couples may believe that they would not make good parents, they may want freedom the responsibilities of childrearing; or, perhaps they (3) _______ physically able to have children. Other families in the United States have one adult (4) _______ is a stepparent. A stepmother or step father is a person who joins a family by marrying a father or mother. Americans tolerate and accept these different types of families. In the United States, people have the right to privacy and Americans do not believe in telling other Americans what types of family group they must belong to. They respect each other's choices regarding family groups. Families are very important (5) _______Americans. Question1: A. consisting of B. consisting C. consist of D. in concluding of Question2: A. childlike B. childish C. childless D. childhood Question3: A. weren't B. can't C. are not D. couldn't Question4: A. who B. whose C. which D. when Question5: A. to B. of C. for D. in Exercise 4. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Camping Although some groups of people have always lived outdoor in tents, camping as we know it today only began to be (1) _________ about 50 years ago. The increase in the use of cars and improvement in camping equipment have allowed more people to travel longer (2) __________ into the countryside and to stay there in greater comfort. Many campers like to be by themselves in quiet areas, so they (3)__________ their tent and food, and walk or cycle into the forests or the mountains. Others, preferring to be near people, drive to a public or privately-owned campsite (4) __________ has up-to-date facilities, like hot showers and swimming pools. Whether campers are alone in the mountains or on a busy site, they should remember to (5)________ the area clean and tidy. In the forests, they must put out any fires and keep food hidden to avoid attracting wild animals. Question 1. A. fame Question 2. A. parts

B. popular B. directions

C. favorite C. voyages

D. D.

current distances 268


Question 3. A. take Question 4. A. where Question 5. A. remain

B. make B. who B. stay

C. pick C. which C. keep

D. D. D.

do when let

Exercise 5. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Nowadays people are more aware that wildlife all over the world is in danger. Many species of animals are threatened, and could easily become (1) ______ if we do not make an effort to protect them. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, animals are hunted for their fur or for other valuable parts of their bodies. Some birds, (2) ______ as parrots are caught alive and sold as pets. For many animals and birds, the problem is that their habitat-the place where they live-is disappearing. More (3) ______ is used for farms, for houses or industry, and there are fewer open spaces than there once were. Farmers use powerful chemicals to help them grow better crops, but these chemicals pollute (4) ______ environment and harm wildlife. The most successful animal on earth-human beings-will soon be the only ones left, (5) ______ we can solve this problem. Question 1: A. extinct B. extinction C. extinctive D. extinctions Question 2: A. such B. for C. like D. or Question 3: A. area B. earth C. land D. soil Question 4: A. the B. zero article C. an D. a Question 5: A. because B. however C. if D. unless Exercise 6. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 In the early twentieth century, an American woman named Emily Post wrote a book on etiquette. This book explained the proper behavior Americans should follow in many different social (1) ______, from birthday parties to funerals. But in modern society, it is not simply to know the proper rules for behavior in your own country. It is necessary for people (2) ______ work or travel abroad to understand the rules of etiquette in other cultures as well. Cultural (3) ______ can be found in such simple processes as giving or receiving a gift. In Western cultures, a gift can be given to the receiver with relatively little ceremony. When a gift is offered, the receiver usually takes the gift and expresses his or her thanks. (4) ______, in some Asian countries, the act of gift-giving may appear confusing to Westerners. In Chinese culture, both the giver and receiver understand that the receiver will typically refuse to take the gift several times before he or she finally accepts it. In addition, to (5) ______ respect for the receiver, it is common in several Asian cultures to use both hands when offering a gift to another person. Question 1. A. positions B. conditions C. situations D. locations Question 2. A which B. who C. where D. whose Question 3. A. differences B. different C. differently D. differ Question 4. A. Moreover B. Therefore C. However D. Otherwise Question 5. A. show B. get C. feel D. take Exercise 7. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 As teenagers approach university level, a decision has to be made on what course to pursue. In this world of diversity, (1) ______ such a choice is not easy for both children and parents. In the old days, it was not much a problem to do the task because there were not so many diverse learning areas to choose from. Besides, there were only a few distinctive professional careers like doctor, engineer, accountant, nurse, teacher, etc. to think about. Most higher learning usually led to a financially successful life. (2)______, the cost of education was not so high. Today's world is entirely 269


different from the things (3) ______ have just been described. The job market is constantly changing due to innovative technology and new (4) ______. Meanwhile, most teenagers have difficulty in identifying their own interests. There are a variety of well-organized career talks and student counseling workshops to guide and help teenagers (5) ______ what course to take. Furthermore, psychological tests are also used. Certain instruments such as surveys, interviews and computer software can help to find out preferences, interests, or learning styles of the students. Question 1. A. making B. taking C. giving D. having Question 2. A. In addition B. Otherwise C. For example D. Therefore Question 3. A. when B. that C. what D. where Question 4. A. competition B. competitively C. competitive D. compete Question 5. A. apply B. study C. decide D. employ Exercise 8. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Graphic novels, as the name suggests, are books written and illustrated in the style of a comic book. Adults may feel that graphic novels do not help children become good readers. They believe that this type of reading material somehow prevents "real" reading. (1)______, many quality graphic novels are now being seen as a method of storytelling on the same level as novels, films or audio books. Many librarians and teachers are now accepting graphic novels as proper literature for children as they (2) ______ young people and motivate them to read. This has been especially true with children who are not (3) ______ to read, especially boys. Language learners are also motivated by graphic novels because the pictures provide clues to the meaning of the words. Therefore, they will (4) ______ new vocabulary more quickly. Many teachers have reported great success when they used graphic novels with their students, especially in the areas of English, social studies and art. The idea that graphic novels are too simple to be regarded as serious reading is no longer valid. Reading them can, undoubtedly, help students develop the skills (5) ______ are necessary to read more challenging works. Question 1. A. Otherwise B. Therefore C. However D. In addition Question 2. A. attract B. attractively C. attraction D. attractive B. willing C. careful D. able Question 3.A. active B. take C. know D. accept Question 4.A. learn Question 5. A. where B. that C. who D. when Exercise 9. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Culture has a strong influence on non-verbal communication. Even the simple act of looking someone in the eye is not at all that simple. In the USA, Americans are (1) ______ to look directly at people when speaking to them. It shows interest in what they are saying and is thought to carry a (2) ______ of honesty. Meanwhile, in Japan and Korea, people avoid long periods of eye contact. It is considered more polite to look to the side during a conversation. The Lebanese, (3) ______, stand close together and look intensely into each other's eyes. The action shows sincerity and gives people a better sense of what their counterparts want. Given such differences with even the most common expressions, people ______ travel or work abroad have a real need to learn the other culture's body language. People tend to be unaware of the messages they are sending to others. So, it is (5) ______ to consider your own body language before dealing with people from other cultures. Knowing about the body language of friends, clients, and colleagues can be very helpful in improving understanding and avoiding miscommunication. C. opposed D. assisted Question 1. A. encouraged B. forbidden Question 2. A. touch B. sound C. sense D. taste Question 3. A. moreover B. therefore C. in contrast D. in addition 270


Question 4. A. which Question 5. A. useful

B. whose B. usefulness

C. where C. usefully

D. who D. use

Exercise 10. Read the following passage and mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 As teenagers approach university level, a decision has to be made on what course to pursue. In this world of diversity, (1) ______ such a choice is not easy for both children and parents. In the old days, it was not much a problem to do the task because there were not so many diverse learning areas to choose from. Besides, there were only a few distinctive professional careers like doctor, engineer, accountant, nurse, teacher, etc. to think about. Most higher learning usually led to a financially successful life. (2)______, the cost of education was not so high. Today's world is entirely different from the things (3) ______ have just been described. The job market is constantly changing due to innovative technology and new (4) ______. Meanwhile, most teenagers have difficulty in identifying their own interests. There are a variety of well-organized career talks and student counseling workshops to guide and help teenagers (5) ______ what course to take. Furthermore, psychological tests are also used. Certain instruments such as surveys, interviews and computer software can help to find out preferences, interests, or learning styles of the students. Question 1. A. having B. making C. taking D. giving Question 2. A. Otherwise B. In addition C. Therefore D. For example Question 3. A. when B. what C. that D. where Question 4. A. compete B. competition C. competitive D. competitively Question 5. A. employ B. apply C. study D. decide Exercise 11. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 If you want to (1) ______ your best in an exam, you should be relaxed and so one of the best things to do is to take regular breaks even if they are only for few minutes. During revision time, you take some time off to go (2) ______ a walk or play your favourite sport. It is a mistake to take up all physical activity. Exercise can help you to relax. You should (3) ______ at least twenty minutes doing something different every day. Parents don't like if their teenage children spend hours on the phone, (4) ______, in fact, chatting with a friend is very good for you; parents think that children are wasting time and money; but research says talking to friends gives you a chance to relax, and this will make the time you spend studying more (5) ______. Question 1: A. make B. do C. go D. write Question 2: A. on B. for C. away D. to Question 3: A. spend B. waste C. use D. relax D. therefore Question 4: A. and B. so C. but Question 5: A. effect B. effectiveness C. effectively D. effective Exercise 12. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Today computers come ____(1)___ all shapes and sizes.There were still big computers for companies or universities. There are other special computers for factories. These large computers tell the fatory machines ___(2)___ to do. But there are also small ___(3)___ computers to use at home or in an office. There are even computers in telephones, television sets and cars. These computers have to be small. They are so small that you cannot even see all their parts. Computers are very useful, but they also can ____(4)___ problems. One kind of problems is with the computer's memory. It is not perfect so sometimes computers lose important information. Another problem is with the machinery. Computers are machines, and machines can break down. When the computers break down, they may erase information, ___(5)___ chalk on a blackboard. Or they may 271


stop doing anything at all. And there is another different kind of problem with computers. Some doctors say they may be bad for your health. They say you should not work with computers all day. B. in C. under D. with 1. A. at B. something C. what D. thing 2. A. everything B. private C. individual D. owner's 3. A. personal B. cause C. suffer D. gain 4. A. get B. like C. such as D. for instance 5. A. as Exercise 1: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 1 to 5. The General Certificate of Secondary Education or the GCSE examinations for (1) _____ are the standard school-leaver qualifications taken by virtually all UK students in the May and June following their 16th birthday. If you come to a UK independent school before you (2) _____ the age of 16, you will study towards GCSE examinations in up to 12 subjects. Some subjects are compulsory, including English and mathematics, and you can select (3) _____, such as music, drama, geography and history from a series of options. GCSEs provide a good all-round education that you can build on at college and eventually at university. AS- and A-levels are taken after GCSEs. They are the UK qualifications most (4) _____ accepted for entry to university and are available in subjects from the humanities, arts, sciences and social sciences as well as in (5) _____ subjects such as engineering, and leisure and tourism. You can study up to four subjects at the same time for two years. 1. A. short B. long C. big D. length 2. A. reach B. come C. approach D. go 3. A. other B. each other C. another D. others 4. A. wide B. widely C. width D. widen 5. A. practical B. apprentice C. vocational D. physical Exercise 2: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5 Nowadays people are more aware that wildlife all over the world is in _____ (1). Many species of animals are threatened, and could easily become _______(2) if we do not make an effort to protect them. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, animals are hunted ______(3) their fur or for other valuable parts of their bodies. Some birds, such as parrots, are caught alive and sold as pets. For many animals and birds, the problem is that their habitat is disappearing. More land is used for farms, for houses or industry, and there are fewer open spaces than there once were. Farmers use powerful chemicals to help them grow better crops, but these chemicals pollute the environment and ______(4) wildlife. The most successful animals on earth – human beings – will soon be the only ones left unless we can ______ (5) this problem. 1. A. danger B. threat C. problem D. dangerous 2. A. disappeared B. died C. dead D. extinct 3. A. with B. about C. for D. to 4. A. spoil B. harm C. would D. injure 5. A. answer B. solve C. explain D. calculate Exercise 3: Mark the letter A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase to fill in the blank in the following passage What is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and what is its purpose? The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a multilateral organization which was (1) _____ to give Southeast Asian states a forum to communicate (2) _____ each other. Since the region had a long colonial past and a history of endemic warfare, there has never been much peaceful and 272


constructive interaction between kings, presidents and other officials. A neutral forum was, (3) _____, a very useful development for all of those countries. ASEAN was formed as a result of the Bangkok Declaration of 1967 and initially had five members: Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Singapore. Brunei subsequently joined in 1984 after it had won independence from Britain. Vietnam became the seventh member of the group, officially joining in 1995. (4) _____ several years of negotiation, Myanmar and Laos joined in 1997 and the final member of the ten, Cambodia, joined in 1999. The only (5) _____ state in Southeast Asia which is not a member of ASEAN is now East Timor. It is still too vulnerable and fragile to be able to participate for the foreseeable future. 1: A. created B. made C. done D. discovered 2: A. in B. on C. for D. with 3: A. nevertheless B. moreover C. therefore D. however 4: A. Before B. After C. Since D. While 5: A. dependent B. independent C. independently D. independence

Exercise 4: Read the following passage, and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase for each of the blanks. What do you do at the weekend? Some (1)_______ like to stay at home, but others like to go for a walk or play football. My friend Jack works (2)_______ a factory during the week. At the weekend, he always does the same thing. On Saturday, he washes his car. On Sunday, he goes with his family to a village (3)_______ the country. His uncle and aunt have a farm there. It isn't a big one (4)_______ there's always so much to do on a farm. The children help with the animals and give them their food. At the end of the day, they (5)_______ hungry. 1: A. people B. ones C. peoples D. one 2: A. hardly on B. hard on C. hardly in D. hard in 3: A. in B. at C. into D. on 4: A. or B. so C. and D. but 5: A. all are B. are all C. have all D. all have Exercise 5: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks. In the modern world, there is a wealth of leisure activities to choose from. Entertainment industries (1) ________ for your leisure time. You can watch TV, listen to music, go to an art gallery or, of course, read a book. Sometimes it seems that reading is neglected because it can take a (2) _____ amount of time to finish a novel, for example. But in the modern world, time is something that can be in short supply. Book publishers haven't been slow to realize this and are now selling a product which needn't take (3) _______ as much of your time but still tells you an excellent story. The new product is the audio book - cassette recordings of shortened novels, often read by well-known personalities or the authors themselves. Audio books are relatively new (4) ________ people are becoming more aware of them and sales are increasing all the time. Much of their appeal lies in their flexibility. They allow you to do other things while you're listening, such as driving or doing the housework. For some people, audio books can be a much more enjoyable way of (5) ________ knowledge than reading. 1: A. chase B. compete C. oppose D. pursue 2: A. considerable B. considerably C. consider D. consideration 3: A. in B. over C. up D. out 4: A. as B. and C. so D. but 5: A. grasping B. raising C. catching D. gaining

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Exercise 6: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. Water polo originated in England during the 1870s and soon became popular in the United States. It was (1) played in the Olympic Games as a men’s exhibition sport in 1900. In 1908 it was (2) internationally at the Olympics. Over the succeeding decades water polo became especially popular in Europe. From approximately 1920 to 1946 the United States departed (3) the international rules for water polo by adopting for play a loosely inflated ball that could be gripped in one hand carried toward the goal. Opposing players usually attempted to seize the ball carriers, wrestle them under water, and render them helpless from loss of breath. This rough style of play virtually disappeared by 1946. Since that time, traditional water polo has grown (4) in North America, especially as a college sport. Women have played water polo since the game’s early days, but participation was not widespread until the 1960s. In 1961 United States Water Polo (5) national club championship for women. 1: A. first B. last C. final D. end 2: A. retested B. contested C. compiled D. supported 3: A. from B. for C. of D. in 4: A. hurriedly B. instantly C. steadily D. rapidly 5: A. participated B. issued C. established D. published. Exercise 7: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. The reality of an interview is never as bad as your fears. For some reason people imagine the interviewer is going to jump on every tiny mistake they (1) …….. . In truth, the interviewer is as keen for the meeting to go well as you are. It is what makes his or her job enjoyable. The secret of a good interview is preparing for it. What you wear is always important as it creates the first impression. So dress (2)………. , but comfortably. Make sure that you can deal with anything you are asked. Prepared for that are certain to come up, for example: Why do you want to become a nurse? What is the most important quality a good nurse should have? Apart (3) ………… nursing, what other careers have you consider? What are your interests and hobbies? Answer the fully and precisely. For example, if one of your interests is reading, be prepared to talk about the sort of books you like. (4) …………., do not learn all your answers off by heart. The interviewer wants to meet a human being, not a robot. Remember, the interviewer is genuinely interested in you, so the more you relax and are yourself, the (5) ………….. you are to succeed. 1. A. do B. perform C. make D. have 2. A. neatly B. neat C. neaten D. neatness 3. A. to B. from C. on D. at 4. A. However B. Although C. Despite D. Therefore 5. A. less B. most C. more D. least Exercise 8: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non- governmental organization for the (1) _______, research, and restoration of the environment. The organization was formed as a charitable trust on September 11, 1961, in Morges, Switzerland, under the name World Wildlife Fund. It was an initiative of Julian Huxley and Max Nicholson. It is the world's largest independent conservation organization (2) ________ over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting 100 conservation and 274


environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with (3) ____ 9% of its funding coming from voluntary, donations by private individuals and businesses. The group says its mission is "to halt and reverse the (4) _____ of our environment". Currently, much of its work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world's biodiversity: forests, freshwater ecosystems, and oceans and coasts. Among other issues, it is also concerned with endangered species, pollution, and climate change. The organization runs more than 20 field projects worldwide. In the last few years, the organization (5)______ offices and operations around the world. 1. A. challenge B. keeping C. conservation D. awareness B. on C. about D. to 2. A. with 3. A. generally B. individually C. commercially D. approximately 4. A. destroy B. destructive C. destruction D. destroyed 5. A. give up B. set up C. go on D. call on

Exercise 9: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. Our family has got many books. All the …(1)… of our family buy books and read them. My mother says that books help us in self-education. In ancient times books were written by hand. It was difficult to write a book with a pen. Then printing came into our life. Printing played an important ……(2)…. in the development of literature and culture. Now there are a lot of books in the shops, there are many books in our flats. But it is difficult to buy all books …(3)…… we want to read. That’s why we get books in public libraries. There are some problems in our life and sometimes it is difficult ……(4)… solve them. I think that books can help us. Last year I read a very interesting book “ An American Tragedy” by Theodore Dreiser. This novel was published at the beginning of the 20th century. The novel describes the tragic fate of a boy and a girl, Clyde and Roberta by name. It is a sad story. This novel was written many years ago, but it is …(5) …. nowadays. Books must be our friends during our life. 1. A. members B. partners C. groups D. relates 2. A. step B. stage C. chain D. role 3. A. who B. which C. when D. where 4. A. on B. at C. to D. in 5. A. amazing B. favorite C. popular D. worth Exercise 10: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 1 to 5. English is the (1)………important in the world today. A very large number of people understand and use English in many countries of the world. Indeed English is a very useful language. If we (2)……… English we can go to any place or country we like. We shall not find it hard to make people understand what we want to say. English also helps us to learn all kinds of subjects. Hundreds of books are published in English everyday in many countries to teach people many useful things. (3)…….. English language has therefore helped to spread ideas and knowledge to all the corners of the world. There is no subject that cannot be taught in English. As English is used so much everywhere in the world, it has helped to make the countries in the world more (4)………….The leaders of the world use English to understand one another. The English language has, therefore, helped to spread better understanding and friendship among countries of the world. Lastly, a person who knows English is respected. It is for all these (5)……..…that I want to learn English 1. A. most B. mostly C. chiefly D. best 2. A. realize B. say C. speak D. tell 275


3. A. A 4. A. friend 5. A. reasons

B. An B. friendly B. causes

C. That C. friendship C. effects

D. The D. friendliness D. results

30. READING COMPREHENSION Topic 1: CULTURAL DIVERSITY I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Ever since humans have inhabited the earth, they have made use of various forms of communication. Generally, this expression of thoughts and feelings has been in the form of oral speech. When there is a language barrier, communication is accomplished through sign language in which motions stand for letters, words, and ideas. Tourists, the deaf and the mute have had to resort to this form of expression. Many of these symbols of the whole words are very picturesque and exact and can be used internationally; spelling, however, cannot. Body language transmits ideas or thoughts by certain actions, either intentionally or unintentionally. A wink can be a way of flirting or indicating that the party is only joking. A nod signifies (biểu thị) approval, while shaking the head indicates a negative reaction. Other forms of nonlinguistic language can be found in Braille (a system of raised dots read with the fingertips), signal flags. Morse code (mã Mooc-xơ), and smoke signals. Road maps and picture signs also guide, warn, and instruct people. While verbalization is the most common form of language, other systems and techniques also express human thoughts and feelings. Question 1: The word “these” in the first paragraph refers to____. A. tourists B. the deaf and the mute C. thoughts and feelings D. sign language motions Question 2: Which form other than oral speech would be most common used among blind people? A. Picture signs B. Braille C. Body language D. Signal language Question 3: How many different forms of communication are mentioned here? A. 5 B. 7 C. 9 D. 11 Question 4: The word “ wink “ in the second paragraph means most nearly the same as A. close one eye briefly B. close two eyes briefly C. nod the head up and down D. shake the head from side to side Question 5 People need to communicate in order to A. create language barriers B. keep from reading with their fingertips C. be picturesque and exact D. express thoughts and feelings Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Greetings in all languages have he same purpose: to establish contact with another person, to recognize his or her existence and to show friendliness. The formulas for greeting are very specific and usually do not carry any literal meaning people say “Good morning” even if it is a miserable day and may reply to “ How are you?” with “ Fine, thanks” even if they aren’t feeling well. Closings, like greetings are commonly used to exchange with no literal meaning. People who are leaving each other permanently or for a long time shake hands or embrace, depending on the relationship. If you are in an unfamiliar situation and wonder what to do, watch other people or ask. It is interesting, and sometimes very important to learn about the standards of courtesy in different cultural areas of the world so that 276


we can practice them well and avoid awkwardness in case we get a chance to visit a person or a community of unfamiliar social customs. Question 1: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a purpose of greetings? A. To create contact with the person being greeted. B. To show that you recognize his or her present C. To show that you admire him or her. D. To show that you are willing to be his or her friend. Question 2: Which of the following is a characteristic of the formulas for greeting? A. literal B. specific C. usual D. common Question 3: In what way are closings similar to greeting? A. They are common B. They are exchanges C. They are familiar D. They have no literal meaning Question 4: According to the passage, what should you do when you are in an unfamiliar situation? A. Observe what other people do B. Use formulas you know. C. Wonder what you should do D. Ask your friends for help Question 5: Which of the following is a benefit of learning about the standards of courtesy in a different cultural area? A. You can act comfortably when you have a chance to visit the community B. You can have a chance to visit a community of unfamiliar social customs C. You can practice meeting with people from different cultural areas D. You can avoid meeting with a community of unfamiliar social customs Read the following passage and mark A,B,C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer for each of the questions Although speech is the most advanced form of communication, there are many ways of communicating without using speech. Signals, signs, symbols, and gestures may be found in every known culture. The main function of a signal is to impinge upon the environment in such a way that it attracts attention, as for example, the dots and dashes of telegraph curcuit. Coded to refer to speech, the potential for communication is very great. Less adaptable to the codification of words, signs also contain meaning in and of themselves. A stop sign or a barber pole conveys meaning quickly and more difficult to describe than either signals or signs because of their intricate relationship with the receiver’s cultural perceptions. In some cultures, applauding in a theatre provides performers with an auditory symbol of approval. Gestures, such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages. Although signals, signs, symbols and gestures are very useful, they do have a major disadvantages. They usually do not allow ideas to be shared without the sender being directly adjacent to the receiver. As a result, means of communication intended to be used for long distances and extended periods are based on speech. Radio, television, and telephone are only a few. Question 1: Which of the following would be best title for the passage? A. Signs, signals, and symbols. B. Gestures C. Communication D. Speech Question 2: What does the author say about speech? A. That it is the only true form of communication. B. That it is dependent upon the advances made by inventors. C. That it is necessary for communication to occur. D. That it is the most advanced form of communication. Question 3: Applauding was cited as an example of_____. A. A sign B. A signal C. A symbol D. A gesture Question 4: Why were the telephone, radio, and television invented? A. Because people were unable to understand signs, symbols, and signals. 277


B. Because people wanted to communicate across long distances. C. Because people believed that signals, and symbols were obsolete. D. Because people wanted new form of entertainment. Question 5: It may be concluded from this passage that_____. A. Signals, signs, symbols and gestures are forms of communication. B. Symbols are very easy to define and interpret. C. Only some cultures have signals and symbols, D. Waving and handshaking are not related to culture. Question 6: The word curcuit is closest meaning to ____. A. Hand B. Letter C. Email D. Round Question 7: Find the word in the passage that mean support____. A. Convey B. Cultural C. Approval D. Useful Question 8: All of the following are true EXCEPT_____. A. Signals, symbols, signs and gestures are found in every culture. B. Signals, symbols, signs and gestures are very useful. C. Signals, symbols, signs and gestures also have disadvantages. D. Signals, symbols, signs and gestures are used for long distance contact. Question 9: From the passage, we all know that waving hand to say good bye is a____. A. Signal B. Symbol C. Gesture D. Sign Question 10: Which of the following is NOT true? A. Speech is the only way of communication B. Speech is the most advanced form of communication. C. There are many ways of communicating without using speech. D. Speech can be replaced somehow in communication by signs, signals… IV. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Sometimes you know things about people the first time you see them, for example, that you want to be friends with them or that you don’t trust them. But perhaps this kind of intuition isn’t as hard to explain as it may seem. For instance, people give out body language signal all the time. The way you hold your body, head and arms tells people about your mood. If you hold your arms tightly at your sides, or fold them across your chest, people will generally feel that you are being defensive. Holding your head to one side shows interest in the others, while an easy, open posture (điệu bộ) indicates that you are self-confident. All this affects the way you feel about someone. Also, a stranger may remind you of a meeting with someone. This may be because of something as simple as the fact that he or she is physically similar to someone who treated you well or badly. Your feeling about a stranger could be influenced by a smell in the air that brings to mind a place where you were happy as a child. Since even a single word can bring back a memory such as that, you may never realize it is happening. Question 1: What does the word “open” in the passage most closely mean? A. unrestrained B. relaxed C. confined D. unlimited Question 2: What influences your impression of a person you meet the first time? A. intuition B. familiarity C. knowledge D. feeling Question 3: What one fells about a stranger may be influenced by something that ______________ A. strengthens one’s past behaviors B. reminds one of one’s past treatment C. revives one’s past memories D. points to one’s childhoods Question 4: What does the second paragraph discuss? 278


A. Meanings of signal some implies towards a stranger B. How people usually behave to a stranger. C. Factors that may influence one’s feelings about a stranger. D. Factors that cause people to act differently. Question 5: Intuition described in the passage can be explained by means of ___________________ A. styles B. languages C. patterns D. behaviors Topic 2: EDUCATION I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the American educational system was desperately in need of reform. Private schools existed, but only for the very rich. There were very few public schools because of the strong sentiment that children who would grow up to be laborers should not “waste” their time on education but should instead prepare themselves for their life’s work. It was in the face of this public sentiment that educational reformers set about their task. Horace Mann, probably the most famous of the reformers, felt that there was no excuse in a republic for any citizen to be uneducated. As Superintendent of Education in the state of Massachusetts from 1837 to 1848, he initiated various changes, which were soon matched in other school districts around the country. He extended the school year from five to six months and improved the quality of teachers by instituting teacher education and raising teacher salaries. Although these changes did not bring about a sudden improvement in the educational system, they at least increased public awareness as to the need for a further strengthening of the system. Question 1: The best title for the passage could be ______. A. A Flight for Change B. American Education in the Beginning of the 19th Century C. Nineteenth - the Century of Reform D. The Beginnings of Reform in American Education Question 2: The passage implied that to go to a private school, a student needed ______. A. a high level of intelligence B. a strong educational background C. a lot of money D. good grades Question 3: The word “desperately” in the passage mostly means ______. A. partly B. urgently C. completely D. obviously Question 4: The author of the passage puts the word “waste” in quotation marks because he ______. A. does not want students to waste their time on education B. is quoting someone else who said that education was a waste of time C. wants to emphasize how much time is wasted on education D. thinks that education is not really a waste of time Question 5: According to the passage, Horace Mann wanted a better educational system for Americans because___. A. education at the time was so cheap B. people had nothing else to do except go to school C. Massachusetts residents needed something to do with their spare time D. all citizens should be educated in a republic Question 6: The word “reformers” in the passage mostly means ______. A. people who work for the government B. people who really enjoy teaching C. people who try to change things for the better D. people who believe that education is wasted Question 7: The word “citizen” in the passage mostly means ______. A. a person who lives in a particular city B. a person who works in a particular place 279


C. a person who has the legal right to belong to a particular country D. a person who works, especially one who does a particular kind of work Question 8: According to the passage, which sentence is NOT TRUE? A. Horace Mann began raising teachers’ salaries. B. Horace Mann suggested schools prepare children for their life’s work. C. Horace Mann brought about changes in many schools in the United States. D. Horace Mann was a famous US educational reformer. Question 9: According to the passage, which of the following is a change that Horace Mann instituted? A. The five-month school year. B. Better teacher training. C. Increased pay for students. D. The matching of other districts’ policies. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. After two decades of growing student enrollments and economic prosperity, business schools in the United States have started to face harder times. Only Harvard's MBA School has shown a substantial increase in enrollment in recent years. Both Princeton and Stanford have seen decreases in their enrollments. Since 1990, the number of people receiving Masters in Business Administration (MBA) degrees, has dropped about 3 percent to 75,000, and the trend of lower enrollment rates is expected to continue. There are two factors causing the decrease in seeking an MBA degree. The first one is that many graduates of four-year colleges are finding that an MBA degree does not guarantee a plush job on Wall Street or in other financial districts of major American cities. Many of the entry-level management jobs are going to students graduating with Master of Arts degrees in English and the humanities as well as those holding MBA degrees. Students have asked the question, "Is an MBA degree really what I need to be best prepared for getting a good job?" The second major factor has been the cutting of American payrolls and the lower number of entry-level jobs being offered. Business needs are changing, and MBA schools are struggling to meet the new demands. Question 1: Which of the following business schools has not shown a decrease in enrollment? A. Princeton B. Harvard C. Stanford D. Yale Question 2: Which of the following descriptions most likely applies to Wall Street? A. a center for international affairs B. a major financial center C. a shopping district D. a neighborhood in New York Question 3: According to the passage, what are two causes of declining business school enrollment? A. lack of necessity for an MBA and an economic recession B. low salary and foreign competition C. fewer MBA schools and fewer entry-level jobs D. declining population and economic prosperity Question 4: The first paragraph is mainly concerned with which of the following? A. factors contributing to the decline in MBA B. a current trend affecting the nation’s business schools C. the difference between Harvard, Princeton, and Stanford D. two decades of hard times for business schools Question 5: What is the main focus of this passage? A. jobs on Wall Street B. types of graduate degrees C. changes in enrollment for MBA schools D. how schools are changing to reflect the economy Topic 3: ENGDANGERED SPECIES 280


I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. There are thousands of types of animals on earth, but only few types are popular as pets. People usually keep pets for company. The most common pets are cats and dogs. But why did people choose these two animals and not, for example, pigs, or chickens? The most likely explanation is that dogs and cats have special qualities which have always made them more suitable as animal companions. Some of these qualities are easy to understand. For example, dogs and cats do not need to be kept in cages in order to remain close to their owners. They are also both very clean-living animals. They are active during the day, the same time that people are usually active. The physical size of dogs and cats is another important reason for their success as companions. They are a good size, since most cats and dogs are not so large that they are dangerous, and not so small that they are unnoticeable. These qualities mean that dogs and cats can live quite comfortably with human. They do not disturb people's routines or change their way of life. But there is another reason why these two animals are the most popular pets. Most people need to feel loved and wanted, and cats and dogs make people feel wanted. Cats and dogs need people as well. They show this through the noises they make and they way they like being touched. To someone who doesn't like animals, keeping a pet probably seems like a lot of trouble. They need to be fed regularly and exercised, and they can be noisy and expensive. But for pet owners, these disadvantages are not important, because of the friendship that pets offer. Clearly, cats and dogs will continue to be the most popular pets. Question 1: People usually keep _____. A. thousands of pets. B. many types of animals. C. pets for company D. special animals Question 2: One quality that cats and dogs have in common is that both_____. A. need to be kept in cages. B. are very clean animals C. are active at night-time D. like their owners. Question 3: One reasons that cats and dogs are such popular pets is that they are _____. A. the right age. B. very physical C. a dangerous size. D. the right size. Question 4: People like living with dogs and cats because _____. B. they do not disturb people A. pets and people like doing the same thing C. people do not disturb their pets' routines. D. neither needs to feel loved and wanted. Question 5: Both people and animals _____. A. need to be loved and wanted. C. are a lot of trouble to keep. B. need owners to look after them. D. need to be exercised regularly Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. The sea has always interested people. From it they can get food, minerals, and treasures. For thousands of years, they sailed on the sea. But they could not go far beneath its surface. People want to explore deep into the sea. However, they are not fishes. Because people must breathe air, they cannot stay under the water’s surface for any length of time. To explore deep water, men and women face even more dangers and problems. A diver who wants to stay under water for more than a few minutes must breathe air or a special mixture of gases. Divers can wear diving suits and have air pumped to them from above. They can carry tanks of air on their back and breathe through a hose and a mouthpiece. Water weighs 800 times as much as air. Tons of water push against a diver deep in the sea. The diver’s body is under great pressure. When divers are under great pressure, their blood takes in some of the gases they breathe. As they rise too quickly, the gases in their blood form bubbles. Divers then suffer from the bends. The bends can cause divers to double up in pain. Bends can even kill divers. Question 1: A diver’s body in deep water ____. 281


A. is under great pressure. B. is just like a fish’s body. C. suffers from the bends. D. weighs very little. Question 2: The story does not say so, but it makes you think that A. divers explore the deep seas only for treasure. B. diving under the water too quickly causes the bends. C. Divers can wear diving suits to avoid the bends. D. deep-sea divers should be in good health. Question 3: The gases in a diver’s blood can form A. great pressure. B. air. C. bubbles. D. oxygen Question 4: Why do drivers get the bends? A. They try to do exercises under the water. B. Their diving suits weigh too much. C. They come to the surface too quickly. D. Their blood takes some of the gases they breathe. Question 5: Which statement does the story lead you to believe? A. The sea began to interest humans in the last few years. C. All divers get the bends sooner or later. B. Humans are not at home deep in the sea. D. Diving suits do not help divers. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. The elephant is another animal that lives in groups. An elephant herd (bầy) usually has from twenty to forty members. The elephants in the herd depend on one another for help in time of trouble. The leader of the group is usually a wise and strong female. She travels at the head of the herd and is followed by the other females and their young. The bull elephants follow last. When danger threatens, the bulls form a circle around the weaker animals and guard them. The members of the herd are loyal to one another. A sick or wounded elephant is not left behind to die. If an elephant is sick, the whole herd stops traveling until it gets well. When an elephant is injured, two others walk on both sides of it and support it with their bodies. Elephants are fond of the youngsters in the group and give them special care. They help young animals stay afloat when the herd crosses a river. They work together to rescue a calf that has wandered into a dangerous place. A female elephant that is about to give birth to her young leaves the herd for a short time. However, she takes another female along to act as “aunt.” The aunt stands guard and helps the mother with her new-born calf. In this way, the whole herd protects its newest member. Question 1: A young elephant is called____. A. a bull B. an “aunt” C. a herd D. a calf Question 2: In times of danger, the males form a circle around_____. A. the enemy B. the weaker animals C. the leader of the group D. the females Question 3: The story does not say so, but it makes you think that_____. A. elephants are often sick. B. elephants have no enemies. C. elephants do not care about one another. D. bull elephants are the strongest elephants. Question 4: Why does a female elephant take along an “aunt” when she gives birth? A. The aunt keeps the baby elephant for her. B. The aunt is the only one that will go with the mother. C. The aunt tries to protect the other female elephant. D. The aunt prevents the mother elephant from running away. Question 5: On the whole, this story is about_____. A. an elephant herd. B. how elephants give birth. C. how elephant herds travel. D. how young elephants are protected.

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IV. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Long ago prehistoric man began to domesticate a number of wild plants and animals for his own use. This not only provided more abundant food but also allowed more people to live on a smaller plot of ground. We tend to forget that all of our present-day pets, livestock, and food plants were taken from the wild and developed into the forms we know today. As centuries passed and human cultures evolved and blossomed, humans began to organise their knowledge of nature into the broad field of natural history. One aspect of early natural history concerned the use of plants for drugs and medicine. The early herbalists sometimes overworked their imaginations in this respect. For example, it was widely believed that a plant or part of a plant that resembles an internal organ would cure ailments of that organ. Thus, an extract made from a heartshaped leaf might be prescribed for a person suffering from heart problems. Nevertheless, the overall contributions of these early observers provided the rudiments (tiền đề, tiền lệ) of our present knowledge of drugs and their uses. Question 1. What does this passage mainly discuss? A. Cures from plants. B. The beginning of natural history. C. Prehistoric man. D. Early plants and animals. Question 2. Domestication of plants and animals probably occurred because of ____. A. need for more readily available food B. lack of wild animals and plants C. early mans power as a hunter D. the desire of prehistoric man to be nomadic Question 3. The word “this” refers to ____. A. providing food for man B. mans domestication of plants and animals C. mans ability to live on a small plot of land D. the earliest condition of prehistoric man Question 4. The word “blossomed” is closest in meaning to ____. A. produced flowers B. changed C. learned D. flourished Question 5. An herbalist is which of the following? A. A dreamer. B. An early historian. C. Someone who uses plants in medicine. D. A farmer. Question 6: The phrase “in this respect” refers to ____, A. the development of human culture B. the development of the field of natural history C. the use of plants for drugs and medicine D. the origin of knowledge of nature Question 7. The word “extract” is closest in meaning to ____. A. design B. substance C. flavor D. ailment Question 8. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage? A. The shape of a plant is indicative of its ability to cure ailments of a similarly shaped organ. B. Early herbalists were unimaginative. C. The work of early herbalists has nothing to do with present day medicine. D. There is little relation between a cure for illness and the physical shape of a plant. Question 9. The word “rudiments” is closest in meaning to ____. A. beginnings B. history C. requirements D. proofs Question 10: The passage would most likely lead to a more specific discussion in the field of____. A. zoology B. biology C. anatomy D. astrology V. Read the passage and circle the best option A, B, C, or D to complete the following questions or statements: Since the world became industrialized, the number of animal species that have either become extinct or have neared extinction has increased. Bengal tigers, for instance, which once roamed the 283


jungles in vast numbers, now number only about 2,300. By the year 2025, it is estimated that they will become extinct. What is alarming about the case of the Bengal tiger is that this extinction will have been caused almost entirely by poachers who, according to some sources, are not always interested in material gain but in personal gratification. This is an example of the callousness that is contributing to the problem of extinction. Animals such as the Bengal tiger, as well as other endangered species, are valuable parts of the world’s ecosystem. International laws protecting these animals must be enacted to ensure their survival – and the survival of our planet. Countries around the world have begun to deal with the problem in various ways. Some countries, in an effort to circumvent the problem, have allocated large amounts of land to animals reserves. They then charge admission prices to help defray the costs of maintaining the parks, and they often must also depend on world organizations for support. This money enables them to invest in equipment and patrols to protect the animals. Another response to the increase in animal extinction is an international boycott of products made from endangered species. This has had some effect, but by itself it will not prevent animals from being hunted and killed. Question 1: What is the main topic of the passage? A. Endangered species B. Problems with industrialization C. The Bengal tiger D. International boycotts Question 2: The word “poachers” could be best replaced by which of the following? A. Concerned scientists B. Enterprising researchers C. Illegal hunters D. Trained hunters Question 3: The word “callousness” could be best replaced by which of the following? A. incompetence B. indirectness C. insensitivity D. independence Question 4: The previous passage is divided into two paragraphs in order to contrast____. A. A comparison and a contrast B. A problem and a solution C. A statement and an illustration D. Specific and general information Question 5: What does the word “this” refer to in the passage? A. Bengal tiger B. Interest in material gain C. Killing animals for personal satisfaction D. The decrease in the Bengal tiger population Question 6: Where in the passage does the author discuss a cause of extinction? A. Lines 4-6 B. Lines 7-9 C. Lines 10-16 D. Lines 1-3 Question 7: Which of the following could best replace the word “allocated”? A. set aside B. combined C. taken D. organized Question 8: The word “defray” is closest in meaning to which of the following? A. make a payment on B. raise C. lower D. make an investment toward Question 9: What does the term “international boycott” refer to? A. A global increase in animal survival B. A refusal to buy animal products worldwide C. Defraying the cost of maintaining national parks D. Buying and selling of animal products overseas Question 10: Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude? A. indifferent B. forgiving C. concerned D. surprised Topic 4: ENTERTAINMENT I. Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question below. If you enjoy cycling for pleasure, it can be a shock in London. There are not enough lanes especially for bikes, and making your way through the traffic can be very risky. But if you have great passion, cycling in London can be exciting, and it is an inexpensive way of keeping fit if you live there. Some cyclists don’t mind spending a lot of money in expensive bikes. However, if you just want a basic bike that is only for occasional use, there are many cheap choices. Several markets have cheap 284


bikes on sale which may not be impressive to look at but should be satisfactory. You should buy a cycling helmet if you want to cycle in London. Wearing a cycling a helmet is not compulsory in Britain, but it is a good idea to wear one for protection. Question 1. What is the main idea of the passage? A. Cycling helmet B. Cheap bikes C. Bicycle markets D. Cycling in London Question 2. According to the passage, cycling in London is _________ A. easy B. difficult C. tiring D. boring Question 3. The word “it” (in bold) refers to_______________ A. cycling B. passion C. excitement D. doing exercise Question 4. The difficulty of cycling in London is described in sentences ________ A. 2 B. 3-4 C. 5-6 D. 7 Question 5. According to the passage, all the following are true EXCEPT that_____ A. it is compulsory to wear a helmet when cycling in London. B. some bikes in London are cheap C. there are not many lanes especially for bikes D. some cyclists want to buy expensive bikes. II. Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question below. A hobby can be almost what a person likes to do in his/her free time. Hobbyists raise pets, watch birds or hunt animals. They also climb the mountains, go fishing, go skating, or go swimming. They also paint pictures, attend concerts and play musical instruments. They collect everything from books to butterflies and from shells to stamps. People have hobbies because these activities bring enjoyment, friendship, knowledge and relaxation. Sometimes, they can bring financial profits. Hobbies also bring interesting activities for people who have retired. People, rich or poor, old or young, sick or well, can follow a satisfying hobby regardless of their age, position, or income. Hobbies can help a person’s mental and physical health. Doctors have found that hobbies are available in helping patients suffer from physical or mental illness. Hobbies give these patients activities to do, and provide interests that prevent them from thinking about themselves. Question 1. According to the passage, a hobby is what a person likes to do when_____ A. he/she has free time C. he/she is at home B. he/she is at work D. he/she is busy Question 2. The word “income” is closest in meaning to _______ A. salary B. job C. loan D. career Question 3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an advantage of having hobbies? A. enjoyments B. relaxation C. knowledge D. surprises Question 4. In which paragraph does the writer mention different activities taken by hobbyist? A. paragraph 1 B. paragraph 2 C. paragraph 3 D. paragraph 4 Question 5. According to doctors, hobbies are helpful to__________ A. patients’ physical health B. patients’ mental health C. patients’ material life D. patients’ physical and mental health III. Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question below. In an effort to produce the largest, fastest, and most luxurious ship afloat, the British built the Titanic. It was so superior to anything else on the seas that it was dubbed “unsinkable”. So sure of this were the owners that they provided only twenty lifeboats and rafts, less than one half the number needed for the 2,227 passengers on board. 285


Many passengers were aboard the night it rammed an iceberg, only two days at sea and more than half way between England and the New York destination. Because the luxury liner was traveling so fast, it was impossible to avoid the ghostly looking iceberg. An unextinguished fire also contributed to the ship's submersion. Panic increased the number of casualties as people jumped into the icy water or fought to be among the few to board the lifeboats. Four hours after the mishap, another ship, the Carpathia, rescued the 705 survivors. The infamous Titanic enjoyed only two days of sailing glory on its maiden voyage in 1912 before plunging into 12,000 feet of water near the coast of Newfoundland, where it lies today. Question 1: Which of the following did NOT contribute to the large death toll? A. panic B. fire C. speed D. the Carpathia Question 2: How many days was the S.S. Titanic at sea before sinking? A.2 B.4 C.6 D.12 Question 3: The word “dubbed� in the passage is closest in meaning to_____. A. initiated B. called C. christened D. listed Question 4: Which of the following is NOT true? A. only a third of those aboard died B. the Carpathia rescued the survivors C. the S.S. Titanic sank near Newfoundland D. the S.S. Titanic was the fastest ship afloat in 1912 Question 5: What is the main idea of this passage? A. The S.S. Titanic proved itself the most seaworthy vessel in 1912. B. Attempts to rescue the S.S. Titanic’s survivors were not successful. C. Overconfidence by builders and owners was greatly responsible for the sinking of the vessel. D. A fire and panic were the only causes for the sinking of the ship IV. Read the passage and answer the question that follow. Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as "silent," the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the Unites States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film. As movie theaters grew in number and importance, a violinist, and perhaps a cellist, would be added to the pianist in certain cases, and in the larger movie theaters small orchestras were formed. For a number of years the selection of music for each film program rested entirely in the hands of the conductor or leader of the orchestra, and very often the principal qualification for holding such a position was not skill or taste so much as the ownership of a large personal library of musical pieces. Since the conductor seldom saw the films until the night before they were to be shown (if, indeed, the conductor was lucky enough to see them then), the musical arrangement was normally improvised in the greatest hurry. To help meet this difficulty, film distributing companies started the practice of publishing suggestions for musical accompaniments. In 1909, for example, the Edison Company began issuing with their films such indications of mood as "pleasant," "sad," "lively." The suggestions became more explicit, and so emerged the musical cue sheet containing indications of mood, the titles of suitable pieces of music, and precise directions to show where one piece led into the next. Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D.W. Griffith's film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915. Question 1: The passage mainly discusses music that was _____ . A. performed before the showing of a film 286


B. played during silent films C. specifically composed for certain movie theaters D. recorded during film exhibitions Question 2: What can be inferred from the passage about the majority of films made after 1927? A. They were truly "silent." B. They were accompanied by symphonic orchestras. They incorporated the sound of the actors' voices. They corresponded to specific musical compositions. Question 3: The word "solemn" is closest in meaning to____. A. simple B. serious C. short D. silent Question 4: It can be inferred that orchestra conductors who worked in movie theaters needed to _____ . A. be able to play many instruments B. have pleasant voices C. be familiar with a wide variety of music D. be able to compose original music Question 5: The word "them" refers to _____ . A. years B. hands C. pieces D. films Question 6: The word "scores" is closest in meaning to_____. A. totals B. successes C. musical compositions D. groups of musicians V. Read the passage and choose the correct answer. Identify your choice by marking A, B, C or D on the answer sheet. History books recorded that the first film with sound was The Jazz Singer in 1927. But sound films, or talkies, did not suddenly appear after years of silent screenings. From the earliest public performances in 1896, films were accompanied by music and sound effects. These were produced by a single pianist, a small band, or a full – scale orchestra; large movie theatres could buy sound effect machines. Research into sound that was reproduced at exactly at the same time as the pictures – called “synchronized sound” – began soon after the very first films were shown. With synchronized sound, characters on the movie screen could sing and speak. As early as 1896, the newly invented gramophone, which played a large disc carrying music and dialogue, was used as a sound system. The biggest disadvantage was that the sound and pictures could become unsynchronized if, for example, the gramophone needle jumped or if the speed of the projector changed. This system was only effective for a single song or dialogue sequence. In the “sound-on-film” system, sound was recorded as a series of marks on celluloid which could be read by an optical sensor. These signals would be placed on the film alongside the image, guaranteeing synchronization. Short feature films were produced in this way as early as 1922. This system eventually brought us “talking picture”. Question 1: The word “screenings” is closest in meaning to _________. A. revelations B. demonstrations C. diversions D. projections Question 2: It can be inferred that ________. A. most movie theatres had a pianist B. sound-effects machines were not common because they were expensive C. orchestra couldn’t synchronize sound with the pictures D. gramophones were developed about the same time as moving pictures Question 3: The word “sequence” is closest in meaning to ________. A. interpretation B. organization C. distribution D. progression Question 4: According to the passage, sound-on-film guaranteed synchronization because the recording was _____. A. read by an optical sensor B. inserted beside the image on the film 287


C. made during the film of the picture D. marked on the gramophone Question 5: The passage is mainly about the ________. A. development of sound with movies B. history of silent movies C. disadvantages of synchronized sound D. research into sound reproduction

Topic 5: ENVIRONMENT I. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 56 to 65. An air pollutant is defined as a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to the atmosphere in such quantities as to affect humans, animals, vegetation, or materials adversely. Air pollution requires a very flexible definition that permits continuous change. When the first air pollution laws were established in England in the fourteenth century, air pollutants were limited to compounds that could be seen or smelled - a far cry from the extensive list of harmful substances known today. As technology has developed and knowledge of the health aspects of various chemicals has increased, the list of air pollutants has lengthened. In the future, even water vapor might be considered an air pollutant under certain conditions. Many of the more important air pollutants, such as sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides, are found in nature. As the Earth developed, the concentration of these pollutants was altered by various chemical reactions; they became components in biogeochemical cycles. These serve as an air purification scheme by allowing the compounds to move from the air to the water or soil. On a global basis, nature's output of these compounds dwarfs that resulting from human activities. However, human production usually occurs in a localized area, such as a city. In such a region, human output may be dominant and may temporarily overload the natural purification scheme of the cycles. The result is an increased concentration of noxious chemicals in the air. The concentrations at which the adverse effects appear will be greater than the concentrations that the pollutants would have in the absence of human activities. The actual concentration need not be large for a substance to be a pollutant; in fact, the numerical value tells us little until we know how much of an increase this represents over the concentration that would occur naturally in the area. For example, sulfur dioxide has detectable health effects at 0.08 parts per million (ppm), which is about 400 times its natural level. Carbon monoxide, however, has a natural level of 0.1 ppm and is not usually a pollutant until its level reaches about 15 ppm. Question 1: What does the passage mainly discuss? A. The economic impact of air pollution. B. What constitutes an air pollutant. C. How much harm air pollutants can cause. D. The effects of compounds added to the atmosphere. Question 2: The word "adversely" in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to _______. A. negatively B. quickly C. admittedly D. considerably Question 3: It can be inferred from the first paragraph that _______. A. water vapor is an air pollutant in localized areas B. most air pollutants today can be seen or smelled C. the definition of air pollution will continue to change D. a substance becomes an air pollutant only in cities Question 4: The word "These" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to_. A. the various chemical reactions B. the pollutants from the developing Earth C. the compounds moved to the water or soil D. the components in biogeochemical cycles Question 5: The word "localized" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to _______. 288


A. specified B. circled C. surrounded D. encircled Question 6: The word "detectable" in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to_____. A. beneficial B. special C. measurable D. separable Question 7: Which of the following is best supported by the passage? A. To effectively control pollution, local government should regularly review their air pollution laws. B. One of the most important steps in preserving natural lands is to better enforce air pollution laws. C. Scientists should be consulted in order to establish uniform limits for all air pollutants. D. Human activities have been effective in reducing air pollution. Read the passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions. In the world today, particular in the two most industrialized areas, North America and Europe, recycling is the big news. People are talking about it, practicing it, and discovering new ways to be sensitive to the environment. Recycling means finding ways to use products a second time. The motto of the recycling movement is “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle”. The first step is to reduce garbage. In stores, a shopper has to buy products in blister packs, boxes and expensive plastic wrappings. A hamburger from a fast food restaurant comes in lots of packaging: usually paper, a box and a bag. All that packaging is wasted resources. People should try to buy things that are wrapped simply, and to reuse cups and utensils. Another way to reduce waste is to buy high-quality products. When low-quality appliances break, many customers throw them away and buy new ones - a loss of more resources and more energy. For example, if a customer buys a high-quality appliance that can be easily repaired, the manufacturer receives an important message. In the same way, if a customer chooses a product with less packaging, that customer sends an important message to the manufacturers. To reduce garbage, the throw-away must stop. The second step is to reuse. It is better to buy juices and soft drinks in returnable bottles. After customers empty the bottles, they return them to the stores. The manufacturers of the drinks collect bottles, wash them, and then fill them again. The energy that is necessary to make new bottles is saved. In some parts of the world, returning bottles for money is a common practice. In those places, the garbage dumps have relatively little glass and plastic from throw-away bottles. The third step being environmentally sensitive is to recycle. Spent motor oil can be cleaned and used again. Aluminum cans are expensive to make. It takes the same amount of energy to make one aluminum can as it does to run a color TV set for three hours. When people collect and recycle aluminum (for new cans), they help save one of the world’s precious resources. Question 1. What does the word “sensitive” means? A. cautious B. logical C. responding D. friendly Question 2. The word “motto” is closest in meaning to _______. A. meaning B. value C. belief D. reference Question 3. What is the topic of the passage? A. How to live sensitively to the environment. B. How to reduce garbage disposal. C. What is involved in the recycling movement. D. What people understand the term “recycle” Question 4. People can do the following to reduce waste EXCEPT _______. A. buy high-quality products B. buy simply-wrapped things C. reuse cups D. buy more hamburgers Question 5. What best describe the process of reuse? A. The bottles are filled again after being returned, collected and washed. B. The bottles are collected, washed, returned and filled again. C. The bottles are washed, returned filled again and collected. 289


D. The bottles are collected, returned, filled again and washed. Question 6. The word “practice” is closest in meaning to _______. A. training B. exercise C. deed D. belief Question 7. What are the two things mentioned as examples of recycling? A. TV sets and aluminum cans. B. Hamburger wrappings and spent motor oil. C. Aluminum cans and plastic wrappings. D. Aluminum cans and spent motor oil. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 61 to 65. In this era of increased global warming and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, we must begin to put a greater priority on harnessing alternative energy sources. Fortunately, there are a number of readily available, renewable resources that are both cost- effective and earth – friendly. Two such resources are solar power and geothermal power. Solar energy, which reaches the earth through sunlight, is so abundant that it could meet the needs of worldwide energy consumption 6,000 times over. And solar energy is easily harnessed through the use of photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight to electricity. In the US alone, more than 100, 000 homes are equipped with solar electric systems in the form of solar panels or solar roof tiles. And in other parts of the world, including many developing countries, the use of solar system is growing steadily. Another alternative energy source, which is abundant in specific geographical areas, is geothermal power, which creates energy by tapping heat from below the surface of the earth. Hot water and steam that are trapped in underground pools are pumped to the surface and used to run a generator, which is produces electricity. Geothermal energy is 50,000 times more abundant than the entire known supply of fossil fuel resources. And as with solar power, the technology needed to utilize geothermal energy is fairly simple. A prime example of effective geothermal use is in Iceland, a region of high geothermal activity where over 80 percent of private homes are heated by geothermal power. Solar and geothermal energy are just two of promising renewable alternatives to conventional energy sources. The time is long overdue to invest in the development and use of alternative energy on global scale. Question 1. What is the main topic of this passage ? A. The benefits of solar and wind power over conventional energy sources. B. How energy resources are tapped from nature. C. Two types of alternative energy sources that should be further utilized. D. Examples of the use of energy sources worldwide. Question 2. According to the passage, why should we consider using alternative energy sources ? A. Because fossil fuels are no longer available. B. Because global warming has increased the amount of sunlight that reaches the earth. C. Because they are free and available worldwide. D. Because conventional energy resources are being depleted, and they cause environmental damage. Question 3. According to the passage, what can be inferred about solar roof tiles? A. They are being used in many undeveloped countries. C. They are more expensive than solar panels. B. They can convert geothermal energy to electricity. D. They contain photovoltaic cells. Question 4. According to the passage, how is solar energy production similar to geothermal energy production ? A. They both require the use of a generator. B. They both use heat from the earth’s surface. C. They both require fairly simple technology. D. They are both conventional and costly. 290


Question 5. What best describes the author’s purpose in writing the passage ? A. To warn people about the hazards of fossil fuel use. B. To describe the advantages and disadvantages of alternative energy use. C. To convince people of the benefits of developing alternative energy sources. D. To outline the problems and solutions connected with global warming. IV. Read the passage carefully and choose the best parts to fill in the blanks What exactly is a tornado? The general picture is familiar enough. The phenomenon usually occurs on a hot, sticky day with south wind and an ominous sky. From the base of a thunderhead, a funnel-shaped cloud extends a violently twisting spout toward the Earth. As it sucks in matter in its path, the twister may turn black, brown or even white. The moving cloud shows an almost continuous display of sheet lightning. It lurches along in a meandering path, usually northeast ward, at 25 to 40 miles per hour. Sometimes it picks up its finger from the earth for a short distance and then plants it down again. The funnel is very slender; its wake of violence averages about 400 yards wide. As the tornado approaches, it is heralded by a roar as a hundreds of jet planes or thousands of railroad cars. Its path is a path of total destruction. Buildings explode as they are sucked in by the tornado’s low-pressure vortex (where the pressure drop is as much as 10 percent) and by its powerful whirling winds (estimated at up to 500 miles per hour). The tornado’s lifetime is as brief as it is violent. Within a few tens of miles (average about 16 miles), it spends its force and suddenly disappears. Question 1. Tornadoes usually occur on _____ . A. hot and humid days B. hot days C. cold days D. rainy days Question 2. The twister’s colour is caused by _____. A. the sun B. the colour of the sky C. snow D. what it picks up Question 3. The speed of a tornado is _____. A. 10 miles per hour B. 85 miles per hour C. 25 to 40 miles per hour D. 25 to 40 miles per day Question 4. A building in the path of a tornado most likely would _____. A. be partially destroyed B. be totally destroyed D. escape damage C. lose its roof Question 5. According to this article, the winds of tornado _____. A. are estimated at up to 500 miles per hour B. drop the pressure 40 percent C. have been clocked at 500 miles per hour D. travel at 16 miles an hour V. Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question below. We are all destroying the earth. The seas and the rivers are too dirty to swim in. There is so much smoke in the air that it is unhealthy to live in many of the world’s cities. In one well-known city, for example, poisonous gases from cars pollute the air so much that traffic policemen have to wear oxygen masks. We have cut down so many trees that there are now vast areas of land all over the world. As a result, farmers in parts of Africa cannot grow enough food to eat. In certain countries in Asia there is too little rice. Moreover, we do not take enough care of the countryside. Wild animals are quickly disappearing. For instance, tigers are rare in India now and because we have killed too many for them to survive. However, it isn’t enough simply to talk about the problem. We must act now before it is too late to do anything about it. Join us now. Save the earth. Question 1: Why can’t we swim in the seas and the rivers? A. because they are too dirty B. because they are too healthy C. because they are too harmful D. because there is too much smoke Question 2: How is the air in many of the world’s cities? A. It is very pure B. there is so much smoke in it 291


C. it is healthy to breathe it D. none are correct Question 3: What kinds of animals are rare in India now? A. lions B. tigers C. elephants D. bears Question 4: The result of cutting down trees in Asia and Africa is________ A. farmers cannot grow enough to eat B. there is enough rice C. traffic policemen have to wear oxygen masks D. a and b are incorrect Question 5: Wild animals are quickly disappearing because__________ A. we take care of the city B. we do not take care of the city C. we take care of the countryside D. we do not take care of the countryside

Topic 6: FAMILY I. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions If parents bring up a child with the sole aim of turning the child into a genius (thiên tài), they will cause a disaster. According to several leading educational psychologists, this is one of the biggest mistakes which ambitious parents make. Generally, the child will be only too aware of what his parents expect, and will fail. Unrealistic parental expectations can cause great damage to children. However, if parents are not too unrealistic about what they expect their children to do, but are ambitious in a sensible way, the child may succeed in doing very well – especially if the parents are very supportive of their child. Michael Collins is very lucky. He is crazy about music, and his parents help him a lot by taking him to concerts and arranging private piano and violin lessons for him. They even drive him 50 kilometers twice a week for violin lessons. Michael’s mother knows very little about music, but his father plays the trumpet in a large orchestra. However, he never makes Michael enter music competitions if he is unwilling. Winston Smith, Michael’s friend, however, is not so lucky. Both his parents are successful musicians, and they set too high a standard for Winston. They want their son to be as successful as they are and so they enter him for every piano competition held. They are very unhappy when he does not win. Winston is always afraid that he will disappoint his parents and now he always seems quiet and unhappy. Question 1: One of the serious mistakes parents can make is to ______. A. push their child into trying too much B. help their child to become a genius C. make their child become a musician D. neglect their child’s education Question 2: Parents’ ambition for their children is not wrong if they ______. A. force their children into achieving success B. themselves have been very successful C. understand and help their children sensibly D. arrange private lessons for their children Question 3: The phrase "crazy about" in the passage mostly means ______. A. "surprised at" B. "extremely interested in" C. "completely unaware of" D. "confused about"

Question 4: Winston’s parents push their son so much and he ______. A. has won a lot of piano competitions B. cannot learn much music from them C. has become a good musician D. is afraid to disappoint them Question 5: The word "They" in the passage refers to ______. A. concerts B. violin lessons C. parents in general D. Michael’s parents Question 6: All of the following people are musical EXCEPT _____. A. Winston’s father B. Winston’s mother C. Michael’s father D. Michael’s mother Question 7: The word "unwilling" in the passage mostly means ______. A. "getting ready to do something" B. "eager to do something" C. "not objecting to doing anything" D. "not wanting to do something"


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Question 8: The two examples given in the passage illustrate the principle that ______. A. successful parents always have intelligent children B. successful parents often have unsuccessful children C. parents should let the child develop in the way he wants D. parents should spend more money on the child’s education Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 56 to 65. For more than six million American children, coming home after school means coming back to an empty house. Some deal with the situation by watching TV. Some may hide. But all of them have something in common. They spend part of each day alone. They are called “latchkey children”. They are children who look after themselves while their parents work. And their bad condition has become a subject of concern. Lynette Long was once the principal of an elementary school. She said, “We had a school rule against wearing jewelry. A lot of kids had chains around their necks with keys attached. I was constantly telling them to put the keys inside shirts. There were so many keys; it never came to my mind what they meant.” Slowly, she learned that they were house keys. She and her husband began talking to the children who had keys. They learned of the effect working couples and single parents were having on their children. Fear was the biggest problem faced by children at home alone. One in three latchkey children the Longs talked to reported being frightened. Many had nightmares and were worried about their own safety. The most common way latchkey children deal with their fears is by hiding. They may hide in a shower stall, under a bed or in a closet. The second is TV. They often turn the volume up. It’s hard to get statistics on latchkey children, the Longs have learned. Most parents are slow to admit that they leave their children alone. Question 1: The phrase “an empty house” in the passage mostly means ______. A. a house with no people inside B. a house with no furniture C. a house with nothing inside D. a house with too much space Question 2: One thing that the children in the passage share is that ______. A. they all watch TV B. they spend part of each day alone C. they are from single-parent families D. they all wear jewelry Question 3: The phrase “latchkey children” in the passage means children who ______. A. close doors with keys and watch TV by themselves B. like to carry latches and keys with them everywhere C. are locked inside houses with latches and keys D. look after themselves while their parents are not at home Question 4: The main problem of latchkey children is that they ______. A. are also found in middle-class families B. watch too much television during the day C. suffer a lot from being left alone D. are growing in numbers Question 5: What is the main idea of the first paragraph? A. How kids spend free time. B. Why kids hate going home. C. Bad condition of latchkey children. D. Children’s activities at home. Read the following passage carefully and complete the sentences that follow by circling letter A, B, C or D as the correct answers In many modern countries, people think of a family as a mother, a father and their children. But this is not the only kind of the family group. In some parts of the world, a family group has many other members. This kind of large family is called an "extended family" or a "joint family". The joint family includes all living relatives on either the mother's or the father's side of the family. It is made up of grandparents, parents, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts and cousins. They live together in a large house or in huts built close together. 293


Early people probably live in joint families. They had to be part of a large in order to survey. The members of the group help each other hunt. They work together to protect themselves from dangerous animals and other enemies. In China, people lived in joint families. When a son married, he and his wife lived at his parents' home. Unmarried daughters remained at home until they married. Chinese children felt very loyal to their parents. Younger members of the joint family always took care of the old ones. India and Africa, some people still live in joint families. The members of a joint family share their earnings and property. If one member of the group becomes ill or has bad luck, the others help the person. As in the past, the members of the joint family offer each other help and protection. Question 1. The word in paragraph 2 that means "to be made up of� is_______ . A. include B. relatives C. live D. hut Question 2. Long time ago, members of joint families________ . A. did not live together B. helped each other catch animals C. only played together D. lived separately in order to survive Question 3. Chinese people felt loyal to their________ . A. relatives B. parents C. cousins D. younger members Question 4. In India and Africa, people in joint families help a person when ______ . A. he has good luck B. he has bad luck C. he gets rid of illness D. he shares them his earnings Question 5. On the whole, this story is about________ . A. all types of family B. families in China C. joint families D. families found in India and Africa

Topic 7: FUTURE JOBS I. Choose the item (A, B, C or D) that best answers the question or completes the unfinished statement about the passage Student at the eight of 18 always have to face a difficult decision to make some want to go on with their study at college or university, others prefer to start work immediately. Many school leavers are eager to go to work in order to make money to live independently and help their parents. They always do their best to overcome any obstacles they may encounter. Unfortunately, owing to the guidance poor and biased from their parents and teachers, most boys and girls are ill-prepared for employment. Therefore, they often feel worried and build up all sorts of fearsome prospects in their mind as the time to start work gets nearer. It is the duty of the school and family to prepare these young people for their future jobs. Question 1. The main idea of the passage is ________ A. Learning at university B. Making an important decision at 18 C. Starting to work after leaving school D. Getting to know about new jobs Question 2. Why do some young people want to find a job after they leave school? A. They are badly in need of money B. They want to get rid of schooling C. Their parents do not help them D. They want to lead an independent life Question 3. What attitude do young people have when they are faced with difficulty? A. They just let things go B. They make good efforts C. They complain about their parents and teachers D. They become discouraged 294


Question 4. The word "biased" in line 4 is nearest in meaning to_______ A. subjective B. objective C. bad D. emotional Question 5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned concerning young people starting work? A. Poor preparation B. Anxiety C. Fear D. Encouragement Read the passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions Choosing a career may be one of the hardest jobs you ever have, and it must be done with care. View a career as an opportunity to do something you love, not simply as a way to earn a living. Investing the time and effort to thoroughly explore your options can mean the difference between finding a stimulating and rewarding career and move from job to unsatisfying job in an attempt to find the right one. Work influences virtually every aspect of your life, from your choice of friends to where you live. Here are just a few of the factors to consider. Deciding what matters most to you is essential to making the right decision. You may want to begin by assessing your likes, dislikes, strengths, and weaknesses. Think about the classes, hobbies, and surroundings that you find most appealing. Ask yourself questions, such as “Would you like to travel? Do you want to work with children? Are you more suited to solitary or cooperative work?” There are no right or wrong answers; only you know what is important to you. Determine which job features you require, which ones you would prefer, and which ones you cannot accept. Then rank them in order of importance to you. The setting of the job is one factor to take into account. You may not want to sit at a desk all day. If not, there are diversity occupation – building inspector, supervisor, real estate agent – that involve a great deal of time away from the office. Geographical location may be a concern, and employment in some fields in concentrated in certain regions. Advertising job can generally be found only in large cities. On the other hand, many industries such as hospitality, law education, and retail sales are found in all regions of the country. If a high salary is important to you, do not judge a career by its starting wages. Many jobs, such as insurance sales, offers relatively low starting salaries; however, pay substantially increases along with your experience, additional training, promotions and commission. Don’t rule out any occupation without learning more about it. Some industries evoke positive or negative associations. The traveling life of a flight attendant appears glamorous, while that of a plumber does not. Remember that many jobs are not what they appear to be at first, and may have merits or demerits that are less obvious. Flight attendants must work long, grueling hours without sleeps, whereas plumbers can be as highly paid as some doctors. Another point to consider is that as you mature, you will likely develop new interests and skills that may point the way to new opportunities. The choice you make today need not be your final one. Question 1. The word “them” in paragraph 2 refers to A. questions B. answers C. features D. jobs Question 2. The word “assessing” in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by___. A. discovering B. considering C. measuring D. disposing Question 3. According to paragraph 3, which of the following fields is NOT suitable for a person who does not want to live in a big city? A. plumbing B. law C. retail sales D. advertising Question 4. It can be inferred from the paragraph 3 that A. jobs in insurance sales are generally not well-paid. B. insurance sales people can earn high salary later in their career. C. people should constantly work toward the next promotion. D. a starting salary should be an important consideration in choosing a career. Question 5. According to the passage, which of the following is true? A. To make a lot of money, you should not take a job with a low starting salary. 295


B. To make lots of money, you should rule out all factory jobs. C. If you want an easy and glamorous lifestyle, you should consider becoming flight attendant D. Your initial view of certain careers may not be accurate. Topic 8: HEALTH I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Smallpox (đậu mùa) was the first widespread disease to be eliminated by human intervention (can thiệp). In May, 1966, the World Health Organization (WHO), an agency of the United Nations was authorized to initiate a global campaign to eradicate smallpox. The goal was to eliminate the disease in one decade. At the time, the disease posed a serious threat to people in more than thirty nations. Because similar projects for malaria and yellow fever had failed, few believed that smallpox could actually be eradicated but eleven years after the initial organization of the campaign, no cases were reported in the field. The strategy was not only to provide mass vaccinations but also to isolate patients with active smallpox in order to contain the spread of the disease and to break the chain of human transmission. Rewards for reporting smallpox assisted in motivating removed from contact with others and treated. At the same time, the entire village where the victim had lived was vaccinated. By April of 1978 WHO officials announced that they had isolated the last known case of the disease but health workers continued to search for new cases for additional years to be completely sure. In May, 1980, a formal statement was made to the global community. Today smallpox is no longer a threat to humanity. Routine vaccinations have been stopped worldwide. Question 1. Which of the following is the best title for the passage? A. The World Health Organization B. Smallpox Vaccinations C. The Eradication of Smallpox D. Infectious Disease Question 2. The word “threat” in line 4 could best be replaced by A. debate B. humiliation C. bother D. risk Question 3. According to the passage, what was the strategy used to eliminate the spread of smallpox? A. Vaccinations of entire villages B. Treatments of individual victims C. Isolation of victims and mass vaccinations D. Extensive reporting of outbreak Question 4. The word “isolated” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to A. separated B. restored C. attended D. located Question 5. The word “they” in paragraph 3 refers to A. officials B. health workers C. victims D. cases Question 6. Which statement does not refer to smallpox? A. People are no longer vaccinated for it B. It was a serious threat C. Previous projects had failed D. WHO mounted a worldwide campaign to eradicate the disease Question 7. It can be inferred that A. no new cases of smallpox have been reported this year. B. malaria and yellow fever have been eliminated. C. smallpox victims no longer die when they contact the disease. D. smallpox is not transmitted from one person to another. Topic 9: SOURCES OF ENERGY I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. 296


Today’s cars are smaller, safer, cleaner, and more economical than their predecessors, but the car of the future will be far more pollution-free than those on the road today. Several new types of automobile engines have already been developed than run on alternative sources of power, such as electricity, compressed natural gas, methanol, steam, hydrogen, and propane. Electricity, however, is the only zero-emission option presently available. Although electric vehicles will not be truly practical until a powerful, compact battery or other dependable source of current is available, transport experts foresee a new assortment of electric vehicles entering everyday life: shorter-range commuter electric cars, three-wheeled neighborhood cars, electric delivery vans, bikes and trolleys. As automakers work to develop practical electrical vehicles, urban planners and utility engineers are focusing on infrastructure systems to support and make the best use of the new cars. Public charging facilities will need to be as common as today’s gas stations. Public parking spots on the street or in commercial lots will need to be equipped with devices that allow drivers to charge their batteries while they stop, dine, or attend a concert. To encourage the use of electric vehicles, the most convenient parking in transportation centers might be reserved for electric cars. Planners foresee electric shuttle buses, trains, buses and neighborhood vehicles all meeting at transit centers that would have facilities for charging and renting. Commuters will be able to rent a variety of electric cars to suit their needs: light trucks, one-person three-wheelers, small cars, or electric/gasoline hybrid cars for longer trips, which will no doubt take place on automated freeways capable of handling five times the number of vehicles that can be carried by freeway today. Question 1. The following electrical vehicles are all mentioned in the passage EXCEPT A. vans B. trains C. planes D. trolleys Question 2. The author’s purpose in the passage is to A. criticize conventional vehicles B. support the invention of electric cars C. narrate a story about alternative energy vehicles D. describe the possibilities for transportation in the future Question 3. The word “compact” in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to A. long-range B. inexpensive C. concentrated D. squared Question 4. In the second paragraph, the author implies that A. a dependable source of electric energy will eventually be developed. B. everyday life will stay much the same in the future. C. a single electric vehicle will eventually replace several modes of transportation D. electric vehicles are not practical for the future Question 5. The word “charging” in this passage refers to A. electricity B. credit cards C. aggression D. lightning Question 6. The word “commuters” in paragraph 4 refers to A. daily travelers B. visitors C. cab drivers D. shoppers Question 7. The word “hybrid” is closest in meaning to A. combination B. hazardous C. futuristic D. automated Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Today we take electricity for granted and perhaps we do not realize just how useful this discovery has been. Steam was the first invention that replaced wind power. It was used to drive engines and was passed through pipes and radiators to warm rooms. Petrol mixed with air was the next invention that provided power. Exploded in a cylinder, it drove a motor engine. Beyond these simple and direct uses, those forms have not much adaptability. On the other hand, we make use of electricity in thousands of ways. From the powerful voltages that drive our electric trains to the tiny current needed to work a simple calculator, and from the huge electric magnet in steel works that can lift 10 tons to the tiny electric magnet in a doorbell, all are powered by electricity. An electric current can be made with equal ease to heat a huge mass of molten metal in a furnace, or to boil a jug for a cup of 297


coffee. Other than atomic energy, which has not as yet been harnessed to the full, electricity is the greatest power in the world. It is flexible, and so adaptable for any task for which it is wanted. It travels so easily and with incredible speed along wires or conductors that it can be supplied instantly over vast distances. To generate electricity, huge turbines or generators must be turned. In Australia they use coal or water to drive this machinery. When dams are built, falling water is used to drive the turbines without polluting the atmosphere with smoke from coal. Atomic power is used in several countries but there is always the fear of an accident. A tragedy once occurred at Chernobyl, in Ukraine, at an atomic power plant used to make electricity. The reactor leaked, which caused many deaths through radiation. Now scientists are examining new ways of creating electricity without harmful effects to the environment. They may harness the tides as they flow in and out of bays. Most importantly, they hope to trap sunlight more efficiently. We do use solar heaters for swimming pools but as yet improvement in the capacity of the solar cells to create more current is necessary. When this happens, electric cars will be viable and the world will rid itself of the toxic gases given off by trucks and cars that burn fossil fuels. Question 1. Which of the following power sources causes pollution by emitting harmful gases? A. Wind. B. Petrol. C. Water. D. Sunlight. Question 2. The word "they" in the last paragraph refers to ______. A. the tides B. scientists C. harmful effects D. new ways Question 3. The author mentions the sources of energy such as wind, steam, petrol in the first paragraph to ______. emphasize the usefulness and adaptability of electricity suggest that electricity should be alternated with safer sources of energy imply that electricity is not the only useful source of energy discuss which source of energy can be a suitable alternative to electricity Question 4. Electric magnets are used in steel works to ______. A. heat the molten steel B. lift heavy weights up to ten tons C. test the steel for strength D. boil a jug of water Question 5. The advantage of harnessing the power of the tides and of sunlight to generate electricity is that they _____. A. do not require attention B. are more adaptable C. do not pollute the environment D. are more reliable Question 6. The best title for this passage could be ______. A. “Types of Power Plants” B. “Why Electricity Is So Remarkable” C. “Electricity: Harmful Effects on Our Life” D. “How to Produce Electricity” Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. It is hard to think of a world without gas or electricity. Both are commonly used for lighting and heating today. We now can instantly flick a lighter or strike a match to make a flame. But it was not long ago that there were no such things as matches or lighters. To make fire, it was necessary to strike a piece of iron on flint for sparks to ignite some tinder. If the tinder was damp, or the flint old, you had to borrow some fire from a neighbor. We do not know exactly when or how people first used fire. Perhaps, many ages ago, they found that sticks would burn if they were dropped into some hole where melted lava from a volcano lay boiling. They brought the lighted sticks back to make their fire in a cave. Or, they may have seen trees catch fire through being struck by lightning, and used the trees to start their own fires. Gradually people learned they could start a fire without traveling far to find flames. They rubbed two pieces of wood together. This method was used for thousands of years. When people became used to making fires with which to cook food and stay warm at night, they found that certain resins or gums from trees burnt longer and brighter. They melted resins and dipped branches in the 298


liquid to make torches that lit their homes at night. Iron stands in which torches used to be fixed can still be seen in old buildings of Europe. There was no lighting in city streets until gas lamps, and then electric lamps were installed. Boys ran about London at night carrying torches of burning material. They were called torch boys, or link boys, and earned a living by guiding visitors to friends’ houses at night. For centuries homes were lit by candles until oil was found. Even then, oil lamps were no more effective than a cluster of candles. We read about the splendors and marvels of ancient palaces and castles, but we forget that they must have been gloomy and murky places at night. Question 1. The word “lighter” in the passage mostly means ______. A. a device that uses electricity, oil or gas to produce light B. a small device that produces a flame for lighting cigarettes, etc. C. the energy from the sun, a lamp, etc. that makes it possible to see things D. a hot bright stream of burning gas that comes from something that is on fire Question 2. To make a fire in times just before the advent of matches, it was essential to have access to ______. A. a burning fire or to possess flint B. a burning fire or to possess iron C. flint, iron and dry tinder D. a magnifying glass Question 3. The first fire used by people was probably obtained ______. A. from the sun’s heat through glass B. by rubbing wood together C. from heat or fire caused by nature D. by striking iron against flint Question 4. The word “splendors” in the passage mostly means ______. A. wonderful things that have been achieved B. places where a lot of people go on holiday C. things that fill one with surprise and admiration D. the beautiful and impressive features of a place Question 5. Which sentence is NOT TRUE according to the passage? A. We know exactly when and how people first used fire. B. A world is impossible without gas or electricity. C. We can make a fire by striking a piece of iron on flint to ignite some tinder. D. Matches and lighters were invented not long ago. Question 6. The best title for the passage could be ______ . A. Prehistoric People and Fire B. Fire: Discovery and Uses C. Different Types of Lamps D. The Advantages of Candles

Topic 10: TECHNOLOGY I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. When the automobile was first invented, few people thought of buying one. Gradually, as cars were improved, more people wanted to buy them. Designers tried to think of improved ways to manufacture automobiles. Finally, Henry Ford set up a factory with an assembly line to produce automobiles. Even with this new system of manufacturing, the automobile industry remained fairly small. Almost all the assembly work was done in a few large factories near Detroit, Michigan, the United States. Then the cars were shipped to wholesalers all over the country. Wholesalers bought the cars from the factory and sold them to auto dealers in each city. The dealers then sold the cars to the people who wanted to buy them. During the 1920s, this system began to change. The automobile industry had grown rapidly. Soon it was no longer practical to have assembly plants in Detroit only. New plants were built all over the country. With plants near each dealer, the wholesaler’s job was unnecessary. The dealers could buy cars directly from the factory. Many other kinds of industries have 299


moved their factories from the cities to small towns. In place of one large factory, these companies now have several smaller plants. Like the automobile industry, they have found that many small factories can be more efficient than fewer large plants. Question 1. A job that became unnecessary was that of the_____. A. factory worker. B. car dealer. C. manufacturer. D. wholesaler Question 2. Henry Ford set up a factory______. A. that had no machinery. B. that sold cars directly to the people. C. with an assembly line. D. with few workers. Question 3. Which of the following is true? A. many small plants can be more efficient than a few large ones. B. Auto dealers always need wholesalers. C. The automobile industry did not change until 1930s. D. Automobile plants cannot be found in small towns. Question 4. Why were new assembly plants built? A. There was not enough room to make the Detroit factory bigger. B. There were not enough workers in Detroit. C. No dealers wanted to buy cars manufactured in Detroit. D. It was no longer practical to have only one factory. Question 5. On the whole, this story is about_____. A. the job of a wholesaler. B. how to sell cars in Detroit, Michigan. C. industries that have changed. D. automobile manufacturing in the United States. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions from 56 to 60. Telecommunicating is a form of computer communication between employees’ homes and offices. For employees whose jobs involve sitting at a terminal or word processor entering data or typing reports, the location of the computer is of no consequence. If the machine can communicate over telephone lines, when the work is completed, employees can dial the office computer from a distant site and transmit the material to their employers. A recent survey in USA Today estimates that there are approximately 8.7 million telecommuters. But although the numbers are rising annually, the trend does not appear to be as significant as predicted when Business Week published "The Portable Executive" as its cover story a few years ago. Why hasn't telecommuting become more popular? Clearly, change simply takes time. But in addition, there has been active resistance on the part of many managers. These executives claim that supervising the telecommuters in a large work force scattered across the country would be too difficult, or, at least, systems for managing them are not yet developed, thereby complicating the manager's responsibilities. It is also true that employees who are given the option of telecommuting are often reluctant to accept the opportunity. Most people feel that they need regular interaction with a group, and many are concerned that they will not have the same consideration for advancement if they are not more visible in the office setting. Some people feel that even when a space in their homes is set aside as a work area, they never really get away from the office. Question 1. The author mentions all of the following as concerns of telecommuters EXCEPT_____ . A. the lack of interaction with a group B. the different system of supervision C. the fact that the work space is in the home D. the opportunities for advancement Question 2. How many American workers are involved in telecommuting? A. More than 8 million B. More than predicted in Business Week C. Fewer than estimated in USA Today D. Fewer than last year Question 3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author is _______. 300


A. the manager of a group of telecommuters B. a reporter C. a telecommuter D. a statistician Question 4. The word "resistance" could best be replaced by_______. A. participation B. consideration C. opposition D. alteration Question 5. Which of the following is the main topic of the passage? A. A definition of telecommuting B. The advantages of telecommuting C. An overview of telecommuting D. The failure of telecommuting III. Read the passage and choose the best answer to each question below. Computerization has changed high school education in many ways. The first is the use of the computer as a teaching aid for teachers. The next is the massive data storage and fast data gain from computers. In early 1980s only 20% of high school teachers in the US used computers. However, since then high schools in the US have computerized rapidly. In 1987, school acquired about 1.5 million computers with 95% of the schools having at least one computer. At school, teachers can use a computer to bring texts, sound and pictures into a classroom. With a computer, they can more readily attract and retain students’ attention. Computers can also speed up the teaching process and make difficult- to- explain ideas straights forward. This means that teachers can spend more time answering students’ questions and catering for other needs. Computer software can shorten the learning process by illustrating real world applications of abstract theories. Question 5. What is the main idea of the text? A. Computers can not be used at school. B. Teachers are banned to use a computer. C. Computers can be used as a teaching aid. D. In 1980 there were no computers used for teaching. Question 5. According to the passage, which sentence is not true? A. Computerization is not done at high school B. Students can get data from computers. C. Teachers can use a computer as a teaching aid. D. Teachers can store data in a computer. Question 5. The word “they” refer to -------A. teachers B. students C. computers D. teaching aids Question 5. In 1987, ---------A. No teachers could use computers B. 95% of the school had at least one computer. C. computers were not used as a teaching aid. D. all high schools had computers. Question 5. With a computer, --------A. nothing can be done for both teachers and students. B. students don’t have to learn their lessons. C. teachers must spend a lot of time explaining the lesson. D. teachers can speed up their teaching process. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. A pilot cannot fly by sight alone. In many conditions, such as flying at night and landing in dense fog, a pilot must use radar, an alternative way of navigating. Since human eyes are not very good at determining speeds of approaching objects, radar can show a pilot how fast nearby planes are moving. The basic principle of radar is exemplified by what happens when one shouts in a cave. The echo of the sounds against the walls helps a person determine the size of the cave. With radar, however, the waves are radio waves instead of sound waves. Radio waves travel at the speed of light, about 300,000 kilometers in one second. A radar set sends out a short burst of radio waves. Then it receives the echoes produced when the waves bounce off objects. By determining the time it takes for the echoes to return to the radar set, a trained technician can determine the distance between the radar set and other objects. The word “radar”, in fact, gets its name from the term “radio detection and 301


ranging”. Ranging” is the term for detection of the distance between an object and the radar set. Besides being of critical importance to pilots, radar is essential for air traffic control, tracking ships at sea, and for tracking weather systems and storms. Question 1. What is the main topic of this passage? A. The nature of radar. B. History of radar. C. Alternatives to radar. D. Types of ranging. Question 2. According to the passage, what can radar detect besides location of objects? A. Shape. B. Size. C. Speed. D. Weight. Question 3. The word “exemplified” in the passage can be replaced by _______. A. “specified” B. “resembled” C. “illustrated” D. “justified” Question 4. The word “shouts” in the passage most closely means _______. A. “exclaims” B. “yells” C. “shoots” D. “whispers” Question 5. Which of the following words best describes the tone of this passage? A. argumentative B. explanatory C. humorous D. imaginative Question 6. The word “tracking” in the passage most closely means _______. A. sending B. searching for C. ranging D. repairing Question 7. Which of the following would most likely be the topic of the next paragraph? A. A history of flying. B. Other uses of radar. C. The technology used by pilots. D. Uses of some technology. Question 8. What might be inferred about radar? A. It takes the place of a radio. B. It has improved navigational safety. C. It was developed from a study of sound waves. D. It gave birth to the invention of the airplane. Topic 11: SPORTS I. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. Foot-racing is a popular activity in the United States. It is seen not only as a competitive sport but also as a way to exercise, to enjoy the camaraderie of like-minded people, and to donate money to a good cause. Though serious runners may spend months training to compete, other runners and walkers might not train at all. Those not competing to win might run in an effort to beat their own time or simply to enjoy the fun and exercise. People of all ages, from those of less than one year (who may be pushed in strollers) to those in their eighties, enter into this sport. The races are held on city streets, on college campuses, through parks, and in suburban areas, and they are commonly 5 to 10 kilometers in length. The largest footrace in the world is the 12-kilometer Bay to Breakers race that is held in San Francisco every spring. This race begins on the east side of the city near San Francisco Bay and ends on the west side at the Pacific Ocean. There may be 80,000 or more people running in this race through the streets and hills of San Francisco. In the front are the serious runners who compete to win and who might finish in as little as 34 minutes. Behind them are the thousands who take several hours to finish. In the back of the race are those who dress in costumes and come just for fun. One year there was a group of men who dressed like Elvis Presley, and another group consisted of firefighters who were tied together in a long line and who were carrying a fire hose. There was even a bridal party, in which the bride was dressed in a long white gown and the groom wore a tuxedo (áo lễ). The bride and groom threw flowers to bystanders, and they were actually married at some point along the route Question 1. The main purpose of this passage is to____. A. encourage people to exercise. B. describe a popular activity. C. make fun of runners in costume. D. give reasons for the popularity of footraces. Question 2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in this passage? A. Some runners looked like Elvis Presley. B. Some runners were ready to put out a fire. 302


C. Some runners were participating in a wedding. D. Some runners were serious about winning. Question 3. The second paragraph is mainly concerned with which of the following? A. a description of the Bay to Breakers race B. the reasons people run the Bay to Breakers race C. a wedding during the Bay to Breakers race D. a description of the location of the Bay to Breakers race Question 4. As used line 1 of the passage, the word “activity� is most similar to A. pursuit B. motion C. pilgrimage D. expectation Question 5. Which of the following is NOT implied by the author? A. Footraces appeal to a variety of people. B. Walkers can compete for prizes. C. Entering a race is a way to give support to an organization. D. Running is a good way to strengthen the heart. Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. There was a surprise victory at the World Championship yesterday. British 400 meter runner Bob Smith won the title in the third fastest time ever. The British champion, who won the silver medal at the last Olympics, finished the race in 43.6 seconds. From the start, it was clear that this race was not going to be like any others. After two false start, the athletes finally broke away from the starting line on the third attempt. Smith took an early lead, and maintained his speed for almost 200 meters. Then Michael Ball, from West Africa, came up from behind to take the lead. He was still leading right up until the final 20 meters. At this point, Smith was in third place and didn't look likely to win. Then Ball suddenly tripped and fell over onto the inside track. He fell into the path of Richard Dandie, his West African team-mate, who had been in second place. Dandie couldn't jump over Ball in time, and instead ran into him, also falling over. It was at this point that Smith took the lead to safely cross the finish line. There was no doubt that it was a lucky win for Smith. He would have come third if the two athletes had not tripped. Question 1. At the World Championship yesterday, _____. A. there were 400 runners B. Bob won the silver medal C. there was a surprise D. a record was set Question 2. At the start of the run _____. A. three attempts were made B. The runners looked tired C. things were like other runs D. there were two false runners Question 3. Smith ran _____. A. for 200 meters. B. took the lead in the whole run C. was beaten by a West African runner D. finished the third at 250 meters Question 4. Ball _____. A. was unlucky in the run B. made Smith fall during the run C. ran faster than Smith D. finished the third Question 5. Which if these is NOT mentioned in the text? A. Smith was lucky B. Ball ran into Dandie C. West African runners didn't win the race D. The run was fu Read the following text then answer the questions that follow by circling its corresponding letter marked A, B, C, or D. IS WINNING EVERYTHING? Ask kids and the answer is probably "No". Ask the adults and the answer is probably "Yes". And it is adults who control sports for young people - with terrible results for many kids. Twenty millions of 303


children between the ages of eight and sixteen play organized sports outside of school. Their experiences are sometimes very bad. Why? Because of the adults, often their parents, who watch the games. Children's sports are organized like professional sports Children play baseball and football. They wear all the equipment that professional athletes wear. They have uniforms and umpires and referees and leagues. They have games. And many people come to watch their games, especially the families of the players. Because the children's games are like adults, professional games, their parents want adult professional competition. When a child drops a ball, his father becomes angry. When a child doesn't run fast, his mother might shout , "Run faster! Run faster!" And the child? With an angry father and a shouting mother, this is not a happy time. Unhappy and nervous, the child wants to stop playing. The game is not fun now. But he or she can't stop, because the competition is not finished. Question 1. How are the children's sports organized? A. They are easier. B. They are for children only. C. They are the same as adults'. D. They are not competitive. Question 2. Why do some children become unhappy playing sports? A. Because they often lose. B. Because they play worse than adults. C. Not all of them can play. D. The adults watch them play. Question 3. What do parents want from children players? A. Win the game B. Not to drop the ball. C. Run faster. D. Play a lot more. Question 4. The children will play better if _____ A. the sport is easy. B. their parents encourage them. C. they have uniforms to wear. D. they can play for fun. Question 5. What is the most important idea in the text? A. Winning is everything. B. Winning is more important to parents than to children. C. Winning is important to parents. D. Winning is important to both children and parents.

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