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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………. 2 1.0

Introduction to the Project……………………………………………… …………

4

2.0

Overview of the Modern Movement in Edmonton……………………………..

6

3.0

Overview of the Practice of Architecture in Edmonton 1936-1960……………………………………………………………………………….

8

4.0

Master List of Architects Practicing in Edmonton to the 1960’s…………………………………………………………………………… 16

5.0

University of Alberta Graduates from the Architecture Program…… …

26

6.0

Biographies of Selected Architects…………………………………….……….

28

7.0

Edmonton City Architects and the Architectural Panel 1930-1963……………………………………………………………………………… 67

8.0

Town Planning in Edmonton 1929-1960…………………………………………. 68

9.0

Edmonton Public Schools 1936-1961……………………………………………. 70

10.0

Post-War Building Chronology 1936-1960 And Major Architectural Styles in Post-War Edmonton……………………..

11.0

A Timeline of Influences, Buildings and Events 1936-1960………………… 87

12.0

Appendix: 12.1 Bibliography and Research Sources…………………………………….

76

95

12.2 Post-War Building Tour……………………………………………………… 101 12.3 Media Coverage of the Project

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY As we enter the 21st Century, many are looking at the Alberta built heritage, from the last half of the Twentieth Century, with fresh eyes. A new century allows us to carefully reflect on those buildings that, for most of our recent lives, we have taken for granted. It is reasonable to ask whether some of these modern buildings might be worthy of long-term preservation, along with their venerable urban companions from earlier historical periods. Before there can be a full appreciation of the architectural legacy of the recent past, there must be a greater body of knowledge. Only then can there be a strategy for preservation. This study addresses the issue of understanding and appreciating buildings from Edmonton's recent past, focusing on the period between 1936, when University of Alberta professor Cecil Burgess was nearing retirement as the head of Alberta's first university architecture program, and 1960 when the Modern Movement had become well established in Edmonton. It represents the beginning of a long process to prepare a comprehensive inventory and evaluation of Edmonton's post-war architectural resources. In 1993 the Edmonton Planning and Development Department completed the Register of Historic Resources in Edmonton, which was a process of preparing a building inventory and evaluation procedures for buildings and structures constructed before 1947. This date is in keeping with the provincial inventory, which does not extend past 1950. During the process of compiling the pre-1947 Edmonton inventory, an ad hoc list of potentially significant buildings from the recent past, the post-war period, was initiated. This initial research has been incorporated into the study, and greatly expanded. Now that we are more than 50 years from the post-war building boom there is a growing interest, on the part of heritage professionals, urban planners, scholars and advocacy groups, in the built heritage of the Modern Movement of architecture. Development pressures are now facing modern buildings. These resources are highly sought after for refurbishment or are threatened by redevelopment. At the same time there is some skepticism among the general public about the relevance of protection. Although the documentation and preservation of recently built heritage is a relatively new development in Canada, some Canadian cities have implemented programs to protect modern resources. With this study and associated events, the authors have begun to expand the knowledge of this important period of architectural history. Edmonton's Downtown neighbourhoods provided a good focal point for the project. Several architectural tours of post-war buildings in the

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Downtown and Oliver neighbourhoods have been conducted over the past two years, with enthusiastic response from the public and media. Public awareness remains a key part of the City's Historic Resource Management Plan. Awareness of the Modern Movement and its effect on Edmonton's post-war buildings will help Edmontonians appreciate and understand the significance. There have been many more buildings constructed in Edmonton since the Second World War, than were constructed prior to the war. Much of this building stock is still extant today. The size of the resource base is immense. The magnitude of preparing an inventory and evaluation of Edmonton's modern era building resources requires an incremental approach. Each step must add upon the previous step. This overview has identified the architects who were practicing in Edmonton between 1936 and 1960 and recorded many of the buildings they designed. Not all buildings constructed in this period have been identified due to the study limitations but a strong and comprehensive list has been initiated. At this time, only the most prominent architects have been studied in detail. By focusing on their major commissions, this work has identified many of what could be considered the most important buildings of the period. The authors hope that the materials gathered in this study will aid in future initiatives to complete a modern inventory and will encourage the addition of modern resources to the City’s Register of Historic Resources. Subjects included in the study are: • An overview of the Modern Movement in Edmonton;  • An overview of the practice of architecture in Edmonton between 1936 and 1960;  • A reference list of architects practicing in Edmonton to the 1960's; • Graduates from the University of Alberta Architecture Program; • Biographies of selected architects;  • Edmonton City Architects and the Edmonton Architectural Panel, 1930-1963; • Town Planning in Edmonton 1929-1960; • Edmonton Public Schools built between 1936 and 1961; • A post war building chronology, 1936-1960; • Major architectural styles in post war Edmonton; • A timeline of influences, buildings and events during the period 1936-1960.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT As we enter the 21st Century, many are looking at the provincial built heritage from the last half of the Twentieth Century with fresh eyes. A new century allows us to carefully reflect on those buildings that, for most of our lives, we have taken for granted. It is reasonable to ask whether some of these modern buildings might be worthy of appreciation and preservation, along with their more venerable urban companions from earlier historical periods. Before there can be a full appreciation of the architectural legacy of the recent past, there must be a greater body of knowledge. Only then can there be a strategy for preservation. This study is at the beginning of a long process to prepare a comprehensive inventory and evaluation of Edmonton’s post-war architectural resources. The first phase of this study includes the period between 1936, when University of Alberta professor Cecil Burgess was nearing retirement as the head of Alberta’s first university architecture program, and 1960, when the Modern Movement had become wellestablished in Edmonton. In 1993 the Edmonton Planning and Development Department completed the Register of Historic Resources in Edmonton, which was a process of preparing a building inventory and evaluation procedures for structures and sites constructed before 1947. This date was arbitrary and was acknowledged as a convenient way to limit the scope of the project to manageable proportions. During the process of compiling the pre-1947 inventory, an ad hoc list of potentially significant buildings from the recent past was initiated. It was soon apparent that this list did not do justice to this prolific and important period of construction, and that the City’s building inventory should be addressed in greater depth. Now that we are more than 50 years from the post-war building boom, there is a growing interest on the part of heritage professionals, scholars and advocacy groups in the built heritage of the Modern Movement of architecture. At the same time there is some skepticism among the general public about the relevance of its protection.

The documentation and

preservation of recently built heritage buildings is a relatively new development. Part of the project to create a modern inventory will require a review of the criteria and process used in similar efforts in Europe and the United States. Susan Bronson is now addressing these issues for the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. The International Working-Party on the Documentation and Conservation of the Buildings, Sites and Neighbourhoods of the Modern Movement [DOCOMOMO] continues to document this valuable international resource. With this study and associated events, the authors have begun to expand the knowledge of this important period of architectural history. Edmonton’s Downtown neighbourhoods provided a

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

good starting point for the project. Several architectural tours of post-war buildings in the Downtown and Oliver neighbourhoods have been conducted over the past two years, with positive response from the public and media. Public awareness remains a key part of the City’s Historic Resource Management Plan. Awareness of the Modern Movement and its effect on Edmonton’s post-war buildings will help Edmontonians appreciate and understand their significance. Edmonton’s heritage policies could ensure (should City Council wish to do so) that many of these buildings are offered the same incentives for preservation as pre-1947 buildings. The time is right to consider the merits of our more recent architectural legacy. First steps should include a comprehensive inventory of post-war buildings, an understanding of who designed them and how the architects were influenced, and the active pursuit of public appreciation of these resources. There have been many more buildings constructed in Edmonton since the Second World War, than were constructed prior to the war. The size of the resource base is immense. The magnitude of preparing an inventory and evaluation of Edmonton’s modern era building resources requires an incremental approach. Each step must add upon the previous step. The focus of this study is very basic. The study has identified the architects who were practicing in Edmonton between 1936 and 1960 and recorded many of the buildings they designed. Not all buildings constructed in this period have been identified due to the study limitations. A comprehensive list will require other methodologies such as a city-wide windshield survey. At this time, only the most prominent architects have been studied in detail. By focusing on their major commissions, this work has identified many of what could be considered the most important buildings of the period. It is hoped that the materials gathered in this study aid future researchers to complete the background information required to complete the inventory. With the completion of an inventory, it will be possible to apply an evaluation system that determines which resources are worth preserving. In the meantime, this study will contribute to a greater awareness of the significance of the architecture of the recent past. Public support for the process of preparing a comprehensive post-war inventory will be critical to finding the financial resources necessary to complete the research and evaluation. Only then can we hope to encourage the preservation of a comprehensive array of resources that attest to the importance of buildings from the recent past, the achievements of which we can justly be proud.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

2.0 OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT IN EDMONTON The Modern Movement of architecture, with its intellectual roots deep in mid-19th Century Europe, grew to a significant world presence after 1900 and especially during the 1920s and 1930s. Beginning with “structural (iron) expressionism” such as that of Joseph Paxton’s 1851 Crystal Palace and Jules Saulnier’s 1871 Chocolate Factory at Noisel-sur-marne, France, the Modern Movement was given contemporary expression in France by Le Corbusier, and through the public debate and work of Bauhaus architects Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe in 1920s Germany. Emphasis was placed upon the use of new materials and technologies, and by the early 1900s historical precedent was consciously discounted as in the work of Austrian architect Adolf Loos who, in the early 1900s denounced decorative historicism as decadent, as illustrated in his 1910 Vienna Steiner house. This stylistic and philosophical trend became generally known as the “International Style” by the 1930s. The style was identified by Philip Johnson after the influential 1932 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. The International Style was very influential in post-war Alberta architecture and was often defined by structures with flat roofs, lack of ornamentation, simplified lines, and impressive areas of glass surface. Mies van der Rohe’s famous proclamation, “Less is More”, typifies the emerging architectural attitude of the early 20th Century. Of no less significance were American architects, such as Chicago’s Louis Sullivan followed by Frank Lloyd Wright, who inspired the globally influential “Prairie Style” after his work was published in a 1912 monograph. Practitioners who studied the Art Deco stylistic movement in the United States and Europe, produced the “Moderne” style, a widely practiced architectural style in Alberta after the Second World War. The influence of many modern architectural pioneers left its mark on Edmonton. It is not well known that Edmonton’s University of Alberta hosted an architecture program (within the Faculty of Applied Science) from 1914 until 1940. It was at this school that a number of Alberta’s influential post war architects were trained, such as John and Peter Rule, Gordon Wynn, John Stevenson, Mary Imrie and Louise Wallbridge. The leader of this school was Cecil Burgess, arguably one of the most important architects in early Alberta. Many young architects, after the Second World War, considered him the “grandfather” of Edmonton architects. After retiring from the University in 1940 at the age of 70, he opened a practice in architecture and town planning, and continued to practice well into his 90s. During and after the Second World War, Edmonton experienced a building boom unmatched since the turn of the century. Buildings of all types were constructed to serve the expanding

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

needs of, first the Second World War efforts, and later the burgeoning population. Downtown was vibrant and the suburbs were growing rapidly. Edmonton architects were at the forefront of international design trends, and left an important legacy of notable buildings that have largely remained unrecognized by Albertans. Architectural historian Trevor Boddy has concluded: “Alberta is marked more by the functionalist forms and philosophies of modernism than any other place in the world.� Cecil Burgess in his report on Alberta to the Journal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, December 1946, describes in detail an exhibition of Dutch architecture, modern and historical, at the Edmonton Museum of Arts. There is no doubt that Edmonton architects would have taken great interest in such an exhibit, with its examples of historic and modern schools, public buildings, low cost house and town planning. European modernist influences were quickly incorporated into Edmonton architecture after the war. This influence is clearly seen in the work of Edmonton Public Schools Architect W.W.Butchart. Other influences were also beginning to show in the post-war period. The West Coast Style, a derivative of the International Style, typified by flat roofs, wood post-and-beam exposed structure, large expanses of glass, open planning and integrated interior/exterior relationships, was readily incorporated by a number of Edmonton architects. Country clubs, houses and, later, shopping centres began to reflect this west coast influence. The 1957 home/office of architects Imrie and Wallbridge is one of the best remaining examples of domestic West Coast Style. The many golf and country clubs by Rule Wynn Rule are clearly derived from this stylistic influence. In the 1950s, Alberta Public Works began to hire architects from Europe, especially Great Britain, to fill the apparent professional gap caused by so much post-war construction. These architects brought with them the latest architectural ideas from Europe and were able to implement them immediately on projects constructed by the Provincial Government. Some of the architects hired by the Government soon went into private practice. In 1957, the Alberta Association of Architects invited Richard Neutra of Los Angeles, one of the most prominent American modernist architects practicing at the time, to speak at their annual design meeting, the Banff Session. The meeting was well attended and is proudly recorded in the archives of the association. Alberta architects were eager to stay abreast of world architectural trends. Alberta was in a boom period. Edmonton, as the seat of government and the supply centre of the expanding post-war oil industry, was at the heart of this boom. As a result, there is a significantly large collection of well-conceived and executed post-war buildings in Edmonton.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

3.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON 1936-1960 1936 to 1946 Edmonton architects started to embrace theories and practices of modernism during this period. They experimented with Art Deco, Art Moderne and eventually International Style Modern Architecture. This experimentation led to a more mature modern architecture in the City in the 1950s and 1960s. Alberta- trained architects emerged on the scene. The University of Alberta offered training in architecture and a degree program. The first graduate was Edmonton-born John Rule. The program was directed by Professor Cecil Burgess, a leading force in architectural education in the province. Burgess and the school produced just under twenty graduates in a period of eight years. Most remained in Alberta, particularly Edmonton, and formed the nucleus of architects practicing in the post-war period (see University of Alberta Graduates Section 5.0 for listing). The University of Alberta, also through Cecil Burgess, regulated the certification of Alberta architects. Edmonton’s citizens were interested in the new styles. In 1936, the “ The Home of Tomorrow” (now at # 1 St. George’s Crescent) was built through the sponsorship of the Edmonton Bulletin to give homeowners a glimpse at post-war construction, styles and decoration. It was built by local contractor Ernest Litchfield from the award winning plans of a competition sponsored by the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. The architect was not identified. The home was considered the “last word” in modern low cost Canadian housing and was Edmonton’s first model home. This public display of modernistic architecture helped to set the stage for commissions that followed that year. Architects of the earlier century continued to practice in the post-war period. Most started to let go of their Beaux Arts traditions. Both William Blakey and Richard P. Blakey, long established architects, accepted concepts of modernism as early as 1935. William Blakey was hired as the local architect in 1938 and 1939 by Manitoba architects, Northwood and Chivers, to assist in the design of the streamlined Eaton’s store. In the same year he designed St. John’s Separate School using streamlined deco influences and in 1940, designed the Garneau Theatre in the International Style. In 1946 he designed a showcase home for himself in Glenora (13526 101 Avenue) following modern practices and styles. His strongest competitor, George Heath MacDonald, also a leading architect of the pre-war period, designed an equally modernistic

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

home across the alley from Blakey’s residence for Justice Hyndman. Richard Blakey designed several residential modern commissions in this period as well. In 1938, John and Peter Rule, and Gordon Wynn formed their practice. In the early years the practice of Rule, Wynn and Rule consisted mostly of the design of modernistic theatres. The now demolished Varscona Theatre (1940) was Edmonton’s premier example of the Moderne, white stucco, streamlined style. Architects still had trouble gaining work because of the not yet recovered Depression economy. For example, the Rule, Wynn, Rule partnership accepted smaller commissions such as the Foster & McGarvey Funeral Home and the Bonnyville Convent, in revival styles. These commissions responded to the clients’ interests. Such was also the case with Glenora School for the Edmonton Public School Board in 1940 which was designed to reflect the earlier character of Old Glenora. Many of these early war commissions were not reflective of the new modernism. During the 1940s Alberta’s young architects left for Europe to serve in the Second World War. The older architects assisted with wartime efforts by lending their expertise to the Federal Government. William Blakey returned to Ottawa (he had worked in Ottawa during the First World War) to work with the Standards and Measurement Branch. John Rule and Gordon Wynn joined the Navy and the Air Force, respectively. Peter Rule, John’s father, came out of retirement to watch over the partnership of his sons and Gordon Wynn. In 1941, he was granted a special certificate by the Alberta Association of Architects enabling him to practice. The firm had enough work to hire fellow University of Alberta graduates, including Mary Imrie and Doris Newland. Some registered architects were killed in service such as Victor Meech, a graduate of the University of Alberta. City Architect John Martland (1926 to 1944) was forced to deal with a critical housing shortage during the war years. Martland chaired a special taskforce set up to deal with federal housing schemes. In 1937 several hundred houses were constructed based on Martland’s designs in Edmonton’s first municipal housing program. He aided in the design of a number of hangars at Edmonton Municipal Airport. He also designed the Municipal Airport Administrative Building before he retired from his position in 1944 and was replaced by Maxwell Dewar. Martland entered into private practice. Cecil Burgess retired in 1940 from the University of Alberta and the school of architecture was closed. Burgess continued to act as Alberta’s editorial representative to the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. He was very skeptical of the Modern Movement but a strong follower of the new movements in town planning. Burgess believed that architects could not be successful

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

unless they understood proper planning techniques. He prepared “An Interim Report of the Edmonton Planning Commission” which was published in 1944 and reprinted in the RAIC Journal in 1945. The plan specified a layout for the H.B.C. Reserve and adjoining areas. He modeled his planning concepts in part, on Eliel Saarinen’s, The City, Its Growth, Its Decay, Its Future. At this time Gordon Turnbull was the resident architect of the United States Army and Navy Engineers. Numerous temporary buildings were constructed and many others retrofitted for military operations. Architects were concerned by the design of the structures and asked if the hut like buildings will be taken away after the war. 1946 to 1950 The post-war ambience created an opportune time for architects to enter into the field. It was a period of energized growth across the country but particularly in Edmonton after the oil discovery at Leduc. Maxwell Dewar, City of Edmonton Architect, served President of the Alberta Association of Architects in 1946 and 1947. He reported that architects “must respond to the rising tempo of the times.” There was a dramatic and significant shift in Edmonton’s economy. The development of the petrochemical industry brought along basic and secondary industry. Architects who were struggling for work were now high in demand. Wartime industries were converted to peace time applications. There was a great need to replace or fix existing infrastructures in cities. Maxwell Dewar and those in his department were challenged by the demands of urban expansion. Dewar stated that 1946 “had been a strenuous one in that a great effort has been necessary to meet the demands of society for industrial, commercial, public and residential buildings” in his presidential address to the Alberta Association or Architects on January 31, 1947. Rising construction costs, material shortages, and labour unrest made it difficult to complete projects. Skilled labourers were in great demand. Building construction methods were rapidly changing. Architects were required to assimilate masses of information on built form. In 1950 John Rule wrote for the RAIC Journal on “Construction and Material”. Edmonton’s importance as a meatpacking center was strengthened. The Canadian Packer’s Meat Plant, designed by Eastern architect, Eric R. Arthur, was shown at the UNESCO conference in Paris in 1946.

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

In 1946 the architectural draftsmen of Alberta organized. The Alberta Association of Architects started a new process of regulation to manage drafting examinations and improve standards of drafting practices. Some draftsmen entered into the profession of architecture, e.g. Douglas Campbell. Veterans returning from the war enrolled in great numbers in Canadian universities. The University of Manitoba Department of Architecture formed in 1912 started a post-graduate program in 1948. Many prairie-born veterans registered in the program as the University of Manitoba had the largest school of architecture in the immediate post-war period in the West. Under the direction of Dean John Russell, and subsequently Milton S. Osborne, the school emphasized a modern approach. Architects were trained as both planners and builders. Many of these graduates came to Edmonton to work because of the city’s booming economy. They included Roy Meiklejohn, H. Henderson, Leonard Klingbell, Eugenne Olekshy, Jack Annett, Gordon Forbes, and Kelvin Stanley. Edmonton’s most celebrated female architects, Jean Wallbridge and Mary Imrie, embarked on a six-week tour of Europe in 1947 sponsored by World Study Tours to examine post-war construction in Europe. They visited Poland, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Switzerland, Belgium and England. They returned to their positions with the City of Edmonton Architect’s office with “fresh ideas and enthusiasm for their work in the architectural field.” In 1948 the Royal Canadian Architectural Institute held its Annual General Meeting in Calgary, much to the chagrin of Edmonton’s architectural community that is larger at this point in time. Maxwell Dewar, President of the Alberta Association of Architects, discussed the failings of the Dominion Housing Program. Architects believed they should have been more involved in the design of residential dwellings to avoid ‘stereotypical designs.’ In the same year Dewar was appointed to the National Fire Commission to work on building codes. Cecil Burgess called for the enforcement of adequate standards for admission to the Alberta Association of Architects. He was concerned that architects of the day were technically trained but not versed on matters of architectural culture. Lloyd George McDonald arrived from England to join his brother, Frederick, in November of 1948. W. L. Somerville was appointed the consulting architect for the Department of Public Works and the Tuberculosis Sanitarium in Edmonton.

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

The population of Edmonton doubled in three years (1945–1948). Gordon Wynn states “ there is more opportunity in Edmonton then anywhere in Canada. The architect will need to play a big part in the development of this area.” ( RAIC Journal, January, 1949). In 1949 Maxwell Dewar entered into private practice. Mary Imrie and Jean Wallbridge resigned from their positions with the City Architect’s office and went on an architectural tour of South America. Robert F. Duke is appointed City Architect. Noel Dant, an urban planner from Britain, is hired as Town Planner for the City of Edmonton. The 1950’s Edmonton’s architects worked to meet the needs of urban expansion. This included the modernization of existing structures and the design of new ones. Edmonton’s role as a distribution center increased. To meet rapid population growth, the City Architect’s office helped design civic utility buildings (incinerators, power and water filtration plants, fire halls), recreational structures (swimming pools, grandstands) and parks (playgrounds, baseball parks, and public washrooms). Post- war immigration brought a new workforce of architects to the community from Belgium, Britain, Holland and Germany. These architects gained work with established firms such as Rule, Wynn and Rule or the Alberta Department of Public Works. They reinforced the practices of modern architecture, most having been trained in progressive schools. They included Rudy Ascher, Duncan McCulloch, Freda and Dennis O’Connor, Kristjan Parn, Herbert Richards, Bruno Templin, Clifford Larrington, Albert Dale, Victor Bathory and Julius Piffko. In 1950 John Rule wrote about construction and material practices with reference to his client, the Bank of Montreal. The oil boom years brought in large commissions in both Calgary and Edmonton. In 1948, growth at the University of Alberta created a need for one of the firm’s largest early projects, the Rutherford Library. The library was one of the last classically designed buildings on campus. Edmonton’s expanding commercial activity was reflected in designs of warehouses, plants and hospitals. The firm of Rule, Wynn and Rule started its fortyyear association with the Royal Alexandra Hospital in 1950. In 1953, the headquarters for Alberta Government Telephones adjacent to the Alberta Legislature, Edmonton’s first curtainwall building was completed, just one year after Skidmore, Owings and Merrill unveiled Lever House in New York. At the time it was described as ‘an offense against good taste’, demonstrating that not all Edmontonians were accepting of modern forms.

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Cecil Burgess also reflected on the new movement in architecture. He lamented for the loss of classicism, and the acceptance of “steel steroids with more glass than walls”. Early in 1950 a proposal was put forward to City Council to create a new city center in downtown Edmonton. A syndicate called the First New Amsterdam Corporation proposed a $25 million investment scheme in an attempt to erect a number of correlated buildings in a properly landscaped plan in the downtown core. This would include an auditorium, retail stores, offices, car parking and super markets. The plan was prepared by A. Gordon Lorimer, a New York architect, and L. E. Detwiler, a consulting engineer. A December plebiscite regarding this city center proposal was defeated. Growing populations required new schools. The Edmonton Public School Board Architect, W. W. Butchart designed dozens of schools during the decade. Toronto had taken the lead in the country in defining modern architecture. John Parkin’s school designs influence the Edmonton architects who are hired by to design school buildings and additions. Victoria Composite High school is among the first of Edmonton schools to receive national attention. It is designed in 1952 by Dewar, Stevenson, and Stanley Architects. Christenson and MacDonald Limited are General Contractors. In 1953, Edmonton’s post-war buildings came of age. The February issue of the RAIC Journal is devoted to contemporary Alberta architecture. Most of the buildings featured are in Edmonton. They are: The Alberta Teacher’s Association Building (Stanley and Stanley), the house of J. Russell (Wallbridge and Imrie), St. Anne’s Chapel ( Diamond, Dupuis, Desautels), The Provincial Tuberculosis Sanitarium (W. L Somerville, Alberta Department of Public Works), The Royal Trust Company Building ( Dewar, Stevenson and Stanley Architects) and the Brown Building in Calgary ( J.A. Cawston). The Premier of Alberta, Ernest Manning, wrote the introduction to the 1953 RAIC Journal showcase of architecture. He comments were as follows: “Alberta is young and vigorous and receptive to new ideas provided they are progressive and wholesome. This province has demonstrated to the rest of Canada and to the world that her people are not afraid of experiment, adopting whatever is beneficial but not hesitating to abandon or reject the obviously profitless”. Cecil Burgess wrote the editorial for the issue and articles featured Alberta’s resources, town and rural planning, arts and handicrafts, and art in Alberta.

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“The Guide to Professional Charges and Practices” was published in 1954 to help regulate the profession. Architects were concerned that engineers would receive commissions without the use of their services. Since Alberta had no school of architecture in the 1950s, a revision of the system of examinations was undertaken by the Alberta Association of Architects and the government. By 1955, Edmonton was on the verge of accepting the skyscraper. Taller buildings included the Milner Building on 104 Street and the Bank of Montreal Building, both designed by Rule, Wynn, Rule. In 1957 the Bentall Block was designed by C.T. Larrington, and James Bell secured his first large office commission, the Northwest Trust Building, in 1957. Edmonton architects started to work with developers such as Oxford. In 1955 Maxell Dewar died at the age of 45. Burgess calls his youthful death “ a calamity to the profession.” In the late 1950’s a massive expansion at the University of Alberta began. The University of Alberta supplied the petrochemical industry and health industries, with new graduates. In 1960, a new Engineering Building (Rule, Wynn and Rule architects) opened reflecting the growth in this area. Session ‘56 was organized by the Alberta Association of Architects to explore new architectural ideals and contemporary approaches. It was co-sponsored by the Department of Extension at the University of Alberta. H. L Bouey, President of the Association presided. Thirty-five architects met for a week at the Banff School of Fine Arts, to hear the director of the course, the renowned architect, Richard Neutra. Neutra also addressed the association at its annual dinner with a talk entitled “The Value of the Session of ’56 to Architects Here and Abroad.” This was intended to be the first of an annual event and session ’57 was planned for the next year. Session ’57 did proceed and was viewed as a milestone in Canadian architectural history by the participants. Richard Neutra returned and set the theme of the meetings to have architects understand the “human organism for which we design.” Two popular social scientists also presented papers. All of Edmonton’s leading architects attended and A. O. Minsos wrote in a summary of the session: “Richard Neutra is no doubt one of the great personalities of contemporary architecture in the mid twentieth century.” Neutra and his wife, Dione, who also participated in the session, were toured through Edmonton and Alberta by Robert Bouey, president of the Association. They were very late for the gatherings as Neutra insists on visiting the Hobemma Reserve in sub zero temperatures, taking photographs of housing on the

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reserve. Edmonton architects were inspired by these sessions and as a result of their participation, firms like Minsos and Rensaa set the stage for the next decade, embracing new modernism, with their design of the Edmonton International Airport. Two years later Edmonton City Council agreed to erect a permanent civic monument to mark the July 21, 1959 visit of Queen Elizabeth. The building was considered Canada’s first planetarium and was the country’s only civic planetarium until the Dow Planetarium of Montreal opened in 1966. Called the Queen Elizabeth Planetarium, the building is an example of modern expressionism. It was designed by City architect, Robert Falconer Duke with the help of Walter Telfer. At the end of the decade the firm of Blakey, Blakey and Ascher closed(1960), after the death of the youngest partner Rudolph Ascher. William and Richard Blakey were among the Province’s longest practicing architects. Their work spanned the styles of the century and embraced the Modern Movement. Many of Edmonton’s postwar architects entered the 1960s with two decades of experience behind them eager to continue the development of modern architecture in the decades to come.

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

4.0

MASTER LIST OF ARCHITECTS PRACTICING IN EDMONTON

This list is derived from the members’ registry of Alberta Association of Architects, Canadian Architectural Archives, University of Calgary Registry entries include name, AAA registration number, address and [employer] at time of registration, and date of registration.

A Aberdeen, T. Gordon

#133

108 Agency Building, Edmonton [Department of Public Works Alberta Government], 1 June 1939

Adams, A.S.

#74

c/o Barnes & Gibbs, 10 December 1912

Annett, Jack Dinning

#241

10832-135 Street, Edmonton, 1 January 1955

Ascher, G.R.

#159

10042-109 Street, Edmonton, 8 December 1949 Deceased April 1960

B Barnes, A. Percy

#1

4 November 1906 Secretary from 6 May 1906 to end of 1908. President in 1909

Barton, Leonard D.

#177

10187-99 Street, Edmonton [P. Campbell-Hope], 8 March 1951

Bathory, Victor G.

#217

10241-122 Street, Edmonton, 20 November 1952

Bell, Clifford L.

#281

11445-137 Street, Edmonton, 26 June 1957

Bell, James Brock

#181

108 Agency Building, Edmonton, 23 May 1951

Berman, Alexander

#161

Edmonton [Buildings Branch, Department of Public Works] 11 May 1950

Beswick, Alfred Edward #89

603 Tegler Building, Edmonton, 15 April 1914 ARIBA

Bittorf, Don

#254

618 Northern Hardware Building, 23 May 1956

Blais, Charles Herman

#234

9642 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Blais & English], 17 March 1954

Blakey, R.P.

#57

229 Wize Block, Edmonton, 7 November 1911

Blakey. William George #83

[R.W. Lines], Edmonton, 13 May 1913

Bouey, Harold L.

#165

834 Tegler Building, Edmonton, 6 July 1950

Bouey, Robert F.

#166

10012-102 Street, Edmonton, 6 July 1950

Brownlee, W. Ralph

#180

11535 St. Albert Road, Edmonton, 23 May 1951

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Brydon, Arthur Mackenzie #155

Edmonton [Buildings Branch, Department of Public Works] 6 January 1949, Retired-resigned 3 December 1952.

Buchanan, Margaret

#157

2 June 1938

Burgess, Cecil S.

#82

[University of Alberta], 13 May 1913, FRIBA Deceased 12 November 1971 at 101 years

Burrows, A.G.

#300

305 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton [

Butchart, William Walter #146

McKernan & Bouey], 15 June 1958 7 June 1945

C Calderon, A.M.

#3

22 November 1906 (exam1908?)

Callebaut, Charles

#162

11142 Jasper Avenue [Rule Wynn Rule], 1 June 1950

Campbell, D.M.

#163

Civic Block, Edmonton [School Board], 1 June 1950

Campbell, Gordon T.

#172

10725-101 Street, Edmonton 19 January 1951 [School Board]

Campbell, W. Stewart

#13

4 January 1907, Council 1907

Campbell-Hope, Patrick #134

11038-108 Street, Edmonton, 4 January 1940

Campbell-Hope, T.B.

9834-106 Street, Edmonton [provincial government],

#327

1 January 1960 Cauchon, Joseph E.

#61

19 February 1912

Clarke, Ronald

#223

10940-80 Avenue and 10819-80 Avenue, Edmonton, 6 May 1953

Colvig, Bruce

#305

13548-114 Street, Edmonton [federal government], 15 October 1958

Cook, A.E.

#257

10018-115 Street, Edmonton, 23 May 1956

Cook, George D.

#194

618 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton, 3 January 1952, Died 20 December 1951

Cromarty, William David #72

21-22 Dominion Building, Edmonton

Cull, D.A.

Assistant District Architect DPH [federal

#307

government], 15 February 1959

D Dale, Albert

#242

Suite 1, 10110-122 Street, Edmonton, 1 January 1955

Dant, Noel B.

#160

Civic Block [City of Edmonton], 20 January 1950, Resigned April 1955

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Darch, E.J.

#386

1, 9827-104 Street, Edmonton [Diamond Clarke and Associates] 11 January 1967

Deggendorf, G.

#2

Edmonton, 5 November 1906, President 1906-1907 Honourary President 1908

Desautels, G.A.F.

#211

8717-97 Avenue, Edmonton, 18 September 1952, Resigned April 1955

Dewar, Maxwell Cameron #117

501 Civic Block, 4 June 1930, Died April1955

Diamond, Gerard P.

#202

8905-83 Avenue, Edmonton 26 June 1952

Dietze, S.H.

#311

11536 Jasper Avenue [Diamond Clarke & Associates] 16 September 1959

Dobell, N.H.

#293

11422 Jasper Avenue [Rule Wynn & Rule], 16 April 1958 Resigned 1961

Donahue, Joseph Hugh

#266

11307-109A Avenue, Edmonton [Diamond Dupuis & Dunn], 1 January 1957

Dow, John K.

#81

Rice Street, Edmonton, 15 April 1913

Dubeta, David John

#350

9747-67 Avenue, Edmonton [Diamond Clarke & Associates], 11 September 1963

Duke, Robert F.

#147

501 Civic Block, 11 July 1946

Dunn, H. Angus

#231

002, Rawleigh Building, Edmonton, 4 January 1954

Dupuis, Emile J.

#199

10263-113 Street, Edmonton, 26 June 1952

#306

11536 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Diamond Clarke &

E Edwards, W.B.

Associates] 18 February 1959 English, Joseph Keily

#219

7922-118 Avenue, Edmonton, 18 December 1952

Eriksson, D.A.P.

#557

10845-76 Avenue, Edmonton [Diamond Clarke & Associates], 24 June 1964

Eskildsen, V.E.

#373

8411-109 Street, Edmonton [Aberdeen Groves Hodgson], 24 June 1964

F Findlay, Margaret

#?

834 Tegler Building, Edmonton, 4 May 1944

Fitzpatrick, J.H.

#343

6623-97 Avenue, Edmonton [Department of Transport], 8 April 1962

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Flack, Edric Charles

#182

11422 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Rule Wynn Rule], 23 May 1951

Flak, Nicholas

#224

10107-142 Street, Edmonton, 8 July 1953

Fleet, Garth B.

#207

11109-91 Avenue, Edmonton, 18 September 1952

Fleming, Norman M.

#330

9420-148 Street, Edmonton [Alberta DPW], 26 April 1961

Fooks, Norman H.

#188

10715-84 Avenue, Edmonton [Blakey Blakey & Ascher], 8 June, 1951

Forbes, D. Gordon

#173

11422 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Rule Wynn Rule], 19 January 1951

Freeze, Donald Allan

#130

9620-105 Street, Edmonton, 5 January 1939, Resigned 11 January 1949 - moved to Toronto, Reinstated 16 April 1951.

G Gardener, Norman Jack

#183

11004-89 Avenue, Edmonton, 23 May 1951

Gibbs, C.L.

19 August 1907, student, deceased 5 September 1934

Giles, George Leslie J.

#264

10802-138 Street, Edmonton, 1 January 1957

Glenne, Alf

#220

11234-89 Street, Edmonton, 18 December 1952

Gordon, Roy

#156

5 May 1949

Gorniak, Frank

#235

9819-111 Street, Edmonton, 14 April 1954

Grafton, Daphne Lennox

#243

305 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton, 10 January 1955

Gregson, John K.

#418

7608-149 Street, Edmonton [Alberta Housing], 19 June 1968

Groves, Thomas Albert

#184

108 Agency Building, Edmonton [Martland & Aberdeen], 23 May 1951

H Hall, Norman S.

#11

October 1907, Student

Hardie, David

#98

Government Building, Edmonton, 26 January 1920, Resigned 4 December 1930

Healing, John B.

#80

11 March 1913, ARIBA

Heeley, David

#301

10029-117 Street, Edmonton, 18 June 1958

Hemingway, Peter

#259

10133-108 Street, Edmonton, 15 February 1956

Henderson, James

#25

7 March 1907, Exam 1908, deceased 25 April 1932

Henderson, H. Arthur

#192

11026-89 Avenue, Edmonton [Alberta Government], 18 October 1951

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Hicks,R.J.

#252

8934-97 Avenue, Edmonton, 14 September 1955

Hnidan, William

#253

10511-90 Street, Edmonton, 14 September 1955

Hodgson, Stanley

#232

618 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton, 4 January 1954

Holden, John Edward

#358

9084-52 Street, Edmonton [Assistant Architect, EPSB], 9 September 1964

Holland, A.M.

#302

10740 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, 17 September 1958

Holman, Frank Thompson #262

4013-41 Avenue, Red Deer, 16 July 1956

Holubitsky, Orest Bohdan #349

10848-107 Street, Edmonton [E. Olekshy], 13 February 1963

Hopkins, E.C.

#6

12 December 1906, AAA Council 1907-1908

Hutton, Anthony T.

#287

10323-140 Street, Edmonton [George Heath MacDonald] 1 January 1958

I Imrie, Mary Louise

#143

8 Merrick Building, Edmonton, 7 December 1944

James, P. Leonard

#8

14 December 1906, Rejoined 25 January 1909

Jamieson, John Bruce

#377

10033-116 Street, Edmonton [Rensaa Minsos],

J

17 May 1966 Jeffers, A.M.

#91

Agency Building, Edmonton, 10 November 1914

Jelliner, George A.

#337

10036-117 Street, Edmonton [Alberta DPW], 2 February 1962

Jenkins, David L.

#267

4, 11745-126 Street, Edmonton [Diamond Dupuis and Dunn], 1 January 1957

Johnson, H.D.

#10

Edmonton, 17 December 1906, Council 1906; 2nd vice president 1907

Jones, F.W.

Edmonton, 6 January 1913, student associate

K Klingbell, Leonard C.

#185

12618-106 Avenue, Edmonton [P. Campbell-Hope], 23 May 1951

Koenig, George John

#346

9044-144 Street, Edmonton [AGT], 12 September 1962

Kubrak, M.Z.

#367

4001-113 Avenue, Edmonton [Alberta DPW], May 1965

Kubrak, Walter

#320

4009-113 Avenue, Edmonton [Alberta Government], 16 March 1960

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

L Lafond, Pierre

#245

204, F.W. Clark Building, Edmonton [Clayton & Bond], 27 April 1955

Lansdowne, F.

#38

January 1908 student registered to practice, 21 September 1905.

Larrington, C.T.

#233

10408 Park Road, Edmonton, 11 February 1954

Laubenthal, C.E.C.

#239

10919-135 Street, Edmonton, 18 August 1954

Lines, Roland W.

#12

Edmonton, 29 December 1906, Exam 1907, Treasurer 1908, Exam 1908.

Lord, George Willingdon #138

Edmonton, 8 January 1942

M McCulloch, Duncan

#208

14006-106 Avenue, Edmonton, 18 September 1952

McDonald, Frederick H.

201 Kresge Building, Edmonton, 2 March 1939

McDonald, Lloyd George

9938-88 Avenue, Edmonton, 6 October 1938

McDougall, R.I.A.

#408

22, 9915-102 Street, Edmonton [Federal DPW]

McGregor, Kenneth S.

#407

Edmonton [DPW]

McIntosh, John

#201

10224-109 Street, Edmonton, 26 June 1952

McKernan, Neil C.

3 Credit Foncier Building, Edmonton, 1 October 1942, Deceased 31 January 1981

Macdonald, Cameron William

11422 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Rule Wynn Rule], 19 January 1951, Resigned 1956, Reinstated 9 September 1964

MacDonald, George Heath

illegible

MacDonald,John A.

14309 Summit Drive, Edmonton [George Heath MacDonald], 2 August 1951

Macleod, Malcolm D.

618 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton, 8 March 1951

Magoon, H.A.

#7

Edmonton, 14 October 1906, AAA Treasurer 1906-1907

Majores, Erich N.

9030-102A Avenue, Edmonton, 18 August 1954

Maltby, Leslie Ronald

St. Albert [Edmonton District Planning Association] 14 September 1960

Mangold, Rudy

9130 Jasper Avenue, 14 September 1955

Martland, John

108 Agency Building, Edmonton, 10 October 1919

Marvin, P.D.

Edmonton, 11 August 1913

Matsuka, Donald M.

10975-124 Street, Edmonton [Bell McCulloch Spotowski & Associates]

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Meiklejohn, Roy W.

5B, 10425-126 Street, Edmonton, 26 June 1952

Middleton, Ernest B.

10174-107 Street, Edmonton, 26 June 1952

Minsos, Alfred Oswald

300 Birks Building, Edmonton, 21 May 1948

Mitchell, R.M.

Edmonton, 13 July 1915

Morehouse, E.W.

Edmonton, 13 July 1915

Munro, D.B.

10942-164 Street, Edmonton [Federal Government], 6 January 1965

Munzell, A.O.H.

PO Box 311, Edmonton [Federal Government], 9 August 1961

N Naito, Joe

#298

10650-101 Street, Edmonton [Middleton & Sinclair], 18 June 1958

Neutra, Richard J

#272

Los Angeles, CA 18 January 1957, Honourary Member

Numann, William

#250

10904-126 Street, Edmonton, 14 September 1956

Nykanen, George A.

#352

9016-88 Avenue, Edmonton [C.T. Larrington], 1 January 1964

O’Connor, Dennis J.L.

9946-106 Street, Edmonton [Bell & McCulloch], 20 March 1957

O’Connor, Mrs. Freyda M.

9946-106 Street, Edmonton [Bell & McCulloch], 20 March 1957

Olekshy, Eugene

10187-99 Street, Edmonton, 18 September 1952

P Parn, Kristjan

#270

11852 St. Albert Trail [City Architect’s Office], 9 January 1957

Pasternak, W.P.

#170

501 Civic Block, Edmonton [Associate City Architect], 12 October 1950

Patrick, R.R.

#277

10029-122 Street, Edmonton [DPW], 17 April 1957

Patsula, John Joseph

#369

10039-143 Street, Edmonton [Abugov & Sunderland], 23 June 1965

Person, Dennis Albert

#380

14028-106A Avenue, Edmonton [Howard & Robert Bouey] 29 June 1965

Pethybridge, E.G.

#167

Peacock-Loukes, Pat. E. #269

834 Tegler Building [G.H. MacDonald], 6 July 1950 3, 11203 Jasper Avenue [Diamond Dupuis & Dunn], 1 January 1957

Piffko, Julius

#325

9732-105 Street, Edmonton [Alberta Government], 14 September 1960

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Pinckston, D.L.

#296

10546-109 Street, Edmonton [Ross-Stanley], 18 June 1958

Plotkin, Louie

#227

11523-76 Avenue, Edmonton, 17 September 1953

Polhnsky, S.W.

#323

4808-104 Street, Edmonton, 14 September 1960

Pratt, Blake Frederick

#328

8411-109 Street, Edmonton [Aberdeen & Groves], 11 January 1961

R Reimer, Norman E.

#168

11422 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Rule Wynn Rule], 6 July 1950

Richards, H.S.

#294

12729 Stony Plain Road, Edmonton [DPW], 16 September 1958

Roberto, Dennis

#319

10440-69 Avenue, Edmonton, [Alberta Government], 16 March 1960, Resigned January 1961

Ross, Donald G.

#304

516 Civic Block, Edmonton [John McIntosh], 15 October 1958, Reinstated 20 June 1979

Ross, Percy I.

#17

Edmonton, 10 January 1907

Rossman, Wendell

#282

6739-87 Street, Edmonton, 10 July 1957, Resigned

Rule, John U. Rule

#125

Edmonton, 20 June 1938

Rule, Peter Leitch

#135

Edmonton and Calgary, 2 May 1940

Rule, Peter Sr.

#136

Edmonton and Calgary, 2 January 1941

Rutherford, Ian J.

#191

11422 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [Rule Wynn Rule] 2 August 1951

S Sahin, Bela Toth

#318

5, 10924-100 Avenue, Edmonton [Alberta Government] 16 March 1960

Schmidt, Sieghard S.

#285

9851-75 Avenue, Edmonton 1957 [McKernan & Bouey], 11 September ????

Seton, Hugh W.

#195

618 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton [Dewar S-- & S--], 18 January 1952

Silvertson, G.R.

#372

8940-116 Street, Edmonton [Diamond Clarke Edwards], 25 August 1965

Sinclair, Donald K.

#222

13603-108 Avenue, Edmonton, 6 May 1953

Skakin, C.A.

#297

10564-109 Street, Edmonton [Blais Skedden & Associates], 18 June 1958

Slawek, H.J.

#291

10115-85 Avenue, Edmonton [Federal DPW], 15 January 1958

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Spotowski, Walter J.

#258

9946-106 Street, Edmonton, 15 February 1956

Story, Herbert

#114

10029 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton [School Board Office, Civic Block], 25 January 1929

Stroich, Nicholas W.

#189

11302-110A Avenue, Edmonton [EPSB], 28 June 1951

Symonds, Robert McD.

#113

Edmonton, 5 September 1928

T Tanner, Doris Newland Telfa, W.

501 Civic Block, Edmonton, 7 December 1944 #260

12712-102 Avenue, Edmonton, 23 May 1956

Templar, Bruno Paul

9265 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, 2 July 1936

Tharin, Irmtraud R. [Mrs.] #371

2, 10966-122 Street, Edmonton [Bell McCulloch & Associates] 25 August 1965

Toscano, Flavio

#419

10225-114 Street, Edmonton [Hood & Gardiner], 19 June 1968

Trouth, Ralph H.

1943 Burnaby Street, Vancouver, 1 January 1945, struck off register - see minutes of meeting No. 6 held 1 June 1950

Tschernenko, George

#218

10107-142 Street, Edmonton, 20 November 1952

Underwood, Edward

#62

Edmonton, 1 April 1912

Ussner, Wilfred R.

#196

Edmonton, 13 March 1952

#310

15, 10644-109 Street, Edmonton [Alberta DPW],

U

V Vale, Roger Hilton

17 June 1959 Van Dyne, Roland M.

#84

Hart House, Edmonton, 18 July 1913

Vigirs, Frank Alexander

#97

Government Building, Edmonton, 26 January 1920

W Wallbridge, Jean Louise #137

Edmonton, 6 February 1941, Died 30 September 1979

Wensley, B.J.

5208 Ada Boulevard, Edmonton [Bittorf Wensley

#359

Architects], 18 November 1964 West, Gregory P.T.

#271

Edmonton [Architects Branch DPW], 9 January 1957

Wetherill, Ewart Arthur

#268

9373-85 Street, Edmonton, 1 January 1957

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Whiddington, H.M.

#11

Strathcona, 28 December 1906, Council 1907, Exam 1907, Council 1908, Exam 1908, AAA Secretary 1909

Whiddington, W.A.

#4

Strathcona, 5 December 1906

Wilson, Arthur G.

#36

Strathcona, 27 July 1908

Wize, James E.

#5

Edmonton, 12 December 1906, Council 1906-1907, AAA President 1908, Council 1909, Resigned 4 October 1930

Wong, Jascob Kam-Yin #331

515 Northern Hardware Building, Edmonton [McKernan & Bouey], 14 June 1961

Workun, Morley

#332

10709-74 Avenue, Edmonton [John McIntosh], July 1961

Wood, Bernard

#187

9922-90 Avenue, Edmonton [P. Campbell-Hope], 23 May 1951

Wright, Edmund

#95

Credit Foncier Building, Edmonton, 9 July 1917

Wynn, Gordon K.

#126

Edmonton, 2 June 1938, Made Life Member

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

5.0 UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA GRADUATES FROM THE ARCHITECTURE PROGRAM In 1913 Cecil Burgess arrived in Alberta to become the staff architect for the University of Alberta on the recommendation of Percy Nobbs, Canada’s leading architect of the time. Within a few months of his arrival he was appointed Professor of Architecture as well as University Architect. He taught students architectural design and drafting. Many of the students were enrolled in Engineering or Science. Although there was no formal degree in Architecture until the 1930s, architectural students applied for professional registration through the Alberta Association of Architects. The testing and regulation of their qualifications was handled by Professor Burgess. In 1927, William Branton (The Superintendent of Building of the Calgary Public School Board), was conferred “Professional Results” by the university. In 1931 Maxwell Dewar (later the City Architect of Edmonton), was granted professional status. In 1932, the process was formalized and a Bachelor of Science in Architecture was established. It was short lived as the program folded after Burgess retired in 1940. Little is known about the school and its curriculum. Trevor Body in Modern Architecture in Alberta points out that the size and longevity of the U of A 's program “was no indication if the quality of graduates it produced.” They included John Rule, John Stevenson and Jack Cawston, all significant players in the movement of Modern architecture in Alberta. Burgess was very critical and not accepting of the value of modernism. He wrote numerous articles for the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada Journal on this subject and frequently expressed his dislike for the functional form in a regular monthly submission he made in the journal as the Alberta editor. He employed the methods of the Beaux-Arts tradition and emphasized a practical approach to design. Students were taught how to design ordinary buildings and work out structural problems. He believed that understanding the culture of architecture was a necessary element of a proper architectural education. His students combined his more traditional teachings with the new expressions of architecture developing within the modern movement. The first Bachelor or Science in Architecture degree was granted to John Ulric Rule in 1931. Graduate List 1932 - 1939 1927

William Branton (professional results)

1931

Maxwell Dewar (professional results), John Ulric Rule

1932

George Heath MacDonald [Ad. Eunden], B.Sc. In Architecture

1934/1935

No graduates

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1936

John Alexander Cawston, Lloyd George MacDonald, John Stevenson, Paul Temple Bruno, Edward Yee Wing, and Gordon Kenneth Wing.

1937

Victor Meech (First Class general standing), Margaret Dell Buchanan

1938

Ross Meredith Stanley (in absentia)

1939

Margaret Findley, George Willington Lord, Gordon Aberdeen, T. V. Throth, Peter Leitch Rule, and Jean Louise Embery Walbridge.

1940

Lorne Burkell and Neil McKenna

In 1938 Professional Results were conferred to: Margaret Buchanan Jack Cawston D.A. Freeze F.H MacDonald L.G. MacDonald V.E. Mesh John Rule Peter Rule Architecture was not taught again at the University of Alberta. In 1971 the University of Calgary became Alberta’s only school of architecture. Sources: Boddy, Trevor, Modern Architecture in Alberta City of Edmonton, Heritage Inventory City of Edmonton Archives Convocation Booklets, University of Alberta Archives

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

6.0

BIOGRAPHIES OF SELECTED ARCHITECTS 6.1

James Brock Bell

6.2

Richard Palin Blakey

6.3

William George Blakey

6.4

Howard Laverne Bouey

6.5

Robert Freeman Bouey

6.6

Dr. Cecil Scott Burgess

6.7

Douglas Campbell

6.8

Leycester Patrick Campbell-Hope

6.9

Ronald Clarke

6.10

Noel Dant

6.11

Maxwell C. Dewer

6.12

Robert Falconer Duke

6.13

Marjorie Hill

6.14

Mary Louise Imrie

6.15

George Heath MacDonald

6.16

John Martland

6.17

Alice Charlotte Ross

6.18

John U. Rule

6.19

Kelvin Crawford Stanley

6.20

Jean Louise Emberley Wallbridge

6.21

Gordon Kenneth Wynn

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

6.1 JAMES BROCK BELL (19?? - ) Early Life: His father was the famous James A. Bell, Superintendent of the Edmonton Air Harbour. Captain “Jimmy” Bell was a flying veteran of the Great War of 1914-1918, was born in Yorkshire, and educated in Leeds.

He came to Edmonton in 1913 to join the city

engineering department, enlisted in the C.E.F. when war began, but transferred to the R.A.F. He was appointed manager of the Edmonton Airport in 1930, and became the director of the Edmonton Flying Club in 1944. “Jock” Bell was raised and educated in Edmonton. Professional Training: Bachelor of Architecture, University of Manitoba. Trained with Martland and Aberdeen in Edmonton. Trained four years as a student from 1946 to 1950. Spent one year articling, 1950-1951. Architectural Career: Applied for membership in the Alberta Association of Architects on 23 May 1951. Established Bell Spotowski, Architects in Edmonton in 1951. This firm designed many schools, office buildings, recreational buildings, commercial and industrial buildings, churches, stores and residences. McCullough joined partnership in 1959. Significant Commissions: • Christ Lutheran Church, 9120 - 146 Street, 1957 • Northwest Trust Building, 10166 - 100 Street, 1957 • Allied Chemical Canada Building, 14505 -114 Avenue, 1957 • Miller Motors, 11250 Jasper Avenue, 1959 • Edmonton General Hospital, Prime Consultants • Received an international design award for the Research Council of Alberta laboratory in Clover Bar in 1967 • Law Courts Building, Edmonton, 1969

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Conclusion: “The objectives of the firm are to provide clients with comprehensive architectural services that are required for all phases of planning and project development.” “Bell Spotowski ... believe that the environment in which we live and work is very important and also that a building, besides being functional and efficient, must be of good design and that good design can be achieved economically.” “[The] firm was amongst the first to use the application of the Open Rain Screen Principal in Canada. This method of wall construction was first initiated in this area by Bell Spotowski and is now widely accepted as a standard concept of wall design.” - Bell Spotowski prospectus.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

6.2 RICHARD PALIN BLAKEY (1879-1963) Early and Personal Life: Richard Palin Blakey was born in Sunderland, County Durham, England in 1897. He was son of George Hudson and Mary Jan Plain Blakey, a former shipwright by trade. He married Mary Ellen Jones in 1906 in Oswestry; she was the daughter of Reverend John Jones, a native of Wales and minister of the Wesleyan church. In May of 1907 at the age of 28, he came to Canada arriving first in Winnipeg. In June of the next year, he entered the service of the provincial government of Alberta and was subsequently made Provincial Architect in 1912. An active member of Christ Anglican Church, he and his architect brother, William George Blakey, were responsible for the design of the church and many of its interior finishings. In 1914, at the outbreak of the World War, he enlisted at Edmonton in the Active Mission of Alberta and became a lieutenant of the Nineteenth Alberta Dragons. He served in Canada and England until November of 1917. Richard Blakey had one daughter, Mary Gwendolyn who was born in 1915. He died in Edmonton in 1963 after several years of poor health. Professional Training: Blakey articled with George Thomas Brown in Wales from 1894 to 1899. He was sent on assignments in the northern part of England and Scotland. His formal education was taken at Bede Collegiate Institute. He was a fellow of both the Royal Institute of British Architects and the Canadian Institute of Architects. He registered with the Alberta Association of Architects on November 7, 1911 and served as the Society’s President for two terms, 1916-1920 and 1934 - 1935. Architectural Career: Blakey started work in Edmonton with the Province of Alberta in 1907. Both he and his brother William were employed by the Department of Public Works. He also worked from time to time for the Carter Construction Company, which was quarrying stone at the Glenbow quarries in Calgary. Richard Blakey succeeded A.M. Jeffers as Provincial Architect on January 1, 1912, although Jeffers had not yet resigned over the controversy surrounding the management of the Provincial Legislature and its construction. Blakey finished the Legislative Buildings, designing the staircase, rotunda, and south wing (1912-1913) as well as Government

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House. While he was Provincial Architect he designed many public buildings such as courthouses, and the Technical Schools in Calgary, Edmonton and Camrose. Blakey was the architect responsible for Alberta’s famous one-room schools (1911). He remained the Provincial Architect until he went into practice with R. McDowell Symonds in 1925, (Blakey and Symonds). From 1925 to 1926 they designed numerous schools and small hospitals across Alberta. The Depression years were lean for Blakey and Symonds. They supplemented their income by teaching art and drawing. Most of their commissions in the 1930s were residential. By the mid 1930’s the architects were exploring concepts of modernism. They designed several homes featuring streamlined designs of flat roofs and curved walls. Following the Second World War Richard Blakey and his brother William, partnered with a young immigrant German architect, Rudolph Ascher ( Blakey, Blakey and Ascher). Over the next two decades the architects received many school and commercial commissions. By the late 1950s Richard Blakey’s health was failing. The untimely death of Rudy Ascher led to the closure of the firm. It was taken over by Robert and Harold Bouey. Significant Commissions: • One Room School (Type A) 1911 • Legislative Building, staircase, Rotunda, South Wing 1912 – 1913 • Government House 1913 • Fort Saskatchewan Jail • Edmonton Court House • Normal School (Institute of Technology at Calgary) 1920 • St. Joseph’s College, University of Alberta 1926 • Elbow Park School (Calgary) 1926 • Metals Building Annex 1927 • St. Regis Hotel 1927 • Union Church, Highlands 1927 • Christ Church Rectory 1946

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6.3 WILLIAM GEORGE BLAKEY (1882-1975) Early Life: William Blakey was born in Sunderland, County Durham, England. His father George Hudson Blakey was a shipwright and contractor. He married Mary Jane Palin in Sunderland. He emigrated to Edmonton to follow his brother Richard P. Blakey in 1907. In 1912 he took an extended holiday to England after speculating in the Edmonton land boom, accumulating over $100,000 in property. On the advice of a banker, he borrowed the money for the trip and when he returned to Edmonton he found that the market had failed and he was seriously in debt. He married Carrie Arnold Thomas in 1914. She was born in Musquash, New Brunswick in 1889 and came west to Edmonton with her parents. (She died at the age of 96 on March 22, 1985.) He moved to Ottawa, worked for the Department of Munitions and Supply and subsequently took a commission in the Canadian Engineers in 1918. Blakey was a short man but very athletic. After the Second World War he took up water colour painting, which he did from his studio at his 1946 home at 13526 101 Avenue in Edmonton. This International Style house was his own architectural refuge. He was enchanted by Western Canada, especially the mountains and the prairies. The Blakey’s had four children. Professional Training: William Blakey was indentured to a Sunderland architect circa 1902. He completed his apprenticeship, winning a Gold Medal of the R.I.B.A. Word arrived from his brother Richard that there was work in Edmonton and he followed immediately. In 1907 he joined the Department of Public Works under the direction of Provincial Architect A.M. Jeffers. In 1908 he joined the offices of Roland W. Lines, Edmonton’s most respected architect. Between 1908 and 1914, Lines’ firm was credited for designing three schools, a hospital, three business blocks, two civic structures, several buildings for the N.W.M.P. as well as numerous private residences. Blakey was part of this flurry of building activity until the war. From 1912 to 1914 he worked with the Department of Munitions and Supply for the next four years and help designed wartime infrastructure.

He returned to Edmonton with his young family and entered into a business arrangement with H.E. Evans, a contractor who built houses in neighbourhoods such as Inglewood. In

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1925 William Blakey entered into partnership with his brother Richard Palin Blakey (1879-1963), who had been the Provincial Architect from 1912 until 1924. The firm underwent several expansions becoming Blakey, Blakey and Ascher, and then Blakey, Blakey, Bouey, Bouey and Ascher. William Blakey joined the Alberta Association of Architects in 1913 and was elected president for the 1924-1925 term. He was a member of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and served as the Alberta representative to that institution several times throughout his career. He started to explore principles of modern architecture in the mid-1930s. In 1938 he was the local architect for the new streamlined Eaton’s store. He then started to design schools and theatres in the modernistic approach. Blakey returned to Ottawa in 1942 to work for the Standards and Measurements Branch. Back in Edmonton in 1946 he gave a series of lectures on modern house construction and design. He talked about the need for the use of architects in designing homes as well as the virtues of new methodologies. Flat roofs and basement-less homes were encouraged. In 1946, he put these theories to practice in the design of his own home. Blakey entered the postwar period with decades of experience behind him and a fresh approach to design. He fancied the work of the Internationalists and followed pure forms of the style. By 1950s he experimented with a more expressionistic approach, most notably present in the design of St. Anthony’s Church. Although his firm included his brother Richard in this period, he and the second principal Rudy Ascher were the most active partners. They designed churches, industrial buildings, schools and small commercial blocks. William Blakey was one of the longest practicing architects in the history of the Province. His work reflects the range of styles in the 20th century. Significant Commissions • Edmonton Journal Building 1920 – 1921 • Safeway Store 1929 • Masonic Temple 1930 • Inglewood Badminton Club 1931 • R.C.M.P Administration Building 1934 • T. Eaton Store (with Northwood and Chivers) 1938 • Roxy Theatre 1938

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• St. Johns’ School 1939 • Garneau Theatre 1940 • Christ Church 1946 • Blakey Residence 1946 • St. George’s Greek Orthodox Church 1947 • St. Anthony’s Procathedral 1947 • St. Margaret’s School • Garneau Tower (now know as the Noble Building) 1951 • MacCosham Storage 1952 • St. Agnes Parish Church 1954 • All Saints Cathedral 1955

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6.4 HOWARD LAVERNE BOUEY [1921- ] Early Life Educated in Regina, Saskatoon and Winnipeg, Howard Bouey served during the Second World War as a Flight Lieutenant in the RCAF. Professional Training Howard Bouey studied architecture at the University of Manitoba under Dean Jack Russell. He received his B. Arch. in 1949. Professional Career Bouey collaborated with E.G. Pethybridge on NADP (Northern Alberta Dairy Pool) Addition in Edmonton. He worked in Edmonton with George Heath MacDonald in design of many postwar buildings. He applied for membership with the Alberta Association of Architects on 21 June 1950 and was a partner in McKernan and Bouey for eight years. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (FRAIC) in 1961. In 1962, he formed a partnership with his brother Robert and the firm was known as Howard & Robert Bouey Architects. Later it became known as Bouey, Bouey & Rutledge Architects. Significant Commissions • Cross Cancer Clinic, with E. Olekshy, Architect, 1968 • Wiancko Medical Clinic and Office Building, 1974 • Grace United Church • Chalmers United Church • St. Stephen's United Church • Queen Elizabeth Composite High School addition • Bonnie Doon Composite High School addition • University of Alberta, Faculty of Physical Education addition • various Edmonton Public Library branches • Chancery Hall, Winston Churchill Square • T.E. Bate Engineering stores • La Fleche Brothers Tailoring Plant and Shopping Centre, 1967 • Bank of Nova Scotia, 64 Avenue and 104 Street • Pleasantview Office and Professional Building

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• Century Place • Medical Fitness Building • Wianko Residence; Van Alstine Residence; Shaw Residence; Newsome Residence; Steen Residence; Tegart Residence • Delwood Gardens, for Belvedere Developments; won NHBA National Award for Group Housing, 1968 • Numerous multiple-family dwellings • Alberta Oxygen and Acetylene Plant

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6.5 ROBERT FREEMAN BOUEY [1927- ] Early Life Educated in Regina, Saskatoon and Winnipeg Professional Training Robert Bouey studied Architecture at the University of Manitoba and received his B. Arch. in 1949, the same year has his brother. He worked as an assistant to E.J. McCadden, Provincial Architect of Saskatchewan Professional Career Bouey worked in Edmonton with Rule Wynn & Rule, and Stanley & Stanley Architects. He applied for membership in the AAA on 6 July 1950. He was employed by Schools Division of the London (England) County Council where he designed the Composite High School for Putney Park, London, England. He traveled widely in the United States and Europe, visiting important architects in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, Holland, France, New York and Chicago. Bouey Worked for a decade with Blakey, Blakey & Ascher and started his own practice in 1961. He formed partnership with his brother Robert in 1962. Firm: Howard & Robert Bouey He was elected as a FRAIC in 1972. Bouey Bouey & Rutledge Architects [with William C. Rutledge] was formed in 1976. Significant Commissions • Cross Cancer Clinic, with E. Olekshy, Architect, 1968 • Wiancko Medical Clinic and Office Building, 1974 • Medical Arts Building • Royal Alexandra Hospital [with Rule Wynn & Rule] • Kirk United Church • Convent and Residence for Ursulines of Jesus • Trinity United Church • Ottewell United Church • Queen Elizabeth Composite High School addition • Bonnie Doon Composite High School addition • University of Alberta, Faculty of Physical Education addition

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• Oliver Building • Edmonton Public Library branches • Chancery Hall • T.E. Bate Engineering stores • La Fleche Brothers Tailoring Plant and Shopping Centre, 1967 • Bank of Nova Scotia, 64 Avenue and 104 Street • Pleasant View Office and Professional Building • Century Place • Medical Fitness Building •Wianko Residence; Van Alstine Residence; Shaw Residence; Newsome Residence; Steen Residence; Tegart Residence • Delwood Gardens, for Belvedere Developments; won NHBA National Award for Group Housing, 1968 • Numerous multiple-family dwellings • Alberta Oxygen's Oxygen and Acetylene Plant

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6.6 DR. CECIL SCOTT BURGESS [1870-1971] Early Life: Burgess was born 4 October 1870 in Bombay, India. He was the son of James Burgess, C.I.E., LL.D., Director of the Archaeological Survey of India, and Anne [Allan] Burgess. They traveled, and then immigrated to Montreal in 1903. Personal Life: During the Great War of 1914-1918 Burgess served as a private with the 66th Battalion, C.E.F., Edmonton; Captain, Quartermaster, 93rd Western University Battalion, and 19th Canadian Reserve Battalion. [Who’s Who in Canada, 1940-41]. Burgess enjoyed golf and curling. For years he lived at 10958 - 89th Avenue, Edmonton, and died in Edmonton on 12 November 1971 at the age 101 years. Professional Training: He was educated at Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland and article with Sir George Washington Brown, Edinburgh. He attended Heriot Watt College and the Royal Scottish Academy Art School, while with Sir George Brown. He was an assistant to various architects in London, Liverpool, York and Montreal. After retirement from the University of Alberta, he attended M.I.T. to receive a certificate in town planning. He focused on town planning after academic retirement, working out of offices in the MacLeod Block, and later the McLean Block in downtown Edmonton. Architectural Career: Burgess was an Instructor in Architecture at McGill University, 1910 and “designed a number of public buildings and residences.” He was a Professor of Architecture at the University of Alberta from 1913 until 1940. The Edmonton Bulletin [11 December 1939] reported: “Insufficient students interested in studying architecture to warrant the continuation of the faculty has forced the University to close this branch, and Prof. Burgess retirement resulted.” Burgess was a member of the Edmonton Town Planning Commission from 1929 until his retirement in 1940, “and hopes to make his membership in this body his hobby after retirement.” In fact he was Chairman for several years, until his retirement in protest in 1949. He felt that the city was not allowing the commission to perform its duties. [Edmonton Bulletin 11 December 1939; Edmonton Journal 16 February 1949]. He was

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influential in planning the Edmonton city centre. On the occasion of his retirement, Burgess addressed the University of Alberta Philosophical Society on 13 December 1939, and concluded that better city planning was a national need, and that “better cities must contribute to a better social order.” [Edmonton Bulletin 14 December 1939]. Burgess was appointed honourary Secretary of the Town Planning Commission at its annual meeting at the Civic Block on 9 January 1940. Burgess was invited to the University of Alberta in 1913 by Dr. H. M. Tory as “Resident Architect.” His duties involved teaching, and consulting on the campus building projects. He was the first Chairman of the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Applied Science. He became an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects and Royal Architectural Institute in 1896, and a Fellow in 1933. He became an Associate of the Town Planning Institute of Canada in 1920. And a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada in 1930. Burgess was a member of the Alberta Association of Architects and was on AAA Council for thirty years. In 1940 he was named Professor Emeritus, Architecture, University of Alberta. On 27 October 1958 Burgess was awarded an honourary Doctor of Laws degree by the University of Alberta. Significant Commissions: Burgess was an associate with Nobbs & Hyde Architects, Montreal, and worked as supervising architect [1915] on the Arts and Sciences Building and the Medical Building at the University of Alberta, and the Birks Office Building, Edmonton. He was consulting architect to the Government of Alberta on various administrative offices. He designed Pembina Hall and six staff residences “on the loop” as his first work as superintending architect at the University of Alberta. Burgess was associate architect for the provincial Natural Resources Building [now the Bowker Building]. As a private consultant he designed several small hospitals for Alberta towns and produced: • Town plans for Jasper townsite 1944-1947. • Town plans for Banff townsite 1945-1947. • Town plans for Lethbridge townsite 1946-1947. • Town plans for Medicine Hat townsite 1946-1947.

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6.7 DOUGLAS CAMPBELL [1914 - ] Early Life Campbell was born in 1914. His family moved to Leduc, Alberta in February 1914. His father was Andrew Graham Campbell [1875-1972], the Town Manager, SecretaryTreasurer, Magistrate, and dairy farmer at Leduc. His mother was Eunice Winifred Haines [1884-1980], piano and choral teacher in Leduc. He contracted polio in September 1919, but it was misdiagnosed as rheumatic fever. Campbell’s parents were well educated and provided home schooling until he was 11 years old. He began to attend King George School in Leduc in 1925. Professional Training He attended Olds Agricultural College where he gained some drafting experience and began work with the Petroleum and Natural Gas Division, Alberta Department of Lands and Mines on 13 January 1938. He worked as a clerk-secretary at first and remained with the Mining Lands Division when the main division transferred to the new Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board in Calgary. Later he transferred to the Technical Division of the Department, where he took drafting courses at night school. He added to this through International Correspondence School courses. Architectural Career Campbell was appointed architectural draftsman with the Edmonton City Architect in May 1944. He then worked at City Hall as the only draftsman in the Department. He became the Edmonton Public Schools chief draftsman to August 1950. He moved for a short while to Toronto and became project architect for schools with Page and Steele, Architects from September 1950 to May 1951. He passed the AAA entrance examinations in 1950 and joined as member, one of the few who ever gained their education through correspondence. Campbell returned to Alberta and was a project architect with Alberta Department of Public Works from June 1951 to November 1954. He was an architectural draftsman on school projects for Rensaa and Minsos from November 1954 to January 1957. Campbell established D.M. Campbell, Architect, in 1957. His own practice began with church projects. Campbell & Fleet, Architects was established in January 1958. Campbell & Jenkins, Architects was later formed and continued to October 1965. He retired in April

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1968 and was technical assistant to the Director, University of Alberta, Campus Development, from November 1965 to March 1968. Significant Work Campbell was architect for many United Church congregations in Edmonton and elsewhere.

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6.8 LEYCESTER PATRICK CAMPBELL-HOPE [1908-1962] Early Life: Campbell-Hope was born on 17 February 1908 at Wadebridge, Cornwall, England. He was educated by private tutor in Ceylon in 1915. He was educated at Uppingham Public School from 1915 to 1921. His family immigrated to farm near Westlock, Alberta in 1921. Personal Life: 1942 – 1945 Campbell-Hope served with the Royal Canadian Air Force overseas as a Pilot Officer and Flight Engineer. He was a member of the Edmonton Golf and Country Club; Edmonton Petroleum Club; Garrison Officers Club; 700 Wing; Royal Canadian Legion. Professional Training: Campbell-Hope moved to Edmonton where he attended the Edmonton Technical School to study drafting. He attended Victoria High School between 1924 and 1926. He worked with Richard P. Blakey and William J. Blakey as a student draftsman from 1924 to 1927. In 1927-1932 he worked as a draftsman for Magoon and MacDonald on the new Federal Building and renovations to the King Edward Hotel and the Corona Hotel. During the Depression he had to work at various jobs, such as working on the road in Elk Island National Park, as a purser on a HBC vessel, and a building superintendent for Poole Construction. He received his B.Sc. Architecture from the University of Alberta in 1940. In 1940 he worked with George Heath MacDonald Architect and with Jack Cawston, Max Dewar, and Margaret Findlay. Architectural Career: Campbell-Hope became a member of the Alberta Association of Architects, 3 January 1940 and practiced in Edmonton from 1946 until his death in 1962. Significant Commissions: • Ukrainian National Home of Edmonton, 1946 • The Land Titles Building • The Aberhart Sanatorium Hospital

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• Safeway stores • CFRN Studios • Kitscoty School • Beth Israel Synagogue • Salvation Army Citadel • Mill Creek Swimming Pool •Imperial Lumber Office • St. Johns Cathedral • Lawton Junior High School • Edmonton Gold and Country Club • St. James United Church Conclusion: He died 7 October 1962 in an automobile accident north of Grande Prairie. “A principle Pat always tried to get across was make it simple, and that applied to mechanical and electrical [systems], as the rural areas didn’t have the tradesman expertise that was prevalent in the cities. In addition to good design, you had to be able to build it and his reputation was being on budget.” - T. Bryan Campbell-Hope

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6.9 RONALD CLARKE [1922-1981] Early Life: Clarke was educated at Barrow Hill Road School, London, England, 1927-1937. He attended Northwest London Polytechnic School of Architecture, London, England and then came to Canada in 1950. Professional Training: 1940-1941

E. Bates, Architect, London, England

1942-1945

R.A.F.

1945-1950

Mark Hartland-Thomas, Architect, London, England

1950-1951

P.Campbell –Hope,Edmonton

1951-1952

Ralph Brownlee. Architect, Edmonton

ArchitecturalCareer: 1951-1953 Architectural Branch. Department of Public Works, Government of Alberta 1954-1958 Chief Architect, Alberta Department of Public Works 1959-1969 Partner, Diamond – Clarke and Associates . This firm had branches in Calgary, Regina, Antigua and the British West Indies. 1970

The Diamond- Clarke partnership dissolved and Clarke became a senior partner in Clarke, Sunders, Boucock and Associates.

1973-1978 Ronald Clarke continued to practice on his own. Significant Work and Commissions: As the Chief Architect of the Department of Public Works he was responsible for managing all public works projects, including schools, and hospitals. From 1964 to 1972 he was project director of the University of Alberta health Sciences Centre. This included the Centennial Hospital, H.S.C. Centre Building, the Pharmacy building, and the Dentistry Building.

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6.10

NOEL BUCKLAND DANT [1914-1993] Early Life: Dant was educated at Taunton School, Somerset, England, 1926-1932. He attended London University and Edinburgh University and came to Edmonton from England in 1949. Professional Training: 1926-1932 Taunton School, Taunton, Somerset. 1932-1934 University Correspondence College, Cambridge. 1938

Awarded London Matriculation with Distinction.School of

1939

Architecture, Regent Street Polytechnic, London, England.

1937

Awarded Silver Medal and Certificate in Architecture. Awarded Royal Institute of British Architects [R.I.B.A.] and M.C.C. Joint Travelling “studentship” to Rome. Awarded R.I.B.A. Archibald Dawnay Scholarship for advanced architectural construction research.

1938

Winner of R.I.B.A. Bannister Fletcher Essay.

1938

Graduated with Diploma in Architecture, Dip.Arch., London, Awarded Bossom Gold Medal in Architecture. Awarded Robert Mitchell Gold Medal in Architecture.

1940-1942 Nottingham School of Architecture. 1940

Elected Associate of Royal Institute of British Architects, London. [A.R.I.B.A.]

1942-1944 Polytechnic School of Architecture, England. 1944-1945 Awarded Andrew Grant Scholarship to Department of Town Planning, Edinburgh University, Scotland. Graduated with Diploma in Town Planning, Dip.T.P., Edinburgh, Scotland. 1945-1946 Awarded Research Fellowship to Yale University. 1938

Graduated with Master of Architecture in City Planning degree Yale.

1939

Elected Associate Member of Town Planning Institute, London, [A.M.T.P.I.] Awarded William Parsons Bronze Medal for excellence in City Planning at Yale.

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1946-1948 Awarded Arthur Wheelwright Fellowship to Harvard University. 1948

Graduated with Master's degree in Regional Planning, Harvard.

1948-1949 Candidate for Ph.D degree in Regional Planning, Harvard. Also trained with T.C. Van Langenburg and Son, Federated Malay States, Kuala Lumpur Assistant to Hubert Bennett, FRIBA, London, England; McKay and Jamieson, BRIBA, Edinburgh, Scotland; Assistant Architect Co-Architect, Toronto Transit Commission, Rapid Transit Section, Member, Alberta Association of Architects, 16 January 1950.Also Dip. Arch. [London University]; Diploma of Town Planning, Edinburgh; Master of Architecture, Yale; MRP, Yale. Architectural and Planning Career: 1936-1938 Summer vacation jobs while an architectural student as Architectural Assistant with H.M.Office of Works, London, working on contract designing Government post offices, telephone exchanges and garages. 1939-1940 Architect's Assistant with Hubert Bennett ARIBA London, in charge of design of new Junior and Infants School, Swinton, Lancashire, and later as Clerk of Works for this job, resident on the site. Lecturer in Building Construction and Head Studio Master at the School Architecture College of Art, Nottingham University, England. Lecturer in Architectural subjects and senior studio master at School of Architecture, Regent Street Polytechnic 1938

Assistant Architect to Borough of Hornsey, London.

Engaged on

experimental housing projects such as apartments, within the framework of the County of London Plan. 1945-1946 Planner (part time) to the New Haven City Plan Commission, New Haven, Connecticut. 1947

Planning Consultant to the Future Springfield Inc. group, engaged on the preparation of major projects for the City of Springfield, Massachusetts.

1948-1949 Co-architect with the Toronto Transportation Commission, Rapid Transit Department, engaged on the design and preparation of contract working

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drawings for stations and subways on the proposed Rapid Transit System for Toronto. 1949

Sensor City Planner with the Chicago Plan Commission.

1949-1955 Became Edmonton’s first full-time urban planner. Left Edmonton between 1955 and 1960. 1957-1960 Regional planning officer at Accra, Ghana; did additional work for the TTC; Director of Planning for the Lakehead Planning Board in Ontario. 1960-1979 Director of Alberta Planning between 1960 and his retirement in 1979. Did not practice architecture while in Alberta. Significant Work and Commissions: • Designed the new Junior and Infants School, Swinton, Lancashire. • “Miscellaneous shelters, decontamination centres and aircraft factories, under the provisions of the A.R.P. [Air Raid Precautions] regulations during World War II, England.” [AAA Application for Membership, 16 January 1950] • Landscaped the gardens of the Deputy Director, Museum of Modern Arts, New York at Farmington,Connecticut • Designed stations for the new TTC “subway” in Toronto. • Oversaw the laying out of the many residential and industrial subdivisions which characterized postwar Edmonton. • Introduced the European urban concept of traffic circles to Edmonton during the 1950s. • Convinced Edmonton City Council to accept the outer ring road plan in 1965. • Drafted the Alberta Planning Act [1978]. Conclusion: Died 21 August 1993, “I tried to be literally a civil servant, but I refused to be a bureaucrat.” - Noel Dant

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6.11

MAXWELL C. DEWAR [1910 - 1955] Architectural Career: Dewar was Edmonton City Architect and Inspector of Buildings 1937 - 1949.

He

replaced J. Martland as Inspector of Buildings in 1943. The increased duties led to the failure of his health in 1947. He resigned as City Architect on 7 November 1949. His duties ended 30 November 1949. He was replaced by Robert A. Duke, Acting City Architect. Almost the entire staff of the department followed Dewar into his private practice, Dewar, Cawston and Stevenson [Edmonton branch of the Calgary firm, Stevenson, Cawston and Stevenson - with John Stevenson and P.J. Cawston]. Those who joined him were architect Doris Tanner, engineer Benny Peterson, draftsmen Jack Bolander and Tom Erwin. His secretary Peggy Goodenough followed later. As City Architect he pressed for the creation of the new planning department, and the Technical Development Board, organized between 1946 and 1949. He was President of the Alberta Association of Architects and in March 1954 became a Fellow of the RAIC. Significant Work and Commissions: • Jasper Place Community Hall, 9937 - 148 Street, 1948 • August 1951 Appointed to the National Research Council as a member of the technical committee on design for the national building code. • Victoria Composite High School. Won American School Publishing Corporation Award , February 1952 for plans and photographs of this project. • Edmonton City Hall plan. Conclusion: Died 1 April 1955, “The death of Maxwell C. Dewar on April 1st at the early age of fortyfive is a calamity to the profession and to a much wider circle in Alberta. He was a man of goodwill and of a super-abundant energy who had risen high in his profession by personal ability and by unsparing application to whatever he put his hand to. That ability and devotion he expended in many spheres beyond that of his profession. I feel his loss personally when I recall the many council meetings for various purposes at which through the years, I have met him. One might differ from his opinions of policies,

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but one could never quarrel with Max; he was so clearly impersonal in discussing the matter in hand; he worked for the cause or the objectives in view. Having suffered more than one heart-seizure, he was well aware of the slender thread upon which his life hung; yet his energy could not be repressed and the final blow fell whilst he was upon one of his many undertakings.� - Cecil Burgess Journal, RAIC May 1955

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6.12

ROBERT FALCONER DUKE [1904-1984 ] Early Life: Duke was born on 16 October 1904 in Birkenhead, England. He was brought to Canada as an infant in 1905. He was raised in Saskatoon, where he received his schooling then moved to Edmonton in 1946. Duke died in October 1984. Professional Training: Duke attended university during 1922-1924 and 1932-1934, taking extramural architectural courses. Architectural Career: Between 1938-1946, Duke was District Resident Architect for the Federal Department of Public Works. He joined the City of Edmonton Architects Department as Assistant City Architect on 2 July 1946. When Max Dewar resigned, and took all the departmental staff with him, Duke was promoted to Acting City Architect on 17 November 1949. He was appointed City Architect and Inspector of Buildings on 1 February 1950. He retired in 1969. Significant Work: Duke preserved the position of City Architect and Inspector of Buildings at a time when it had collapsed, and when City Council was considering phasing it out. He oversaw a period of great growth and innovation in Edmonton’s urban growth. • 1954 No.4 Fire Station • Circa 1955 Rossdale Water Filtration Plant • 1960 Edmonton Planetarium • 1960 No.1 Fire Station

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6.13

MARJORIE HILL [1895-1985] Early Life Marjorie Hill was born in Guelph, Ontario. Her father was E.L. Hill, a high school science teacher, who moved to Calgary, then later to Strathcona. E.L. Hill was the first Chief Librarian of Edmonton from 1912 to 1936. Marjorie Hill matriculated from Strathcona High School. She then completed the four-year B.A. at the University of Alberta in 1916. Professional Training Marjorie Hill studied architecture and construction under Cecil Burgess at the University of Alberta. In 1918 she became the third woman to enter Architecture at the University of Toronto. When Anna Kentner was forced to withdraw from third year due to the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918, Hill went on to become the first woman to graduate in architecture from a Canadian university. She worked as a draftsman for Wickson & Gregg in Toronto during the summer of 1919. She received her Bachelor of Applied Science in Architecture, 1920. Her convocation on 4 June 1920 was widely covered in the media. During 1920 she worked with the T. Eaton Co. "decorative department" in Toronto and returned to Edmonton in 1920, but could find no work. She taught in a country school during 1921. Hill was turned down by the AAA when she applied for membership. She worked for MacDonald and Magoon, and detailed the Carnegie Library entrance in 1922. Hill returned to the University of Toronto in 1922 to study housing and town planning; her thesis was titled "An Exposition of Town Planning". She then took a course in architectural design at Columbia University in 1923 and worked for New York firms from 1923 to 1928. She worked with Marcia Mead during 1923 and 1924, then for Miss K.C. Budd from 1925 to 1928. In 1925 she had gained the one year's experience required to join the AAA, and became the first woman to register with any provincial architectural association in Canada. Poor health forced her to stop work in 1929, and this situation continued during the Depression. In 1936 the family moved to Victoria, British Columbia

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Professional Career Hill received her first professional commission in 1940, to convert a single family home into a duplex. During the Second World War she produced many residential plans, and conversions, sometimes as many as three per week. In 1945 she was elected to the Victoria Town Planning Commission. In 1946 she returned to full time practice, working independently as an "architectural designer". She registered with the Architectural Institute of British Columbia in 1953, and could once again call herself an architect. Hill retired in 1963 Significant Commissions Most of her important commissions date from her practice in Victoria.

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6.14

MARY LOUISE IMRIE [1918-1988] Early Life: Mary Louise Imrie was born in Toronto in 1918. She moved to Edmonton in 1921, with her family. Her father was John Mills Imrie, the Pulitzer Prize winning publisher of the Edmonton Journal. She attended Edmonton public schools, and completed Grade 12 in 1936. Personal Life: Mary Imrie left her estate to the Park Ventures Fund, administered by the Recreation, Parks and Wildlife Foundation. Her bequest included Six Acres, and other properties. She died 11 April 1988. Professional Training: Imrie designed the Imrie family lake cottage in 1934, when only 16. She enrolled in the program for the Bachelor of Applied Science in Architecture at the University of Alberta in 1938. When Dr. C.S. Burgess resigned and the department was closed, she applied to the University of Toronto, and was accepted into second year architecture in 1940. Imrie worked summers at Rule, Wynn and Rule in Edmonton during 1941 and 1942. She received her degree in 1944, and remained in Toronto to work with architect Harold Smith on hospital projects. Later she worked in Vancouver for architect C.B.K. Van Norman. She returned to Edmonton at the end of 1944. Architectural Career: With Jean Wallbridge, Imrie was the first Canadian woman to establish her own architectural partnership, in 1951. She was registered with the Alberta Association of Architects on 7 December 1944, the fifth woman to do so. Imrie worked with Rule, Wynn and Rule in Edmonton during 1945. She worked in the Office of the City Architect and Inspector of Buildings from 1946 to 1949 and worked with Jean Wallbridge there. In 1947 Wallbridge and Imrie were given a three-month leave by City Architect Max Dewar, during which they took a tour of Europe to study post-war reconstruction and urban planning. Wallbridge and Imrie also traveled to Afghanistan, Northern India and the Middle East during 1957-1958, writing articles for architectural journals about the experience.

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Significant Commissions: • The Queen Mary Apartments 1951-1953 • "Six Acres", the Wallbridge and Imrie residence and office 1954-1957 • St. James Roman Catholic Church, Edmonton • The Luxton Museum, Banff • Greenfield Elementary School, 3735-114 Street • The Ward residence on Marlboro Road • Seniors residences at Elk Point, Wetaskiwin and Lac La Biche

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6.15 GEORGE HEATH MACDONALD [1883-1961] Early Life: George Heath MacDonald was Born 16 January 1883 in Murray Harbour, Prince Edward Island. His father, William MacDonald, was a farmer. Personal Life: MacDonald lived with his family in Montreal and Toronto during the Great War of 19141918, working with the Department of Munitions. He wrote Edmonton - Fort, House, Factory in 1954. This was an influential part of the plan to build Fort Edmonton Historic Park. He died in 1961. Professional Training: MacDonald went to work as a draftsman in 1899, with the Dominion Steel and Coal Company in Sydney, Nova Scotia. He worked for H.A. Magoon in Sydney, the beginning of a long association. In 1904 he came to Alberta with Magoon, where he continued to work for him as a draftsman in his new architectural practice. MacDonald completed his matriculation at Alberta College while working for Magoon. He attended McGill University from 1907 to 1911, where he received his Bachelor of Architecture degree. Architectural Career: Soon after receiving his degree, he became a junior partner with the Magoon firm, and later became a full partner. Magoon and MacDonald practiced for many years, adding many signature buildings to the Edmonton scene. Significant Commissions: • Georgian Revival MacDonald Residence, [The White House], 1913 [This house later was owned by John Imrie, and was the home of Mary Imrie] • Salvation Army Citadel, 10030 -102 Street, 1925 • E.A. Corbett Hall [with D.E. MacDonald], 1929 • Memorial Hall, Robertson-Wesley United Church, 10209 - 123 Street • The Federal Building, Edmonton • General Hospital • University of Alberta Hospitals, Nurses Home and South Wing

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• Schwermann Hall, Concordia College, 7128 Ada Boulevard, 1926 • YWCA Building • Knox United Church • McDougall United Church • Education Building, University of Alberta • Hangars and other buildings at air fields along the North West Staging Route during the Second World War • Old St. Stephen’s College • Tegler Building .

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6.16

JOHN MARTLAND (1878-1957) Early and Personal Life: John Martland was a native of Moss Lane, Lancashire, England and was born in 1878. He was educated at Ormskirk Grammar School, The Royal, Technical Institute, Salford, and the College of Technology affiliated with Victoria University in Manchester. After serving with a variety of architects he started to practice in Liverpool. Martland came to Edmonton in 1910 to work with R. W. Lines and practiced architecture in Edmonton until his retirement to Victoria in 1953. Martland died in Victoria after a lengthy illness in December in 1957. He was survived by his widow, a daughter Mrs. E. J. Rimmel, and his son, Ronald, an Edmonton lawyer, and judge. John Martland was very active in the Masonic Lodges, and received a half-century certificate from the Empire Lodge. He was a long time choir member at All Saint’s Anglican Church. In 1951 The Edmonton Journal reported that Martland had returned from an English tour of seven months. He spent time visiting Manchester officials and commented on the new methods of house construction, road building and reconstruction programs. He reported to Mayor Parsons although his visit was not an official one. Professional Training: Martland studied architecture at the Royal Technical Institute in Salford and Victoria University in Manchester. He held many positions with the Alberta Association of Architects, included a term as President from 1944 - 1945. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. Architectural Career: In 1910, Martland first worked for Roland Lines for a matter of months. Later that year he was hired by the City of Edmonton’s building inspector’s department. In 1912 he left the City to form a practice with D. Hardie. After three years he returned to the employ of the City of Edmonton. During this period he designed a new telephone building. In 1919 Martland was transferred to the City Engineer’s Department and was promoted to the head the department in 1926. John Martland was the City of Edmonton’s Architect and Building Inspector until 1944. He retired from the City in 1944 and entered into

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practice with Thomas Aberdeen. He retired from practice of architecture in 1953 and moved to Victoria. Significant Commissions: • Edmonton Municipal Golf course 1922 • Edmonton Police Station 1931 • City Market 1933 • Edmonton Municipal Airport Hangars #2, and #3 1937,1938 • Holy Trinity Anglican Church Parish Hall 1948 • Edmonton Cemetery Co. Caretaker’s Residence 1948 • Northgate Building 1950 • Steward Petroleum Office 1951

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6.17

ALICE CHARLOTTE ROSS [1889-1968] Early Life Alice Charlotte Ross was born in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, on 13 August 1889 and was brought to Calgary as an infant. She was educated at the Sacred Heart Convent in Calgary. Ross aspired to be a civil engineer like her father, who worked on the Low Level Bridge. Personal Life and Professional Training Ross graduated from a four-year architecture course at the Rhode Island School of Design, New York, in 1910. There was no work in Alberta for a woman architect in 1910, so she worked at the Revelstoke Lumber Company, after some time with her father's Calgary firm. She married Hugh V. Ross, an employee at Revelstoke Lumber Company, in 1917. The Ross family moved to Duffield later, where Hugh Ross established his own lumber company. Alice Ross sometimes drew up plans or blueprints for the company in Duffield. She completed her postgraduate work at the Rhode Island School of Design in 1948 and returned to Edmonton to establish Ross Home Plans, her own company which specialized in residential design. Alice Charlotte Ross is credited as Canada's first female architect. "Ross then followed through [with Ross Home Plans] on her idea of developing a catalogue of small homes. The concept was to develop a basic home plan which could be modified to suit individual clients." [Edmonton Journal 16 August 1992] Professional Career Hugh Ross died in 1944, and Alice Ross moved with the family to Edmonton. She worked in wartime Edmonton for a construction company designing a project for the National housing scheme. Significant Work • Designed many residences in the Strathearn Heights area built by the George Prudham Company. • Mills Motors Ltd., 10050-108 Street, 1949 • Builder's Supplies Building, 10771 - 101 Street, 1949 • Miller Lumber, 10460 - 111 Street, 1949 • Windsor Park Community League, 11840 - 87 Avenue, 1949

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6.18

JOHN U. RULE [1904-1978] Early Life: John Rule was born in Sunderland, Durham, England. His parents brought him to Edmonton in 1910. He completed his training at Camrose Normal School and taught for several years in rural Alberta schools before enrolling in architecture at the University of Alberta. Personal Life: John Rule directed and performed in several civic opera productions in Edmonton. He was active in the Churchill Society, the Royal Glenora Club, the Rotary Club. He died December 1978. “The firm of Rule Wynn and Rule was unusual for several reasons. It was Alberta based, when most of the leading Canadian firms operated from either Ontario or Quebec. Even more unusual, it was headed by principals who had studied in Alberta, obtaining degrees of Bachelor of Science in Architecture [from the University of Alberta].” “It is difficult to generalize about the stylistic idiom employed by the firm. The early commissions are historicist, combining Tudor and Classical details in a somewhat simplified manner. But as early as 1940, the firm designed the Varscona Theatre [now demolished] described by architectural historian Harold Kalman as showing ‘the more developed Moderne manner’.” “And yet, despite the principals’ evident attachment to Modernism, this was an architectural firm that defined its stylistic scope in terms of the desires of its clients, rather than dictating to them a vision that they may have resisted. For example, Modernism of necessity took a step backwards when, at the express wish of the client’s local manager, the firm designed facilities for the international engineering giant Schlumberger that were reminiscent of a Swiss chalet.” - Geoffrey Simmins, Canadian Architectural Archives, University of Calgary Professional Training: John [“Pop”] Rule Sr., his father, an active contractor in Edmonton, designed and built in the City of Edmonton, and was an influence on his sons. “Pop” Rule ran the firm when the partners were away during the Second World War. Rule graduated with

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Bachelor of Applied Sciences in Architecture from the University of Alberta in 1932 and also earned a Bachelor of Science in Art. He also received a Master of Arts degree from the University of Chicago. Architectural Career: Rule, Wynn & Rule was established in 1938. John Rule served with the Royal Canadian Navy during the war years. John’s brother, Peter Rule, opened the Calgary office after the war, and ran it until his death in 1964. John Rule retired in 1967. The Edmonton and Calgary offices were split. Significant Commissions [to the mid-1960s]: • Foster and McGarvey funeral chapel, 103 Street at 100 Avenue, was the first commission of the Rule, Wynn & Rule firm. • Glenora School on 102 Avenue was the second commission. • The Rutherford Library, University of Alberta • The Royal Glenora Club • Greyhound Bus Terminal • The controversial Alberta Government Telephones office building [1951] near the Legislature Grounds, the first curtain wall structure in Edmonton, built only one year after the Lever House in New York. • Westglen School • Andrews-McLaughlin Funeral Chapel • Knox Memorial Church • Royal Alexandra Hospital [1954-1958] • Mayfair Golf and Country Club [1955] • Edmonton Journal Building [1957] • Canada Packers complex [1957] • Safeway stores [1958] • Park Plaza Shopping Centre [1959] • Molson Brewery [1961] • Alberta College [1964] • Milner Building • Charles Camsell Hospital • McCauley Plaza and AGT Tower • Weston Bread factory • Rialto Theatre

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6.19

KELVIN CRAWFORD STANLEY [1919-?] Early Life: Kelvin Stanley took Senior Matriculation and Normal School in Calgary, obtaining a Permanent Intermediate Alberta Teaching Certificate. Professional Training: Stanley received a Bachelor of Architecture degree from the University of Manitoba. Architectural Career: Stanley worked with Rule Wynn and Rule as a student for four years, and articled for an additional year. He worked as an assistant architect at Rule Wynn and Rule, beginning 24 September 1945. He applied for membership in the Alberta Association of Architects on 2 October 1946 and worked in Edmonton from 1948 to 1964. Stanley was elected a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, 27 May 1961. He was Director of Structures at Expo 67 in Montreal from 1965 to 1967. Stanley became Chief Architect for the federal Department of Public Works in Ottawa in May 1967. Significant Commissions: • Edmonton City Hall • YMCA Building • Imperial Oil Marketing Building • Edmonton Post Office • Edmonton Exhibition Sports Building • King Edward Park Church of Christ, 1949

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6.20

JEAN LOUISE EMBERLEY WALLBRIDGE [1912-1979] Early Life: Jean Wallbridge was born in Edmonton in 1912. She attended private school in Victoria, British Columbia, later in Switzerland and England. She completed Grade 12 at Victoria High School, then enrolled at University of Alberta. Wallbridge was presented to King George V and Queen Mary at their Third Court on 23 June 1932. Professional Training: Wallbridge was one of only four women to receive the Bachelor of Applied Science in Architecture from the University of Alberta. She graduated in 1939 and received her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1940. Wallbridge received a fourth in Class A of the RAIC Medals. In 1947 Wallbridge and Imrie were given a three-month leave by City Architect Max Dewar, during which they took a tour of Europe to study post-war reconstruction and urban planning. Personal Life and Architectural Career: With Mary Imrie, she was the first Canadian woman to establish her own partnership. She was the third woman to join the Alberta Association of Architects, on 6 February 1941. Wallbridge first worked with Rule, Wynn and Rule. Peter Rule was a classmate. She worked with the Town Planning Commission, Saint John, New Brunswick, during the Second World War and returned to Edmonton to work as a draftsman, Department of the City Architect and Inspector of Buildings, where she was employed from 1946 to 1949. In 1949 she was reclassified as a “Technical Assistant in Town Planning.” During 1949-1950 Wallbridge and Imrie toured South America to study the practice of architecture. In 1950 they established a 29-year partnership as “studio architects” specializing in apartments, residential plans, seniors residences and housing projects. In 1957 the firm was awarded the Canadian Housing Design Council Award. Wallbridge Died 30 September 1979. Significant Commissions: • The Queen Mary Apartments 1951-1953 • “Six Acres”, the Wallbridge and Imrie residence and office 1954-1957 • St. James Roman Catholic Church, Edmonton • The Luxton Museum, Banff

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6.21

GORDON KENNETH WYNN [1911-1994] Early Life: Gordon Wynn was born in Innisfail, Alberta and brought to Edmonton as an infant. He attended Scona High School. Personal Life: 1960 – 1961 President, Edmonton Eskimos club 1964 – 1968 On the Board of the University of Alberta Hospitals. 1978 - Honourary LL.D. from the University of Alberta. Wynn served as a navigator in the Royal Canadian Air Force during the Second World War. He was a Member of the Mayfair Golf and Country Club, the Petroleum Club, and the Kiwanis Club. He died 16 October 1994. Professional Training: During the Depression summers of 1931 – 1936, Wynn had to work on building construction as a carpenter for the Alberta Department of Public Works. He obtained his Bachelor of Applied Science in Architecture from the University of Alberta in 1936. After graduation he worked for J.A. Buchanan, civil engineer and contractor, as a construction foreman, and made a study of structural detail and building construction “with a view towards the public safety of buildings, and think that the practical training I have had, more than offsets the required years office experience.” [Gordon Wynn, application for membership in the AAA, 8 March 1937] Architectural Career: 1938

Founding partner of Rule, Wynn and Rule.

1959

Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada.

Significant Commissions: [See Rule, Wynn and Rule commissions, under “John U. Rule”.]

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7.0

EDMONTON CITY ARCHITECTS 1930-1963 1930 – 1943

John Martland

1944 – 1948

Maxwell Dewar

1949 – 1963

Robert F. Duke

City of Edmonton Architectural Panel The municipal government established an architectural panel in 1951 to review building projects and permit applications. Robert F. Duke, City Architect was the Chair. Representatives from the Architectural Association of Alberta and the Association of Professional Engineers were appointed. The first members included K. Stanley (Alberta Association of Architects), Professor Morrison (Alberta Professional Engineers Assertion), R.W. Grierson (Edmonton Real Estate Board) and a secretary. 1952

The panel remains the same.

1953

J. A. MacDonald joins the panel.

1954

R. Duke continues to chair. The panel consisted of J.A. MacDonald, Noel Dant, G. R. Ascher, K. Stanley, W. Carry and P. Buttar.

1938

R.F. Duke, Chair, J.A. MacDonald, R. Ascher, K. Stanley, H.L. Kasten

1956

R.F. Duke, J. Pollock, W.R. Brown, H. Seton, P. Campbell-Hope, H.L. Kasten, P. Buttar

1939

R.F. Duke, R. Reid, W.R. Brown, H. Seton. P. Campbell-Hope, H.L. Kasten,P. Buttar

1958

R.F. Duke, Chair, R. Reid, W.R. Brown. H. Seton. D. Bittorf, M.L. Kasten, P. Stackniuk, L. Gudlangson

1959

R.F. Duke, R. Reid, W.R. Brown, L.C. Klingbell, D. Bittorf, H.L. Kasten, P.C. Turner, L. Gudlangson

1960

Panel remains the same. Source: Financial Statements, City of Edmonton, City of Edmonton Archives, GP 464

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8.0

TOWN PLANNING IN EDMONTON (1929-1960) 1929

A Town Planning Commission of nine members was formed in response to the Town Planning Act of 1929 passed by the Provincial Government. Three members were from Council and the others appointed. The duties of the Commission were to advise in matters of civic planning, prepare a town plan and create zoning by-laws.

1933

Zoning Bylaw 23 was passed. This was intended to be a temporary measure but remained in force until 1950. The By-law was set in place to lessen congestion, provide fire safety, appropriate ventilation, facilitate public services, regulate the erection of buildings, conserve values of property and encourage appropriate land uses. The By-laws meant that certain uses were promoted. These included family dwellings, multi-family dwellings local business, light industrial, general business, heavy industrial and civic uses.

1946

City Architect Maxwell Dewar spearheaded a movement to create a position of Town Planner. Dewar recognized the need to delegate responsibility to a civic department to manage development. He was concerned that playgrounds, parks, community shopping centers and traffic arteries be well planned. He felt that the rapid growth of the city should be kept in check by an evolving plan.

1949

Noel Dant was appointed in October of 1949 as Town Planner. Also hired were two experts from McGill, John Bland and Spence Sales. Maxwell Dewar resigned as City Architect and Building Inspector. He was replaced by Robert F. Duke.

1950

Dant and his staff prepare an extensive report that suspended the 1933 Bylaw and made way for a new one that was meant to be short term. An interim Development Officer was hired to help carry out the duties of City Planner and the three agencies responsible for construction, The Technical Planning Board, the Appeal Board and the Architectural Panel. It was hoped that a thoroughly developed plan would result but by 1959 no General Plan had emerged nor were zoning by-laws refined. New Subdivisions and building projects were carefully approved under the earlier guidelines.

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1951

Noel Dant and his team implement the first “Town Planned” neighbourhood in Parkallen.

1957

The Architectural Panel set requirements for dwellings and places restrictions on certain districts for residential development.

1958

The Architectural Panel came under fire for rejecting home designs. They would not accept privately-drawn plans for permits.

1959

A Planning Advisory Commission was struck in October chaired by L.D. Hyndman. This commission was responsible for the hiring of planners and consultants. It was to review surveys and coordinate investigations. Again, it was asked to push for a General Plan and reworked zoning by-laws. This was criticized elsewhere in the country as it was believed that these responsibilities should be within the Town Planning Department itself. The Porter Royal Commission was highly critical of town planning in Edmonton.

1960

Noel Dant left the City of Edmonton employ and became Provincial Planning Director. In December, nine architects prepared a brief outlining a redevelopment scheme for Edmonton on behalf of the Town Planning Commission.

1961

Geoffrey Hamilton was hired to replace Noel Dant.

Sources: “Zoning in Edmonton”, City Clerk’s Papers, The City of Edmonton, RG11, Class 228, file 65.

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9.0

EDMONTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS BUILT (1936-1961) Source: Edmonton Public School Archives and EPS Facilities Department Edmonton Public School Architect The position of school architect evolved during this period. Herber Story was Building Commissioner until 31 August 1936. J.M McAfee was appointed Acting Superintendent of Buildings on 21 July 1936. McAfee held the position of Superintendent of Plant from 20 December 1938 to 30 June 1946. The Edmonton Public School Board then appointed W.W. Butchart as Architect and Superintendent of Plant on 1 November 1946, a position he held well into the 1960s. School Abbott Elementary 12045-34 Street

Year 1958

Architect Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Allendale EJH 6415-106 Street

1949

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Argyll 8540-69 Avenue

1956

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Athlone Elementary 12940-129 Street

1957

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Avonmore 7340-78 Street

1956

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Balwin JHS 7055-132 Avenue

1960

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Beacon Heights 4610-121 Avenue

1952

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Belgravia 11605-74 Avenue

1954

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Bellevue 11515-71 Street

1950

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Belvedere 13359-62 Street

1959

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Beverly Heights

1953

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

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Bonnie Doon 7005-89 Avenue

1958

Blakey Blakey & Ascher

Braemar 9359-67a Street

1961

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Britannia JHS 16018-104 Avenue

1957

Fred H. MacDonald

Capilano 10720-54 Street

1958

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Coronation 10925-139 Street

1953

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Crestwood EJH 9735-144 Street

1954

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Delton 12126-89 Street

1946

City Architect

Donnan EJH 7803-87 Street

1948

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Dovercourt 13910-122 Avenue

1955

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Eastglen CHS 11430-68 Street

1952

Rule, Wynn & Rule

Ellerslie EJH 521-66 Street

1959

Gordon & Mangold

Ellerslie Primary 6550 Ellerslie Road

1954

built by another school district

Elmwood 16325-83 Avenue

1960

John McIntosh

Forest Heights 10304-81 Street

1948

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Fulton Place 10310-56 Street

1956

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Glendale 9812-161 Street

1952

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

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Glenora 13520-102 Avenue

1940

Rule Wynn & Rule

Gold Bar 10524-46 Street

1959

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Grandview Heights EJH 6225-127 Street

1960

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Grovenor 10345-144 Street

1949

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Hardisty JH 10534-62 Street

1956

K. C. Stanley & Company

Hazeldean 6715-97 Street

1950

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

High Park 11031-154 Street

1954

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Holyrood 7920-94 Avenue

1954

EPS Architect- W.W. Butchart

Horse Hill EJH 19355 Meridian Street

1953

Neil C. McKernan Architect

Idylwylde 8610-81 Street

1952

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Inglewood 11515-127 Street

1949

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

James Gibbons 8945-153 Street

1947

Fred H. MacDonald

Jasper Place HS 8950-163 Street

1961

John McIntosh

Kensington 13410-119 Street

1958

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Killarney JHS 13110-91 Street

1958

McKernan & Bouey

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King Edward 8530-101 Street

1958

John A. MacDonald

Lauderdale 10610-129 Avenue

1954

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Laurier Heights EJH 8210-142 Street

1957

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Lawton JHS 11602-40 Street

1956

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Lynnwood 15451-84 Avenue

1959

John McIntosh

Mayfield 10950-159 Street

1958

John McIntosh

McArthur 13535-134 Street

1958

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

McKernan EJH 11330-76 Avenue

1951

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

McQueen

1955

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Meadowlark 9150-160 Street

1957

John McIntosh

Mee-Yah-Noh 9221-128a Avenue

1960

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Mill Creek 9735-80 Avenue

1946

City of Edmonton

Montrose 11931-62 Street

1950

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Mount Pleasant 10541-60a Avenue

1953

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Mount Royal 11303-55 Street

1950

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Newton 5523-122 Avenue

1955

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Ottewell JHS 9435-73 Street

1959

McKernan & Bouey

Parkallen 6703-112 Street

1951

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Parkview EJH 14313-92 Avenue

1955

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Prince Charles 12325-127 Street

1948

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Prince Rupert

1954

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Queen Elizabeth 9425-132 Avenue

1958

Blakey Blakey & Ascher

Queen Mary Park 10935-113 Street

1953

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

R. J. Scott 11610-38 Street

1958

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Rio Terrace 7608-154 Street

1961

John McIntosh

Ross Sheppard 13546-111 Avenue

1956

Rensaa & Minsos

Rosslyn 13215-113a Street

1959

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Scott Robertson 13515-107 Street

1960

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Sherbrooke 12445-131 Street

1954

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Strathcona 10450-72 Avenue

1953

Rule, Wynn & Rule

Strathearn EJH 8728-93 Avenue

1951

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Strathearn

1956

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Terrace Heights 6859-100 Avenue

1959

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Victoria

1948

City of Edmonton

Virginia Park 7324-109 Avenue

1947

City of Edmonton

Wellington 13160-127 Street

1956

McKernan & Bouey

Westglen 10950-127 Street

1940

Rule Wynn & Rule

Westminster 13712-104 Avenue

1950

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Windsor Park 8720-118 Street

1953

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Winterburn 9527-215 Street

1957

Patrick Campbell-Hope & Associates

Woodcroft 13750 Woodcroft Avenue

1955

EPS Architect - W.W. Butchart

Youngstown 10330-163 Street

1959

John McIntosh

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

10.0

SELECTED POST-WAR BUILDING CHRONOLOGY (1936-1960) MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL STYLES IN THE POST-WAR PERIOD Sources: Diana Bodnar [Kordan], Alberta Culture, Feb.1979 “Definitions Of Architectural Styles”; Leslie Maitland, Jacqueline Hucker and Shannon Ricketts, “A Guide to Canadian Architectural Styles”, Broadview Press, 1992

International Style (IS) This style was influenced by early European modernism. Starting with the stark elemental designs of Adolf Loos in Austria at the turn of the century, followed by the experimental designs of Germany’s Walter Gropius and the Bauhaus School of Design in Dessau, and culminating in the American works of Mies van der Rohe and his followers, the international style was typified by the following: • a complete absence of ornament • asymmetrical balance of parts; strong verticals, windows and tower elements, in combination with strong horizontal elements such as and ribbon windows and thinly proportioned canopies. • flat roofs, smooth and uniform wall and window surfaces • windows that turn the corner of a building • exterior stucco, often white, with minimum texture • flexible and open plans • a version of this style used luxurious exterior materials in combination, such as limestone, granite and marble often on the same building The Modern Movement, a term coined in the 1930’s in association with an important show of Modern Architecture at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, encompasses what we now consider the various categories and phases of the International Style. There were a variety of influences and many practitioners around the world. Sometimes buildings in the International Style are further classified by their specific historical influence such as the Bauhaus (Walter Gropius), Le Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe etc. Moderne Style (MS) Art Deco Style (AD) The Moderne Style derives its elements from a combination of the more ornate Art Deco Style and the more stark International Style. The Moderne Style was a more sensual and exaggerated version of internationalism, but was not as extreme in its expressionism as the Art Deco Style:

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

• exaggerated balance of horizontal and vertical elements • usually incorporates sensual curves in plan and elevation • maintains the materials of the International Style, but may incorporate more colour • more ornamental than the International Style, incorporating Art Deco motifs and designs • the ornament is usually stylized with low relief • the Art Deco style would typically use more extravagant materials than Moderne Prairie Style (PS) Rustic Style (RS) The Prairie Style is generally attributed to the early work (1900’s) of Frank Lloyd Wright. It is the first truly American style, although its roots are the same as the International Style. After publications in Europe around 1910, it was extremely influential on European architects in Germany and Holland especially. It was perhaps more influential on post-war residential styles in North America than any other style. The Rustic Style, derived from the English Arts and Crafts Movement, was a major influence on the early work of Frank Lloyd Wright: • very strong horizontal lines and elements • broad, low roofs with large overhangs • a concern for ‘organic’ nature-based design motifs, and a strong connection with the landscape – a connection with the English Arts and Crafts Movement. • informal, flowing floor plans • “ground-hugging” characteristics Spanish Revival Style (SP) This style originated in the southern United States around the time of the First World War. It was generally out of favour by the late 1940’s: • tiled roofs (clay or metal to replicate clay tile) • low-pitch or flat roofs • arches • low-relief, plastered walls • balconies Modern Classicism (MC) This style remained popular in Alberta into the 1950’s. The major influence is classicism from the 19th century, in combination with modern influences such the Art Deco Style. The decoration was usually muted and stylized, and the overall compositions were balanced and symmetrical. Unlike the pure International Style,

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

substantial and luxurious building materials were often used to enhance the grandness of the building, albeit in a rather plain manner. Modern Gothic (MG) Although the style is originally associated with romantic English collegiate architect from the 19th Century, it remained somewhat popular in Edmonton even after the Second World War for churches and some university buildings. It is typified by the use of brick or stone exterior cladding with very strong vertical elements and spires. Modern Expressionism (ME) Many modern buildings are not easily classified by style. The influences may be from several sources, such as the Prairie Style in combination with the International Style. Usually there is something unusual about the composition or massing, or the building materials, which classifies the building as being ‘expressive’. These buildings were beginning to appear in the 1950’s and the style describes a great number of buildings constructed in the 1960’s and 70’s when adherence to a particular style was not as popular. West Coast Style (WCS) This was a very important design influence in Edmonton after the Second World War. It is known for its low sloping roofs, post and beam construction, extended overhangs, natural materials and large expanses of glass. These buildings were constructed in close proximity to the ground level and there was a deliberate attempt to incorporate ‘nature’ into the design through patios, landscaping and an ambiguous indoor/outdoor relationship. Modern High-Rise Style (MHR) Around 1960, Edmonton saw its first apartment high-rises. These towers display common characteristics of Edmonton’s residential “Modern High-rise Style” including expressive poured-in-place concrete structural systems (slabs and columns expressed on the outside), expressionistic infill wall panel systems from various materials such as different colours and texture of bricks, with canopies, roof-top treatment and other devises directly influenced by the International Style. Sometimes there was artwork commissioned for the exterior of the building.

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

BUILDING

ARCHITECT

STYLE

1936

House of Tomorrow

E. Litchfield, Builder

MS

1938

Foster McGarvey Funeral Home

Rule, Wynn, Rule

SR

1938

Municipal Housing Scheme

John Martland

1938

Roxy Theatre

William Blakey

MS

1938

Rossdale Pumping Station

1939

HBCo. Store

Moody & Moore

MS

1939

Eaton's Store

MS

1939

St. John's Separate School

Northwood, local-Wm. Blakey William Blakey

1940

Westglen Elementary

Rule Wynn Rule

RS

1940

Glenora Elementary School

Peter Rule

1940

Varscona Theatre(demolished)

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1940

Korner CafĂŠ

1940

Garneau Theatre

William Blakey

1941

Woolworth's Store

MacDonald and Magoon

1942

Wartime Housing Irvine Estates

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1943

U.S. Army Admin, Bldg St. Albert Tr/114 St.

Gordon Turnbull

1945

Administration Bldg. Municipal Airport

John Martland

1946

Canadian Packer's Meat Plant

E.R. Arthur

1946

Northwest Feed Bldg 10171 Sask. Dr.

M. Imrie

1946

Murphy House 6116 Ada Blvd.

P. Campbell-Hope

1946

Frank Lee Res. 12819 Stony Plain Rd

MacDonald and MacDonald

1946

Aberdeen Apartments 10850 84 Ave.

T.G. Aberdeen

1946

Ukrainian National Ed, 10629 98 St.

P. Campbell-Hope

1946

Hyndman House 10123 136 St.

George H. MacDonald

1946

Blakey Residence 13526 101 Ave.

William Blakey

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

MS

MS MS MS, IS

IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1947

Oliver School Addition

IS

1947

Healy Ford 10616 103 Ave

William Blakey

IS

1947

Greyhound Bus Terminal

Rule, Wynn, Rule

MS

1947

Burrows Motors 10620 Jasper Ave.

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1947

Gov't of Alta 10255 104 St

1947

St. Anthony's Church

William Blakey

1948

First Christian Reform Church

Gordon Annett

1948

Jasper Place Community Hall

Maxwell Dewar

1948

Low Level Bridge

19471949 1948

Telephone Exchange

Rule, Wynn, Rule

Boston Pizza 10620 Jasper

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1949

Student's Union Bldg. U of A

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1949

Church of the Nazarene 97St/110Ave.

Gordon Arnett

1949

Greyhound Bus Terminal. demolished

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1949

St. Margaret's School

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

1949

W.W. Butchart

1949

Inglewood and Bellevue Elem. Schools King Edward Park Church

1949

Victoria Composite High School

Dewar, Stevenson & Stanley

IS, ME

1949

Aberhart Provincial TB Sanatorium

George H. MacDonald

IS

ME

IS

MS

K.C. Stanley

W.L. Somerville, Consulting Architect 1949

Strathearn Heights Residences

Alice Ross

1949

Mills Motors

Alice Ross

1950

Northgate Bldg. 10051 Jasper Ave.

Martland & Aberdeen

1950

U of A Sciences Bldg.

Dewar, Cawston, Stevenson

1950 1950

Goodyear Tire And Rubber 10355/105 St. Noble Block 8500 109 St.

1950

Ellis Bldg. 10123 112 St.

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

WCS

IS George H. MacDonald

IS IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1950 1950

Glenora Patio Homes 13345 109B Ave. City of Edmonton Communications

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

1950

Weston’s Bakery 11620 120 Street

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1950

Waterworks Pumping Station

Neil McKernan

1951

Land Titles Building

P. Campbell-Hope

IS, MS

1951

McKernan Elementary School

Gordon Campbell

IS

1951

Mormon Church 10661 82 Ave.

Rule, Wynn, Rule

ME

1951

Hotel MacDonald Expansion

1951

Rossdale Power Plant

Maxwell Dewar

MC

1951

Rutherford Library

Rule, Wynn, Rule

MC

1951

Strathearn Heights Apartments

Kalman

195153 1951

Legislature Annex/AGT Bldg. 9718 107 St. Lutheran Church 11129 76 Ave.

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1951

Architect's Office 9130 Jasper Ave.

Rensaa and Minsos

1951

St. James RC Church 7705 85 St

Wallbridge and Imrie

1951

Queen Mary Apartments

Wallbridge and Imrie

WCS

1951

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

IS

1951

Garneau Tower 109 St/86 Ave (Noble Bldg) Parkallen School

W.W. Butchart

MS

1952

Grandstand Edmonton Exhibition

Dewar, Stevenson, Stanley

1952

CNR Administration Yard

CNR

1952

Noble Building 8540 109 St.

George H. MacDonald

1952

MacCosham Storage 107St./102 Ave

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

1952

McKernan Church 11103 76 Ave.

Dewar, Stevenson, Stanley

1952

University Place Apartments

Dewar, Stevenson, Stanley

1952

Paramount Theatre

Stanley and Stanley

IS

1952

Grinnell and Company Building

Main, Rensaa, Minsos

IS

1953

Alberta Teacher's Assoc. Bldg

Stanley and Stanley

IS

1953

General Hospital 111 Street

George H. MacDonald

MC, AD

1953

Cloverdale Incinerator

Garth Fleet

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

IS

IS

Rensaa and Minsos

????

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1953

Red Cross Building 9931 106 St.

IS

1953

AGT Building 10503-100 St.

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1953

Royal Trust Building

Dewar, Stevenson, Stanley

1953

Hazeldean Elementary School

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

1953

Russell Residence

Wallbridge & Imrie

1953

Ste. Anne Chapel, Jasper Place

1953

Beth Israel Synagogue

Diamond, Dupuis and Desautels P. Campbell-Hope

1953

Coronation School

W.W. Butchart

1954

Royal Alexandra Mat. Hospital

George H. MacDonald

1954

Safeway Store

1954

No.4 Fire Station (10527 - 142 St)

R.F. Duke

1954

St. Agnes Church

William Blakey

ME, PS

1954

Beverly Hotel

Olesky & McIntosh

IS

1954

Six Acres Architects Residence

Imrie and Wallbridge

1954

John Deer Plow Co. Building

1954

J.I. Case Building

1954

North Western Utilities Shop

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1955

St. Andrew's Parish Church

William Blakey

1955

Alberta Research Council

1955

All Saints Anglican Cathedral

William and Richard Blakey

1955

Roman Catholic Seminary St. Alberta

Trail Blais and English

1955

Empire Brass 11244-120 Street

1955

Brandon Bldg. 156 St./Stony Plain Rd

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1955

Bank of Montreal 99 St.

Rule, Wynn, Rule

IS, PS

MG

Bruce H. Wright 1955

Mayfair Golf & Country Club

1955

Jubilee Auditorium

1955

Beth Shalom Synagogue

Robert Bouey

IS

1956

Medical Arts Bldg. Jasper/110St.

Peter Caspari

IS

1956

Allard Bldg. 111 St./Jasper Ave.

Jock Bell

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

Rule, Wynn, Rule

WCS IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1956

Edmonton Telephone Exchange

1956

Baker Clinic 10004 105 St.

1956

Federal Building

1956

First Baptist Church

1956

Wellington Junior High School

McKernan and Bouey

1956

Inland Cement Company Plant

K.C. Stanley

IS George H. MacDonald

MC MG, IS

Dursford, Bolton, Chadwick & Ellwood 1956

Western Plywood Ltd.

Rensaa & Minsos

1956

Avonmore United Church

K.C. Stanley

1956

Hollyrood School

W.W. Butchart

1956

Waterworks Treatment Plant

1956

Garneau Curling Club

Aberdeen & Groves

1956 1956

International Harvester 120St/109A Ave C. Stanley Ross Sheppard High School

Renssa & Minsos

1957

Edmonton Exhibition Grandstand

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1957

U of A Administration Bldg.

1957

Ford Motor Co. 12740 - 111 Ave.

1957 1957

Southside Office Tower 104St./Whyte Ave. Bentall Building 10180 102 St.

1957

College St. John U of A

1957

Fred Minsos

1957

Ross Sheppard Composite High School Apartments 98/110Street

1957

Apartments 100 Ave/110Street

Nicholas Stroich

1957

Bonnie Doon Composite High

Blakey, Blakey & Ascher

1957

Miller Motors 11250 Jasper Ave.

Jock Bell

1957

Simpson Sears Kingsway

1957

Christ Lutheran Church

Jock Bell

1957

City Hall ( demolished)

K.C. Stanley

1957

Northwest Trust Bldg. 10166-100 St.

Jock Bell

1957

Allied Chemical Bldg. 14505 114 Ave.

Jock Bell

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

IS Blakey, Blakey, Ascher C.T. Larrington

IS MG

John A. MacDonald

IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1957

Gov't Bldg. (AVC)

George H. MacDonald

1957

Idlwylde Telephone Exchange

Rule, Wynn, Rule W.W.Butchart

1957

Millcreek Pool

Rule, Wynn, Rule

IS

1957

Royal Alexander Hospital - West Wing

Rule, Wynn, Rule

IS

1958

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1958

Credit Foncier Bldg. 10263 Jasper Ave. Westinghouse 10312 105 St.

1958

Mutual Life Block Jasper/118 St.

Gordon Wynn

1958

Simpson Sears Bonnie Doon

Rule, Wynn, Rule

IS

1958

Belmount House

1958

Devonian Building Jasper/111St.

Bell McCullough

IS

1958

Pilkington Glass

1958

Beattie Brothers Block

1958

Edmonton Regional Airport

Renssa, Minsos

IS

1958

Healy Ford 106 St/Jasper

K.C. Stanley

IS

1958

Imperial Oil 10018 105 St.

K.C. Stanley

IS

1958

The Riviera 9716 111 St.

Richards and Berretti

IS

1958

St. Peter's Lutheran Church

John A. MacDonald

1958

Alta. Nurse's Assoc. 10256 112 St.

Nicholas Flak

1958

St. Agnes School 9807-93 Street

Ronald Clarke

1958

General Hospital 112 Street

George H. MacDonald

1958

Continental Rubber 9762 62 Avenue

K.C. Stanley

1959

Jock Bell

1959

Ed. Cemetery Co. Office 107St/109 Ave. Expert Cleaners

1959

Milner Building

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1959

St. Angela School

1959

Valleyview IGA

1959

Royal Park Apartments

Richards and Berretti

1959

Queen Elizabeth Planetarium

R.F. Duke and Walter Telfer

ME

1959

Royal Alex Addition

Rule, Wynn, Rule

IS

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1959

Belvedere School

W.W.Butchart

1960

Royal Glenora Club

Rule, Wynn, Rule

1960

U of A Education Bldg.

Burns Dutton

1960

U of A Engineering Bldg.

1960

Imperial Bank 9990 Jasper Ave.

1960

Royal Bank 10023 Jasper Ave.

1960

Baker Clinic 10004 105 St. Addition

1960

Pepsi Cola

1960

U of A Nurses Residence

1960

Imperial Bank 9990 108 Street

1960

Unitarian Bldg. 126 St/110 Ave.

1960

U of A Physical Education Building

1960

Firehall#1 98 Street/101 Avenue

R.F. Duke

1960

Mausoleum Edmonton Cemetery

Neil McKernan

1961

U of A Sciences Bldg.

1961

TD Bank

Dominion Construction

1961

Grandin Towers 100 Ave./111 St.

J.H. MacDonald

1961

MarbleEx Plant

1961

Fiberglass of Canada Plant

1961

Gov't Greenhouses 9630 106 St.

1962

Jasper House

John A. MacDonald

IS

1962

Bristol Towers 10020 121 St.

John A. MacDonald

IS

1962

Latter-Day Saints Stake Centre

Fred H. MacDonald

1962

Caravan Hotel 104 St./100 Ave

W.G. Milne

1964

U of A Lister Hall

1965

General Hospital Residence

Bell McCullough

Edmonton Motors, Jasper Ave./115St

F.H. MacDonald

1950/1 955

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

WCS

IS

MC Annett & Bittorf

MC

IS IS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

19571958

Burger Barons

Aberdeen & Groves

19591964

Edmonton International Airport

Renssa & Minsos

IS

196061

NAIT

Gordon Aberdeen

IS

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

11.0

A TIMELINE OF INFLUENCES, BUILDINGS AND EVENTS (1936-1960) 1930S CECIL BURGESS’ U OF A SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE PRODUCES GRADUATES WHO WILL LEAD THE WAY IN POST-WAR DESIGN. 1936 - 1939 INFLUENCES •

Established architectural practices are entering the modern era – G.H. MacDonald, Blakey and Blakey

Prominent students and graduates of the School include: John Rule, Peter Rule Jr. and Gordon Wynn who joined in partnership in 1938. They were joined later by U of A graduate George Lord (Rule Wynn Forbes Lord). Jean Wallbridge and Mary Imrie Doris Tanner

Architects were being trained at the University of Manitoba, McGill University and the University of Toronto who would eventually practice in Edmonton – Robert and H. Bouey, James Brock Bell, Kelvin Stanley.

Popularization of the Modern Style – translation of international styles into popular local vernacular, commonly known as the Moderne Style

National Housing Act – depression housing projects are constructed

In 1938, the economy is opening up after the depression.

SOME IMPORTANT BUILDINGS AND EVENTS FROM THE PERIOD 1936 “House of the Future” is constructed. Public is exposed to the new style of modernism. 1936 The Jasper Avenue Gem Theatre gets a Moderne style facelift. This is one of the earliest examples of the Moderne Style in Edmonton 1938 The new Roxy Theatre on 124 Street is opened in the Moderne style and is designed by William Blakey. 1938 Manitoba architects Northwood and Chivers, with Blakey and Blakey, design the T. Eaton Department Store in downtown Edmonton in the Moderne Style, with strong influences from the International Style as typified by the strong horizontals of the strip windows and the continuous canopy. Moody and Moore,

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

also from Winnipeg, design the new Hudson’s Bay Company Store on Jasper Avenue which was influenced more by the Art Deco Style. 1939 Rule Wynn and Rule design the Varscona Theatre at 109 Street and Whyte Avenue. It was clearly one of the most dramatic Moderne buildings in the City. 1939 Blakey and Blakey design the Garneau Theatre, a rival to the Varscona Theatre, which opens in 1940. 1939 Blakey and Blakey design the St. John’s Separate School (now Edmonton Academy) at 10231 120 Street. The design of this school anticipates the Moderne Style schools built by the EPSB after the Second World War. 1939 Bob Brownridge opened his smart new “Drive Inn” at 10022 109 Street just in time for the royal visit. It was “built along modernistic lines.” The interior was “finished in two tones of brown, while the outside is a tan or cream shade. A colourful neon sign will be placed over the doorway…” As the advertisements noted: “ For the first time in the history of the city, Edmonton citizens will be able to enjoy tasty lunches and meals or cooling drinks and refreshments in the comfort of their own cars.” 1939 Rule Wynn Rule design the new modern maternity wing of the Misericordia Hospital, opened on June 19. 1939 Rule Wynn and Rule are selected by the Edmonton Public School Board Property Committee on July 19 to design the new school planned for the Glenora district. 1939 Henry Pinsky opened the new Black and White Store on Jasper Avenue at 112 Street. A “modern, streamlined” store, white with black triming, it was a distinctive addition to Edmonton’s main thoroughfare. 1939 Turnbull Brothers opened their new Imperial Oil service station at 102 Street and 102 Avenue, on the site of the first Imperial Oil station built in Edmonton, in 1917. It was white stucco trimmed with “red ribbon”. Featured prominent neon lights, and had a “striking tower at the corner of the building”. 1939 The new Danish Lutheran Church at 10837 96 Street was designed by architect Holn Moller of Copenhagen. Construction was supervised by W.G. Blakey, as “ associate architect” 1939 Alta Magoon, H.A. Magoon’s daughter, was a survivor of the U-boat attack on the Athenia. 1939 G.H. MacDonald and H.A. Magoon were architects for the “modernized” Zeller’s Store on the ground floor of the Tegler Building on November 16.

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AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1939 Edmonton City Bakery, which started in Edmonton in 1923, opened at 102 Street just south of 107 Avenue. This little Art Deco style commercial building was the work of J.N. Cote, “designer and builder”.

1940S

STRONG ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICES TRANSITIONING INTO THE MODERN ERA

_________________________________________________________________ 1940 -1945 INFLUENCES •

Cecil Burgess retires from the U of A at the age of 70 and starts a private practice. His architecture studies program terminates with his retirement in 1940.

Edmonton’s architects begin to leave for the war in Europe.

The Americans arrive in 1942 and there is a wartime building boom, especially around the Municipal Airport (Blatchford Field) – airport and industrial buildings as well as housing for the troops

Max Dewer joins the City Architect’s Office, replacing John Martland.

The spirit of reconstruction - planning begins.

Noel Dant, city planner, is hired.

SOME IMPORTANT BUILDINGS AND EVENTS FROM THE PERIOD 1939 Rule Wynn Rule design the new two-storey addition and façade upgrading C. Woodward store. 1940 Westglen High School opened with Premier Aberhart, the Minister of Education presiding. Rule Wynn Rule were the architects and G.H. MacDonald was the general contractor. 1940 Charles C. Batson, prominent pioneer city builder, dies on March 3. The Edmonton Bulletin reflected that: “He built 75 per cent of the schools here and was responsible for many more of the public buildings”. 1940 Building Permit for the Garneau Theatre was issued to Suburban Theatres Ltd. Principals in the company were Frank Doncaster and W.G. Blakey was the architect. 1940 Credit Arcade opened at 10032 Jasper Avenue. This shop was the remodeled Harmony Apartments. MacDonald and Magoon were the architects and J.R. Macintyre the contractor. 1940 Rule Wynn Rule design renovations to the HUB Hotel. 1940 Fred H. MacDonald and Lloyd G. MacDonald announce they are opening an architectural office at #211 CPR Building on April 20

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1940 Rule Wynn Rule design a two storey addition to the 1926 Woodwards Building 1940 The 100 bed wing at the General Hospital , designed by G.H. MacDonald and H.A. Magoon, was opened on June 12. G.H. MacDonald and Company was the contractor. 1941 The Varscona Theatre was opened on 6 July by Mayor Fry. This Rule Wynn Rule design set a new standard of Modernism in Edmonton. 1941 New Woodward Store opens in downtown Edmonton on 28 march – “a new ultra-modern merchandising plant…with the most modern 44-seat lunch counter in western Canada.” 1941 H.A. Magoon dies on 1 April after heart attack at 78 years of age. 1941 Edmonton Bulletin publishes the first of 16 articles by Cecil Burgess on “The New Town Planning” on 10 May. This outlines his philosophy of town planning and its importance for the post war years. 1941 MacDonald and Magoon are reported to be preparing plans for the new 6-room brick school and gym addition to the Garneau School “to house students formerly accommodated at the Normal School”. The Normal School had been taken over by the BCATP and so DND paid for the new school. 1941 Building permits were issued to Kenn’s Service Garage for ten houses along Saskatchewan Drive. Plans for these residences located between 100 St and 101 St were drawn by Rule Wynn Rule with A. Carlson as contractor. Construction began immediately. 1941 The Granville Apartments 9938 108 Street were opened. Design seems to have been by W.J. Trott, the owner. The Granville boasted it was “modern in every detail”, and proved it with photographs in the local newspapers. 1942 Airport Hangars are constructed at Blatchford Field (Municipal Airport). 1943 Redwood Building built by the US Army and Bechtel, Price and Callahan, who used it for their offices. A large wing was added in 1943, located on Jasper Avenue in the community of Oliver. It housed Northwest Service Command United States Army until the end of the war. In 1945, the Canadian Government purchased the Redwood Building to house the administrative centre for the rehabilitative section of the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. In May 1958 these offices moved to the new Federal Building. On the night of 3 September 1958, the building burned, probably due to arson.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1946-1949 INFLUENCES •

Architects return from the war to resume their practices.

There is a shortage of building materials.

The regional, bedroom communities are growing, prior to amalgamation.

The school building boom begins which gives some architects their start.

The City Architect’s office is very strong.

February 1947, oil is discovered at Leduc and an economic boom begins, serving the industry

There is a boom in hospital construction.

Government House is used to accommodate veterans.

The Edmonton post-war housing crisis begins. Neighbourhoods begin to fill in. There are many multi-family housing starts. The Crown Corporation, Wartime Housing Inc, builds across the country.

1947 there is an exhibition of Dutch architecture from between the wars, organized by Cecil Burgess, which influences Edmonton architects.

Infrastructure development and expansion…power, water, telephones

IMPORTANT BUILDINGS AND EVENTS FROM THE PERIOD 1946

W.W.Butchard replaces J.M. McAffee to become Edmonton Public Schools Architect and Superintendent of Plant.

1947

Rule Wynn and Rule design Burrows Motors automobile showroom (later Healy Ford circa 1955 and now Boston Pizza)) constructed at 10620 Jasper in the International, Bauhaus Style.

1947

Wm.G. Blakey designs the Massey-Harris Ferguson farm implements showroom (now Healy Ford Dealership) constructed at 10616 103 Avenue in the International Style. This was one of the most stylish modern buildings of it time.

1948

Rule Wynn Rule design Edmonton’s Greyhound Bus Station, now demolished, in the Moderne Style.

1948

Imperial Oil Refinery is constructed – refinery row starts

1949

G.H. MacDonald designs the Aberhart TB hospital, south of the University. It opens in 1952. The design, executed in yellow brick, is a toned-down version of the International Style.

1949

Rule Wynn Rule design additions to the Royal Alexandra and the Misericordia Hospital is expanded. Similar to the Aberhart Hospital, the Royal Alexandra Hospital design shows International Style Influences.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

1950’s and 60’s

THE BUILDING BOOM IS IN FULL SWING AND MANY YOUNG ARCHITECTS OPEN NEW OFFICES

_________________________________________________________________ INFLUENCES •

There is a…”confusion, even competition, of styles… characteristic of Canadian architecture as a whole during the period just after WW2”. (Trevor Boddy, Modern Architecture in Alberta, page 79.)

The profession is being supplemented by (especially) European architects. Alberta Public Works hires from Great Britain.

1955 is Alberta’s Golden Jubilee.

Civic pride is growing. The Edmonton Eskimos win three Grey Cups in a row.

Uranium City in northern Saskatchewan is being constructed out of Edmonton.

Edmonton’s shopping mall phenomenon begins. Westmount is the first, constructed in 1953.

High rise apartment towers start to be constructed near the end of the decade.

Architectural practices which focus on schools are common. Patrick CampbellHope is the reputed leader of the school architects.

New residential neighbourhoods are planned and constructed. Nine communities are between 1950 and 1960. The suburban lifestyle is established.

Richard Neutra, a world famous International Style architect from Los Angeles, speaks to the Province’s architects at the Banff Session in 1957. Edmonton architects are very involved

Cecil Burgess is considered a “mentor” to the young architects in the city.

There is a huge expansion of the U of A campus.

There is an expansion and modernization of the movie theatres.

IMPORTANT BUILDINGS AND EVENTS FROM THE PERIOD 1952

The Paramount Theater at 10233 Jasper Avenue is constructed, designed in the International Style by Stanley and Stanley. Ernest Manning broadcasts from here each Sunday. This is one of most sophisticated International Style modern buildings constructed in the City at the time. It displays many of the stylistic devises used at the time: expensive materials – limestone, marble and granite,

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

asymmetrical composition, strong vertical sign element contrasted with the horizontal, angled canopy, expressionistic ground floor exposed columns and ‘zigzag’ entrance planning. 1953

P. Campbell-Hope designs the Beth Israel Synagogue at 10205 119 Street. This building owes it influences to the International Style with Prairie Style overtones.

1953

G.H. MacDonald designs the new General Hospital at 111 Street and Jasper Avenue. This building incorporates Art Deco Style friezes along the top of the facades.

1953

Westmount Shopping Centre is constructed.

1953

Rule Wynn and Rule design the controversial “Green Building” headquarters for Alberta Government Telephones, now called the Legislative Annex, adjacent to the Alberta Legislature, on 107th Street. It was Edmonton’s first ‘glass box’, curtain wall construction. It incorporated Edmonton’s first underground parking garage.

1954

The Red Cross Building is constructed at 9931 106 Street in the International Style. The building follows the International Style pattern of expressed ground floor structure and horizontally expressed strip windows.

1954

The Ellis Office Building is constructed at 10123 112 Street. This may be one of the best Edmonton examples of Bauhaus inspired design with its industrial windows wrapping around the wall corners and asymmetrical composition of the entrance. Yellow brick was also commonly used in this period.

1955

The Beth Shalom Synagogue is constructed at 11916 Jasper Avenue. The influences were International Style with Modern Classical overtones

1955

G.H. MacDonald’s 1930’s design for the new the Federal Building is constructed. The main floor lobby is likely the last Art Deco interior constructed in Alberta.

1955

Alberta Public Works designs the Alberta Jubilee Auditoriums. Edmonton’s is constructed at the University of Alberta. This building, of international quality, was directly influenced by International Style modernism of the time

1956

The Baker Clinic constructs a new building at the corner of 105 Street and 100 Avenue in the International Style, with influences from the Bauhaus and Prairie Styles. Later a tower with an early curtain wall cladding and expressionistic sun shading devices are added above the original building.

1958

Rule Wynn Rule designs the Milner Building. One of Edmonton’s early ‘highrise’ towers, the Milner Building is constructed at 10030 104 Street in a version of the International Style. It includes a stylish podium with vertical sun shade

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

louvres and exposed ground floor black marble columns. Other buildings incorporating similar features in Edmonton are the former City Hall (Stanley and Stanley) and the International Airport. 1959

Robert Duke, City Architect, and Walter Telfer design the Edmonton Planetarium, the first in Canada, which is constructed in Coronation Park. It opens in 1960. This “futuristic” and expressionistic modern building is unique in Edmonton, and perhaps, Canada. Although clearly influenced by the International Style, it begins to anticipate the Modern Expressionistic Style that rose to prominence in the 1960’s.

1960

John A. MacDonald designs the residential high-rises Bristol Towers and Jasper House at 121 Street and Jasper Avenue. These towers display common characteristics of Edmonton’s residential “high-rise style” including prominent exterior art works, expressed poured-in-place concrete structural systems, expressionistic infill wall panel systems from various materials and canopies and other devises directly influenced by the International Style.

1961

The Toronto Dominion Bank constructs a branch and office tower at 100 Street and Jasper Avenue, an example of a sophisticated advancement in the use of glass curtain-wall and high-end materials. The design incorporates design features commonly found in 1960s building such as the full-height metal screen on the Jasper Avenue façade.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

13.1

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESEARCH SOURCES

1.

ARCHIVAL SOURCES Alberta Community Development, Historic Sites Service Kordan, Diana Definitions of Architectural Styles 1979 Inventory Site Forms City of Edmonton Archives Peter A. Arends Collection [EA A93-42] Biographical Files Building Permits Henderson’s Edmonton Directories 1936-1960 Campbell-Hope Materials City Planners Records, Financial Statements Photographic Collection Plan Checkers Files c. 1945-1959 Architectural Firm Histories City of Edmonton Planning and Development Department Heritage Office Edmonton Historic Resource Inventory Glenbow-Alberta Institute Archives and Library Photographic collection McDermid Collection Biographical clipping files Provincial Archives of Alberta R. Bouey Collection Wallbridge and Imrie materials Ronald Clarke Collection Photographic collection – NS- 1950’s and 1960’s Buildings University of Alberta Archives Cecil Burgess Papers Faculty and departmental papers [School of Architecture] Convocation Books

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

University of Calgary, Canadian Architectural Archives Alberta Association of Architects Registry Alberta Association of Architects Records Alberta Department of Housing and Public Works Records Cohos Evamy & Partners Papers Rule Wynn and Rule Edmonton Papers/Inventories K.C. Stanley Papers T.E.A. Stanley Papers Ron Thom Papers H.M. Whiddington Papers Edmonton Public School Archives School Records EPS Facilities Branch - Blueprints 2.

CONTACTS AND INTERVIEWS James “Jock” Bell, Edmonton Robert Bouey, Victoria Bryan Campbell-Hope, Edmonton Douglas Campbell, Edmonton

3.

PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS AND NEWSPAPERS Journal of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada - Alberta Pages, Biographical Summaries The Canadian Architect Edmonton Journal, Architecture and home building features, 1936-1960 Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada (SSAC) Journal

4.

PUBLISHED SOURCES AND THESES Bettison, David, Urban Policy in Canada. [Edmonton, University of Alberta Press, 1975]. Boddy, Trevor, Modern Architecture in Alberta. [Regina: Alberta Culture and Multiculturalism, and the Canadian Plains Research Centre, 1987]. Bronson, Susan D., and Jester, Thomas C., eds. Mending the Modern. Special Issue - APT Bulletin. 23:4 [1997].

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Cameron, Christina, Index of Houses Featured in Canadian Homes and Gardens from 1925 to 1944. [Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1980]. Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 50 Years of Innovation. [Ottawa: CMHC, 1993]. Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Housing in Canada: 1946-1970. [Ottawa: CMHC,

1971].

Cashman, Tony, and Croll, Norman H., 50 Years in Architecture A History published by Schmidt Feldberg Croll Henderson to mark the 50th Anniversary of the Firm founded in 1938 as Rule Wynn and Rule. [Edmonton: Schmidt Feldberg Croll Henderson, 1988]. Chan, Wah May, “The Impact of the Technical Planning Board on the Morphology of Edmonton,” University of Alberta, MA Thesis, 1969. Clayton, Maurice, Canadian Housing in Wood. [Ottawa: Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1990]. Collins, Peter, Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture. [Toronto: McGill-Queen’s University Press,

1997].

Curtis, William J.R., Modern Architecture Since 1900, Third Edition, [London: Phaedon, 1996]. Denhez, Marc, The Canadian Home From Cave to Electronic Cocoon. [Toronto and Oxford: Dundurn Press, 1994]. DOCOMOMO International [International Working Party for the Documentation and Conservation of Buildings, Sites and Neighbourhoods of the Modern Movement], Conference Proceedings, 1992 DOCOMOMO International, Exposed Concreter [Eindhoven: The Netherlands, in press]. DOCOMOMO Journal. Doherty, E.A. Residential Construction Practices in Alberta 1900-1971. [Edmonton: Alberta Department of Housing, 1984]. Dominey, Erma, “Wallbridge and Imrie The Architectural Practice of Two Edmonton Wommen, 1950-1979,” SSAC Bulletin [Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada] 17:1. Down, David & Graham Livsey, “Modern Love”, Avenue, May 1997, p.27-31. Dunster, David, Key Buildings of the Twentieth Century, Vol. 2: Houses, 1945-1989. [Books on Demand, 1990]. Ford, Edward R., The Details of Modern Architecture, Vol. 2: 1928 to 1988. [MIT Press, 1996].

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Frampton, Kenneth, Modern Architecture. [Douglas & McIntyre, 1992].

Gans, Deborah, The Le Corbusier Guide, Revised Edition. [Princeton Architectural Press, 1998]. Gebhard, David, “Moderne Architecture,” Journal for the Society of Architectural Historians, 31 [October 1972]. Golden Construction , Beautiful Homes. [Edmonton: G.W. Golden Construction, 1953]. Gowans, Alan, Building Canada An Architectural History of Canadian Life. [Toronto: Oxford

University Press, 1966].

Grattan, David W., ed. Saving the Twentieth Century: The Conservation of Modern Materials. [Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute, and Communications Canada, 1993]. Hatfield, R., “The Metropolitan Development of Edmonton: The City, The Province, and the Strategy of Neglect.” University of Alberta, MA Thesis, 1982. Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, The International Style. [W.W. Norton & Company Inc, 1995]. Hochman, Elaine S., ed. Bauhaus: Crucible of Modernism. [Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1997]. Jackson, Mike, ed. Preserving What’s New. Special Issue APT Bulletin [The Journal of Preservation Technology] 23:2 [1991]. Jacobus, John, Twentieth-Century Architecture The Middle Years 1940-85. [New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1966]. Jandl, H. Ward, Yesterday’s Houses of Tomorrow. [Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1996]. Jencks, Charles, The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. [New York: Rizzoli, 1977]. Jencks, Charles, Modern Movements in Architecture. [New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1973]. Jester, Thomas C., ed. Twentieth-Century Building Materials: History and Conservation. [New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995]. Johnson, Donald L., Makers of 20th-Century Modernist Architecture: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. [Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997]. Jones, A.E. The Beginnings of Canadian Government Housing Policy, 1918-1924. [Ottawa: Centre for Social Welfare Studies, Carleton University, 1978].

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Jordy, William H. American Buildings and their Architects, Volume 4, The Impact of European Modernism in the Mid Twentieth Century. [New York: Anchor Doubleday, 1972]. Kuipers, Marieke, “The Modern Movement: Protecting 20th Century Art and Architecture”, UNESCO Courier, Sept. 1997, p. 25-31. Lillie, R.J., “Twenty Years of Housing. CMHC 1946-1968.” Habitat 11, No. 1 [1968] and 11 No. 2 [1968]. Liscombe, Rhodri Windsor. The New Spirit: Modern Architecture in Vancouver, 19381963. [Montreal and Vancouver: Canadian Centre for Architecture/ Douglas & McIntyre, 1997]. Maitland, Leslie, Hucker, Jacqueline, and Ricketts, Shannon, A Guide to Canadian Architectural Styles. [ Broadview Press]. Miron, John R., Housing in Postwar Canada. Demographic Change, Household Formation, and Housing Demand. [Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988]. Pawley, M., 20th Century Architecture: A Reader’s Guide. [ Routledge, Chapman & Hall, Inc., 1995]. Pearson, Clifford A., Modern American Houses: Four Decades of Award-Winning Design in Architectural Record. [Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1996]. Peter, John, The Oral History of Modern Architecture: Interviews with the Greatest Architects of the Twentieth Century. [Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1994]. Riley, Terence, The International Style: Exhibition Fifteen & the Museum of Modern Art. [Columbia University, Graduate School of Architecture, 1992]. Ritchie, T., et al, Canada Builds: 1867-1967. [Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967]. Rose, Albert, Canadian Housing Policies: 1935-1980. [Toronto: Butterworth, 1980]. Saunders, Ivan J., A Survey of Alberta School Architecture to 1930. [Parks Canada Research Bulletin No. 224; 1984]. Sayegh, Kamel, Housing: A Canadian Perspective. [Ottawa: Academy Books, 1987]. Saywell, J.T., ed., Housing Canadians: Essays on the History of Residential Construction in Canada. [Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1975].

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Shiffer, Rebecca A., ed. Cultural Resources from the Recent Past. Special Issue - CRM [Cultural Resource Management] 16:6 [1993]. Shiffer, Rebecca A., and Park, Sharon C., eds. Preserving the Recent Past. Special Issue - CRM 18:8 [1995]. Simmins, Geoffrey, Twelve Modern Houses, 1945-1985. From the Collections of the Canadian Architectural Archives. [Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1995]. Sinclair, Brian S., “The Architect in Alberta,” MEVDS Thesis [Architecture], University of Calgary, 1987. Slaton, Deborah, and Shiffer, Rebecca A., eds. Preserving the Recent Past. [Washington, D.C.: Historic Preservation Education Foundation, 1995]. Stratton, Michael, ed. Structure and Style: Conserving 20th Century Architecture. [London: E and F N Spon, 1997]. Taschen American Staff, Architecture in the 20th Century, Vol. 1. [Taschen America, Inc., 1996]. Wade, Jill, “Wartime Housing Ltd. 1941-1947: Canadian Housing Policy at the Crossroads,” Urban History Review 15 [1986]. Wetherall, Donald and Kmet, Irene, Homes in Alberta: Building Trends and Design 1870-1967. [Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1991]. Whyte, Ian B., What is Modernism? [Academy Editions, 1996]. Zukowsky, John, The Many Faces of Modern Architecture: Building in Germany between the World Wars. [Macmillan Canada, 1995].

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

13.2

POST-WAR BUILDING INVENTORY TOUR The following public tour of a sampling of Edmonton’s downtown post-war buildings was given as part of Historic Edmonton Week July 1997 and 2001.

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

International

horizontal windows

Bauhaus

horizontal features

ORIGINALLY BURROWS MOTORS, LATER HEALY FORD 1. Boston

10620 Jasper Ave

1948

Rule Wynn Rule

Pizza

upper corner window large ground floor glass

2. Red Cross

9931 106 St

1953 (demolished 2001)

International

Building

horizontal, framed windows

9941 106 St

1954 (annex)

International

exposed columns at ground level brise soleil on 1953 portion

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

ground floor 1956,

International

early curtain wall with

tower is later

Bauhaus

sun shading,

ORIGINALLY THE BAKER CLINIC 3. Office

105 St 100 Ave

Building

horizontal entrance features with expressive over-sized columns

FORMERLY THE CARAVAN HOTEL 4. Howard

104 St 100 Ave

Johnson Hotel

1962

International

W.G. Milne (Calgary)

interesting top with overhanging canopy and large expanses of glass, ‘zigzag’ design influences

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

5. Milner

10030 104 St

1958

Rule Wynn Rule

International

structural expressionism

Building

asymmetrical podium w/ exposed marble columns vertical sun shade louvers, street arcade, plaza landscaping

ORIGINALLY MASSEY-HARRIS FERGUSON FARM IMPLEMENTS SHOWROOM 6. Healy

10616 103 Ave

Ford

1947

W.G. Blakey

International

horizontal, framed windows, large expanses of glass, open columns, horizontal stone window bands, flag pole

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

7. Popeye’s

10265 107 St

date

architect

influences

features

International

horizontal features,

Gym

yellow brick, wraparound windows

8. Courtyard

10239 107 St

Late International

Building

9. Federal Gov’t. Bldg

inward focus, white brick, simple lines

(now NorQuest)

1957

G.H. MacDonald

International

bordered horizontal

107 St and

windows, expressed

102 Ave

entrance canopies and structure

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

10. Loveseth’s

105 St and

Garage

date

architect

influences

features

International

typical massing and

102 Ave

composition, bordered elements, yellow brick, open upper floor with overhang

11. Salvation

9611 102 Avenue

International

red and yellow brick in

Army

various patterns, free-

Mens’

standing column at

Hostel

entrance

12. Ink

9523 Jasper

Moderne

horizontal fins, curved

Machine

lines, vertical entrance

Custom

feature, stucco exterior

Tattoo

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

13. TD Bank

100 St and

1961

Dominion Construction

International

early 2-colour curtain

Jasper

wall, facade screen as sun control, large expanses of marble

14. Paramount

10233 Jasper

Theatre

1952

Stanley and Stanley

1986 interior renovation

International

horizontal projecting roof continuous louvres at top as counterpoint to solid bottom, horizontal and vertical signs, asymmetrical balanced composition, exposed marble columns, angled, canopy, hint of zigzag design, exposed ladder for vertical sign.

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

15. Royal

105 St and

Bank

Jasper Ave

date

architect

influences

features

International

typical composition of vertical and horizontal massing elements, yellow brick in various patterns, which has

been

painted

recently

16. CIBC Bank

108 St and

Modern

symmetrical

Jasper

Classicism

composition, large glass elements, fluted recessed cornice along the roof line

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

17. General

111 St

1953

G.H. MacDonald

International

Art Deco Style

Hospital

112 St, Jasper Ave

1958

G.H. MacDonald

decoration- friezes and

1965

Bell McCullough etc.

cornice

1980

Memorial wing

18. Minit Car

Jasper at 116 St

Wash Sign

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

American

large neon sign typical of the Las Vegas style

Page108


THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

PAGE CLEANING AT 96 ST AND JASPER AVE 19. Page Cleaning

features

PAGE CLEANING AT 118 ST AND JASPER AVE Late

Outlets

influences

exaggerated International,

structure, field

Expressionistic

stone finishes, large expanses of glass, typifies design trends in the 1960’s

20. Walk-up

119-121 St

Apartments

c.1951

International,

very typical in

Moderne

Edmonton, large roof overhangs, stucco, vertical entrance feature, Carrara Glass landscaped courtyards, side entrances

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

21. Beth Shalom 11916 Jasper Synagogue

date

architect

influences

features

1955

Robert Bouey

International,

horizontal roof-

Prairie Style

edge cornice with vertical entrance features, terraced massing at the entrance, bordered windows

BRISTOL TOWERS

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

10020 121 St

1962

John A. MacDonald

International,

expressed structure -

High-rise Style

columns and slabs, brick

JASPER HOUSE 22. Bristol Towers and

12021 Jasper

Jasper House

infill panels, expressive entrances and canopies, yellow brick, interesting art pieces on both, first of their type

23. Willmore

10130 121 St

Apartments

c.1960

International

typical stucco with brick corners, wood windows, side entrance, large roof overhang, simple lines

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

W.G. Blakey

Moderne

“streamline” features,

FORMERLY ST.JOHN’S SEPARATE SCHOOL 24. Edmonton

10231 120 St

1939

Academy

R.P. Blakey

horiz. windows on the 1954 addition front, glass block infill panels in rear windows, stucco finishes

25. Beth Israel

10205 119 St

Synagogue

1953

P. Campbell-Hope

International,

terraced massing

Prairie Style,

at entrance,

Modern

fluted panels between bordered windows

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

architect

influences

features

10210 117 St

1911

George Turner

Classical,

3 periods of building

School

1928

Second Building

International

styles,

Complex

1947

Addition

east addition is strongly

1957

Gym

International with

OLIVER SCHOOL 26. Oliver

horizontal features, little regard for the original

THE ELLIS BUILDING

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

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THE PRACTICE OF POST-WAR ARCHITECTURE IN EDMONTON, ALBERTA

AN OVERVIEW OF THE MODERN MOVEMENT, 1936-1960

Building

address

date

27. Ellis

10123 112 St

c.1951

Building

architect

influences

features

Bauhaus,

yellow brick, framed

International

wrap-around, steelframed, industrial windows, strong horizontals, vertical elements at entrance, a very good example of the style

FEDORI TINGLEY MURRAY

Page114

Profile for David Murray Architect

The Practice of Postwar Architecture in Edmonton, Alberta  

This essay provides a comprehensive overview of the Modern Architectural Movement in Edmonton, 1936 to 1960

The Practice of Postwar Architecture in Edmonton, Alberta  

This essay provides a comprehensive overview of the Modern Architectural Movement in Edmonton, 1936 to 1960

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