OPPONENTS OR OPPORTUNISTS? YES. Architectural Innovation as Result of Overlapping Gray Areas
Arch 4270 – Arch’l Theory Professor Ole Fischer Spring 2013
OPPONENTS OR OPPORTUNISTS? YES. Architectural Innovation as Result of Overlapping Gray Areas
Introduction: Optimism and Opportunity Not Opponents but Opportunists
The Sweet Spot The BIG Picture
Yes Is More! Re-Evolution
Hedonistic Sustainability & Ecolomy Case Study â€“ Mountain Dwellings
Conclusion Works Cited
OPPONENTS OR OPPORTUNISTS? YES. Architectural Innovation as Result of Overlapping Gray Areas Introduction: Optimism and Opportunity By definition, the word opportunistic has negative connotations, referring to the seizing of circumstance with disregard to principle or ethics . For the sake of architectural discourse, I would like to limit the use of the term to exploit the active agency this word implies as it pertains to architecture. Idealistic in their architectural theories, Otto Wagner August Schmarsow, and Gottfried Semper often took opposing stances further segmenting and compartmentalizing architecture into black and white; in reality, true Architecture breathes new life in the overlapping shadows of the 1000 shades of gray. It takes on character as a unique cross generation of ideals. Architectural innovation is opportunistic. It must be, and it lies within the opportunities presented by those 1000 shades of gray. It capitalizes on the precise moments when ideas merge, even if accidentally. Architecture seeks opportunistic overlaps between form, space, program, material, and budget. The modern skyscraper rises as tangible evidence of overlapping opportunity. It is a product of the Industrial Revolution when engineers experimented with iron and steel structures, electricity, air conditioning, and the elevator . The future of the architectural 1
profession demands opportunistic outlook. Figure 1 - modern skyscraper product of overlap During the Great Recession of 2008 in the United States, many prominent architecture firms sent faithful employees packing battling the blackhole of the financial market. Many did not survive. Many are still recovering. But one young man, an opportunist, became a hero that instilled hope in a grim market: Bjarke Ingels. In his monograph â€œYes Is More!: an archicomic on architectural evolutionâ€?, Ingels spells out to the rest of the architectural profession how he achieved seemingly unmeasured success and maintained his optimism in such a despondent period. His philosophy: Yes is more! A closer look at Bjarke Ingels Group (BIG) and the Mountain Dwellings in Copenhagen, Denmark will illustrate how there is opportunity in simply saying, Yes! 3
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Not Opponents but Opportunists Wagner, Semper, and Schmarsow indirectly influenced architectural theory and philosophy in the United States as it looked back to Europe in search of its stylistic self-identity during the 19 and 20 centuries. Despite the distance between Germany/Austria and the U.S., these men shaped the way we design, build, inhabit, and experience the built environment. Each established an archetypal philosophy, which they would defend through writing and practice: Wagner – construction , Semper – style , and Schmarsow – space . For the sake of this paper, I do not want to digress on their respective theories too deeply, rather understand the relationship between them. Their intentions simply sought to formulate the next true form of art and architecture – focusing on the latter as it is the “highest of the arts”. These men were not opponents but opportunists. They were not rivals but risk takers exposing architectural theory and opinion – all of which are not too dissimilar. Their central theme: architecture is canvas through which space is made. th
Figure 2 – divergent paths to a convergent goal: a better architecture
Their goals were not divergent; rather, their divergent approaches sought a convergent end. Each saw a different path of opportunity but collectively laid the foundation for the Bauhaus and eventually the International Style. These philosophical designers are much more alike with a lot of overlapping ideas and gray areas than they would probably admit. They fought toward an opportunistic architecture – perhaps retroactive, fragmented, and incomplete, their ideas offer mishaps and overlaps that serve to promote a productive architectural practice.
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The Sweet Spot
Figure 3 - the sweet spot creating opportunity for architectural innovation
I am convinced that Semper, Schmarsow and Wagner would have made an incredible team of architects, together! Just imagine their practice: “SSW & Associates”. While maybe appropriate for their time, they represent an antiquated approach to architectural design. The opposing ideas they each represented only compartmentalized them to a specific sector of architecture – speaking generally in both word and works. Their divergent approaches eliminated the opportunity for any coincidence or overlap from which to benefit. But imagine the potential if they could have settled their differences working in unison. Rich architecture capitalizes on slippage and overlap; but, these men simply segmented themselves into a limited design field. In the above illustration, the progression of the Venn diagram shows how their doctrines at first appear as a simple figure ground relationship (black and white) but then becomes blurred with intersecting ideals. The coincidence provides ample gray space: construction/space, space/style, style/construction. However, dead center, where construction, space, and style concurrently and simultaneously flirt, lays the “sweet spot” of optimum architectural opportunity. It is in the “sweet spot” where the contemporary notion of “mixed-use” was discovered. Someone simply said, “yes” to this and “yes” to that. Program hybridization simply reflects of our actual mixed-use society. Achieving the right balance requires rigorous thought and analysis. The process is simply an experimentation of architectural ingredients. Opportunity means asking questions. What is the biggest problem? What is the biggest potential? The answers to those questions inform design. It is possible to orchestrate equilibrium between construction, space, and style? Semper, Schmarsow and Wagner did not push the opportunity far enough to realize the potential of their endeavors. What was then only contrasts with what is now. Contemporary approached to design however are recognizing potentials opportunities for overlap and focusing on the gray areas as a specific design approach.
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The BIG Picture In order to find that one perfect shade of gray opportunity, one has to step back to identify the other 999 that simply do not quite work this time around. Ingels is an architectural genius for no other reason than he sees the world differently, even optimistically. He see the bigger picture. “While it may seem odd to call the Copenhagen-originating Bjakre Ingels Group an American practice, make no mistake, it is. The business-minded, nimble-footed, publicity-savvy, and shamelessly optimistic practice continues a long line of uniquely American architects on the make… For the Great American Architects, smaller-scale concerns which preoccupy their overseas cousins such as details, materials, and craft are often simply beside the point. Few in America have the time or money to worry about – not to mention a technical ability to realize – such things. The American Architect is thus left with the big idea, the big picture, the big move… . BIG caught a glimpse of the American Dream and has consequently opened shop in the Big Apple. While one of the youngest architects to ever be considered for a Pritzker Prize, it is not outlandish after digesting his extensively opportunistic body of work. He does not critique the past or the present. He focuses on producing a bigger and better future. He is idealistic. He is optimistic. He is opportunistic. “We believe that today’s environmental problems are not political, economical or even ecological – they are simply a design challenge” . Optimism is the best vantage point, and Ingels has it. He does not seek problems. He seeks solutions. He seeks the sweet spot of opportunity. Architecture is and must be opportunistic to remain creative. It should not have to choose between corporate pragmatism and utopian idealism. It must choose both to survive. Working opportunistically, BIG undertakes an intentionally wide range of projects, from small installations to speculative propositions and larger urban influences - independent of size, program, or cost. 7
! Figure 4 - BIG projects arranged programmatically.
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Architecture is a service. Architects are service providers. At times the profession needs to take a step back to refocus and realize that is it in the business of service providers. Bjarke Ingels more than anyone on the forefront of architecture not only understands this reality but also embraces it as a celebratory approach to design. That approach is his BIG picture. The concept of architectural program surfaces from attempting to meet the needs of a client. It is an analysis – a study for the best-fit or best accommodation for the assessed circumstance. Semper, Schmarsow and Wagner most likely would have approached programmatic design as a scientific method for calculating and assigning square and cubic footages to a building. Bjarke Ingels however seeks to mix and match and change things up. He doesn’t get caught up in the little details so much as try to please the clients’ big picture as well. His approach does not negate square footage requirements, it simply sees them malleable raw materials rather than defined results. Ingels simply seeks to please and tries to remain flexible and open to the client in a way few others have been able to achieve. Yes Is More! Ingels shows by word and deed how untapped innovation only comes through experimentation. Opportunity lies within the parameters set by a design problem – even if they are broken later. Design challenges us to do what has never been done before. As for BIG, their buildings look different because they perform differently. BIG exploits the grayest of gray areas, which for far too long has been no-man’s-land. In his monograph – he embraces the necessary crossbreeding of disciplines to communicate bigger architectural ideas. Traditional architectural publications dedicate a space for the visual and a space for the text. Ingels does not choose text over visual. He says yes to both by presenting his manifesto and approach in comic form. It is reEvolutionary. Applying reverse logic, BIG treads the highly Figure 5 - BIG: Yes if More monograph marketable middle ground – or the gray space. BIG is able to do so because they choose the path of least resistance – it is also the path of most resistance. Simply saying yes to everything may seem like the easy way out, but in fact it may only make the process more difficult. They embrace all resistance. They say, “yes.” In a sense, BIG has simply freed their hands of the constraint of limited resistance. What could be more opportunistic than that? “Rather than whining about resistance, obstacles or failure, we say yes to reality, the city,
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life when we bump into it. And we get so much more in return. YES is More!” . “Less is more.” “Less is a bore.” “I’m a whore.” “…,more and more, more is more…” . “Yes we can!” “Yes is More”. BIG seeks architectural evolution through the both/and method. He does not choose either/or. He says Yes! to both. Ingels proclaims both/and as an opportunistic approach to design deluge. A “why not?” approach. “The work an architect gets to realize in his/her career is the result of random opportunities and chance. Architects can hardly plan their career, or decide what they want to do, or where. We have to respond to accidental challenges through opportunistic improvisation, mutation and migration of ideas. And often the story we tells a product of postrationalization of hindsight” . Ingels’ unruly approach to client interaction takes pleasing to the next level. He says yes to everything. BIG is able to hit the “sweet spot” of architecture more frequently because they aim for it more frequently. He has the mentality, “Let’s take it and run with it!”. He declares his approach to be middle ground – the third option. Consider the firms bio: 9
“Bjarke Ingels Group - BIG - is a Copenhagen based group of 50 architects, designers, builders and thinkers operating within the fields of architecture, urbanism, research and development. Historically the field of architecture has been dominated by 2 opposing extremes. On one side an avant-garde full of crazy ideas. Originating from philosophy, mysticism or a fascination of the formal potential of computer visualizations they are often so detached from reality that they fail to become something other than eccentric curiosities. On the other side there are well organized corporate consultants that build predictable and boring boxes of high standard. Architecture seems to be entrenched in two equally unfertile fronts: Either naively utopian or petrifying pragmatic. We believe that there is a third way wedged in the no mans land between the diametrical opposites. Or in the small but very fertile overlap between the two. A pragmatic utopian architecture that takes on the creation of socially, economically and environmentally perfect places as a practical objective. In our projects we test the effects of scale and the balance of programmatic mixtures on the social, economical and ecological outcome. Like a form of programmatic alchemy we create architecture by mixing conventional ingredients such as living, leisure, working, parking and shopping. Each building site is a testbed for its own pragmatic utopian experiment. At BIG we are devoted to investing in the overlap between radical and reality. Choosing between them you condemn yourself to frustrated martyrdom or apathic affirmation. By hitting the fertile overlap, we architects once again find the freedom to change the surface of our planet, to better fit the way we want to live. In all our actions we try to move the focus from the little details to the BIG picture. (italics added for emphasis.) 17
Once upon a time there were two ways to approach architecture. Now, there is a new way to approach architecture. Ingels has practically wedged a new pedagogy of architecture where for so long there were only two. Ingels refuses to accept the naïve utopia and the petrifying pragmatism. He says no by saying yes to both. His paradoxical approach actual makes sense. If neither fit your needs, make one that does. BIG has revolutionized modern practice simply for not accepting the norm. They defy the norm. BIG is innovative, surprising, trailblazing, radical, unruly, and irreverent. They are revolutionary. BIG embraces what others avoid. They explore what others abandon. They say Yes! when others say no.
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While the VM House was under construction, BIG realized that the material palette was going to fall flat and create a very uninteresting entrance. Inspired to create wall art by the main entrance, Ingels sought more money from the investors, but was quickly shot down. Thinking opportunistically, Ingels reapproached the investors. This time, he pitched them the idea that per modernist tradition architects often pay tribute to their clients with a portrait. Since their canvas was
Figure 6. - VM Houses, BIG. Denmark
much larger, BIG proposed using 10x10 cm ceramic bathroom tiles in 10 standard colors to create “thumbnail resolution portraits” of the clients’ faces. They would become the artwork. Suddenly there was money in the budget for the artwork. “With this idea we literally turned ass-kissing into an artform” . Ingels found the sweet spot a.k.a jack pot! There is no hiding his positive opportunistic agenda. He has revolutionized 18
the future of the architectural profession. Then again, that is exactly what he seeks: evolution.
Figure 7 - VM Houses, BIG. Denmark
Re-Evolution BIG time and again has managed to truly redefine building typologies pushing architectural engineering just one more step forward. The iconic forms are born from true originality, an originality that is a byproduct of performance and program, not solely driven by aesthetic quality. Ingels is not naively optimistic; He is optimistically naive. While others firms mumbled during the Great Recession, BIG shifted the perspective back into a positive light. One professional looking back comments: “There was a time when we truly needed you; when the bottom fell out, when our hopes and dreams turned into fears that the things we loved in architecture were gone forever. We were expected to fall into watered-down careers of sacrifice and conservative goals. Expecting to spend a life with little opportunity for inspiration. But you arose as an unlikely hero to lead us through the tough times. You showed us a way not through conservatism and sacrifice but through a reassurance that dynamic outcomes were still possible. We needed you then, sir, to know that our profession was not dead.” . Setting aside personal preconditions, Ingels allowed architecture to evolve almost naturally – as a series of responses to the natural environment. BIG’s evolution as a firm simply followed that of their 19
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products. As BIG revolutionizes the approach to the architectural profession, the evolution of the resultant building forms emerges. Technology is rapidly advancing and opening many doors for architectural applications, materials, and construction methods, but the evolution of architecture really has not had a significant impact on the evolution of building types. However, BIG has begun to debunk traditional ways to look at buildings and their drastic evolution in their short time as a firm. Alluding to Charles Darwin, Ingels shares his opportunistic thoughts on architectural evolution: “We…architects don’t have to remain misunderstood geniuses, frustrated by the lack of understanding, appreciation or funding. We won’t even be the creators of architecture but rather the midwives of the continuous birth of architectural species shaped by the countless criteria of multiple interests. The whole world insists on conflict. The media craves conflict, and the politicians craving media presence need to engage in the conflict to get there. Currently, the biggest conflict in Danish politics is that the social democrats and the liberals (left and right) promote identical political programs which in any other context would be the very definition of harmony! In politics, it’s the opposite. What if design could be the opposite of politics? Not by ignoring conflict, but by feeding form it. A way to incorporate and integrate differences, not through compromise or by choosing sides, but by tying conflicting interests into a Gordian knot of ideas,” 20
Figure 8 – Yes is More – Bjarke Ingels manifesto on architectural evolution.
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Evolution! Political opposition therefore hinders architectural opportunity. The modern evolution of buildings does not need another subtle attempt to push the envelope. The modern evolution begs for long strides toward, bold moves and innovative resolutions. Although BIG’s famous diagrams and simplistic presentations concisely sum up the essence of their projects, they do not deny the time and architectural waster poured into the design process. “We are interested in how things actually evolve through accidents and misunderstandings” . The fearless approach to design knows no boundaries. The Five Pillars of Bawadi proposal for Dubai literally turned desert design on its head. While anciently and modernly 21
others build pyramids and glass towers in the middle of the desert, BIG runs from those traditions in search of more sustainable and more viable solutions. The Bawadi project essentially takes inverts a pyramid, shades the glass facades from the harsh desert sun, and still provides ample space to create communal oasis beneath. BIG invents new typologies for a large program in the desert. BIG’s studio really functions as more of a design laboratory stumbling upon new ideas. The Escher Tower too puts a twist on design, literally. A simple, bold move shows how logic can also be aesthetic. The traditional tower is thinned out allowing the environment to optimize the interior and to minimize mechanical loads. Then a simple 90degree twist maximizes the foothold of the building where wind load is needed most, and minimizes wind load where the foothold is
Figure 9 – The Five Pillars of Bawadi
Figure 10 - Escher Tower
weakest. The iconic forms are truly born from originality. The nearly completed 57th Street project in New York City is another great Figure 11 - West 57th Street
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example of how responsive forms create new typologies. “He has designed an utterly unexpected form, neither tower nor slab nor even quite a pyramid, but a gracefully asymmetrical peak with a landscaped bower in its hollowed core. It looks wild, but it’s born of logic; true originality is the inevitable endpoint of rigorous thought…In New York’s unsentimental real-estate climate, he has found fresh support for his belief that making the client happy is the ultimate creative challenge” . 22
Hedonistic Sustainability & Ecolomy BIG’s addictively energetic and optimistic character runs much deeper than his famous presentations, or even how he presents himself. It runs much deeper to the core of his dogma as a designer. And he keeps it simple. Ingels simply has fun. But he also believes in living sustainably. Ingels says, Yes! to both. “What if ecology wasn’t about regression – but about progression? What is sustainable living wasn’t about changing your lifestyle and turning off the lights, turning down the heat and slowing down? What is we didn’t have to adapt our lifestyle to sustainability, but adjusted our sustainable designs to the way we want to live? Instead of trying to change people, we could change the world. We need a new manifesto for Hedonistic Sustainability!” . As previously mentioned, opportunity begins by asking the right questions, but Ingels doesn’t stop there. He goes out in search of design solutions. That is his sweet spot, his sweet spot, his Hedonistic Sustainability. Ingels wants to discard the false protestant notion that it must hurt to do good. So, we can live a high quality life, live sustainably, and still have fun? Yes. Yes. Yes. 23
cake : eat :: sustainability : enjoy Hedonistic Sustainability is a game changer. As previously mentioned, BIG’s buildings look different because they perform different. They perform differently because BIG approaches performance differently. “Economy and ecology need to merge into ecolomy!” . Ingels would have us all treat sustainability as investment rather than expense. “Le Corbusier designed buildings like machines for living, and it triggered a whole new and liberating aesthetic: An Espirit Nouveau! Ecolomical design teaches us to design buildings like ecosystems for living, orchestrating the flow of water, heat and energy, financial and human resources through the building.” . In essence BIG truly believes we can design our way out of the ecolomical problem. We once built architecture without architects. That is how we have arrived at a sustainability crisis. But it is time to engineer buildings without engines. We can therefore design opportunistic architecture using technology to eliminate the machine. The ideal of ecolomy is the same reason why BIG produces countless study models and countless diagrams. The architectural design process is a violent and messy process. Ingels expounds, “Resource Consciousness is for the real world. In the design studio, the more garbage you produce in the design process, the less garbage you end up building.” . 24
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Case Study – The Mountain Dwellings Orestad is Copenhagen’s newest hot spot of dynamic urban development. Many cutting edge investors have developed an affinity for the spirit of the place. The political vision for Orestad was to create an integrated city truly embodying mixed-use – where living and working, public and commercial, would be mixed freely. BIG sought to escape the restraints of the urban plan and the city block. He wanted to try Figure 12 - VM Houses and Mountain Dwellings adjacency something new, and so he did with the highly awarded VM Houses of 2005 where he currently owns an apartment Ingels . “I wanted to find a way to escape the straightjacket of a courtyard incarcerated by a all of program, where every program regardless of scale or activity would be wedged into the same mould.” . The Mountain Dwellings was a commissioned regained through a previously opportunistic agenda. The client liked BIG’s approach and product and went for version 2.0. It is the second generation of the VM Houses – same client, same size, same street. Although the conditions were nearly identical to the VM House, BIG exploited the few differences to create the VM Houses’ evil twin. They started from scratch on new charting design territory. As the developer explained his needs, BIG stood by listening eagerly to hear for opportunities of overlap and opportunity to concoct traditional architectural ingredients into a masterpiece. “I want two separate buildings: a 10,000 sq. meter condominium next to a 20,000 sq. meter parking structure” . BIG’s approach is never typical. Rather that throwing up a standard apartment building next to a concrete parking structure, they decided to stack the two programs. They did so in such a way that the sloped parking structure creates a semi-pyramidal form that serves as a platform for which the housing is dispersed spread atop. It is genius. It had never been done before. By combining the two idealistically polarized programs (1/3 housing 2/3 parking), BIG not only glorifies and celebrates the transportation of the car, they create a typography unique to Copenhagen. They created a mountain! They Figure 13 - Massing Diagram create a vertical suburbia! It is a mountain rising from the flat lands, 27
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hence the name. “Denmark is flat as a pancake. If you want to live on a mountain, you gotta do it yourself!” . By simply saying yes, Ingels takes paradox and turns it into conventional design strategy. It is as if he solves a mystery with each new design. The Mountain Dwellings housing project has it all: large gardens, urban density, and a penthouse view – from each of the 80 apartments! 29
Figure 14 - Mountain Dwellings Elevations - Clockwise from Bottom left: west, north, south, east
Yes is More – from within, without, north, south, east, west. The south façade is dominated by garden spaces and lawn chairs. The north façade opens up to the posh parking structure. An aluminum screen façade wraps around the parking structure helping to block views of the cars, BIG also sought the opportunity to develop the breathable skin into an architectural art piece. The perforated screen was designed with varied perforation sizes that are arranged in a way that the screen creates a rasterized image of the Himalayan mountains. BIG literally captures the bigger picture on the screen. He simply cannot say no. The sloped nature of the parking structure and the pixelated arrangement of housing required a slanted elevator. The slanted elevator in the Mountain Dwellings is the first of its kind in Denmark. It allows access to the houses from underneath. “The Mountainis our first built example of what we like to call architectural alchemy: the idea that by blending normal ingredients in surprising mixtures you can create added value (if not actually gold)” . The form is derived from simple reactions to the environment and program. The simplistic presentation of concept diagrams should not discount the radical strategy of approach. Ingels 30
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Figure 15 - Plans - From top left: ground, third, and roof.
captures the paradox of this philosophical approach even in his diagrams. He reduces complex decision into simplified gestures graphically; but, in reality, he creates complex structures from simplistic diagrams. He seeks opportunity to communicate this same idea through his graphics. His approach makes a design passive act: all architecture has to do is respond to external forces; his simplistic presentation is more of a selective tactical logic. The complexity of a cathedral of car culture and hillside of residences comes off in such a simple manner. Ingels presents the Mountain Dwellings in such a logical rationale, when in reality there is nothing rational about it. Done it once again. He found the sweet spot of opportunity. He caught the vision and realized it. His programmatic symbiosis strikes again! â€œIngels has reinvented a type of architecture that seemed immune to innovation. Using the term â€œHedonistic Sustainability,â€? Ingels argues that there needs to be more to
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Figure 16 - Building Sections
green architecture than energy conservation. Framed primarily as an economic concern it will never participate in the public imagination. “If everybody thinks that sustainable life is less fun than normal life it’s a pretty unattractive position.” . Once again, we have an opportunistic approach to sustainable design the results in a new building type. Even though the project is largely private, as are most of BIG’s commissions, they always tie it back to the community. They seem to give back a portion in generosity to a better way of living. “Danish poet Soren Ulrik Thomsen wrote an essay called ‘Copenhagen the Suburban Neighborhood in Upright Position’ as a criticism of the gentrification and suburbanization of the inner city. The Mountain is a literal embodiment of the unintended potential of that metaphor” . 31
Figure 17 - Mountain Dwellings creating the sense of architectural elevation
Conclusion “BIG’s work indexes a threshold of design practice. The days of working with philosophers are perhaps coming to an end and the esoteric bullshit is evaporating. What remains are designers who are young, passionate and accessible.” The school of thought that Wagner, Semper, and Schmarsow share is gone. Innovation begged for evolution. Evolution only came through revolution. 33
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BIG is that revolution. I want to reiterate that I do not argue aesthetics. Although architectural innovation through the Bjarke Ingels Group is about the product, at the same time it is not. Bjarke Ingels defies the traditional role of architect. His approach is a philosophical paradox. It is all about the approach. I am not arguing if his works are considered good architecture but rather how one man has changed how the world sees architecture. BIG’s opportunistic approach has proven that overlap is opportunity and seizing the gray space of opportunity opens the door to architectural innovation. The possibilities and difficulties of saying Yes always weight out the limitations and regret of saying no. An opportunist never wonders what could have been. He makes what will become. BIG seems to care most about making spectacular buildings that have never been built before. At the present, they seem to excel. Only time will tell how well their simple formal strategies hold up as more buildings are constructed and markets shift. The opportunistic approach to architecture is not about the bi-product – be what it may – it is about the means, the process, and the adventure. BIG has made epic leaps toward reinstating optimism into the profession. BIG has achieved the optimistic approach through both success and failure. Those who try more fail more, but those who try more also succeed more. BIG’s innovative and experimental fingerprints dot the globe as architectural icons. They symbolize much more than program, materials, or budgets. They represent opposing ideologies, revolutions, evolution, communities, professions etc. Most importantly, they represent opportunity. Is Bjarke Ingels an Opponent or Opportunist? I say Yes!
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Diagram: David Polk. Imag: "High Rise." The New Yorker. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 March. 2013. <http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/09/10/120910fa_fact_parker>. Diagram: David Polk. Diagram: David Polk. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. <http://www.big.dk/>. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. <http://www.big.dk/>. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-vm. Ingels, Bjarke. Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Köln: Evergreen, 2010. Print. Pg 75. Ingels, Bjarke. Yes Is More: An Archicomic on Architectural Evolution. Köln: Evergreen, 2010. Print. Pg 14. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013.!http://big.dk/#projects-baw. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-ech. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-w57. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn. Bjarke Ingels Group. 25 April 2013. http://big.dk/#projects-mtn.
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