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Toveri Finnish Spitz

David and Angela Cavill

01225 752 551 angelacavill@btconnect.com

Hannah and Rob Thompson 019334 431 403 hannah2@btinternet.com

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Contents Vaccination, worming and health - Inside front and back covers About the Breed

3

Our contract

10

Diet

13

Socialisation

16

Training

20

Exercise

24

First Aid

28

Worming and health certificates

33

Pedigree

Inside back cover Vaccination, Worming and Health

Inserted in the back pages of this booklet, along with your puppy’s pedigree is your puppy's vaccination certificate, worming and health check documents as carried out by us. Please take this record with you when you take your Puppy to the veterinary surgeon for health check. Your vet will then be able to examine the vaccination and worming protocols and take decisions on future doses depending on his new environment. Our advice is that it is advisable to worm at 12 weeks of age and then again every 3 months.

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Your Finnish Spitz Angela Cavill Finnish Spitz are one of the group of small hunting Spitz breeds and as the name implies was first bred selectively in Finland. In that country, trapped among 60,000 lakes, the Finnish Spitz developed in its own way, as other varieties of the Spitz breeds developed in their particular isolated corners of the Northern Hemisphere. Really A Gun Dog In Finland the breed is called Suomen-pystyykorva - which is something of a mouthful and which actually means 'Finnish prick-eared dog'. This was modified to 'Finsk Spets' when the breed was first introduced to this country, and then later anglicised to 'Finnish Spitz'. Although placed in the Hound Group in Britain, the Finnish Spitz is really a gun dog combining the specialised attributes of Setter, Pointer and Retriever and the Finns have used the Finnish Spitz for centuries for hunting. They are kept as guard dogs too as they can be very vocal if encouraged. Today few Finnish Spitz are seen in the towns but plenty live in villages and isolated hamlets and farms. The working nature of the breed is emphasised by the fact that, like many breeds in Scandinavia, Finnish Spitz may not qualify for the title of Champion without a working or trials certificate. Even clearer evidence is obtained if registrations are examined. Finnish Spitz are used primarily to hunt a large game-bird called the capercaillie, the numbers of which fluctuate over a period of years, so sometimes there are fewer available for hunting: during these lean years the number of registrations of Finnish Spitz drops quite sharply. Follow Until the Bird Settles The nature of the hunt with Finnish Spitz is distinctive. The dog is trained to range ahead of the hunter until it finds its quarry, which it will follow until the bird settles in a tree. The dog then attracts the bird's attention by running backwards and forwards, swaying its tail. The bird is lulled into a false sense of security by the movements of the dog which then begins to draw the hunter's attention by barking, softly at first, but gradually getting louder, until it is a clear, ringing tone which carries an enormous distance. The hunter approaches, any sound being drowned by the noise of the dog, until he is in a position to take an accurate shot at the bird. Should the bird move off before the hunter is in position, the dog will stop barking and begin to track

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again until the bird settles. The method is similar to that used with the Elkhound and several similar Spitz breeds. In fact there are official barking competitions held in Scandinavia for the King of the Barkers. Finnish Spitz have not only been used for hunting birds; they have also tackled elk and even bears - remarkable feats for dogs of this size. Diluted With Blood From Other Breeds As transport improved and people and dogs were able to move from one place to another more easily, the original Finnish Spitz type began to be diluted with blood from other breeds, simply because there was no one who saw any reason to prevent misalliances. By 1880 they were practically extinct, but two Finnish foresters - Hugo Sandberg and Hugo Roos - realised the seriousness of the position and set about saving the breed. In 1890 - Hugo Sandberg wrote an article in a magazine called Sporten which drew attention to the particular and practical qualities of the Finnish Spitz as a hunting dog. He wrote a carefully worded description on which the Breed Standard was eventually based, and urged the Finnish Kennel Club to take steps to preserve and encourage the national breed. In 1892 the Finnish Kennel Club accepted the Suomenpystykorva for registration. Hugo Roos actively bred for thirty years and showed and judged for longer than that. He was largely responsible for gathering together the foundation dogs. He pioneered the breed until the 1920's. Finnish Spitz are now very well established in Finland so that nearly 2,000 are registered annually with the Finnish Kennel Club compared with a total of 637 between 1890 and 1930. In 1920 Sir Edward Chichester visited Finland on a shooting and hunting expedition and was so attracted by the breed that he imported a brace to England followed later by an unrelated stud dog. I understand that there may have been one or two brought to Britain prior to this date but, as far as I am aware, they were neither shown nor bred from. Enthusiastic Supporter Lady Kitty Ritson, of the Tulchan affix, had also seen the breed in its homeland and was already enthusiastic. With Mrs de la Poer Page 4


Beresford (Whiteway), Lionel Taylor (Hello), Mrs & Miss Pink, later to become Mrs Pips (Sarumcote), and Mrs Moulton (Boydon), she organised the Finnish Spitz Club which was first registered with the Kennel Club in 1934 and also imported a number of dogs. Incidentally, the aforementioned Lionel Taylor was the father of Mrs June Minns who still judges the breed and exhibited them until recently. Sir Edward himself was an enthusiastic supporter of the breed although circumstances did not allow him to become as deeply involved as he would have liked. The dogs imported during the first few years established the breed, but the Second World War proved disastrous. The quality of the dogs shown in 1946 and 1947 was very poor but with the importation of Mountjay Peter (later owned by Dorothy Rose of the Wildings affix) and Kiho Seivi by William Blackden (Mountjay), and the Swedish Friedstahills Saila by Miss Matthews (Timberland) and Dorothy Rose, the breed improved dramatically. They were followed in 1959 by Tophunter Tommi and Tophunter Turre, imported by Shirley Simons and which were born in quarantine and later owned by Mrs Price, and Kiho Tipsa who was imported by Mrs Price. With Una of Snowland (bred by Mrs A Westcott, by Friedstahill Saila out of Kingmak Japonica and later owned by Mrs Price), Tommi and Turre appeared in almost every pedigree of our top winning dogs until the early 1970's. In recent years the bitch with the greatest influence has been the imported Ch Irheilu Penan Pipsa of Toveri who, during the last few years, has been in the pedigree of virtually every C.C. winning Finnish Spitz and is now established as the top brood bitch in the breed for all time. Very Suitable Family Pet The breed as always appealed to a small number of enthusiasts, rather than having wide popular appeal and it is difficult to know why this should be so. Finnish Spitz are smaller than many of the Spitz breeds. They are particularly attractive and make a very suitable family pet. There seems to be a break-even point at which a breed becomes self-sufficient. Once the 250 registrations a year mark has been passed, enough people own the breed to keep it established. However, no doubt breeders will keep trying to break the magic barrier, but it is particularly difficult with this breed as their litters are rather small. The usual number in a litter is three or four, and Page 5


although five and (very rarely) six are sometimes recorded, three is a perfectly respectable litter and many breeders become quite resigned to litters of two. Finnish Spitz are lively, energetic, healthy and independent. They are temperamentally typical of the Spitz breeds in that they love company but do not need it, will do just as you ask until the time is important or necessary that they obey, and they love the sound of their own voices. Barking is a habit which is difficult to break, but it is annoying to both owners and neighbours, so it is very important to establish that it is not tolerated under any circumstances. In Finland working dogs are taught to bark just at the capercaillie, and to ignore any other game, so they can be prevented from making excessive noise, but your Finnish Spitz will take great pains to convince you that his barking is both natural and necessary.

They are an exceptionally clean breed, even for a Spitz, and it is delightful to watch them washing themselves, and each other, until their coats shine after meals and walks. They need remarkably little grooming except when they are moulting, and a good brush each week from head to tail (paying particular attention to combing out trouser, ruff and tail) is ample. The hair, when the coat does drop, is not sticky and will brush or vacuum up very easily, but regular daily combing during moulting is the most sensible answer. As with all dogs, and coated breeds in particular, never allow them to remain wet for any length of time and use a hair dryer after rubbing down if necessary. This is very important as Finnish Spitz like to be out of doors in all weathers and like nothing better than to lie in the snow or in a cold wind. They love the fire in the evenings of course, but are certainly not lap dogs. They are very inquisitive and exceptionally independent as puppies, and can get into all sorts of scrapes if the garden is not safely fenced. The Finnish Spitz coat is typical of the Spitz breeds, the outer coat being of coarse, long hairs, over the dense woolly undercoat. It is longer on the tail, on the thighs and around the neck where it forms a ruff. The outer coat should stand off half erect and be quite straight. The colour must be red (anything from a near gold to dark chestnut), the important quality being its clarity. There must be no trace of 'muddiness' or dullness in the coat, which should be bright and really sparkle in the sun. The undercoat is always lighter in colour than the top coat and can be as light as a deep cream colour, but never actually white. Puppies Page 6


and young adults often have black-tipped hairs which usually disappear as the dog gets older. The coat should not really give the impression of a solid colour; it should be shaded and without clearly defined colour changes. The cheek, underpart, tail, thigh and shoulder shading can be lighter in colour - almost as light as the undercoat, but there should be very little white. A narrow strip up to 2 centimetres wide is allowable on the chest and white tips are acceptable - but not admired - on the feet. It is very difficult to tell the final depth of colour from the puppies. They are born dark grey, grey or fawn, with a good deal of black and, apart from any white markings, colour cannot really be assessed until about four months of age. Even then the colour can change during the dog's life. Alert and Courageous The first full, or puppy, coat is sometimes rather long and distorts the true outline of the dog, making it appear too low to the ground. Future coats may be a little lighter or darker. By the second coat, the colour has usually stabilised and at this stage there should be very few black-tipped hairs and no patches of black hair. Eyes should be dark brown, and noses and lips jet black. The breed is sometimes affectionately known as 'piki nokka' in Finland - this meaning 'pitch-black nose'. An essential characteristic of the Finnish Spitz is liveliness. They should be alert and courageous but this is tempered with caution. The whole attitude of the dog should of eagerness and curiosity and a Finnish Spitz which is unhappy, sick or frightened is a sorry sight. They are exceptionally intelligent, learn very quickly but get bored if they are required to do the same thing over and over again. For this reason Finnish Spitz have little potential as obedience dogs and, although it is possible to train them at the lower levels, it is very hard work and there is little reward. The outline of the breed is square, although bitches are forgiven if they are slightly long, and the dog should have plenty of air space beneath the body consistent with a deep chest. Dogs are often seen with the chest taking up half or even more of the distance from the shoulder to the ground, and this is quite wrong. The correct proportion is 4:9 in a dog that is of the correct overall conformation. The height at the shoulder is seventeen and a half to nineteen and three quarter inches for dogs and fifteen and a Page 7


half to eighteen inches for a bitch. In Finland dogs outside the limits are heavily penalised, but in Britain we tend to be more concerned that the proportions and balance are correct, even if the dog is slightly over or under size. The neck is shorter than in some of the other Spitz breeds because Finnish Spitz are used to point upwards when they are working and for the same reasons the shoulders and hocks are comparatively straight. They should be light on their round, cat-like feet and have strong, straight legs. The tail has been called the 'Crown of the Finnish Spitz'. It should curl forward immediately from the root, and continue in a tight curve until the tail turns and lies along the thigh with the tip pointing to the back. The tail should not hang straight down, neither should it curve so much that it becomes a full circle. Occasionally a corkscrew-tail, like that of a Norwegian Buhund, is seen but this is not considered acceptable in Finnish Spitz. A short tail or one which is not set high enough never looks comfortable. The expression of a Finnish Spitz is most important. Sometimes the darker markings on the muzzle and forehead give the impression of a decided scowl and, although I do not find it attractive, this is not really a fault. Most dogs have a considerable range of expressions. When relaxed they can look most gentle and kind, and when alert their intelligence and eagerness are plain to see. They can also clearly indicate disgust, greed, pleasure, boredom and long-suffering patience. Their almond eyes which should be set slanting slightly upwards from the inner corner to the outer, should be dark or hazel brown. Occasionally yellow eyes are seen, even in Finland and these do not look at all attractive. The head should be a typical Spitz wedge-shape with a pronounced stop and the mouth should have a scissor bite. Ears should be small, very mobile, triangular and pointed. It is important that dogs can be distinguished from bitches at a distance and equally the dog's head should be essentially masculine; the bitch's obviously feminine. How the Spitz breeds manage to express their gender so clearly has always puzzled me, but there is no doubt that the most typical examples of each breed reall y do behave and look of their sex. This is especially true of Finnish Spitz and is part of their appeal for me. Finnish Spitz are superb house dogs and guards. They are excellent with children and marvellous pets and companions. They are small enough to fit comfortably into a modern house Page 8


but have the personality, character and temperament of a large dog. However, they must be gently but firmly handled during puppy hood as their ability to take over a household is quite unsurpassed. We would encourage you to show your Finnish Spitz. Showing is fun and you get to meet other owners and share experiences. Do contact Angela or Hannah for information of coming shows. They will always be pleased to help Copies of The Finnish Spitz Breed Standard Explained by Antti Aarnio, Chairman of the Finnish Spitz Club in Finland, and translated into English by Angela are available AT £6. Angela’s book about the breed – 300pp in full colour is also available at £35 + P&P. Detail from Angela at angelacavill@btconnect.com

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Our Contract This is an important document. You should not buy the Puppy and sign this Contract unless you intend to be bound by its’ terms. This agreement is dated: _______________ Between: David and Angela Cavill and Hannah and Rob Thompson (The Breeders - Referred to in this document as me, my, I, we or our.) And (The Purchaser/s) _____________________________________ Address ________________________________________________ Telephone _____________________________ (Referred to in this document as you, your, yours) Particulars of the Finnish Spitz Puppy: Name: _________________________ Sex: ___________________________ Microchip ____________________ Microchip Database _____________ Date of Birth__________________ Price £ Your puppy has had a health check by our veterinary surgeon and we believe the Puppy to be in good health, but give no warranty to its health. 1. You are advised to take the Puppy to your Veterinary Surgeon for a general health check within four days of the purchase date. The check and any associated tests, examination or certificates, will be at your expense as you hereby acknowledge. 2. If the Veterinary Surgeon finds any problem which in his opinion renders the Puppy unfit for sale, you may return the Puppy for a full

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refund of the purchase price provided that: 2.1 You specifically confirm that I will not be held responsible for any ‘distress’ caused by the return of the Puppy. 2.2 You are solely liable for any costs associated with the return of the Puppy to me. 2.3 The Puppy is returned within 5 days of the veterinary check, in the same state of health in which it was sold. 2.4 You provide a written statement from your vet setting out the specific problem. We reserve the right to approach an alternative veterinary surgeon for a second opinion should there be any dispute 3. You guarantee that the Puppy will not be transferred to a third party under any circumstances without our express permission in writing. If this clause is breached, and I am forced to locate the Puppy, you acknowledge that you will be liable for the costs of recovery, including overseas recovery if the Puppy is found to be exported, whether or not you knew the Puppy was exported. 4. You guarantee that your fencing is sufficient to keep an active Finnish Spitz within your grounds and that this Puppy will not be kept permanently in a kennel or cage, or tied up and will not be regularly left unattended for long periods. 5. You confirm that you will properly house, feed, water and exercise this dog and will arrange for appropriate veterinary attention if and when required. Nor allow it to roam at large or to cause a nuisance to neighbours or those carrying out official duties. When off your own premises you will ensure that the dog wears a property tagged collar and shall be kept on a lead or under effective control. 6. You confirm that you will attend training/socialisation classes with this Puppy. 7. You agree to advise me twice a year of the dog’s progress by virtue of phone calls or photographs showing the condition of the dog and will not hesitate to contact me with any problems or questions that you may have concerning the ownership of the dog.

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8. You guarantee that if for any reason you are unwilling to keep the Puppy/ Dog at any time, I will be given the first opportunity of rehoming. 9. You will inform me of any and all changes of address and/or telephone numbers during the ownership of the dog. 10. The Kennel Club Registration Form states that this puppy cannot have an Export Certificate. Should you decide to permanently reside abroad and provide me with proof of this intent this restriction may be lifted at my discretion. 11. The Kennel Club Registration Form states that the progeny from this Finnish Spitz may not be registered. This means that should you breed from this dog you cannot register its offspring. This restriction may be lifted at my discretion.

Signed by (____________) _________________

Dated ______

On behalf of David and Angela Cavill and Hannah and Rob Thompson

Signed by Purchaser_______________________

Dated ______

By signing this contract the Purchaser(s) confirm(s) that they have read and agree to all the terms set out within.

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Diet Sheet * The first night he may not wish to eat or eat only a little. DO NOT PANIC. he has been very unsettled today. * You could try and tempt him by adding a small amount of cooked chicken, minced beef or scrambled egg. * It is important he does not learn to “expect” extras in him food, so he should have at least 2 meals per day of dried on it’s own. * It is not recommended to allow free feeding, especially as a puppy as it is then very difficult to know how much is actually being consumed. * Try not to over-exert him prior to feeding, sleep can sometimes take priority over eating. * Whilst as a breed not prone to bloat, it is still advisable not to exercise him for at least an hour after feeding. * If you are crate training him it is advisable to feed him in him crate, ideally with the door open. * Try and handle the food whilst the bowl is in the crate with him to prevent possession problems. * Try and keep a routine for feeding times whilst still young. This list is certainly not exhaustive but it is some of the tips we ourselves practise. At the moment he is being fed “Royal Canin Puppy (Medium Breed)” of which 4-5 days supply is provided. You may of course wish to eventually change them to a diet as researched by yourselves. During puppy hood it is imperative that a premium diet be fed with a reasonable protein level. (Around the 25% range) When switching a puppies diet it needs to be done gradually over a period of at least a week. He will need to be on 4 meals until approximately 3-4 months of age. At the moment he is fed: breakfast between 7-8 am, Lunch between 11.30 –12.30, Evening between 5-6 and finally Supper at approximately 9 pm. Page 13


The diet is fed dry although very occasionally we will add a small amount of chicken, minced beef or scrambled eggs to improve palatability. (Normally Breakfast and Supper times.) The manufacturer’s guidelines are that he should be consuming around 150—195g a day (divided into 4 meals.) However. I always find it helpful to imagine the size of a puppies stomach when weighing out food. This is obviously increased with growth and it is advisable to check the guidelines on the food label with which you chose to feed. By the age of approximately 4 months he can then be reduced down to 3 meals a day and then between 6-9 months cut down to 2 meals a day. Hannah Thompson

If however you have ANY problems relating to his diet you know I can always be reached by telephone on 01933 413140, mobile 07930 108681 or email hannah2@btinternet.com

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Liver Cake Liver Cake is great for training and is a very cheap and healthy alternative to shop brought/processed treats. Some dogs can find it rich so only use tiny bite size amounts and do not be tempted to use as a food, only as training tid bits. 8ozs Liver 4ozs S/R Flour 2 Eggs 2 Cloves Garlic though I often add more Put all the ingredients into a blender until the mixture is smooth, pink and runny (not too rigid a requirement) Pour to approximately 1 inch thickness into a greased baking tin and place in the oven [Gas Mark 4] for around 30-40 minutes. Leave to cool and cut into bite size pieces It can be frozen into individual bags an defrosted overnight Liver can be substituted for tuna however I have yet to find any of my dogs highly motivated by any type of fish. A search on the Internet will also offer alternative recipes using oats instead of flour and mine particularly like liver cake with some black

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Socialisation Your puppy will have been socialised following (as closely as possible) the principle known as ‘Rule of Sevens’. ‘Rule of Sevens’, requires that in the first seven weeks of your puppies life, he will have been exposed to seven (at least) different experiences, as set out below. Please remember, that you can help your puppy to grow in confidence by careful introduction to further new experiences/people in its new life (car travel, road traffic, sirens/noise, lollipop men/women, police officers, people wearing turbans/hat, people on bikes etc). all experiences should, as soon as possible, be experienced by your puppy with all four of his feet on the floor. An excellent place for puppies to get used to the big wide world is a supermarket car park - lots of bustle, rattling trolleys, and people to stop and say hello! NB: Never leave your puppy or grown dog outside a shop for any length of time - many dogs are stolen in these situations, and it happens so quickly. It is natural for your puppy to be startled by something new, and even to run away but he will soon come back to investigate. Never be tempted to over comfort to your puppy if he is unsure, be confident, and demonstrate that you (as his leader/s) are not frightened, - you can do this by ignoring the ‘scared’ behaviour, and carrying on as before, and when he does come to investigate, lavish lots of praise on him. I have covered as many things as possible, but have had to substitute some. I have also added a few of my own - all of these should stand your pup in good stead for the future. THE RULE OF SEVENS By the time a puppy is 7 weeks old, it should have: 1) BEEN ON 7 different surfaces: Carpet - yes Page 16


Concrete - yes Wood - yes Grass - yes Mud - yes Gravel - yes Newspaper Etc. - yes Tiles - yes 2) PLAYED WITH 7 different types of objects: Big Balls - yes Small Balls - yes Soft Fabric Toys - yes Squeaky Toys - yes Metal Items - yes Paper/Cardboard Items - yes Milk Cartons - yes 3) BEEN IN 7 different locations: Back Garden- yes Kitchen - yes Car - yes Shed - Yes Laundry / utility Room - yes Bathroom - yes Crate - yes 4) BEEN EXPOSED to 7 challenges: Climbed a box - yes Climbed off a box - yes Go through a tunnel - yes Climbed up steps - yes Climbed down steps - yes Climbed over obstacles - yes Played hide & seek - yes Go in & out doorway with a step Etc. - yes 5) EATEN FROM 7 different containers: Metal - yes Plastic - yes Cardboard - yes Paper - yes China - yes

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Pie Plate - yes Frying pan Etc. (old roasting pan) - yes. 7) MET AND PLAYED WITH 7 new people: including children & the elderly & different races-yes

Your puppy has been socialised in a busy household, and has been exposed to lots of noise since birth. Over and above the usual voice sounds (talking shouting laughing etc) your puppy has experienced the following: Clattering pans Clinking china Black sacks and carrier bags (lots of different thickness‘) being shaken out Washing machine with very noisy spin cycle Tumble dryer Boiler clicking on an off F/freezer clicking on and off Kettle Toy that makes a noise which (vaguely) sounds like a baby crying! A toddler crying! Vacuum cleaner Hair dryer All sorts of noisy children’s toys Your puppy has also been well handled by all of the family. He has had his nails clipped on a weekly basis, is used to being gently brushed and is accustomed to having his ears and mouth gently inspected. NB: your puppy will have a sore mouth while he is teething, so please be very gentle, and brief….give him lots of praise when you are finished. Your puppy is used to having older dogs around, and the discipline they mete out when he is pushes his luck! However, please remember when introducing him to new dogs, to start with those you know to be friendly (preferably on neutral territory), and/or at a recommended puppy group, where he can continue to develop

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his manners. An adult dog can and will admonish a display of bad manners by young upstarts, but these are more noise than true aggression try not to be too alarmed ( dogs learn the very best manners from other dogs!), and resist intervening unless you are sure your puppy is in real danger! In any case you should never put your hands in between two dogs, you are likely to get bitten! After all that, do relax and enjoy your dog - remember you are both learning together, even if you have an older dog, or have had dogs in the past, each is an individual, and learn at different rates‌.just like humans. Hannah Thompson

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Bringing your puppy home for the first time is naturally a happy and exciting occasion, but it can be a little daunting too – there is so much for both you and your puppy to learn! The information below should help you on your way to raising a happy and well trained dog right from the start.

Start as you mean to go on. If you are always consistent you will avoid confusing your puppy. Puppies have a very short attention span so train for short spells on a regular basis Keep it short and keep it simple, but most of all keep it fun. Puppies respond better to cheerful voice tones rather than to threatening orders. Gentle play builds trust and a strong bond between you and your puppy as well as making training fun. Patience is the KEY ingredient in dog training. If you try to rush things you will only get frustrated and confuse your puppy. Keep it interesting: cultivate a range of different rewards incorporating play, fuss, praise, treats and toys. This will stop both of you from getting bored.

Toilet training is obviously a crucial part of your puppy’s early learning. Getting it right is relatively simple, and will make those first weeks so much more enjoyable for you both. However, like all things, bad habits learnt early on can lead to problems that may take weeks or even months to resolve. Initially, you will have to build your daily routine around your puppy’s needs. Fortunately, these are quite predictable when they are very young, and with careful supervision you should quickly establish when it is the right time to go outside and minimise any accidents. Like babies, puppies have poor bladder control, and need to go to the toilet several times an hour when they are awake. They will also usually need to be taken outside first thing in the morning, last thing at night, after each meal, waking from a nap, and after any exercise, play or excitement. You may find it useful to keep a record of when your puppy sleeps, eats and goes to the toilet so that you can identify any patterns that emerge. One tip is to use a food timer to remind you Page 20


when it is time to take your puppy outside to relieve itself. If you find that your puppy needs to “go” every 20 minutes then set the alarm as soon as he has gone and take him outside the moment the alarm goes off. Always go with your puppy into the garden and establish a regular spot. Puppies are creatures of habit, so as long as you introduce the garden to the puppy as its toilet area early on, you should be able to avoid most accidents. Decide on a cue word or phrase to use when the puppy is actually going to the toilet, so that the puppy will start to associate the word with the action and should learn to go on command. By accompanying your puppy into the garden each time, you will be there to attach cue words and praise to any successful actions. If toilet training is not going quite as well as planned, some common reasons for why your puppy is struggling are as follows:

You are feeding the puppy too much. The puppy food you are giving is unsuitable or you are giving too much variety for a puppy of their age. You are not feeding at regular times. You are feeding at the wrong times (which could mean your puppy needs to go to the toilet during the night). You are giving foods which are too salty, causing your puppy to drink more.

Punishing your puppy for accidents indoors may make it scared of going to the toilet in front of you – even outside. Expecting your puppy to tell you when it needs to go to the toilet is unrealistic. It is far better to go outside at regular intervals. Leaving the back door or outside access open for your puppy to come and go as it pleases can cause confusion – particularly when that access is closed. Do not leave your puppy too long on its own so that it is forced to go indoors. Leaving your puppy alone in the garden means that you are not there to praise and reward, or to reinforce the idea that the garden is the correct place to go. Try to avoid using the words “good boy/girl” when your puppy is going to the toilet - you don’t want your puppy going to the toilet every time it is praised. Puppies can exhibit submissive or excitable urination when

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greeting you on your return home. Toning down greetings can help prevent your puppy from becoming overexcited. Young puppies will not be able to go through the night without needing to go to the toilet. If they do wake you up, it really is worth getting up to let them out.

Being surrounded by lots of absorbent or grass-like surfaces, such as rugs and carpets, may confuse your puppy. Ammonia based cleaning products used around the house can smell like urine to your puppy, and lead to unwanted accidents. If your puppy does have an accident inside, the scent will still be apparent to the puppy for a long time afterwards, even if you have thoroughly disinfected the area. Specialist cleaning products specifically designed to mask the odour are available. Beyond the garden, many owners can be disappointed that their young puppy does not initially toilet when first venturing out on walks. Often, your puppy will only relieve itself the second you get home. This is because the puppy has not yet associated going out for a walk as an opportunity to go to the toilet, so will wait until they return home to their garden, which they know is a good place to go. To break this habit, get up a little earlier in the morning (when you have plenty of time) and take your puppy out on a walk before it has had a chance to visit its usual spot. Stay out with your puppy for a reasonable length of time until it has been to the toilet, and then give plenty of praise. If you are not successful, make sure the puppy is whisked into the garden to relieve itself or you will run the risk of a large puddle indoors! Remember, patience and consistency is key. All puppies take different amounts of time to learn, so don’t worry if your puppy seems to be taking longer to get the hang of things. Your patience will pay off and you will both get there in the end.

House training aside, every puppy also needs to be taught good manners and have constructive lessons in basic control and social interaction. This includes: Responding to its name. Learning how to greet and behave politely around other people and dogs.

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To To To To

come back when called. walk nicely on the lead. sit down and stay on command. allow itself to be groomed and examined by you and your vet.

Most owners can benefit from attending good training classes, and training in the company of other dogs is very useful, because of the realistic distractions it involves. Ideally, you should start your classes as soon as your puppy’s vaccinations are complete, but classes can be invaluable for older dogs too, and continue throughout the dog’s life. There are lots of schools of thought on dog training and it is naturally important that you find a class and training instructors with the right approach for you and your puppy. Dog training can be lots of fun and very rewarding. After all, a trained dog is a happy dog, and a happy dog makes for a happy owner too.

Before enrolling with a dog training club it can be beneficial to go and visit several classes first (without your puppy) to make sure you have made the right choice. Things you may wish to consider include: Do you like what you see – are the trainers friendly, are people happy and enjoying training their dogs? Are the dogs happily focused on their human family? Are the instructors giving lots of encouragement and information to all attendees? Are the instructors maintaining a controlled, safe environment for all? Are instructors treating everyone fairly and meeting the needs of the whole group? You can find training classes by using the Kennel Club’s Find a Club service – visit www.findaclub.org.uk to find a club near you running training classes, or call the Kennel Club on 01269 318540. You can also ask your vet and other dog owners for recommendations.

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An important part of a dog’s life is exercise, not only for fitness, but also for mental stimulation. Indeed exercise times and feeding times are often the most exciting parts of a dog’s day, and your puppy will grow to keenly anticipate them.

Puppies need much less exercise than fully-grown dogs. If you over-exercise a growing puppy, you can quickly overtire it, and more importantly damage its developing joints, which may cause early arthritis. A good rule of thumb is a ratio of five minutes exercise per month of age (up to twice a day), until the puppy is fully grown, i.e. 15 minutes when three months old, 20 minutes when four months old etc. Below you will find breed-specific exercise information relating to your puppy:

0-12 weeks. Until a puppy has completed its course of vaccinations, there is a risk of infection. Therefore, it is usually better that exercise is restricted to within the confines of your garden. Exercise in the garden also provides an excellent opportunity to start early training, and to get your puppy used to wearing a collar. Make sure your puppy has a number of safe toys, and always accompany them in the garden. This way, you can engage your puppy in suitable levels of activity, and start to reward good toileting behaviour, which can usually provide all the puppy’s exercise needs during this time. If the opportunity arises, take your puppy to other safe environments where there is no risk, and it is able to mix with other animals and people, such as private gardens where only vaccinated dogs have access. Socialising at an early age is a vital part of your dog’s development.

It is important that puppies and dogs go out for exercise every day in a safe and secure area, or they may become frustrated. Time spent in the garden (however large) is no substitute for exploring new environments, and socialising with other dogs. When you go out, make sure your puppy is trained to recall, so that you are confident the

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puppy will return to you when called (see the section on ‘Training and socialising your Puppy’). Your Finnish Spitz will take as much exercise as as it needs. Do not force the issue but give it plenty and your puppy will stop and rest when it it is tired All dogs require regular exercise to remain fit and prevent them from becoming overweight, which may also lead to health problems. You should remember however, that exercise needs to be introduced gradually, and that a young puppy will not have the same exercise requirement as an adult dog. You should never exercise your puppy on a full stomach. The canine metabolism is designed to eat after exercise before resting. The duration and frequency of exercise should remain consistent and any increases should be gradual. For the majority of dogs, exercise is an important part of their life and so they will take as much as you can give. A dog will also enjoy play, whether with you or on its own, and so toys play an important part in a dog's life. Dependant on breed and temperament and mobility, a dog will normally be capable of walking to the same capability as its owner, however as a dog becomes older, exercise should be reduced and your dog should be allowed to walk at its own pace.

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GROOMING ADVICE Your Finnish Spitz will benefit from regular grooming. The coat does matt or tangle like some long coated breeds but there remain several important reasons for grooming ● Cleanliness – keeping your dog’s coat clean by removing dirt and dead hair helps encourage new hair growth, and reduces the amount of hair deposited on household furniture ● Health – grooming helps to stimulate new coat growth, and prevents the formation of knots or matting which may lead to skin irritation ● Appearance – most owners take a pride in their dogs looking smart, and regular grooming will certainly help your puppy to look its best ● Inspection – regular grooming is also a great way to check for parasites, or any suspicious lumps and bumps ● Relationship – grooming is part of dog’s socialisation activities. Regular grooming helps create a bond between you and your puppy, and accustoms your puppy to being handled. Do remember that grooming should include checking ears, nails, teeth, and eyes etc. on a regular basis. Each year your Finnish Spitz will cast its coat and this is the time you need to groom almost daily unless you want you dog to look like a damaged cushion with the stuffing coming out!

Getting started It is important to groom your puppy at a height which is comfortable for both you and your dog. For many dogs it may be advisable to groom them on a table and custom made grooming tables are available. But any sturdy table or work bench with a non-slip surface will suffice. Remember: never leave your puppy unattended on the table for even a short moment. Start the grooming experience at an early age as part of your puppy’s socialisation programme and routines. Keep the sessions short to start off with - just a couple of minutes, gradually increasing the time spent on the table. Always make the experience positive, rewarding with praise and suitable treats. Page 26


Any struggling should be dealt with firmly but kindly, as your puppy may be frustrated, mischievous or even afraid. Build up the experience and your puppy will come to accept the grooming routine and also being handled on the table. This will help with other activities such as veterinary visits. Finish the grooming if your puppy shows signs of getting bored or tired, so that each session ends on a positive note.

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First Aid Although there is now a great deal of information available a few things I find invaluable. Always keep the vets number somewhere easily obtainable. (eg add it to your mobile phone in case of emergency whilst out walking.). Do Not give human remedies to a dog. (1 ibuprofen could kill a jack Russell!) Do not give an animal food or drink in an emergency in case it may need an anaesthetic. 1. Bleeding Bright red spurting blood is coming from an artery Apply a pressure bandage If the blood seeps through the bandage, do not remove it, as this will destroy any clots being formed. Put another one on top Use a tourniquet only as a last resort. 2. Broken Bones Signs of a broken bone are: Pain Swelling Unnatural movement Loss of function Deformity Grating noise Restrict the dog's movement, if possible (Put him in crate) Try and persuade the dog to lie down, with the fracture uppermost Deal with any severe bleeding before attempting to deal with the fracture

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Don't attempt to 'set' or 'support' the bone, as you can cause the bone to puncture the skin Wash any piece of bone that has been sheared off and put in a clean container. Take it along to the vet with the dog 3. Burns & Scalds If the dog is actually on fire, smother the flames with a fire blanket, coat or rug. The dog will be very frightened, and may bite Clean off what has caused the burn if you can, such as oil, barbecue embers Do not clip the hair or apply anything except water (Or Aloe Vera if available!) Remove any constriction around the burnt area, such as a collar, but do not try and pull away any burnt material from the skin Copiously douse the affected area in water for about ten minutes 4. Drowning Dogs are usually good swimmers, but drowning often occurs when the dog becomes too exhausted Wipe away any material, such as thick oil or mud, from the dog's mouth and nose Grasp the dog's thighs, one in each hand, and lift the dog off the ground, upside down Put the dog on the ground after the water has drained from the airways, if possible with the head lower than the rest of the body Resuscitate if necessary 5. Electric Shock In the home: Don't touch the dog until you've switched off the electricity Resuscitate if necessary 6. Eye Injuries

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The prolapsed eye is bulging from the socket This is more common in the short-nosed breeds Do not try and replace it Apply wet cold dressing to the eye to support the eyeball and to keep it moist and cool Foreign body in the eye Cover with a wet dressing Irritants Flush with water from eye bottle Collect details of the irritant Do not allow the dog to rub the eyeball with their paw or along the ground 7. Fits If possible, leave the dog where it has collapsed, unless it is a dangerous situation, such as on a road Try to make sure the dog doesn't injure itself Turn off any electric or gas fires Move furniture and objects away from the dog Try and keep the dog as quiet and calm as possible Ask onlookers to leave Draw the curtains Switch off the TV, radio or hi-fi Cushions and rugs can be positioned around the dog to protect it Keep the dog's head down, not raised During the fit, interfere with the dog as little as possible If possible, check that the collar is not too tight. If outdoors, do not loosen too much, as the dog may need to be restrained afterwards Try if possible to time the fit. 8. Foreign Bodies (FB) In the mouth or throat You will need two people Page 30


One holds the mouth open The other person removes the FB if possible. Don't put anything down the dog's throat/in the mouth in the attempt to remove the object Stop if the FB is being pushed further down the throat. This will only make the obstruction worse Sometimes when dogs are running after a rubber ball, they may catch it at such a speed that it becomes lodged at the back of the throat. The dogs will be Very distressed Choking May even collapse because of lack of oxygen Try to grasp the ball and pull it forwards Sometimes the rubber ball can be forced back. In a life or death situation you can lie the dog on its side on a firm surface, Apply a sudden downward push on the abdomen with both hands, just behind the last rib. The second person should open the dog's mouth and try to grab the ball before it goes back down the throat 9. Gastric Torsion. (Major Emergency) Swollen stomach like a drum Contact the vet immediately, and be prepared to transport the dog to the veterinary practice 10. Heatstroke Dog will be panting and very distressed Remove the dog from the hot surroundings Lower the dog's body temperature Cover with wet sheets Place in a tepid bath, gradually cooling the water Place near a fan, taking care no electrical danger Gradually reduce the core temperature Don't throw a pail of water over the dog Dry the dog, and place in a cool environment

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Provide plenty of water to drink 11.Poisoning If possible, note down as many details as you can about the poison Don't try and make the dog sick unless the vet tells you to do so 12. Stings Gently pull out the bee sting with a pair of tweezers trying to avoid squeezing the poison sac and 'injecting' any further toxin Clean the area thoroughly, with copious water or a bicarbonate solution of one level teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda in a tumbler full of tepid water Apply a soothing cream from the First Aid Kit If the dog is stung in the throat or reacts severely, contact the vet 13. Wounds Cuts & Grazes Clean well with water Dab gently with a pad of clean gauze, lint, cotton wool or paper towels soaked in tepid water Pick out any large piece of grit and dirt from the wound If these are difficult to remove, wash the wound with running water under a tap or from the washer bottle. Do not add household disinfectants or other antiseptic agents to the cleaning water. These may cause skin reactions Do not be too vigorous in cleaning, as this may cause further damage Apply a dressing Do not allow the dog to lick the area

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Notes

Clip your Vaccinations Certificate/s and Worming Record safely here

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Your Puppy’s Pedigree should be glued onto this page

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