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INTERDISCIPLINARY PROBLEM-SOLVING FOR STUDENTS Methodologies, experiences and results from Braintrust’s ‘Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab’

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About this publication In this e-book, we have put together the methodologies, experiences, and results from the student conference ‘Braintrust LIVE #1: Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab’, which took place on April 23rd 2013 at the University of Copenhagen. At the conference, 24 students from twelve different countries and 16 different academic disciplines, came together to develop interdisciplinary problem-solving models to address some of the grand challenges of our time. The conference was arranged by the academic think tank Braintrust, and had as its aim to give students hands-on experience in working in a team with people from disciplines different to their own. In the end of the conference, the teams presented their models at an informal reception with guests from press, business and academia. After the event, the models were evaluated by experts in interdisciplinarity and within the fields that the students had dealt with. We hope with this book to inspire readers by the efforts of conference participants and organisers, and to contribute to the organisation of more interdisciplinary student activities in the future.

Do you want to know more or host a conference in collaboration with Braintrust? Go to braintrustbase.com or contact us at braintrust@braintrustbase.com

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dis·ci·pline noun \’di-sə-plən\ A field of study, a branch of learning, or scholarly instruction. Different disciplines may share a common ethos, such as a respect for knowledge and intellectual inquiry, but differences between them are vast. Disciplines often have their own approaches to understanding and investigating new knowledge, ways of working, and perspectives on the world around them, and disciplinary worlds are therefore in many ways separate and distinct cultures.

Main categories of academic disciplines: The Natural Sciences (such as Biology, Geology, Chemistry and Physics). The Social Sciences (such as Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Social Economy). The Humanities (such as History, Languages, Literature and Gender Studies). The Applied and Professional Fields (such as Medicine, Law, Management and Journalism).

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Braintrust: Creating an Interdisciplinary Platform Braintrust is an academic think tank, whose aware of which academic tools they have at their primary purpose is to create a free environment disposal, how they can use them, and – not least – for knowledge sharing among students. On the one how they can combine them with other disciplines’ hand, the organisation pools the academic resources tools. of students in a single, common, web-based portal, thus giving students an overview of their “Students from different disciplines or own competencies while connecting them across different universities have more in common disciplines. On the other hand, Braintrust aims to than they might think.” facilitate, make fluid, and advance interdisciplinary cooperation in practice. Sigrid Bjerre Andersen, Braintrust. Ak

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One of Braintrust’s goals is to turn the all-toocommon phenomenon of academic memory-loss among students into awareness and self-confidence in academic skills and competencies. By doing this, Braintrust hopes to help students, and society at large, benefit from the enormous amounts of information that they have, but rarely share with one another. A lot of students are not aware of how their discipline can or does contribute to a specific real-life problem. It is part of Braintrust’s mission to make students

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In the new innovation strategy (...) there is a lot of focus on education as an important element. But it’s kind of a neglected link: we haven’t succeeded in connecting innovation with education. Braintrust is a really good example of trying to do that. We have a goal of making students innovation-resources, and therefore it is very relevant to see what comes out of putting students from different countries together to solve some of these grand challenges.

Jesper Risom, Department of Education, working with innovation strategies, Expert Evaluator at the Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab #1.

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Interdisciplinarity: Why Bother? In 2002, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics to psychologist and researcher Daniel Kahneman. The prize was given to him for applying findings from cognitive psychology to the field of behavioural economics. These findings showed that, contrary to what economists traditionally had assumed, people systematically make decisions in non-rational ways under conditions of risk. Applying this simple, but consistent finding from psychology to the field of economy has, in the long run, probably saved societies, businesses and people vast amounts of money, time and energy, as well as saving all future generations of economists from scratching their heads, wondering why their scenarios for economic development consistently turn out slightly off the mark. Kahneman and his close colleague Amos Tversky published an article on their theory, called “Prospect Theory,” in Econometrica, arguably the most prestigious economic journal, where it remains the most cited article to date.

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“His work has inspired a new generation of researchers in economics and finance to enrich economic theory using insights from cognitive psychology into intrinsic human motivation.” ― The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences’ announcement of psychologist Daniel Kahneman’s Nobel Prize in Economics.


Psychologist Daniel Kahneman, winner of 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics

The real-world research problems that scientists address rarely arise within orderly disciplinary categories, and neither do their solutions.

– Carole L. Palmer (Work at the Boundaries of Science: Information and the Interdisciplinary Research Process, 2001, p. vii).

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“In fact, researchers have settled on what they believe is the magic number for true expertise: ten thousand hours.” ― Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers: The Story of Success, 2008.

Interdisciplinarity: What is it? Interdisciplinarity means integrating knowledge great scientific advancements. However, it has not and modes of thinking drawn from two or more ensured a “connecting of the dots” between the areas disciplines to produce a cognitive advancement – of knowledge, which has rather, historically, been left such as explaining a phenomenon, solving a problem, to polymaths who have had the time, opportunity, creating a product or raising a new question – in and mental faculties to master several disciplines ways that would have been unlikely through single- and integrate their insights. disciplinary means. By now, we have to go several centuries back to find Because single disciplines specialize in the study of the “last man who knew everything,” namely Thomas one aspect of the social or natural world, they can Young: inventor, scientist, linguist, Egyptologist and attain an extensive knowledge of that aspect. They physiologist. He died in 1829. can rarely, however, describe the full complexity of problems in the “real world.” In real life, taking the From 1800 to year 2000, the worldwide rate of full complexity of a problem into account is often publication of print books has skyrocketed from necessary to ensure that a solution to that problem about 15.000 to 700.000. Even the amount of text will succeed. published on the Internet in a single day would take more than a lifetime for one person to read. When Since the beginning of scientific inquiry into the it comes to the amount of scientific knowledge workings of the universe, areas of investigation have available today, the sheer amount of it means that been categorized and specialized by theme or focus. specialization in one field alone is a very timeThis specialization has allowed for the detailed and demanding enterprise. in-depth investigation of a multitude of areas and

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New solutions to problems can come from seeing things from a different perspective than your own, and from seeing how others approach it. In academia today, interdisciplinarity is therefore perceived as a key to solving some of the great challenges society is facing, in innovative ways. Students should of course also be included in this proces. Sigrid Bjerre Andersen, Braintrust

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Thomas Young: inventor, scientist, linguist, Egyptologist and physiologist.

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Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab #1 On April 23rd, 2013, Braintrust arranged the first ever Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab, bringing together 24 students from 21 different disciplines and 16 different countries, and matching them in six interdisciplinary teams. Braintrust wished to create an experimental space for interdisciplinary learning, and to put their vision into practice – namely to show how students benefit from sharing their knowledge with each other and working together in a common space, be it social or virtual. The Live Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab gave students a chance to do something they rarely do, which is to put their specific academic skills to use, and work with students from other disciplines on finding possible solutions to specific problems. Academics tend not to be trained to think in terms of visual models, so a group of visual consultants were at the participants’ disposal at the Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab, to give ideas and suggest angles

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to the solution models the teams came up with. The visual consultants are associates of Braintrust trained in disciplines such as architecture, graphic design and industrial design. Braintrust also invited 9 expert evaluators from the private and public sector to come and see the solution prototypes of the interdisciplinary collaborations, and to give their expert opinion on their viability. Braintrust had the interdisciplinary teams focus on solution-models for creating better societies, as outlined in the European Union’s Horizon 2020 framework. Horizon 2020 is the EU’s framework program for research and innovation, outlining the major challenges facing Europe and, in many cases, the world at large, in the years to come. Horizon 2020 is designed to help bring more good ideas to the market, and has three main objectives, namely to create excellent science, competitive industries and better societies.


“I want to see how it is to work with people from different disciplines. I have experienced difficulties with interdisciplinary work in the business where I worked, and I want to see if there’s a better way of doing it.”

Jean Kalmus, Telecommunications/IT at Technical University of Denmark, from France.

“I expect to exchange ideas, and network with people.” Krasimira Atanasova, IT and Cognition, University of Copenhagen, from Bulgaria.

“It’ll be interesting to get a peak of the insides of different disciplines. And I’m curious to see if interdisciplinarity works, if we can come up with something innovative and new at the end of it.” Eva Spiekerman, Global Studies, Roskilde University, from Portugal/Germany.

I’m here first and foremost to see how much creativity you can find in students working together, but also to give the commercial aspects a check. And I think I can. As you can see today, people are extremely varied in their ideas. Some of the ideas might never work in real life, but there are a few of them that actually could go all the way, and that could be commercially viable, in addition to helping people. Thomas Bjerre, Expert Evaluator, The Advanced Technology Foundation

Included in the “better societies” aim are broad challenge-areas such as ‘Longer and Healthier Lives’, ‘Reliable, Clean and Efficient Energy’, ‘Efficient Use of Resources for Protection of our Planet’, ‘Inclusive Innovation and Secure Society’, ‘Safe, Secure Food Suppy’, and ‘Smart, Green Transport’. These challenges will receive special research focus and funding from the EU in the years to come. The reason why the Knowledge Lab was set in this framework was, in part, because the event was supported by EU’s Youth in Action programme, but also out of a desire to focus on the broad and complex issues that today’s students will be compelled to solve over the coming decade and beyond. It is Braintrust’s belief that many of these challenges will require multiple types of skills and insights to solve, and will require a complex interaction and cooperation between different disciplines. One of the posters used to market the conference.

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Creating analogies and freeing the Students from different disciplines from the langauge and semantics of their fields can enable better cross disciplinary cooperation, and allow them to view the problems and solutions in new ways.

A Visual ‘Lingua Franca’ Braintrust’s key aim is “knowledge without borders,” and interdisciplinary cooperation is the driving concept in achieving this. However, the different disciplinary ‘languages’ create barriers to understanding, communicating with, and ultimately cooperating with those outside your own disciplinary field.

analogous solutions to other problems in ways that might not have appeared obvious. It can also make the team work more ‘democratically’– allowing each member to contribute in their own, appropriate way. Finally, visualization can help with problem solving: when you can ‘see’ the problem, you will also be more able to visualise the solution. Making a problem – especially an abstract one – tangible, for instance to build a three-dimensional model of a problem (or an analogy of a problem) allows the team to literally walk around the problem and see it from different angles.

Visualisation, from drawing to model-making, can be an indispensible tool in helping to overcome such barriers. At the most basic level, it can act as a sort of visual ‘lingua franca’ – as a kind of language making communication possible between people not sharing a ‘disciplinary tongue.’ Indeed, even discussions between relatively similar disciplines that have distinct semantic differences between them can be “We discovered a lot of logistical challenges made more fluent and effective when using visual involved, by making a model, and also a lot symbols and models that pertain to a shared concept. of opportunities. When you see something Visualization, combined with using analogies for a particular problem, can encourage members of an interdisciplinary team to look at a familiar problem with fresh eyes, and make connections between

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visual, it’s a different way of looking at the problem.” Simon Bager, Environmental Management and Policy, Team 1.


“

In some cases, building a model was a catalyst in itself for solving the problem at hand. In all of the groups, the finished models made their solution more accessible for people who were not part of their process, and also increased the opportunity for people of different disciplines to be able to describe their particular elements of the end solution.

�

David B. Earle, Visual Consultant at the Braintrust Live Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab #1

An example of a Feynman Diagram (here showing the decay of a netron into a proton). First developed by theortical Physicist Richard Feyman in 1948, they provided a framework by which the complex mathematical expressions which govern the behaviour of sub-atomic particles could be visualised. First used solely in the field of quantum field theory, it is now used in many other fields of physics. It has been said that enabling the visualisation of these complex fields has revolutionized nearly every aspect of theoretical physics.

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15

MINS

Mapping STAGE 1

PROBLEM BRAINSTORMING: GENERATING IDEAS FOR PROBLEMS TO WORK ON “Our theme was...very, very broad. So I think the challenge is really narrowing it down.” Marie Blønd, team 7

“I think we did a good job. It was a very short time-interval we had, but we came up with a lot of ideas.” Gunnar Helgi Gunnste, team 4

“I liked the fact that the tasks have time limits. It makes you move faster, and that’s nice.” Ksenia Bellmann, team 7

“Especially in the mappingprocess where we tried to conceptualize a problem, we used some approaches from political science and economics. We had an engineer here, who provided the technical knowledge.” Sven Hilgers, team 4

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Braintrust get the teams themselves to decide on a problem within their assigned challenge-area, in order to ensure that they are working on a problem they are interested in. This is because an important factor in problem-solving is that you are engaged by the problem and motivated to solve it. A lot of ideas that initially seem unfeasible might turn out to be good ones, or can, in a group setting, inspire other ideas that work better. Therefore, it is important to get all ideas out on the table. By facilitating uncritical thinking, people tend to generate more ideas than if they think critically. Academics are trained to see flaws and holes in theories, and can do the same with their own ideas. The brainstorming exercise forbids that, in order to get as many, and as diverse ideas as possible. It’s a way of broadening the scope and horizon of how we view a subject.

IMPORTANT TASKS FOR THE FACILITATORS IN THIS EXERCISE: Reminding the teams of the seven rules of brainstorming. Correcting critical attitudes/responses to ideas. Encouraging dialogue and thinking out loud. Helping teams come up with problems that are as concrete as possible. Keeping the time.


Remember to say out loud what you write on your post-its. You’ll create more dialogue and probably more ideas.

Henrik Chulu, Facilitator

THE MAPPING-STAGE OF THE PROCESS IS DESIGNED TO FIND OUT WHICH PROBLEM THE INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAMS ARE MOTIVATED TO SOLVE, AND WILL FOCUS THEIR COLLABORATIVE PROCESS ON.

1

THE SEVEN RULES OF BRAINSTORMING1 The teams on the Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab are instructed to:

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Defer judgement Encourage wild ideas Build on the ideas of others Stay focused on the topic

3

One conversation at a time Go for quantity Be visual

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4 6

5 IDEO’s ‘Human Centered Design Toolkit’ (2nd Edition) 1

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PROBLEM SELECTION: AGREE To choose which idea to work on, the teams should agree on 3-5 criteria that their problem should live up to, and then chose the problem that contains the most of these criteria. In the Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab, the criteria were: “it must be within EU’s Horizon 2020 framework”; “it must affect people from more than one country”; “it must be a widely known problem”, or; “it must be an underrepresented problem.” People can get emotionally attached to ideas quite quickly – especially their own. By using selection-criteria, this exercise puts rationality into the decision-making process. The criteria can also serve to change a team’s problem formulation to a sharper one, or help them become clear on why they want to solve that particular problem. At the same time, what participants should be aware of, is the tendency to try to fit the criteria to one’s favorite idea, instead of choosing an idea based on the criteria.

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“This is a big, vague idea. We need to narrow it down.” Simon Bager, team 1

“The most helpful part for arriving at a problem definition, was having a fixed time, so we had to force ourselves through the process.” Lilian Parker Kaule, team 7

“We had some problems reaching the set of criteria, but when we’d settled that, we fairly quickly settled on a problem to solve.” Morten Jensen, team 7


It was very full of discussions. And the main thing it taught me was how to persuade people and how to push your ideas, and listen to others’ ideas as well.

Ksenia Bellmann, team 7

ON A PROBLEM TO WORK ON Important tasks for the facilitators in this exercise: Helping sort the ideas by criteria, for instance by outlining a matrix for putting the post-its according to how many criteria they live up to. Reminding groups to try not to tailor the criteria to their “problem-darling”. Helping negotiate differences of opinion through stimulating constructive dialogue. Keeping the time.

30

MINS


The analogy of tools comes from carpentry. While a carpenter has concrete tools to do his job, academics tend to have non-tangible ones to do theirs, and, as a result, are often not even conscious of them themselves. In order to make the participants’ disciplinary and personal tools more visible, Braintrust introduced the “toolboxing” exercise.

Toolboxing STAGE 2

INTERVIEW EXERCISE: WHAT TOOLS HAVE YOU IN YOUR TOOLBOX? Important tasks for the facilitators: Pair the participants up with someone they don’t know. Inform them of the fruitfulness of open-ended questions. Instruct them to write down skills/ tools on post-its while they talk.

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MINS

Each participant is paired with a participant from a discipline different from their own. The two interview one another for 5 minutes each, about what specifically academic skills they have in their methodological toolbox, and how these can be applied in relation to the problem at hand. By explaining their skills to a person with a completely different background, the interviewee is forced to re-evaluate, re-formulate and translate them in a way that increases their own disciplinary awareness. By using open-ended questions such as ‘What’, ‘Who’, ‘How’, and ‘Why’, the interviewer gets the interviewee to not only draw from his or her usual disciplinary vocabulary, but to unfold and explain what for instance ‘action research’ or ‘regression analysis’ means in practice, and how it can be used. Each skill is written down on post-its, one skill per note, to be kept for later.

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The most positive experience during the workshop was presenting a person I’ve been interviewing.

Participant answer in evaluation questionnaire.

PRESENTING EACH OTHER’S SKILLS/TOOLS Important tasks for the facilitators: Keeping the time. Getting out of the way.

30

MINS

Participants here took turns at presenting their interviewee to the double team. The idea is that presenting someone else’s skills takes humbleness out of the equation. It’s an awareness process to interview and be interviewed by someone, and to have a stranger sum up your skillbase after five minutes of conversation. Most people like opportunities to talk about themselves to an interested listener. This exercise brought about lively chat around the room, as the participants got to interact person to person. At the end of this exercise, the participants were aware of the tools they and their teammates had at their disposal, and this is a good starting-point for deciding on a solution model.

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How about a radio-newspaper? C 1 get the information out there? .. 2 to focus on that. ...This is ridicul this brainstorming thing is not a selecting ideas while you’re gen 5 lose out on a lot of ideas.

” Ideation

STAGE 3

BRAINSTORMING: POSSIBLE SOLUTION MODELS Important tasks for the facilitators: Making sure participants follow the seven rules for brainstorming. Trying to involve quiet team members by asking them directly what they think. Making sure participants verbalize their ideas to stimulate dialogue. Encouraging participants to write down the ideas, and to draw while talking.

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15

MINS

A variety of ideas were needed again. For the solution brainstorming, teams were advised to use the group’s skills as inspiration. The solution model could be anything from a policy, a business model, a campaign, a website, an app, a research program, a method, a technical solution, an event, an organization, or something completely different. The brainstorming again followed the seven rules of brainstorming (see page 15).


Cause I’m thinking how can we ..What do we need? We need 3 lous! ...‘You’re not being fair, 4 about saying ‘no’ ...If you start nerating ideas, you’re going to Participant from team 1 Second participant from team 1 3 One participant to two others discussing an idea. 4 The reply to the above. 5 Henrik Chulu, Main facilitator. 1 2

SELECTION: CHOOSING THE MODEL TO WORK ON Important tasks for the facilitators: Encouraging teams to focus on criteria in an objective way, and not be colored too much by a favorite solution model. Helping teams sort their solution models by how many of the criteria the model lives up to, by making a matrix for placing the ideas. Helping groups overcome disagreements over which criteria are most important by reflecting with them and summing up the different point of views.

30

MINS

The groups were once again instructed to agree on a set of criteria to select their solution model. Examples of criteria were that ‘the model must fit their disciplinary toolbox’; ‘It must be achievable within a reasonable time scale’; ‘it must be utopian and technically feasible’. The groups were to sort their problems according to their criteria, and finally agree on a solution-model to develop, write it down and clear the table. Some of the groups were drawing while discussing. Some seemed to already have decided on a solution model that they wanted to use, and were adapting the criteria to the solution.

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Stage 3: Ideation

?

+

!

=

OUTLINE NARRATIVE SCENARIOS: A VISUAL STORY IN THREE ACTS In this exercise the teams draw a cartoon in three panels, of how their model helps to solve the problem they have selected. It also starts the teams truly thinking in visual terms.

Important tasks for the facilitators in this exercise:

Panel one shows the problem. Panel two shows the team’s solution. Panel three shows the consequence of their solution.

Helping sort the ideas by criteria, for instance by outlining a matrix for putting the post-its according to how many criteria they live up to.

If possible, the teams are encouraged to incorporate the stakeholders as well as their toolbox into the narrative.

Reminding groups to try not to tailor the criteria to their “problem-darling”.

If time allows it, a fourth panel can be drawn which shows what will happen if nothing is done about the problem.

Helping negotiate differences of opinion through stimulating constructive dialogue. Keeping the time.

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“The creative and visual aspect of making a model was good for reflecting on the solution. You’re building it, but at the same time you’re kind of rethinking the solution again and again and again: ‘does it really show how it’s supposed to work?’ And so you’re really rethinking the idea just because you’re trying to visualize it. And then the time-constraint made it a little bit more fun.” - Jan Zumbach, team 5.

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MINS

Prototyping STAGE 4

The final part of the process has the participants visualize the problem-solving model they have arrived at. The visualization can be by drawing, building 3D models, making flow-charts, or any other way that comes to mind. At the teams’ disposal during this exercise, are Braintrust’s visual consultants, cardboard, paper, scissors, glue, thread, colored paper, and clay - tools that are highly unusual in academic work, but that are standard working-tools in creative disciplines. The teams explain their solution models to Braintrust’s visual consultants, whereupon the visual consultants suggested a way of visualizing it. The teams then work at developing their hitherto theoretical solution-models into tangible, concrete models. This exercise physically activates the participants. In addition, the visualization makes the teams zoom in on details of their solution models, rethink aspects of it and, not least, see ways of connecting different team-members’ ideas.

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Important tasks for the visual consultants at this stage: Help the teams crystallize their solution models, explaining the essence and details of it. Contribute with ideas to- and practical knowledge of model building and visualization. In cases where there is a more dominant idea from one member of the team, help enable other ideas from the team being included in the final model, by suggesting physical “addon’s.”


“ What is important now, is to show people what it is about ”

Wojciech Dziadkowiec, Visual Consultant

“Ok, that sounds great! Why don’t you build one?”

lovely three dimensional way of expressing the whole of your ideas.”

- David Earle, Visual Consultant.

- David Earle, Visual Consultant.

“Ok, I think one way to do it, if you want a table where people are sitting, you can actually make it out of cardboard. And make little silhouettes too. And all of them would have some symbol on them. Because that would give you a little bit more space to draw on, and it would maybe be easier to grasp the message. And on the table you can have like the European flag or whatever you wanted.”

“How will we create this?”

Bojana Romnic, Visual consultant.

“It’s just that there are so many complex ideas going on here. If we had a three dimensional box plus a smaller version of the same thing, cause its scalable, and then if we make with pins and pieces of paper, little signs all over the model, saying what’s happening here and what are the benefits, I think it would be a

- Burak Bican, Architecture, team 6.

“If you do it this way, it’ll maybe be easier to understand” Ragnhild Hagström, Visual consultant

“There was a lot of discussion of how to visualize our idea. It made us more aware that we still need a physical space to be active because we are people who need to interact somewhere and with someone.” - Ksenia Bellmann, (Migration & Ethnic Relations), team 7

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Presentation STAGE 5

The presentation stage of the interdisciplinary collaboration is a kind of “show-and-tell-exercise,” where teams present their solution, and explain how it helps solve their chosen problem and how they would carry it out. The teams are “selling” their solution models to their audiences and, at the Live Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab #1, to a team of expert evaluators, too, inasmuch as they have to explain why their solution is needed and why it would work, in other words; it’s selling points. Presenting the solution model prototype in this way brings together the team’s different disciplinary tools and knowledge, with the stakeholders map.

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Important tasks for facilitators/ visual consultants at this stage: Help teams prepare display; clarify what symbolizes what, and how the bits are connected.


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Acknowledgements This e-book is the result of a project organised by the Braintrust Association (Foreningen Braintrust), and sponsored by the EU’s Youth in Action Programme and the University of Copenhagen.

Authoring: Kitty Elisabeth Byng

Editing and lay-out: David B. Earle

Copyright:

Foreningen Braintrust 2013. The book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Thanks to the following for contributing to the realisation of the Interdisciplinary Knowledge Lab: Academic consultants: Katrine Lindvig (University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Humanities) Bente Merete Stallknecht (University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science) Bojana Romic (Malmö University) Mathias Munch (Copenhagen Business School) Trine Villumsen Berling (Centre for Advanced Security Theory, University of Copenhagen) Ida Meisling (Roskilde University) Visual consultants: Wojciech Dziadkowiec Ragnhild Hagström David B. Earle Facilitators: Henrik Chulu Ida Marie Fich Katrine Danielle Bjaarnø Julie Richard Fjeldsted Sigrid Bjerre Andersen

BRAINTRUSTBASE.COM

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


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