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graphic design


POINT ii = 1 point = 1/72in = 25.4/72mm = 0.3527mm


Pica ii


Pantone matching system Black c


Pantone have a Pantone Matching System, so when you find a colour that you like and want to use it in your work, there is an easy way to let the printers know. You send your work to the printers with the pantone chip so that they also have the colour information. Then the printer finds the colour in a formula guide, and it is

then sent to the press. The formula on the pantone chip is for them to create the mixture using ink. So if a colour is made up of three different variations of other pantone colours, they will mix those three quantities together to create the desired colour, and it will then go to print.


VISUAL LITERACY is a LANGUAGE


O P T I C A l m i x i n g


Optical mixing is when a colour is printed using four plates, CMYK, and you can see the dots which make up the colour using a linen tester. The sparser the dots are, the lighter the colour is, and the more close together the dots are, the darker the colour.

Optical mixing is where a colour is made up of four plates, CMYK, and if you use a linen tester on a colour, then you can see the dots what make it. The sparser the dots are, the lighter the colour, and the more close together the dots are, the darker


PH YS IC AL

Mixing


Physical mixing is when a colour is pre-mixed and is called a ‘flat’ colour because it only uses one plate to print, making it a cheaper option than optical mixing. This means when you look through a linen tester, there are no dots.


SEM IOT ICS The understanding of semiotics allows a designer to create something which people can relate to, as they are how people recognise and make meaning of something from a picture or text. There are three things to be aware of: sign, signifier and symbol.


Sign Pizza Hut Signifies Red Roof Symbolises Comfort, friendliness, shelter


readability and legibility in bodycopy There are four different font families that we refer to: gothic; roman; block and script. They differ in readability and legibility when used in bodycopy, because the characteristics of the letterforms affect how we read.


Georgia, 12pt Roman Serifs are the small lines extending of the main strokes, which are what makes a font part of the Roman family. The serifs help guide the eye along the line, and are almost always used in books and novels. The serifs help shape the letterforms, so we can read them easier.

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Gill Sans MT, 12pt Gothic Gothic fonts are Sans Serifs meaning without serifs. It can be argued that sans seif fonts are easier to read because they don’t have any serifs, and are therefore simpler.

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Respective, 12pt Script Script fonts are made for display, not bodycopy, so this is very illegible and impossible to focus. The small point size makes the letters hard to read because they join up to others too closely.

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Impact, 12pt Block Block fonts are harder to read in bodycopy because the space between the letters are too condensed, so the eye has to concentrate more on what it is reading.

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V

I

METAPHOR A visual metaphor is when an image transfers the same meaning to another image eg. a London Guard for London.

S

SYNECD A metanym is when part of something is used to represent a whole of something eg. The London Eye.


U

DOCHE

A

L

METANYM A synechdoche is a symbolic image which is used to make reference with something for a more literal meaning eg. the Black Cab or Red Bus for London.


readability and legibility using colour When choosing colour for bodycopy and the stock, it is important to make sure that they work well together, otherwise it can become hard to read and understand.


Black on White This is the most effective way of displaying bodycopy, because there is a high contrast and black stands out most against white, making the legibility really clear.

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Yellow on White This is yellow on white, and it is illegible because the contrast of hue isn’t high. As they are both light colours, they blend in together, making it hard to see and read.

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Blue on Purple The same works with darker colours, the type is barely legible because the colours are too close to each other on the colour wheel. Choice of colour can really affect how we understand a message, so it is important to choose colours which are really clear to read when put together.

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Complimentary Colours Using complimentary colours together also compromises readability and legibility and almost makes it hurt to read, therefore making it hard for people to understand and focus. Other complimentary colours are blue/ orange and violet/ yellow.

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T YP F E A CE A collection of characters, letters, numbers, symbols, punctuation etc which have the same distinct design.


F

O The physical means used to describe a typeface, be it computer code, woodblock, lithographic film etc.

N

T


using grids Grid System It’s used to lay out content, and made up of vertical and horizontal guides.

Gutter The gutter is the blank space between the columns and rows.

Columns When making a grid you create columns, which contain text and images.

Leading This is the space between lines of text and should suit the point size.

Proportional Methods Fibbonachi Sequence; Rule of Thirds; Golden Section and Van De Graaf.

Margins Margins are the outline for the page contents.


using grids Grid System It’s used to lay out content, and made up of vertical and horizontal guides.

Gutter The gutter is the blank space between the columns and rows.

Columns When making a grid you create columns, which contain text and images.

Leading This is the space between lines of text and should suit the point size.

Proportional Methods Fibbonachi Sequence; Rule of Thirds; Golden Section and Van De Graaf.

Margins Margins are the outline for the page contents.


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