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Techno-Futurism

Architecture, Science, and Technology Final Project, Fall 2010 to Spring 2011 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | School of Architecture Design Critic Chris Perry

Needmorphology Danielle Norton


Techno-Futurism

Architecture, Science, and Technology Final Project, Fall 2010 to Spring 2011 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute | School of Architecture Design Critic Chris Perry Needmorphology Danielle Norton


TECHNO-FUTURISM: ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute School of Architecture Techno-Futurism: Architecture, Science, and Technology Final Project, Fall 2010 to Spring 2011 Design Critic: Chris Perry


CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION | NEEDMORPHOLOGY

08

POSTWAR RESEARCH | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

10

CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

18

DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Figure 1.1 Vitruvius Man. Since the dawn of time, design has addressed the basic needs of man. The vitruvius man is a testament to this fulfillment, noted in Book III of De Architectura as the principle source of proportion in the classical orders of architectural design. Man’s intrinsic needs continue to shape the way that technology and design merge.

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INTRODUCTION | NEEDMORPHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION | NEEDMORPHOLOGY

Architecture, similar to mankind, has gone through a dramatic evolution. Architecture has historically addressed the direct and most imperative needs of man; acting as means of technology implemented to extend the efficiency and likelihood of man’s survival. Architecture continues to thrive based on mankind’s perpetually changing needs. Architecture could not exist isolated from the fundamental sciences of humanities.1 Crucial to the study of human sciences is perception. It is important to note the subjectivity of the human psyche and as a result, discovery of a correlation between subjective perspective and objective design elements as crux to the study and design in the human sciences. Man’s needs vary, from the basic senses, as defined by Aristotle (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste), to “man’s inherent desire for higher productivity…”2 This need was the driving force that led to the development of the technical environment. Man resides both within the natural and human environments. With a perpetually challenging world, man’s hunger for new form and technology continues to remain prevalent and the motivating factor in the development and growth of the technical environment. This new technical environment, similar to both natural and human environments, strives to sustain what information and traits it acquires during each generation in order to successfully progress in the future. Technological “tools”, as discussed in Kielser’s writings “On Correalism and Biotechnique: a definition and test of a new approach to building design”, are directly related to the “needmorphology” of man. Architecture that begins to combine technologies and human sciences delves into the realm of inbuilt flexibility. Such projects, as the “Fun Palace” proposed by Cedric Price, dare to dream about adaptable architecture; architecture that is responsive to the needs of man.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Figure 2.1 Pasks rendition on the Fun Palaces technology, input and output systems

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POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

Following World War II, a technological boom rippled throughout the world. Technological innovation became the primary focus, eventually inciting the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States. During this era, incredible strides were made as technology developed for military. Eventually uses for the newly invented technology began to find common applications within the everyday. The needs of mankind had evolved at unforeseen rates. The relationship between technology and man became inter-related. Mans needs began to change because of technology and technology continued to develop based off the changing needs of man. The integration of technology into the non-militaristic world ignited the imaginations of many, leading toward an era of incredible innovation. Architects, like Cedric Price and Archigram, hypothesized on the unorthodox use of technology and architecture; welcoming in an era of architectural advancement and unseen technological development. Cedric Priced dared to dream of the integration of technologies, such as the gantry crane and datalogging, to create a truly user interactive space. This dynamic integration further enforces the symbiotic relationship between man, technology and the built environment. Architecture has the unique opportunity to appeal to the many needs of man; through the study and integration human science and sensory into architecture, the integration of cybernetic technologies, and how they manifest into an architectural realization.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Human Science and Sensory

Social Science and Environment Studies thrusted architecture out of the WWII era. Explorations within social sciences and environment were essential to societies’ understanding of history. Therefore history, social science, and environment go hand-in-hand and remained, “…our only guide to the future.”3 In 1950, modern revival was the popular trend, recalling and imitating works of LeCorbusier. In addition to the historical resurgence, suburban culture became a movement in both the technological and architectural worlds. Suburban culture was a catalyst to the appliance affluence and the newly generated market for individualization. New design began to focus on ergonomics, which stemmed from the fixation on individuality caused by the mass production of home products. In order to assess the individual in comparison to the collective the physical sciences began to assist in the study of building affects. The primary challenge of human science and sensory based design was to find an approach that objectified our subjective perception. One solution is to take advantage of inconsistent spatial comprehension and find a way to reprogram each individual’s set of spatial associations. This technique, of reprogramming, is particularly affective within hospitals; through a series of stages that slowly adjust the individual’s perception of space overtime. Through the use of different technologies and data collection the needs of man can be addressed and correlated with particular solutions that adjust accordingly. These technologies mimic the processing techniques of the human body and nervous system, by way of reassessment of circumstance.

User Input: Perception

System Processing: Human Brain Processes Information

System Output: Physical Action

System Feedback: Human Brain Reassess Information A feedback loop: the body perceives information with the sensory system. The brain processes the information perceived, draws conclusions, and creates an action in response. Based off that action, the body reassesses and resubmits a new perception which is returned back into the loop.

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POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

Figure 2.2 Courtesy of Beatriz Colomia in “Enclosed by Images”. View of Eames Moscow World’s Fair Auditorium Figure 2.3 Courtsey of Beatriz Colomia in “Enclosed by Images”. Screen Perception

Perspective

The human nervous system, very quickly, gathers, interprets, and decisively reacts to all stimuli in our environment. Each individual’s process varies slightly, and each individual’s perspective varies drastically. In order to create an objective architecture that is not affected by individual subjectivity, there must be an objective design or notion that has multiple routes to the same response and conclusion. Charles Eames at the Moscow World’s Fair Auditorium, attempted to implement this concept through their use of multiple screen’s to encourage directed conclusions based off similar linkages between all seven monitors.

Figure 2.4 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique”

Simplification

Man initially began to utilize technology to help address basic needs. Overtime, the needs of man have changed and grown in complexity; therefore requiring more complex solutions. Man’s technological intervention overtime had become too complex and began to threaten the basic needs of life. As a result, reorganization of priorities and needs must occur to achieve the appropriate balance between technology and man.

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Cybernetics Cybernetics emerged, primarily, through military use to help increase the efficiency of weaponry during WWII. Post WWII the technological potential of cybernetics was acknowledged as a vital way to begin to rethink the relationship between technology and architecture. WWII warfare focused on the integration of the psychology of man and machine. Psychologist used intelligence testing to begin to trend human behavioral patterns and apply it towards the design of equipment. Architects among other technical scientists, noticed the potential in the application of the behavioral information within their field of work. Architects realized that this could allow for “anticipatory architecture…capable of responding to users’ needs and desires.”5 Through the use of technology, architecture could become flexible and responsive to the inputs of any given user. Cybernetics became the study of “control and communication…[and] how systems organize themselves… [and] reduce uncertainty and achieve stability by adapting, cooperating, and competing or basically how system learn to survive.”6 Projects, such as the Fun Palace proposal by Cedric Price, used technology to interpret user based data and respond through architecture accordingly. More importantly, Price’s proposal includes an understanding that feedback systems are necessary to create adaptability. The system creates action based off initial user input data, and then reassesses that action and reinterprets the information to create a new recalibrated response. Adaptation of technology with architecture allows for flexibility in architectural response.

User Input: Interaction

System Processing: Computer Processes Information

System Output: System Action

System Feedback: Computer Reassess Information

A feedback loop: an interaction is input into a computer. The computer then processes said interaction, and concludes with a system action. The system then reassesses the action item, recalibrates and resubmits data back into the loop.

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POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

Figure 2.5 Standardization Process of Product Development Figure 2.6 Cockpit Design

Technological Integration

Cybernetics is the integration of technology and the human sciences. Human limitations, needs, requirements, and behaviors are all critical pieces of data information that must be addressed to achieve an optimal output result. To facilitate this process, data input, output and recalibration are necessary. System recalibration and feedback loops are fundamental to the success of cybernetics. The fluctuation of “deficiency” and “efficiency” and it’s correlation to product development/change over time is essential to the morphology of cybernetics in relation to human sciences and sensory.

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Architectural Manifestations Needmorphology demands the integration of the human sciences and sensory, cybernetics, and architecture. This integration must make possible constant communication and collaboration so as to address the constantly changing needs of man. Post WWII the integration of human sciences and sensory with technology became an increasingly popular trend in many fields of practice. Architecture began to consider the possibility of man’s relationship with technology and how that can begin to inform architecture. Cedric Price’s Fun Palace proposal provoked the radical idea that man could play an integral role in the design, use, and response system of a building; each user, upon entry, would input into the system information about his or herself. This information would be processed and applied to how the building would function. Price uses technology to interpret user based data and respond accordingly, thus creating a unique flexibility and adaptive architecture. Price’s Fun Palace was a venue “…capable of producing and processing information.”7 The architecture was simply an abstraction of the intrinsic values a user’s social capabilities and needs. Price argued for “Collective meaning”, which is to created a “dynamically interactive field of communication...” through the use of performative architecture and technology.8 Inbuilt flexibility is pivotal in architecture in order to give way for future usages and to accommodate diverse modes of interaction.

User Input: User Needs

System Processing: Computer Processes Information

System Output: Built Environment Construction

System Feedback: Computer Reassess Information A feedback loop: the user inputs particular needs into a computer. The computer then processes said needs, and concludes with an action item in the built environment. The system then reassesses the action item, recalibrates and resubmits data back into the loop.

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POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

Figure 2.7 Fun Palace; diagrams for pilot project, 1961-65. Cedric Price, architect. CCA Collection. Figure 2.8 Fun Palace; sketches plans, 1961-65. Cedric Price, architect. CCA Colection. Figure 2.9 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique�

Flexibility

Architecture that considers flexibility in its inherent design must consider the usage of human sciences and sensory in order to properly engage cybernetics interactively. The image to the left diagrams the limitations of man and the need for flexible and considerate design. The sketch above reflects the flexibility that Price suggests human interaction through technology will activate.

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Figure 3.1 Blur Building by Diller + Scofidio Architects. The physical building is a complex scaffold, with highly precise sensing systems to determine weather patterns. The entire building is enshrouded in mist, providing a blurred effect from the outside and in.

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

The Post War era lead to great strides in technology. Technology that was developed for military use was furthered by its application in new products in the everyday. The consumer began to take priority and such post war ideals as personalization became the priority. The infamous “Kitchen Debate”, between former President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, at the Moscow World’s Fair are a testament to the incredible importance of technological innovation and advancement. According to Nixon, the lack longevity is , “… is designed to take advantage of new invention and new techniques”. Ideals of personalization and the perpetually advancing of technology have continued to thrive in contemporary design criteria. Contemporary technology has also begun to focus on advancements in environment and material manipulations, which reinforces the importance of integrating the human environment, the natural environment and the technological environment. These environments are incapable of coexisting separately, but with the integration of considerate technology all three environments can be appeased and combined. Sensing technology advancement has aided in this relationship. Advancements in identification technology (biometrics) have aided in the personalization of technology, space, and identification. Biometric technology is able to identify an individual based off their unique biological signature and correlate a set of data to that individual. This collection of data can be unobtrusive and applied to other technology, such as weather and space sensing systems, which can be applied to assist in the manipulation of space or interfaces without direct user interaction – anticipatory architecture.

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Perceptual Systems of the Human Body Orientation Orientation can be defined as awareness with regard to time, place, and person. In order to gain orientation, body equilibrium through senses, specifically optics, haptics, and vertigo must be maintained. The vestibular organs help deal with forces of gravity and acceleration.

Auditory The auditory system is sensory for hearing. This system utilizes the cochlear organs with middle ear and auricle to explore a particular environment. Auditory systems can also be utilized for detection in conjunction with or in replacement of an optical system.

Visual The visual system is defined by photo-receptors, the eye and its accompanied mechanisms. The visual system is one of the most relied upon senses.

Haptic The haptic system refers to the touch sense. Skin, joints, muscles are all a part of the haptic system, adjusting, exploring and contacting the surrounding environment. The haptic system, although often crucial to the reality of a situation can be replaced by other senses such as sound, sight, and smell.

Taste-Smell The taste-smell system utilizes the mouth and nose to determine the composition of an encountered item. This system can be used to attract or deter. Taste and smell can also be utilized in mechanical systems to determine air composition of a space.

Thermoregulation Thermoregulation is the ability to maintain a particular temperature within a certain set of parameters, regardless of external differences.

Cognition Cognition is the ability to perceive, learn, and process information based on input collected. Computers, microprocessors or dataloggers all are capable of collecting data, interpreting, and creating a well educated conclusion - artificial cognition.

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O r i e n t a t i o n

Face Recognition Fingerprint Vein

A

u

d

i

t

o

r

Iris

y

Retina DNA Keystroke Dynamics

V

i

s

u

a

l

Speaker Odor Human Gait

H

a

p

t

i

c

Remote Monitor Systems Motion Capturing Dataloggers - Computers Inertial measurement

T a s t e - S m e l l

PIR Sensory Sound Isolation Track Partition

Thermoregulation

Thermistor Geo-synchronous Satellites [GOES] Global Positioning Systems [GPS] Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)

C o g n i t i o n

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Biometrics Biometrics is characterized as the study of automated methods to recognize a person based on physiology and/or behavior. 9 Biometrics became a mainstream technology over the past decade, with practical and popular applications within security. Historically, biometrics was realized in the beginnings of civilization with cave handprints, which are hypothesized to be the signature of the prehistoric men who lived there. Biometrics has continued to persevere throughout history as a means to identification. Amongst some of the earliest forms of biometric identification techniques is the “Bertillon System�, which measures various body dimensions and fingerprint identification. The first wide spread biometric system used was fingerprint pattern and ridges, implemented in Bengal, India for the British Police force. This system was known as the Henry System. The system is still used today in concept to classify fingerprints.10 The wide spread usage of fingerprint data collection lead to the rapid development of different biometric modalities beginning in the early 1960s. Among the biometric features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice.11 Biometrics was also further applied to studies in human sciences. Biometric systems consist of five integrated components: sensory, which is used to collect data and convert it into a legible format; signal processing algorithms, which is perform quality control and begins to identify patterns; data storage, which keeps information and begins to find corresponding data; matching algorithms, which compares and contrast the new data with the corresponding data; and decision processing, which utilizes all the information gathered to form a system decision.12 Biometric systems rely upon user input in order to produce an output that can be reassessed over time.

User Input: Sensory

System Processing: Signal Processing Algorithms

System Output: Matching Algorithms

System Feedback: Decision Processing A feedback loop: Sensors detect a particular information data set; the system processes the data set via algorithms. These algorithms are matched and concluded upon with a decision that recalibrates the entire system.

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1875 1950

022

1980 1990

Face recognition used at the Super Bowl in Tampa, FL Statewide palm print database is depoled in the US Face Recognition Grand Challenge begins

1970

Face detection is pioneered, making real time for face recognition possible Biometric consortium is established within US Governement Development of an Iris prototype unit begins First iris recognition algorithm is patented Palm system is benchmarked Iris prototype goes commercialHand Geometry is implimented at the olympic games

1960

No two irides are alike proposed iris can be used for identification is awarded First semi-automatic facial recognition system is deployed

Face Fingerprint Hand Geometry Vein Iris Retina DNA

FBI funds development of sensor and mintiae extracting tecnology

Physiological

Proto type for speech recognition is developed Patent for dynamic signature information Behaviorl components of speech are first modeled First commercial hand geometry

FBI pushes to make fingerprint recognition an automated process

Automated signature recognition research begins

1925

Face recongition become semi automated

1900 Iris pattern used for identification is proposed

NYS Prisos use fingerprints

Hentry fingerprint classification

1850

Anthropmetrics developed

First systematic capture of hand images

CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Biometrics Behavioral

Keystroke Dynamics Speaker Odor Human Gait

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Biometrics: Technology [Physiological] Face Identification Technology Face identification is a rapidly growing technology that converts a photograph or video image into code that describes a person’s physical characteristics. The codified image is then analyzed, stored, and recalled for future use. This technology can be used to identify individuals from a distance without intrusion and have a set of additional data associated.

DNA Identification Deoxyribonucleic acid, also known as DNA, is one of the most exact methods to identify any individual. DNA can be found in any cell in the body and defines the characteristics of an individual. Identical twins can have the exact same set of DNA. DNA can be easily acquired from blood, hair, fingernails, mouth swabs, blood stains, saliva, straws, and any other source that has been attached to the body.18 DNA can be very accurate, but also has a high risk for error because it is so detailed.

Figure 3. 2 Face Recognition

Retina Scan Technology Each person’s retina, including those of identical twins, is unique due to the complex capillary structure that supplies the retina with blood to function. Diabetes, glaucoma, retinal degenerative disorders or cataract may affect and alter retinal patterns.

Figure 3.3 DNA

Iris Recognition High-Resolution images and IR illumination (to reduce reflection from the convex cornea) are used to capture an image of the iris. Each person has a unique structure within their iris. Iris recognition is one of the most affective biometric techniques used for identification because of its longevity.

Figure 3.4 Retina Scan

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Vein Biometrics Veins are used to identify a person in order to store a given set of data. No one person, including identical twins, has the same vascular pattern and it does not change over time. It is very difficult to impersonate vein biometrics because all the data lies subdermally. The vein pattern is captured by infrared rays. The infrared rays are absorbed by the flowing deoxidized hemoglobin within in the veins and do not reflect back, leaving a black pattern. The patterns determined would then be input into a database for future identification uses.

Hand Geometry Hang Geometry is one of the first forms of biometrics to be integrated into computer technology. Although hand geometry is quite accurate, it is infrequently used as the sole means for identification; it is typically used in conjunction with another other form of identification. Hand geometry it is not considered as unique as fingerprint, iris, or vein recognition. Figure 3.5 Vein Biometrics

Figure 3.6 Fingerprint Technology

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Biometrics: Technology [Behavioral] Behavioral biometrics utilize mannerisms, rhythm, posture, and other behavioral patterns to develop a particular set of biometric data which one can be identified from for future authentication

Keystroke Dynamics Technology Keystroke Dynamics analyses the keystrokes of a user. Keystroke dynamic technology is involved in the collection of data regarding rhythm, manner, dwell time and flight time in order to authenticate a particular user. The data collected is then analyzed by a “neutral algorithm, which determines a primary pattern for future comparison.” 14

Figure 3.7 Key Sroke Technology

Speaker Recognition Digital technology can recognize voice patterns by correlating it to an already documented identification. The technologies identify acoustical difference between individuals. These differences not only can lead to the identification of the individual, but can decipher anatomy (size and shape of throat and mouth), and learned behavioral patterns (voice pitch, speaking styles). As a result speaker recognition can begin to describe particular behaviors and psychological states.

Odor Identification Technology Every human has a unique body odor. The smell can be captured by sensors which can interpret the chemical data. The chemical makeup of body odor carries very sensitive information and can even be used to identify some diseases.

Figure 3.8 Speaker Recognition

Human Gait Identification Technology Gait biometrics can identify a person based off their leg motion as they perform certain activities. It has difficulty identifying particular body parts and motion and as a result is a less popular biometric method. The proposed radar system would generalize and categorize an individual’s gait in the form audio waves. The advantage of using a radar system is its non-intrusive nature. Gaits identification is controversial, because walking patterns can be easily altered and are not well tested in real scenarios.

Figure 3.9 Odor Recognition

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Biometrics: Sports Performance Biometrics can be applied to many different fields of study, including sports performance. Sports monitoring systems provide a feedback loop between the coach and the athlete. Such a system can monitor the physiological capabilities and past performance to help improve a particular technique in the future and to gauge progress quantitatively.

Remote Monitoring Systems Most commonly used in sports performance monitoring are direct and remote systems. Sensors attached to the athlete are used in direct monitoring and can measure inertial measurement units (IMU), which contain combinations of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers, to track human limb movement and in outdoor sports GPS receivers can be used to measure position, velocity, and distance travelled.19 This data can be collected either through “on-board memory or transmitted wirelessly” to a computer that will properly store and analyze the data.20 Remote monitoring systems track visually or physiologically the athlete’s progression. Vision based motion tracking is used to help an athlete determine technique and force exerted through video imagery that is run through a software. Unfortunately some of this equipment is limiting in the ways which can collect data, and the in the environment it creates for the athlete.

Motion Capturing: Skeletal-Joint Tracking and Surface Estimation The same technology used to create the movie “Avatar” is used to gather real-time feedback in Microsoft’s’ XBox game console addition “Kinect”. Kinect utilized motion sensory coupled (IR sensory) with skeletal tracking (depth sensory) to monitor the gamers’ movements. This coupling helps prevent occlusions of players and allows for accurate user recognition. Voice and facial recognition are utilized with Kinect and to allow for information to be collected and reapplied to aid in user recognition. Figure 3.10 Motion Capturing Technology

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Weather Sensory Global Climate has been a topic of great discussion throughout the centuries. With the advancement in technology, we are becoming more aware of climatic impact. As a result, sensors are placed throughout the world to monitor environment changes. The Global Environment is a delicate balance of temperature, in terms of air, water, and ground. All of these factor into global affects, such as weather systems. The National [US] Research Council recommends that ten climatic monitoring principles, proposed by T.R Karl in Climatic Change, 31, be applied to climate monitoring systems: 1.Management of Network Change, which considers the extent to which a proposed change could influence the existing and future climatology obtained from the system.

2.Parallel Testing, which involves operating an old system and new system over a long period of to determine if there is an climate variation. 3.Meta Data, which fully documents each observing system and its operating procedures 4.Data Quality and Continuity, which assesses data quality and consistency regarding climate variability and change, high resolution data capable of revealing documenting important extreme weather events.

5.Integrated Environmental Assessment, which anticipates the use of data in the development of environmental assessment

and evaluating

and maintaining the overall consistency in climate data sets.

6.Historical Significance, which observes systems that have provided homogeneous data sets over a period of many decades to centuries. 7.Complementary Data, which gives the highest priority in the design and implementation of new sites or instruments within an observing systems.

8.Climate Requirements, which gives network designers, operators and instrument engineers climate monitoring requirements at the outset of network design. Modeling and theoretical studies must identify spatial and temporal resolution requirements.

9.Continuity of Purpose, which maintains a stable, long-term commitment to these observations, and develop a clear transition plan from serving research needs to serving operational purposes

10.Data and Meta Data Access, which develops data management systems to facilitate access, use, and interpretation of data and data products by users. Should have quality control.

User Input: Direct/ Remote/ On-board or wirelessly collected

System Processing: Evaluated by software and/or specialists

System Output: Adjustment of technique

System Feedback: Recalibration of new data post technique adjustment A feedback loop: Sensors detect changes, transfers data to be evaluated. Action is taken based off data and the system recalibrates/ reevaluates.

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Sensors such as air temperature, ground surface temperature, wind speed, oceanic temperature and solar radiation are placed throughout the world to help monitor fluctuation. Historically, global weather has been incredibly interconnected; the slightest increase in oceanic temperature over the past five years has resulted in unprecedented storm system developments, which, in turn, increases the overall global temperature causing climatic changes such as temperature to occur. Temperature changes, on a global scale, have resulted in unexpected seasonal changes. Man’s most instinctive need is survival. Ironically, the primary causes of most of the climatic changes are due to man’s attempts to increase his odds, through misuses of technology. While man’s immediate needs may have been subsided, man is now faced with a much larger scale problem; how to reverse or stop the damage done to Earth.

Figure 3.11 Weather Tower in Brussels, Lighting used to display weather conditions

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Environment Sensory Environmental conditions, no matter how minuscule, are always in fluctuation. Environmental sensory is used to measure these changes. Ultimately, environment sensory technologies can be used to measure and gauge various aspects of weather; such as lighting, air quality, temperature, pressure, wind speed, relative humidity, wind speed/direction, and can predict/detect certain weather systems. Such sensory, teamed with data collection and sorting technology (computers), can react and adjust accordingly both interiorly and exteriorly.

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler [ADCP]

Data Processor

Traditionally used to measure oceanic current speed and direction, the Acoustic Doppler Current Profilier (ADCP) utilizes the Doppler Effect by emitting a sequence of high frequency pulses of sound that scatter off of moving particles in the water.21The ADCP transmits 75 kHz pulses through the ocean to the depth of 700m and can give continue realtime feedback. If applied towards architecture, the ADCP could be used as the eyes of the building detecting circulation patterns. This system would interpret the data collected to adjust the interior program to mediate the particular condition.

Input

Output

Figure 3.12 ADCP Input - Output System

User Input: Satellite Data

System Processing: Data processed by Computer

System Output: Data Visually Displayed Response Determined

System Feedback: Conditions Recalibrated and Revaluated. A feedback loop: Satellite sensors detect changes and collect data, transfers data to be evaluated. Action is taken based off data and the system recalibrates/ reevaluates.

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Satellite Systems Geostationary Operational Satellite [GOES]: Geo-synchronous

Environmental

Geo-synchronous satellites (GOES) orbit earth along the equator and monitor major weather developments on one half of the earth. This data can be used to translate movement throughout the building, whether human or automated.

Global Positioning Systems [GPS] Similar weather monitoring technology is also used for Global Positioning Systems (GPS). The US has a satellite that is for public navigation usage. Similar to most technological innovations, GPS technology was originally developed for military use and eventually made available to the public.

Figure 3.13 GPS Cycle

Solar Sensing Photovoltaic Film Photovoltaic Film is very thin and flexible. It can be applied to many different materials and still allow light to pass through. Photovoltaic’s are typically used to transform gathered solar radiation into some form of energy. Photovoltaic’s can also be used in conjunction with other technology to gather and interpret solar data.

Figure 3.14 Photovoltaic Film is flexible and thin

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Programmatic Sensory Programmatic sensory is often used to determine and adjust appropriately to the fluctuation within a system. Such sensory would attempt to measure the changes within a program, such as increase in population, air quality, noise, movement, etc.

Thermistor A thermistor is a type of resistor that is commonly used as a temperature sensor due to its sensitivity to small range temperature change. They are generally made of a ceramic or polymer and vary based on the conditions they are expected to measure/monitor. A thermistor can be used as a building’s thermoregulatory system, carefully gauging temperature, and assuring air quality.

Datalogging A datalogger is an electronic device that collects and stores data over time with relation to a location. The device typically has built in sensory and functions similar to a computer. A datalogger is smaller than a computer, is battery powered, portable, and equipped with a microprocessor, memory and sensors. Dataloggers can interface with other technologies or can be used alone.

Figure 3.15 Thermistor and Datalogger

User Input: IR Sensory

System Processing: Amplifier/ Comparator

System Output: Electric Charged Crystalline/ System Response

System Feedback: Recalibrate/Sense Field of View A feedback loop: IR Sensory detects changes, the change is in the form of heat, the heat generates an output of an electric charge. The electric charge causes a system response, and the system then recalibrates once more, continuing the cycle.

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Pyroelectric Sensor [PIR] Infrared radiation heats the crystalline substrate, which generates an electric charge. This charge can measure the quantity of radiation. Pyroelectric Sensory (if applied to architecture) may behave as the buildings optics, measuring visual densities, temperature, helping in the process to adjust accordingly.

Comparator

Amplifier

IR Filter

Output Fresnel Lense

Input

Figure 3.16 PIR Input and Output

Figure 3.17 PIR

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TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Programmatic Sensory Sound Isolation Sound isolation can be achieved by controlling sound distribution and direction through the use of ultra sound waves or high frequency waves generated in to low frequency waves within the human auditory range. Sound isolation, when applied to architecture, can begin to carve out new spacial boundaries without any physical form. Moreover, directional sound can begin to define certain region experiences, defining a new type

WORDS, WORDS, AND MORE WORDS

WORDS, WORDS, AND MORE WORDS

Figure 3.18 Directed Sound

Figure 3.19 Holosonic Audio Spotlight

User Input: Sensory Input

System Processing: Computer Processes Data

System Output: Directed Sound

System Feedback: Recalibrate Sound Directionality A feedback loop: IR Sensory detects changes, the change is in the form of heat, the heat generates an output of an electric charge. The electric charge causes a system response, and the system then recalibrates once more, continuing the cycle.

033


CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Tracks and Partitions Tracks and partitions are a simple means to temporarily adjust space. Mediums as fabric, sheetrock, glass, etc. are hung from a track system that allows for flexibility within a space. These different materials can be added or removed to help mediate certain spatial conditions.

Figure 3.20 Adjustable Track System

Figure 3.22 Diller and Scofidio “Mural Project” Motorized Track

Figure 3.21 Adjustable Track System

Figure 3.23 Diller and Scofidio “Mural Project” Motorized Track

034


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Structural Technology Hydraulics Hydraulics redistributes force placed on one point to another through incompressible fluid (typically oil). Hydraulics technology is used for heavy lifting. Hydraulic technology is very efficient. The amount of force exerted on the initial point can be multiplied by simple differentiation in piston size (input smaller than output).

Figure 3.24 Hydraulic Power

Conveyor Belts Conveyor belts are often used to quickly move a load. The concept of a conveyor belt can be transferred to the needs of a building in terms envelop kinetics.

Figure 3.25 Adjustable Conveyor Belt System

User Input: Sensory Input

Figure 3.26 Adjustable Conveyor Belt

System Processing: Computer Processes Data

System Feedback: Recalibrate Hydraulic Action with Sensor Data A feedback loop: Hydraulic System adjusts according to the data input and results.

035

System Output: Hydraulic Action


CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM | SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Lycra Lycra is a light weight, elastic material that expands and contracts. As the material expands it loses opacity. Lycra can come in a variety of colors. Lycra is often used for clothing and swim suit design. Moreover, the material is primarily suited for interior design, although with an added fire retardant layer can be used as an exterior fabric. Lycra requires additional supporting structure in order to hold a specific form. 

Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic [Fiberglass] Fiberglass is a high performance material, well known for its lightweight and strength. Fiberglass is commonly used in the structure of boats, automobiles, roofing, and piping. Fiberglass is easily molded into unique forms. Gelcoats of pigmented resin (epoxy or polyester resin) is used on the exterior layer of the mold to help harden and create a more durable finish. Fiberglass, because of its unique moldable, light, and strong nature, is an excellent source for the platform and internal building structure.

Figure 3.28 MoĂŤt & Chandon Marquee by PTW Architects

Figure 3.27 Fiberglass strands

Figure 3.29 Lycra Fiber

036


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

037


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY Schematic

Architecture and technology advance in a proportional manner. With the increase in new technology, architecture is constantly adapting. Man, similar to architecture, is proportionally related to technology, in terms of dependency. As a result, man relies upon the changes within technology and architecture to accommodate their perpetually advancing and dependent needs. Biomimicry has become not only a popular method to calibrate technology with the surrounding environment, but a rubric for how technology can begin to consider the dialogue between the many integrated systems. Technology has become the mediator between man and architecture. Often the moment a building is manifested the classic notion of change over time becomes forgotten. Architecture that incorporates the needs of man is architecture of real-time. Architecture of real-time requires technology that can persevere. Kostas Terzida mentions in “Expressive Form: A conceptual Approach to Computational Design” that, “While the aesthetic value of virtual motion may always be a source of inspiration, its physical implementation in buildings and structure may challenge the very nature of what architecture really is.” There is no inherent technologically adaptive architecture; it must “challenge the conventions of space”.22 Architecture of real-time considers the components of the human body, such as the sensory system, as means for design; entering a world of information feedback - building as body.

User Input: Sensory Data

System Processing: Computer Processes Information

System Feedback: Recalibration with Consideration of Action

038

System Output: Physical Response


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Building as Body Architecture, as the skin of the body, can be a dynamic sensing system, which considers both external and internal conditions and reacts accordingly.

External | Environment External considerations account for the buildings expansion and contraction with relation to environmental factors using a variety of technologies to measure.

Internal | Program Internal considerations account for the buildings divisions in accordance to user and programmatic needs.

External Environment Internal Program

039


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Building as Body | Technology

External

Internal

040


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External | Environment Envelope Solar Utilizing technology such as photovoltaics, hydraulic technology, and weather data sensory, the building skin can adjust to shield or increase exposure to solar radiation.

1 2 3

Wind Utilizing technology such as turbines, and weather data sensory, the building skin can expand and contract, as the lungs of the building.

1 2 3

Diffuse Lighting Diffuse Lighting is when there is no predominant direction from which light is traveling from. To achieve such a condition, the building envelope would adjust to prevent direct sunlight from entering, but open enough to gather lighting indirect.

041


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

1

2

3 2 1

1 1 2

2 3

Day Lighting Day Lighting is characterized by amount of light. In order for a space to gain as much day light as possible the building envelope will adjust in accordance - to gain both direct and indirect sun light.

Energy Collection As the day progresses, the building envelope would adjust according to sun angle in order to accumulate the most photon gain.

042


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External | Environment Envelope Terrain Slope Utilizing technology such as hydraulics, weather data sensory, and simple leveling technology the building envelope can adjust to various sloped locations and unique terrains.

Terrain Composition Utilizing technology such as thermistors, weather data, GPS data, hydraulics, infrared spectroscopy, and data logging, the composition of the soil can be continuously measured and the building envelope can adjust as necessary.

Hard Hard terrain can be defined as earth that has little change or settlement over time (bedrock, slate, etc.). With the use of IR technology the type of soil condition would dictate the appropriate outer and inner envelope reaction. Hard terrain is relatively consistent and does not experience great change over time, therefore the system would not need to recalibrate frequently.

043


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Soft Soft terrain can be defined as any type of inconsistent earth that experiences change over time (sand, silt, gravel, shale, clay, limestone, etc.). With the use of IR technology the type of soil condition would dictate the appropriate outer and inner envelope reaction. Soft terrain is unpredictable and would require constant monitoring and envelope reactions.

Wet Wet terrain can be defined as any type of inconsistent earth that experiences change over time and accommodate wet conditions (sand, silt, gravel, shale, clay, limestone, etc.). IR technology will adjust the building according to the external soil conditions.

044


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Internal | Program Envelope Spatial Division Spatial divisions adjust as the output response to an interior sensing system. Program and users are the determining input factors that determine interior envelope change.

2 1

Programmatic Circulation Utilizing sensing and kinetic technology, space can begin to extend or distend in accordance to programmatic and user needs. Technology that involves data collection, processing and recalibration can help make a more dynamically kinetic space.

2

2

1

1

Interior Condition 1 Adjustments in the section help create different spatial experiences without physical dividers.

045


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

3

2

1 2

1

3

1

3

2

1

2 2

Interior Condition 2 Adjustments laterally in section create spatial division that can divide a room or create entry.

1

2

1

2

1

Interior Condition 3 Adjustments in section both laterally and vertically allow for a variety of spatial conditions. Intimate smaller spaces and larger open spaces can both be achieved through a delicate push and pull within the interior building envelope.

046


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External + Internal | Environment + Program Space Development Dynamic space develops out of multiple factors, internal and external, coming together to form a more rigorously considerate space.

1 2 3

2 1

1 2 3

2

2

Amalgam 1

047

1

1


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

1

1

2

2

3

3

3

2

1 2

1

1 2 3

3 2

1

3

2

1

2

2

Amalgam 2

Amalgam 3

048

1

1


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External + Internal | Environment + Program Solar Adaptation The sun plays a very progressively forward role in the development of the internal and external envelope, both allowing for particular lighting and energy collection. As the day progresses, the building adjusts accordingly and creates a dynamic dialogue between the external (environment) and internal envelopes (program).

1 2 3

2 1

1 2 3

2

2

Amalgam 4

049

1

1


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

2

1

1

3

1

1

2

2

3

3

2

3

3

2

1 2

1

1

1

2

2

3

3 3 2

1

3

2

1

2

2

Amalgam 5

Amalgam 6

050

1

1


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External + Internal | Environment + Program Interstitial Space

2 1

The two envelopes combined create unique in-between space that can be used for a number of different programmatic and environmental conditions. This interstitial space is affected by both sets of conditions. 2 1

1 2

2

2

Amalgam 7

051

1

1


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

2

2 1

1

3

2

1 2

1

1 2

1 2

3 2

1

3

2

1

2 2

Amalgam 8

Amalgam 9

052

1

1


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

External Environment

Internal Program

053


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY Design Development

Through the integration of architecture and technology, building design can adapt to user needs. Behaving similar to a biometric appliance, the building measures, interprets, and integrates data collected from external and internal sources; placing the building in perpetual motion. In order to achieve “architecture of real-time”, the system must behave holistically. The careful consideration of external and internal factors creates unique variation and tension between the otherwise harmonized systems. The two systems working within the Adaptive Appliance are in the form of canopy and a plug in platform system. The canopy can adjust in all directions to accommodate a plethora of situations and the plug in system is a user implemented system, which accommodates the program in the platform. The platform plug in system is complemented by an additional plug in system within the frame itself, allowing for increased user flexibility. The canopy adjusts dynamically in relation to external and internal matter. The inbuilt intelligence of the canopy system allows for the acknowledgment of a number of different issues and the reconciliation of situations through physical action. Such situations can vary from programmatic needs, such as a raise in the canopy to accommodate a movie screen and tiered seating, to the adjustment of the canopy with relation to the suns orientation. The plug in system functions in a different capacity than that of the automated canopy. The plug in system is user developed and designated. Therefore the user can manipulate the landscape created within the platform. Moreover, the canopy begins to delve into a dialogue between the plug in platform and the external environment by negotiating between both needs of the platform (ex. Watering plants) and the environment (ex. Solar Gain). The system behaves in a holistic feedback loop between the user (internal environment), which designates the platform system, and the external environment to create a uniquely free landscape that is constantly adjusting and considering the ever-changing needs of its’ users. System Processing: Computer Processes Information User Input: System Output: Sensory Data Physical Response

System Feedback: Recalibration with Consideration of Action

054


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Structure | External Hydraulic Framework The exterior adjusts to external variable through the use of hydraulics and flexible corner joints. The use of hydraulics allows for varying heights and widths to accommodate the unpredictable external environment.

055


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

056


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Structure | External Hydraulic Function A hydraulic system is used to easily adjust the external envelope to the changing environment. The hydraulic cylinders can extend an additional 16 inches from the at rest state.

A

B

C

057


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

B

32 in.

A

32 in.

C

058


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Structure | External Flexibility Sectional Flexibility The frame of the building uses hydraulics and flexible corner joints to allow for adjustment. The exterior envelope is made of lycra, which can expand and contract with movement. This creates different states of opacity and transparency.

Height Variation

059


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Width Variation

Height and Width Variation

060


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Structure | External Flexibility Plan Flexibility | Width The structural frame is flexible beyond that of simple sectional adjustments. The fram can offer variation in width of each bay. Each bay can expand and contract to allow for this variation.

72

48 24

061

in.

in.

in.


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Structure | External Flexibility Plan Flexibility | Diagonal The structural frame is flexible and can offer variation beyond just width, height. The system is capable of shift diagonally to break away from the orthogonality of the platform.

24 48

72

72 24

062

in.

in.

in.

in.

in.


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop Adaptive Appliance As in biometrics studies and interventions, a technological appliance is often attached or embedded within a subject. Such an appliance is used to quantify and interpret a set of data collected and produces productive feedback to the user. Very similarly, the Adaptive Appliance is placed upon the rooftops to help create a more productive space - reclaiming the forgotten rooftops within many cityscapes.

063


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop Module System The overall rooftop behaves as a landscape. The Adaptive Appliance is a modular system and the overall roof is comprised of several of this modules. The system continues to break down into smaller modular pieces that allow for continued adaptability.

064


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop Exploded Axonometric Envelope

Structural Frame

Plug-in System

Platform

065


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Programmatic Flexibility Platform Plug-in System The platform structure accommodates the insertion of different programmatic pods. The frame can accommodates a multitude of different plug-in pods and this contributes toward the overall system flexibility.

i 42

066

n.


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Programmatic Catalog Bamboo Slate is durable, uniform, and can be refined to a smooth or rough surface texture.

Concrete Bench Seating Concrete can be used to create tiered seating for spaces such as movie theaters, etc.

Sand Sand, although a heavy material in such a large volume, can be used to in “slow sand filter� of water.

Hardscape - Concrete Concrete is durable, uniform, and can be refined to a smooth or rough surface texture.

Agricultural

Different plants can be easily grown within the dept of the planters. The plants can vary from root plants to above ground plants.

Grass

Grass can easily grow within the depth of planters. Grass is particularly useful in filtering water when combined in layers with pebbles and or gravel

067


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Water Storage Seating

Small Trees

Small tress can grow within the planters. The Green Hawthorn is particularly well adapted to such shallow soil conditions.

Slate is durable, uniform, and can be refined to a smooth or rough surface texture.

Energy Storage

Energy can be collected and stored in batteries located throughout the structure, they reside below the hardscape or benches.

Bar top

Designed with the same curvature of the structural platform. The bartop spans two lengths.

Seating

Designed with the same curvature of the structural platform. The seating can come in single or double lengths.

068


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Roof | Programmatic Flexibility Structural Frame Plug-in System Lighting

An LED lighting fixture can be inserted into the structural internal frame to accommodate different lighting conditions.

Misting

A misting fixture can be placed in the internal building frame to accommodate hydroponics, agriculture, and human climatic needs (cooling).

Clips

A “clip� fixture to accommodate any of type of manual impromptu spatial adjustments . The clips can be used for scenarios ranging from spatial division to hammock hanging.

Projector

Simple plug-in technologies, such as a projector can be used to facility film viewing throughout the entire structure.

Sound System

Simple audio speakers can be placed into the structural system in addition to holosonic directional speakers.

Heating

Utilizing similar technology to that used in radiators, heating can be provided through thermal radiation - heated by electricity.

069


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Solar Energy Collection

Water Capturing

Lighting Elements

Energy Storage

Water Storage Soil Filtration

070


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Adaptive Appliance The rooftop with the application of such Adaptive Appliance can begin to shape the rooftop landscape. The applicance literally behaves as a landscape in two different capacities. First, with the fluctuation of the canopy system. Second, with the variation in the plug in system.

Feedback between Appliance and Users With the addition of such an Adaptive Appliance, the rooftop is not only selfsufficent, but also contributes towards the building energy, water, revenue, and food supplies. The users and the rooftop can choose work together harmonically to creat these benifits.

071


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Residential | Co-Op The system can be applied to the roof top of varying height homes closely stacked together, such as row housing or brownstones. Often families live within this building type and such a rooftop intervention could create a unique co-op/ community space above.

072


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Residental Loft | Cultural The system can be applied to the roof top of the numerous renovated warehouses. These spaces are often rennovated and turned into loft spaces. Such spaces have recently attracted younger crowds. Younger crowds would have a unique set of programmatic needs.

073


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Residental Mid-Rise | Community Mid-rise buildings in most cities vary in terms of height and also economic class. Regardless of these variables, such a system could easily accommodate and provide a community space with enough variety for nearly all users.

074


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Structural Flexibility | Solar As the day progresses and the sun moves across the sky and the structural canopy adjusts accordingly to gain solar energy.

0900 to 1200

1200 to 1500

075


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

1500 to 1800

076


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Structural Flexibility | Program The rooftop adaptive appliance can adjust for programmatic needs. The canopy structures can be utilized as indicators for particular behavior ques, such as seating or movement throughout the space. Such spacital usages can be divided in to “Ridgid” (ex. Movie Theater) and “Flexible” (ex. Dog Park) usages.

Flexible Program Ridgid Program

Flexible Program

Ridgid Program

Ridgid Program

077


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Rooftop Scenarios Structural Flexibility | Water Harvesting The rooftop adaptive appliance can calibrate with the weather and adjust to collect rain. The appliance then recirculates the water throughout the system for both applications within the appliance and the supportive buidling.

Water Collection

Ridgid Program Ridgid Program

Flexible Program

Water Collection Flexible Program

Ridgid Program Flexible Program

078


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Programmatic Flexibility Striated Organization Recreation

Mixed Use

Urban Farm

Mixed Use

Urban Farm

Mixed Use

079


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Programmatic Distribution Striated Organization Distribution of different commercial, agricultural, and recreation space that can exist through the use of the double frame and plug in system. This particular scenario considers a striated approach where program is divided by bands of space and canopy.

080


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Roof | Program Details Mixed Use | Recreation

081


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Roof | Program Details Urban Farm | Gardening

082


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Programmatic Flexibility Patch Organization Mixed Use

Recreation

Mixed Use

Urban Farm

Recreation

Urban Farm

Mixed Use

083


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Rooftop | Programmatic Distribution Patch Organization Distribution of different commercial, agricultural, and recreation space that can exist through the use of the double frame and plug in system. This particular scenario considers spatial division by region or patch and allows for aleatory movement through the intestinal spaces.

084


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Roof | Program Details Mixed Use | Cinema

085


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Reclaiming the Roof | Program Details Mixed Use | Leisure

086


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

Reclaiming the Roof Social | Cultural

087


DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

Social | Cultural

088


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

POST WAR FUTURISM: HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS Notes Banham, Reyner. “Architecture After 1960.” Kiesler, Frederick J. “On Correalism and Biotechnique: A Definition and Test of a New Approach to Building Design.” 3 Banham, Reyner. “Futurist Modernism.” 4 Banham, Reyner. “Futurist Modernism.” 5 Lobsinger, Mary Louise. “Cybernetic Theory and the Architecture of Performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace.” Pg 119 6 Lobsinger, Mary Louise. “Cybernetic Theory and the Architecture of Performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace.” Pg 132 7 Lobsinger, Mary Louise. “Cybernetic Theory and the Architecture of Performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace.” Pg 119 8 Lobsinger, Mary Louise. “Cybernetic Theory and the Architecture of Performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace.” Pg 126 1 2

Images Figure 2.1 Pask’s Rendition on the Fun Palace. Pask Plans. SLCL. CA work and thoughts. < http://slcl.ca/tag/theory/>. 2 Dec. 2010. SLCL.CA. “Posts Tagged: Theory”. Accessed December 01, 2010. < http://slcl.ca/tag/theory/> Figure 2.2 Courtsey of Beatriz Colomia in “Enclosed by Images”. View of Eams Moscow World’s Fiar Auditorium Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture” Grey Room 02. Grey Room Inc. and MIT, 2001: 6-29. Print. Figure 2.3 Courtsey of Beatriz Colomia in “Enclosed by Images”. Screen Perception Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture” Grey Room 02. Grey Room Inc. and MIT, 2001: 6-29. Print. Figure 2. 4 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique” Kiesler, Frederick J. “On Correalism and Biotechnique: A Definition and Test of a New Approach to Building Design.” Architectural Record (September 1939): 60-75. Print.Figure 1.4 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique” Figure 2.5 Standardization Process of Product Development Kiesler, Frederick J. “On Correalism and Biotechnique: A Definition and Test of a New Approach to Building Design.” Architectural Record (September 1939): 60-75. Print. Figure 2.6 Cockpit Design Hookway, Branden. “Cockpit.” Essay. Print. Figure 2.7 Fun Palace; diagrams for pilot project, 1961-65. Cedric Price, architect. CCA Colection. Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture” Grey Room 02. Grey Room Inc. and MIT, 2001: 6-29. Print. Figure 2.8 Fun Palace; sketches plans, 1961-65. Cedric Price, architect. CCA Colection. Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture” Grey Room 02. Grey Room Inc. and MIT, 2001: 6-29. Print. Figure 2.9 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique” Kiesler, Frederick J. “On Correalism and Biotechnique: A Definition and Test of a New Approach to Building Design.” Architectural Record (September 1939): 60-75. Print.Figure 1.4 Kiesler in “Correalism and Biotechnique”

089


POST WAR FUTURISM | HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS

POST WAR FUTURISM: HUMAN SENSORY AND CYBERNETICS Work Cited Banham, Reyner. “Architecture After 1960.” Architectural Record. Rpt. in Human Sciences. By Riohard Liewlyn Davies.Print. Banham, Reyner. “Futurist Modernism.” Histories of the Immediate Present Inventing Architectural Modernism. By Anthony Vidler. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2008. Print. Banham, Reyner. “Towards a Million-Volt Light and Sound Culture.” Architectural Review (May 1967): 331-35. Print. Branda, Ewan. “Virtual Machines: Programming Beaubourg’s Information Spaces.” April 2008. Chipchase, Jan. “Connections and Consequences.” TED2007. Lecture. Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture” Grey Room 02. Grey Room Inc. and MIT, 2001: 6-29. Print. Hemmert, Fabian. “The Shape-Shifting Future of the Mobile Phone.” TEDxBerlin. Berlin. Feb. 2010. Lecture. Hookway, Branden. “Cockpit.” Essay. Print. Kiesler, Frederick J. “On Correalism and Biotechnique: A Definition and Test of a New Approach to Building Design.” Architectural Record (September 1939): 60-75. Print. Lobsinger, Mary Louise. “Cybernetic Theory and the Architecture of Performance: Cedric Price’s Fun Palace.” Anxious Modernisms: Experimentation in Postwar Architectural Culture. By Sarah Williams. Goldhagen and Réjean Legault. Montréal: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 2000. Print. Mindell, David A. “Introduction: A History of Control Systems.” Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing before Cybernetics. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2002. 1-12. Print. Pask Plans. SLCL. CA work and thoughts. < http://slcl.ca/tag/theory/>. 2 Dec. 2010. Price, Cedric. “Life Conditioning,” Cedric Price-The Square Book. By Cedric Price. AD October, 1966. Price, Cedric. “1964 - Lea Valley and Mill Mead.”The Architecture of Cedric Price (1964): 101-141. Print. Price, Cedric. “The Beginnings of the Fun Palace.”The Architecture of Cedric Price (1964): 65-99. Print. Price, Cedric. “The End of The Fun Palace” The Architecture of Cedric Price (1964): 143-169. Print. Price, Cedric. “The Fun Palace: What Went Wrong?” The Architecture of Cedric Price (1964): 171-191. Print. Schell, Jesse. “When Games Invade Real Life.” DICE Summit. Las Vegas. Apr. 2010. Lecture. Treasure, Julian. “Julian Treasure.” TEDGlobal 2010. Keble Theater, Oxfod. July 2010. Lecture.

090


TECHNO-FUTURISM | ARCHITECTURE, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY

CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM: SENSING TECHNOLOGY Notes “The Biometric Consortium | Introduction to Biometrics.” The Biometric Consortium. http://biometrics.org/introduction.php (accessed October 12, 2010). 10 National Science and Technology Council (NSTC): Subcommittee on Biometrics. “History.” Biometrics. http://www.biometrics.gov/ Documents/biohistory.pdf (accessed October 12, 2010). 11 “The Biometric Consortium | Introduction to Biometrics.” The Biometric Consortium. http://biometrics.org/introduction.php (accessed October 12, 2010). 12 “The Biometric Consortium | Introduction to Biometrics.” The Biometric Consortium. http://biometrics.org/introduction.php (accessed October 12, 2010). 13 “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). 14 Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). 9

“Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). 17 “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). 18 “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). 19 Estivalet, Margarete, and Pierre Brisson. The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 2. 1st ed. 2008. 2nd printing ed. New York: Springer, 2009. Print. P 46 20 Estivalet, Margarete, and Pierre Brisson. The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 2. 1st ed. 2008. 2nd printing ed. New York: Springer, 2009. Print. P 46 21 “NOAA Ocean Explorer: Vessels: Gunter.” NOAA, Ocean Explorer. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoust_doppler/acoust_ doppler. html (accessed October 31, 2010). 22 “Liz Diller plays with architecture | Video on TED.com.” TED: Ideas worth spreading. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ted.com/talks/ lang/eng/liz_diller_plays_with_architecture.html>. 15 16

Images 3.1 Blur Buildin by Diller + Scofidio Architects. The physical building is a complex scaffold, with highly precise sensing system to determine weather patterns. The entire building is enshrouded in mist, providing a blurred effect from the outside and in. Figure 3.2 Face Recognition “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.4 DNA “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.4 Retina Scan “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.3 Palm Vein Biometrics, www.biometricvisions.com “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.6 Fingerprint Identification “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.7 Keystroke Dynamic/ Behavioral Pattern, www.biometricvisions.com “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010).

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM: SENSING TECHNOLOGY Work Cited “Abe the Good Dwarf .” Futurecraft . http://futurecraft.media.mit.edu/thegooddwarf/ (accessed October 13, 2010) “Air Quality: Measurement Instrumentation for Air Quality Monitoring .” Campbell Scientific: dataloggers, data acquisition systems, weather stations. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.campbellsci.com/air-quality>. “Audio Spotlight - Add sound and preserve the quiet..” Audio Spotlight - Add sound and preserve the quiet.. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.holosonics.com/>. Barnes, Ralph M.. Motion and Time Study: Design and Measurement of Work. 1940. Reprint, New York, NY: Wiley, 1980. “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). “Buzz Beast.” Buzz Beast. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <http://www.buzz-beast.com/>. “CR1000: Measurement and Control Datalogger.” Campbell Scientific: dataloggers, data acquisition systems, weather stations. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.campbellsci.com/cr100 “DIAGRAM :: Operating-room setup showing tables for instruments and supplies designed to facilitate the work of the surgeon, his assistants, and the nurses. .” DIAGRAM : Yours for a Day. http://thediagram.com/7_1/operating-room.html (accessed October 15, 2010). Estivalet, Margarete, and Pierre Brisson. The Engineering of Sport 7: Vol. 2. 1st ed. 2008. 2nd printing ed. New York: Springer, 2009. Print. Gall, Juergen, Edilson de Aguiar, Christian Theobalt, Bodo Rosenhahn, and Hans-Peter Seidel. “Motion Capture Using Joint Skeleton Tracking and Surface Estimation.” (2009): < http://www.mpi-inf.mpg.de/~stoll/paper/stse.pdf>. 30 Oct. 2010. “General Purpose Precision Water Resistant Probe.” Thermistor Manufacturer, Thermistor Temperature Sensor, Thermistors, USB Data Logger. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.thermistor.com/productDetails.php?prodID=33>. “ Get Started with Kinect - Xbox.com .” Home - Xbox.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.xbox.com/en-US/Kinect/GetStarted>. GloLab Corporation. “How Infrared Motion Detector Components Work.” Electronic Modules, Kits and Components. http://www.glolab.com/ pirparts/infrared.html (accessed October 28, 2010). Jagadeesan, H. “A novel approach to design of user re-authentication systems.” Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems 3 (2009): 1-6. Kostas Terizidas, Expressive Form: A conceptual Approach to Computational Design [London: Spon Press, 2003], 33-45. “Living Glass.” The Living. http://www.thelivingnewyork.com/ (accessed October 28, 2010). “Liz Diller plays with architecture | Video on TED.com.” TED: Ideas worth spreading. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2010. <http://www.ted.com/talks/ lang/eng/liz_diller_plays_with_architecture.html>. Lycra. Denims. < http://www.denimsandjeans.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/image.png>. 7 Dec. 2010.

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM: SENSING TECHNOLOGY

Figure 3.8 Speaker Recognition, “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010).

Images [continued] Figure 3.9 Odor Recognition “Biometric Visions - Technology.” Biometric Visions. http://biometricvisions.com (accessed October 12, 2010). Figure 3.10 Motion Capturing Technology (Direct), Avatar “ The 411….” The 411…. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <http://www.kipsang.wordpress.com>. Figure 3.11 Weather Tower by Lab[au] located in Brussels, “Buzz Beast.” Buzz Beast. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <http://www.buzz-beast.com/>. Figure 3.12 ADCP Input Output System Figure 3.13 GPS Cycle Figure 3.14 Photovoltaic Film Thin and Flexible Nicera RE-210 - Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor. Freak Lab Store. Web. 30 Oct. 2010. Figure 3.15 Thermistor and Datalogger, Datalogger [CR1000] Measurement and Control Datalogger, www.thermistor.com, Termistor [QT06024C] Hydroguard General Purpose Precision Thermistor Probe, www.thermistor.com Figure 3.16 PIR input Out Put Figure 3.17 PIR GloLab Corporation. “How Infrared Motion Detector Components Work.” Electronic Modules, Kits and Components. http://www.glolab.com/ pirparts/ infrared.html (accessed October 28, 2010). Figure 3.18 Directed Sound Figure 3.19 Directioned Sound “Audio Spotlight - Add sound and preserve the quiet..” Audio Spotlight - Add sound and preserve the quiet.. ., Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www. holosonics.com/>. Figure 3.20 Adjustable Track System Figure 3.21 Adjustable Track System Figure 3.22 Diller and Scofidio “Mural Project” Motorized Track Figure 3.23 Diller and Scofidio “Mural Project” Motorized Track Figure 3.24 Hydraulic “Reed’s Hydraulics.” Reed’s Hydraulics. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <http://www.reedshydraulics.com>. Figure 3.25 Adjustable Conveyor Belt System Power Flex 15. Best conventions. < http://www.bestconveyors.co.uk/images/products/product3_large.jpg>. 1 Dec. 2010. Figure 3.26 Conveyor System

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM: SENSING TECHNOLOGY Work Cited [continued] Malnar, Joy Monice, and Frank Vodvarka. Sensory Design. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004. Print. Moet and Chandon Marquee by PTW Architects. Cube Me. < http://cubeme.com/blog/2009/01/06/moet-chandon-marquee-by-ptw-architects/>. 1 Dec. 2010. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC): Subcommittee on Biometrics. “History.” Biometrics. http://www.biometrics.gov/Documents/ biohistory. pdf (accessed October 12, 2010). Nicera RE-210 - Pyroelectric Infrared Sensor. Freak Lab Store. Web. 30 Oct. 2010. “NOAA Ocean Explorer: Vessels: Gunter.” NOAA, Ocean Explorer. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/tools/acoust_doppler/acoust_ doppler.html (accessed October 31, 2010). “PM2.5 Monitoring - NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation.” New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2010. <http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/8539.html>. “OR Design: Four steps for sucess [pdf].” OR Design & Construction Resources. <http://ordesignandconstruction.com/dp/foursteps.htm>. October 13, 2010. Power Flex 15. Best conventions. < http://www.bestconveyors.co.uk/images/products/product3_large.jpg>. 1 Dec. 2010. “Reed’s Hydraulics.” Reed’s Hydraulics. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec. 2010. <http://www.reedshydraulics.com>. Small Osteopathy. Body of Harmony. Web. 9 Sept. 2009. Sneh Lakshmi, D, and Y Lakshmi Praveena. “AVATAR- The Cast of Motion Capture Technology.” Yuva Engineers. <http://www.yuvaengineers. com/?p=327 >.October 13, 2010. Sterling, Bruce. Tomorrow Now: Envisioning the Next Fifty Years. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 2002. Print. “The Biometric Consortium | Introduction to Biometrics.” The Biometric Consortium. http://biometrics.org/introduction.php (accessed October 12, 2010). Track and Driver. Cornflex: Space Optimization Experts. < http://www.corflex.ca/en/products/operable/motorized/standards/tracks-carriers. html>. 1 Nov. 2010. Vance, Ashlee. “With Kinect, Microsoft Aims for a Game Changer.” New York Times, October 23, 2010. <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/ business/24kinect.html>.October 24, 2010. Wiener, Norbert. The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Da Capo Paperback). New Ed ed. New York and Washington D.C.: Da Capo Press, 1954. Print.

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CONTEMPORARY FUTURISM: SENSING TECHNOLOGY Power Flex 15. Best conventions. < http://www.bestconveyors.co.uk/images/products/product3_large.jpg>. 1 Dec. 2010. Figure 3.27 Fiberglass Strands Fiberglass. < http://www.easybizchina.com/picture/product/200810/22-14309eb2-f119-4af6-a199-e700fc14a1fd.jpg>. 12 Feb. 2011 Figure 3.28 Lycra Lycra. Denims. < http://www.denimsandjeans.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/image.png>. 7 Dec. 2010.

Images [continued] 3.29 Lycra Lycra. Denims. < http://www.denimsandjeans.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/image.png>. 7 Dec. 2010.

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DESIGN PROPOSAL | BUILDING AS BODY

DESIGN PROPOSAL: BUILDING AS BODY Work Cited Schleifer, Simone, Marta Serrats, and Mireia Soley. Cloud9: rooftop architecture. Barcelona, Spain: Loft Publications, 2010. Print.

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Needmorphology | Building as Body