trend alert!! shape silhouette structure
A lot can happen in a year.
1980 marked a time of new beginnings for society and for fashion. Rather than anarchic protesting, people began to accept the changes being made around them. And if they didn’t approve or ‘fit in’, they’d create their own society and culture. The 80s were a time to show personality, and to show off beauty. With women’s rights becoming stronger, and with females showing a stronger presence in the work place, women began to work what God gave them to their advantage. Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the UK, massively influenced fashion and the outlook of the female race, Sexuality came into play more so than ever in the 80s, becoming a topic for discussion on par with racism and social status. These were times of great influence, with social, economic and cultural changes across the world. Even though the 80s are notably marked by a severe recession, wealth and production migrated to new industrializing economies, which allowed the fashion world to flourish with the influences of Europe, and the United States. A major change for Western society kicked off 1980; Ronald Reagan was elected the 40th President of the United States, with 51% of the votes. After being in office for 69 days he survived an assassination attempt, whilst on the contrary, a few months later Beatles icon John Lennon was notoriously killed. Advances in technology allowed broadcasting to improve, with the launch of CNN in America, and the first ever airing of the influential and fashionable American soap opera Dallas. The arcade game Pac Man was launched, allowing advances in gaming technology to rapidly pick up and progress over the coming decade.
clothing and undergarments give the body in the attire of a given period. Shapes and silhouettes in fashion change over time. Many periods in women's fashion even have a distinct silhouette that we automatically associate with the clothing of that decade or era.
Before the â€˜80s it was never possible for women to be a worker, a mother and a wife all at the same time. It was a time when women were starting to reach a social status, which is equal to men, despite the past the clichĂŠ of housewives and mothers. Power was starting emerge within females persona reflected by occupation, status and style. A silhouette of women to come was being shaped. The fashion industry portrayed this with metaphor of power and masculinity. An allegorical architecture of the female form showed the optimistic Western society and culture with an expressive postmodern take on a new start after the grim interlude of the 1970â€™s and the long post-war depression. There was a heavy use of textiles and European influence with the rise of high fashion at the time. Haute Couture was back in fashion with Vogue being the favourite high fashion magazine of choice at the time.
The textile structure was said to be symbolic, a functional transposition of a new mode for women to exist in the world. Society, in ferment with destabilizing social-political and emotional phenomena, gave in to the allurement of a previously unheard of call to order, or at least a formal order.
‘Superbody’: During this time the clothes produced were constructed around the body, giving form. Or, at a time with cultural influences of film and music, sportswear was heavily introduced and worn as a fashion trend, as well as a ‘uniform’. Aerobics and the gym influenced a new range of clothes entirely showing the natural structure of the female body. FORM NEVER NECESSARILY FOLLOWED FUNCTION, The strong structure and shape of clothing changed from overtly feminine to masculine and authoritative. Shoulder pads and military influence with cut, shape and features that gave women a masculine, yet feminine body form. Domineering; but sexy. New possibilities for employment and a brighter future gave women confidence and rights to be a free person and be expressive. The female superbody is a clash between couture’s memory and a fascination with uniforms, military, masculinity and a responsibility for new commitments.
Shape, Silhouette, Structure. trend alert!!
Upcoming fashion photographers blossomed throughout the 80s, with the likes of Richard Avedon and Arthur Elgort, filling the pages of Vogue with monthly fashion inspiration for those who were willing to stand out and make a difference. Vogue magazine was first established in 1892. Itâ€™s first major change for success came around in 1973, when editor-in-chief Grace Mirabella decided to make some alterations to content. Haute couture began to emerge once again, after the long post-war depression, and this was a perfect way to showcase it. Itâ€™s aesthetics and content choices changed from contemporary fashion, to luxury fashion in order to keep inline with its target audience. The high luxury element made Vogue a choice for the fashion and designer conscious audience. No other magazine at this time reflected such a wide variety of styles and features.
VOGUe // /////
trend: unisex clothes
Hamnett’s early collections utilized parachute silk, cotton jersey and dril, which she cut as functional unisex styles, based on traditional workwear that became her hallmark, and like many of her designs, spawned a thousand imitations.
Born: Gravesend, 1948.
Simple clothes, structure and shape which can be worn by either sex.
Career: Cofounder, Tuttabanken Sportswear, London, 1970; Freelance designer, London, Paris, Rome and Hong Kong, 1970-79; Katharine Hamnett, Ltd. founded, London, 1979; Menswear line introduced,1982; Launched “Choose Life” shirts, 1983; Flagship London shop and three others opened, 1986; Showed spring/summer womenswear collection at the Natural History Museum, 1995; Men’s business suit collections—the “body” suit, 1996.
Examples of these can be seen above to the right. To the left is her slightly later unisex designs which were developed.
/////////// During the early 1980s, gay rights started to be more widely accepted across western cultures, especially with fashion, music, film and women’s rights also taking off. This allowed people to be more comfortable with their sexualities, and enabling them to express themselves through clothing, and not soley personality, The industry drew a figure dislocting the signs of masculinity and feminintiy that predominated the culture codes, but didn’t propose the utopia of unisex clothing.
Education: Studied at Cheltenham Ladies College and at St Martin’s School of Art, London, 1965-69.
Awards: International Institute for Cotton Designer of the Year award, 1982; British Fashion Industry Designer of the Year award, 1984; Bath Museum of Costume Dress of the Year award, 1984; Menswear Designer of the Year award, 1984; British Knitting and Clothing Export Council award, 1988. Address: 202 New North Road, London N1 7BJ, England.
A British designer as much recognized for her political and environmental beliefs as she is for her catwalk collections, Katharine Hamnett designed some of the most plagirized fashion ideas in the 1980s. Hamnett set up her own company in 1979 after freelancing for various European companies for ten years. Although the designer claims she never intended to become involved in the manufacturing side of the fashion industry, preferring to concentrate solely on design, she was often, as a freelancer, treated badly. In 1979 she produced her own collection under the Katharine Hamnett Ltd. label, of which six jackets were taken by the London fashion retailer, Joseph Ettedgui, and subsequently sold out. She was very aware of ethics of fashion and fabrics, taking into consideration which cotton she used, sourcing and making use of faritrade goods.
this is katharine hamnett
This was the start of the revolution within advertising: SEX SELLS.
In1980 a controversial Calvin Klein advertisement was banned from “Tiffany Network”; now CBS. It was at the peak of the rise of the sexy female form being used as a powerful weapon, and Richard Avedon used Brooke Shields as a revolutionary turning point for Calvin Klein. Exploiting the then15year-old model, as a desirable object, purring the lines; “You know what comes between me and my Calvin’s? Nothing.” Calvin Klein’s ad’s progressed from this rapidly over time using playful innuendo to capture the attention of its viewers. Calvin Klein took influence from film and body image, using the iconic Sigourney Weaver shot from Alien as a true inspiration. Skin, boobs and underwear, were seen to be a winner for the advertising world of the early 80s. Women were more relaxed about showing what God gave them, compared to the conservative tendencies of the 40s and 50s.
richard gere in giorgio armarni
American Gigolo, directed by Paul Schrader, is arguably noted for two things, it’s protagonist, and what he wears. With a wardrobe designed by Armani, an upcoming high-end fashion designer at the time, it needed to make an impression upon its viewers. At the beginning of the 1980s, it was Italian designers who led a revolution when it came to tailoring; removing the shoulder pads out of men’s suits, and adding them into women’s. Originally his garments were designed to accentuate the masculine build, but following suit of fellow designer Daniel Hechter in the mid-70s, he changed his direction of aesthetic and cut. Components once seen on males tailoring, was now being seen on women’s clothes alike. Oversize blousons, shoulder pads and heavy pleating became the essential comparative power suit. Silhouette and structure were built around the body, and with fabrics being available in a variety of textile and colour choices, it was the ‘in’ trend for a savvy businessman. Seen as a luxury brand, Giorgio Armani basked in the glory received from the film, and the fashion. A simple class had been born. Armani dominate American Gigolo in the best on screen product placement and advertising ever received. Every line was shown within the 2-hour movie; formal, semi-formal, casual, daytime, evening, leisurewear, underwear and accessories. The brand image was said to be a creation that came from film, and that is essentially what the viewer is watching; an Armani collection coming to life, blossoming, disguised in the context of sartorial fashion choices defining the lifestyle given to the character. Armani were not selling a lifestyle choice with this film; he was selling a look. Even though this may be narcissistic, the dominance, yet laid-back image exude sex appeal, promoting the line to both sexes. He’s the highest paid lover in Beverly Hills. He leaves them feeling more alive than they’ve ever felt before. Except one.
the calvin klein trend
SIGOURNEY WEAVER STARS IN 1980S CULT CLASSIC ALIEN. ONE SCENE IN PARTICULAR FEATURING WEAVER HOT AND BOTHERED IN HER SHIP WAS THE INFLUENCE OF CALVIN KLEIN’S UNDERWEAR AD. THE FEMALE FORM WAS TO BE SHOWN MUCH MORE THROUGHOUT THE 80S, HOWEVER THIS MARKED A TIME OF NEW BEGINNINGS WITH A TRUE, RAW, SEX APPEAL BEING SHOWN TO SELL PRODUCTS.
1980 was a big year for Barbie, with the release of the first Black and Hispanic Barbie Dolls. In 1981, an Oriental Barbie was released due to the previous success of the previous editions. The first African American Barbie doll came dressed in a red business dress. She was said to resemble Felicia Rashad. Prior to this Barbie dolls were designed as stereotypical white dolls, with changeable accessories, clothes and pre-defined facial features. Bringing out different races of dolls never seemed important prior to the 1980s, however the success stemmed this range into its own right. Racism has been an issue globally, especially in America in the early 90s, whilst progressing into the latter of the decade; equality was reached, thanks to protesters, hard work and festivals such as Rock Against Racism.
Barbie Against Racism
“A black Barbie? Oh, my!”
Since World War I, there have been mixed views on the topic of racism. It is said evidence exists, portraying politicians and public figures to of condemned all forms of racism, but then ironically been accused of pandering to racist attitudes through the media. In the 1970s, far-right political parties such as the British National Front stood with passion and expression, as a “racial nationalist, whites only political party” Deemed as “fascist and neo-fascist” due to it’s strategic policies. Due to the policies in hand, the British prison and police services are forbidden to be a member or supporter of the group, and this continues to present day. A controversy and uproar would arise and protest against the British National Front, due to the noted reintroduction of Section 28, and the support given to the re-criminalization of homosexuality, along with repealing the 1967 Abortion Act, claiming abortion is a “crime against humanity” However a decade later, the party rapidly declined throughout the 1980s with Margret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the UK, and leader of the Conservative party. Racism has always been a problem, and to some extent is still a problem today. However after the grim 1970s, society aspired to be more optimistic and with changes being made for the greater good of the country, racism slowly faded into the background, and was no longer a main topic of conversation. Races were mixing at work more with equal rights and opportunities for women. Fashion peaked throughout the 1980s and fought back against racist claims by introducing black models for fashion photography and catwalk shows. Throughout the 1980s Michael Jackson bleached his skin to appear whiter in complexion, being obsessed with his image. An icon in his own right, he stood proud against whether he was “Black or White” and released a number 1 hit with the same title a few years later. Through fashion, media and publishing racism began to be forgotten about, and the fashion industry passionately showed how each individual is beautiful; regardless of skin colour.
â€œRock Against Racism (RAR) was a campaign set up in the United Kingdom in 1976 as a response to an increase in racial conflict and the growth of white nationalist groups such as the National Front. The campaign involved pop, rock, punk and reggae musicians staging concerts with an anti-racist theme, in order to discourage young people from embracing racism. The campaign was founded, in part, as a response to statements and activities by well-known rock musicians that were widely regarded as racist.. Further support for RAR came after David Bowie, speaking as The Thin White Duke, his persona at the time, made statements that expressed support for fascism and perceived admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with Playboy, NME and a Swedish publication. Bowie was quoted as saying: "Britain is ready for a fascist leader... I think Britain could benefit from a fascist leader. After all, fascism is really nationalism... I believe very strongly in fascism, people have always responded with greater efficiency under a regimental leadership." He was also quoted as saying: "Adolf Hitler was one of the first rock stars" and "You've got to have an extreme right front come up and sweep everything off its feet and tidy everything up." Bowie caused further controversy by allegedly making a Nazi salute while riding in a convertible, although Bowie has always strongly denied this, insisting that a photographer simply caught him in the middle of waving. Bowie's claim seems to be borne out by existing footage of the event.â€?
trend: nyc glamour PRINCESS DIANA
JOAN COLLINS BOY GEORGE MADONNA EY CHRISTIE BRINKL
JEWELS GLAMOUR FUR RICH COLOUR LEOPARD RED LIPS DIAMONDS CITY JOBS INTERNSHIP
Following films such as Fame fashion trends were heavily influenced by the character on screen, for example, Irene Caraâ€™s character Coco Hernandez became noted in the industry for leggings, sweaters, oversized t-shirts and off the shoulder tops. This came around at a time also when aerobics and gym wear were being reintroduced through fashion magazines such as Vogue, showing style, passion and taste. Leotards, bodysuits and jumpsuits became popular throughout the 80s, popularized through fitness aerobics, but worn under a skirt or shorts for a fashionable, nighttime twist.
TREND ALert: off the shoulder, sport
1981 was an exciting year for those in the UK and the USA at the time. First off, the President of the United States, Ronald Reagan decided to equip the nation with a neutron bomb, as precaution for future wars, whilst ‘Crack’, the synthetic drug appeared on the market in the US, and was fashionable with the ‘Yuppies’ and music industry at the time. Prince Charles and Princess Diana married on the 29th of July, causing an optimistic and patriotic future for Western society and the Royal family alike. This was positive news for the UK, and she became an icon of patriotism and fashion.
Postmodern Graphic Design began to emerge more throughout the decade with more publications on fashion, music, culture and society being brought out every year. Neville Brody, a notable Graphic Designer in his own right became Art Director, Typographer and Head Designer of The Face; a British fashion, culture and music magazine that was first introduced in 1980 by Nick Logan. The Face was famous for influencing style and hair trends throughout the 80s and 90s, especially the ‘New Romantic’ movement. Art and Design were popular throughout this period with artists such as Jean-Michel Basquait and Andy Warhol being featured in exhibitions worldwide. Even though the 80s was predominantly postmodern, a book released by Tom Wolfe was released entitled “From Bauhaus to Our House”, showing minimalism in a new light, to a new audience, ensuring enthusiasts and fans of modern design, that minimalism isn’t dead, with the overtake of colour and raw aesthetics. Fashion trends continued to flourish with the introduction of Vivienne Westwood, who would change fashions influence forever. She designed clothes for the New Romantic movement leaders, Adam Ant and Bow Wow Wow, and Armani causing a fuss in the movie industry. Dynasty, the American TV show was released at a time when the female role had changed rapidly encouraging fashion trends to remain strong year after year, being supported by fashion photography and Margaret Thatcher’s influence on formal wear. 1981 marked the year MTV went live globally, which would inspire future artists, fashion designers’ future work.
new!! // emporio armarni armarni jeans
Founded: 1975, Milan First in Vogue: 1977 Labels: Giorgio Armani, Armani Prive, Emporio Armani, Emporio Armani EA7, Armani Exchange, Armani Collezioni Mani, Giorgio Armani A. Milano Borgonuovo 21, Giorgio Armani, Le Collezioni Giorgio Armani Classico Vogue Covers: 6 “He has created a unique style, one that you can recognize without a label,” his fellow Italian designer Carla Fendi said, way back in 1981.
Giorgio Armani introduces Emporio Armani, Armani Junior and Armani Jeans in 1981. Armani Jeans is a bridge-line collection of denim-related clothing. It is said that the colours used for his two new lines which were released are much more diverse than those used in his higher end lines. In the 1980’s his collections were smart, classy, simple and used a variety of high-end luxury fabrics and tweeds for his tailoring. These spin off lines were notably cheaper than his couture lines, which were often featured, in high-end magazines. By the end of 1980, worldwide annual sales reached $120m and looked for a positive, expanding future. A deal was signed with L’Oreal for the creation of a signature fragrance, and American Gigalo transformed the face of Armani for the future allowing prosperity. In 1981, Armani’s initials combined with an imperial eagle, formed a trademark logo, and appeared on jeans, t-shirts, shoes and sportswear. Armani was one of the first fashion designers to differentiate the brand using an embellished logo. Andy Warhol who was at his prime in the 80s created a silkscreened portrait of Armani himself. He won GQ’s men’s Style Award for Best Fashion Designer, watched his first dresses walk down the autumn/winter runway as well as opening the first Emporio Armani boutique in the city it was founded in; Milan. As the decade went on, he won more awards, created more Armani lines, including a eyewear and a home ware collection. In 1987 he designed outfits for Brian De Palma’s ‘The Untouchables’, and was later nominated for an Oscar for Costume Design.
Pirates, AW 1981-82, first catwalk show. - Plundering history and the Third World. - Research into historical dress, keeping the original cuts as fashion. - Inspiration from Native Americans. Ethnic cuts. - Pirate trousers had a baggy bum/complete contrast to hippy hipsters and tight arse. - Position of neck hole â€“ when worn, garment is asymmetrical. - At this important point in her career, Vivienne developed ethnic cutting techniques which are based on rectangles. She has an idea she knows will work, knocks it up in rough and in small scale and tries it out on a little dummy. Through various adjustments and fittings she arrives at a full scale finished garment in the right fabric. Clothes always have a dynamic with the body. She continues to mix this in with historical cuts.
The Pirate Collection of 1981 was Westwood and McLarenâ€™s first catwall show. This offered a romantic look which burst onto the London fashion scene and ensured this collectionâ€™s place in history.
trend: ‘Pirate’ With ‘Pirate’, Westwood began an exploration of historical cut and tailoring that would inform her life's work. The loose-cut trousers and romantic, billowing shirts, with their vermicular ‘squiggle’ print, were based faithfully on 18th-century men’s clothing. Westwood blended the idea of the pirate wth the North American Indian and the early 19th-century French Merveilleuses. This heady mix created collection that burst onto the London fashion scene in a riot of gold, orange and yellow. It is said that this trend started the new romantic movement of fashion which aroused at this point of the decade. A cross over between masculinity, and femininity also marked the revolution of ‘cross dress’ in the 1980’s. She influenced the New Romantics of the time in the music industry influencing a new trend,, which was donned by many.
viv westwood for adam ant bow wow wow
trend alert ! new romantics The New Romantic movement peaked in the 80s, with the new wave music scene that was associated with the trend. However some artists such as Adam and the Ants, flaunted New Romantic fashions, but played postmodern punk. Vivienne Westwood notably designed clothes for artists influenced by the fashion trend at the time. The aim of being a New Romantic is express yourself, be unique, be noticed and to be seen as ‘different’ or ‘cool’, opposed to those following main stream fashion trends. New Romanticism at this time is said to stem from the nightclub Billy’s in London.
It ran Bowie and Roxy Music nights towards the end of the 70s, and in 1979 relocated to the Blitz due to the growing popularity of the music and culture behind being a New Romantic. The Blitz became known for it’s colourful and extrovert fashionistas, or ‘Blitz Kids’, which “greatly contrasted with the ripped/offensive t-shirts and jeans associated with the punk movement which was also around at the time.
boy george culture club duran duran
Both sexes experimented with androgynous clothing and heavy make-up. The fashions worn throughout this movement are said to be inspired by numerous influences; glam fashion of the 70s, science fiction and The Rocky Horror Picture show, Vivienne Westwood and Hollywood.
Nolan Miller for Dynasty: â€œEverything matches: the suit, the hats, the gloves, the jewelry,â€? Linda Evans and Joan Collins
trend: shoulder pads & glamour
Dynasty Dynasty was a 1980s fantasy soap opera, which promoted fashions such as shoulder pads, costume jewelry and big hair. It was a time when luxury was an expense, but anyone who wanted to be someone, and be noticed delved into the trap of luxury purchases, designer suits and credit cards, enabling them to fund the 80s lifestyle. Fine jewelry and costume jewelry was worn at all times of day, and became a part of mainstream fashion. Real diamonds, fake diamonds, pearls and gold were thrown about lavishly. Over the top fashions came from Dynasty; use of bright colours, such as fuchsia, royal blue and see green, chiffon, silk and feathers were often used, and underneath the dresses was covetable underwear and lingerie. French knickers and one piece suits were most favoured around this time period and were seen as sexy, feminine and chic, something which had not been seen and shown before.
sequins gold jewels flowers print
Big shoulders meant getting noticed, and identity in the workplace began to shine through as the decade progressed. Wider cut sleeves and large shoulder pads were used to give a masculine, authoritarian look, which was balanced out with feminine fabrics and rolled sleeves. This look was also seen on Margaret Thatcher throughout her time in office and beyond. To accompany the look, accessories were important. Shawls were seen as necessary to complete an outfit, with instructional leaflets to go along with them, showing dozens of ways they can be worn. Chanel and Louis Vuitton were two popular bag designers at the time, and it was common to have the classic Louis Vuitton luggage. Brightly coloured tights were re introduced in the 80s, some being finished with flocking or embellishments.
1982 1982 started with a bang! The Falklands war ended, with a British Victory thanks to the leadership of Thatcher at the time. However, in mainland Europe, Italy won the World Cup, whilst Princess of Monaco and style icon Grace Kelly died tragically in a car crash. Dynasty, the American soap opera was first aired in Italy, giving influence to European fashion, whilst adapting it at the same time for future seriesâ€™. Cult classics E.T. and Rambo arrived on our cinema screens allowing for a new revolution of cinema to erupt, with Return of the Jedi, Scarface and The A Team to be released soon after. Katharine Hamnett was named designer of the year.
PRINCESS GRACE KELLY - streamline - rich - royal - quality
Grace Kelly was an wife, a mother and her own right; for and her fashion
actress, a an icon in her acting taste.
She became one of the classiest fashion icons of all time, with 40 years experience in the spotlight. Every item she has worn has been noted, and photographed at some point, from her wedding dress to clothes she wore as a child. A collection of some of her personal collection has been shown at the V&A for the 30th anniversary of the death. She was characteristically elegant, whilst always being dressed appropriately. Grace Kelly was often seen in lace, silk and intricately detailed formal wear. She has a very clean, cut and polished style, which never changed, throughout her career. Often seen wearing pringle, they have released a collection reflecting her tastes and aesthetics.
bruce weber calvin klein always al controversi
In [making this ad], Mr. Klein was marking the beginning of both major changes in the conventions of masculine presentation and an overall democratization of desire." US Olympic pole vaulter tom hintnaus lounged around in greece whilst photographer tom weber worked his magic. it was the beginning of making men seen as an object of sexual desire; the first time it wasnâ€™t a women. For feminist philosopher Susan Bordo, Calvin Klein's male underwear ad campaigns were a revelation. In The Male Body, Bordo describes seeing a similar Calvin Klein ad in 1995 as "the first time in my experience that I had to inhabit this visual culture as a man."
The Nike Air Force 1 was first released in 1982. It is said to be “the greatest and most influential sneaker of all time”. Being named after the U.S. Presidential plane that carried the leader, Ronald Reagan, the Nike Air Force 1 has been one of the most well known trainers with over 1,800 colour combinations known, and being the first basketball shoe to contain Nike Air technology. Over the past 3 decades many influential icons such as NBA stars, rappers and graffiti artists have been known to walk the walk in Nike AF1, shaping fashion trends, culture and music over time. In the 1980’s the launch of this trainer first revolutionized the basketball world, followed by skateboarders and most importantly, the mainstream population. This influx of Nike and Adidas at the beginning of the ‘80s backed up the sport façade in fashion, which soon merged into street wear progressing through the decade. 30 years later the Nike AF1 remains to be the pinnacle of sport and fashion cultures and trends. Bruce Kilgore was the man behind the AF1; the designer. It was he who designed the shoe with an air-cushioned sole, influencing future developments such as Air Max. This was the idea that propelled trainers, sportswear and the brand Nike, into a globally recognized sport, street and urban leader. The style and term ‘high top’ aroused from his design. Ankle straps, decorative stitching and aesthetics became an associated design feature with this particular trainer, and became recognized by basketball players and mainstream fans alike. The Nike AF1 was also associated with hip-hop fans, artists, and young sportsmen. It was a practical yet fashionable shoe; something, that later would give Nike major recognition and praise. This came around circa ‘85/’86 when hip-hip culture and street art took of in New York City and the Bronx. Something which in itself influenced it’s own trend. Due to the high demand for the AF1 from different cultures, subcultures, collaborators and promoters, a varied range of styles and colours are on offer to suit everyone’s needs; even anaconda skin. Whether bought for aesthetic reasons and fashion, or for sporting purposes. Nike has recently teamed up with street wear brand Supreme, to create a new version of the AF1. Designed to be durable and highly durable, NYCO fabrics used for military outerwear have been used.
nike air force 1
TREND: ART & COMICS
JC JC DE cASTELBAJAC cASTELBAJAC FOR iCEBURG
Jean-Charles de Castelbajac is a 60-year-old French Marquis who designs clothes and listens to grime music. He has always been ‘out there’ with his advertising and designs; in the early 1970s, along with photographer Oliviero Toscani, he devised an advertising campaign blending sex and religious sloganeering that scandalized the Vatican. A decade later, Castelbajac turned the Italian label Iceberg into a postmodern, pop-art fashion house, selling a bunch of hijacked Snoopy, Daffy Duck, and Felix the Cat imagery to British fan’s, known as JC de Castelbajac for Iceberg. He has been described as the “King of cartoon couture”.
“Everyone goes on about punk and Amazonian 80s powerdressing, but people forget that designers like Moschino and you were doing this whole pop-art, sloganeering thing. When I think about my generation--Fiorucci, Moschino and even Thierry Mugler in a way--they were trying to say something with, not against, fashion. The pop-art and the fashion I identified with was a link to a beautiful window of shining happiness, but what people forget is that when I designed those Iceberg sweaters, all that brightness was linked to very dark electro music.”
- Blade Runner -
romantisicm vs futurism Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott, is described as one of the “most original and visually mind-bending films in cinematic history”. Inspired by French comic books and heavy metal, Blade Runner became an alternative hit, with a unique sense of costume. The futuristic look was re born for this film, and came to life in it’s own way. Both male, and female characters featured heavy post-punk aesthetics mixed with S&M and futurism. It was a combination of New Romantic colours and textiles, with a dystopian-punk twist. The look was very rough and ready, with ripped fishnet tights, leather, tartan and studded dog collars being worn along with leather jumpsuits and garter belts. The original grunge. “The films string visual imagery is often referenced in fashion collections, particularly the avant garde Pris, played by Darryl Hannah” however Rachel’s character don’s 1940s savvy and charm, with rolled hair and fringe, red lips, pencil skirt suit and cigarette in hand. The perfect impression of retro. Blade Runner encouraged different fashions to emerge, taking influence from dark sci-fi films and previously designed collections.
Futuristic Strong Space Uniform Military Chic Clean Sharp
On the 9th of June 1983, the Conservative party won the election, ensuring Margaret Thatcher remains in office for a second term as Prime Minister. During the early 80s there were many protests around political and social issues disturbed by Thatcherâ€™s power such as the mining strikes, and protests against unemployment. Meanwhile, over the pond, Harold Washington won the Chicago elections, becoming the first black mayor within the United States; another sign that racism was fading, as several decades ago, any politician who was not white would not of been allowed to have an opinion let alone stand up for the United States and have major responsibilities. Yves Saint Laurent exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art, whilst upcoming designer at the time Krizia presented the Chrysler Building Collection and Llomo line. The planning and project development for the Louvre in Paris remains strong and promising.
1984 1984 faced great historical change when Indira Ghandi was assassinated in New Delhi. A loss the world faced with sorrow and devastation, however optimism still lingered in the USA, with Ronald Reagan re-elected as President, meaning his ties with the UK, and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher remained firm. However, this didn’t stop international fashion designer Katharine Hamnett from challenging Thatcher with political t-shirts. A brave and bold statement that encouraged women to be outspoken, strong and opinionated. The topic of women’s rights and upcoming power was a popular reoccurrence throughout the decade. A fashion show; “The Genny Collection” was also put on at the White House. A sign that fashion is power. But with power comes good taste. There were several events, which had a direct effect on society at the time; cyberpunk was invented, Apple computers were being advertised by Ridley Scott. This encouraged a futuristic approach to sell, and the Yuppies still remained strong buying into the Apple trend. People magazine released “The Yuppie” handbook, which encouraged the fashions, the lifestyle and the personality. Being original was something that faded into the background; as the mainstream trends took over from the likes of Madonna and Denim wear. Vivienne Westwood makes another statement by designing gym shoes. Designer gym shoes were not heard of before, and came as a fresh, innovative idea. With female sports on the rise, and women buying into fitness regimes and classes, Westwood found a winner.
“I can remember Jasper Conran saying: ‘Why should we share a glass of warm white wine with that woman?’ – meaning Margaret Thatcher. That was the general attitude at the time. We’d had the Falklands, there were anti-nuclear women’s peace camps at Greenham Common, and it felt like the government could do whatever it wanted and we didn’t have a choice. So I wasn’t going to go to the reception. Because I really didn’t want to shake hands with her. But at the last minute in the afternoon, I thought: ‘Oh my God. It’s a photo opportunity. And wouldn’t it be funny if...’ So the team knocked up a T-shirt in the workroom. Its message came from an opinion poll about the deployment of pershing missiles in Europe. I had to smuggle the T-shirt into the building. I revealed it at the last moment, and Thatcher was horrified. I actually felt sorry for her when she shook my hand. Charm is the first art of the politician. She was saying to me: ‘at last, a true original...’ and then realised the cameras were flashing and bent over to read the Tshirt. Then she uttered a shriek of horror.” Katherine Hamnett
to make a statement
Katharine Hamnett showed bravery and willing when she met then-Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wearing a T-shirt with a slogan declaring, "58 per cent Don't Want Pershing*" However, during the 80s it seems there was a strong point being made behind fashion, such as Gaultier’s men-skirts and the ‘power suit’. Where there was a statement piece of clothing, there was a message. ’84 saw the first London Fashion Week, which Hamnett showed a collection at claiming, “We were creating a stir with fashion”.
Newsweek said that 1984 was the "Year of the Yuppie" -- the young urban professional whose “lifestyle and outlook made him/her a synecdoche of Reagan's America” Fredric Jameson once said, "a new petit bourgeoisie [whose] cultural practices and values . . . have articulated a useful dominant ideological and cultural paradigm" for American society in the 1980s. The yuppie trend didn’t last any longer than 2 years and the term itself is said to be derogatory. There can be little doubt that the yuppie phenomenon had a lasting cultural impact which still remains today from celebrities to young business men and women.
Yuppie was a 1980s acronym for 'Young Upwardly Mobile Professional Person'. The word was coined by the advertising industry to capture the essence of a particular type of work hard, play hard, ambitious minded city career person. The hectic lifestyle of a yuppie meant that after long hours of work, rare free time was spent in a self indulgent way frittering away the cash earned on anything, from expensive perfume, to a bottle of fine champagne. Conspicuous wastage was part of the attitude. The term applies to men whose ages range from about 21 to early 40s. Yuppie-style is always matching and usually upscale. They like to flaunt their good taste. Even if the young professionals are in debt to their ears, they work hard to maintain the
the lauper make over
Cyndi Lauper Cyndi Lauper had a very unsual style. She was known for her playful, youthful and colourful clothing. Layering, glitter, torn tights, earrings and excessive jewelry became some of her trademark looks. Lauperâ€™s hair and make-up were bold and expressive. She was an individual, in both personality and style, and believed being bold would make a statement. She was seen as a competitor to Blondie and Madonna at the time with the mixed pop, rock and dance genres being portrayed through music and fashion. Even up against iconic competition, Lauper always remained an individual.
Miami Vice had a major influence on fashion throughout the 80s, to the present day. First of all they heavily popularized, if not introduced the slick yet cool fashion of a “t-shirt under Armani jacket”, which was often designed like an unconstructed blazer in shiny fabric. Don Johnson is said to be the epitome of style that then became a trademark for the series and the trend. Miami Vice also influenced Italian men’s fashion in the US. The standard typical Italian attire consisted of a sport coat, Armani t-shirt, pastel linen trousers with casual, yet stylish loafers to complete the European holiday look. On average per episode characters Crockett and Tubbs, wore five to eight outfits each. Miami Vice had certain colours which were said to be “approved” for wear on the show; shades of pink, blue, green and fuchsia were often favourites along with the standard monochrome combo. Pastel colours were worn the majority of the time, keeping in line with the location, and overall aesthetics of the show. At the time Miami still remained a playground of Art-deco architecture, and the colours used were used to reflect this. Keeping in line with high fashion, designers such as Armani, Gianni Versace, Hugo Boss and Vittorio Ricci were consulted on the designs and fashions produced, bought and worn. Bambi Breakstone was the costume designer and buyer of clothing for the show. She once stated that, “The concept of the show is to be on top of all the latest fashion trends in Europe”. Designers soon adapted their work to match the demand of fashions from the TV show. Six Formal Wear created a line of Miami Vice ‘dinner jackets’, aesthetically matching the designs seen on screen. Kenneth Cole released a line of shoes, entitled ‘Crockett and Tubbs’, whilst the department store opened a Miami Vice section in the men’s and youth departments of the store. Ray-Ban’s made a massive comeback in the 80s after a decline in the 60s and 70s. The popularity of the Wayfarer peaked with sales of 720,000 in ’84 however, thanks to Crockett’s loyalty to the sunglasses throughout the series. Miami Vice set the standard cliché image of 80s fashion.
the cosby show
r’ ‘cosby sweate “The Cosby Sweater” was the nickname given to Bill Cosby’s famously ubiquitous knitwear. To this day these ‘Cosby Sweaters’ are still around in charity and vintage shops, and are still considered a fashion piece. However in conjunction with The Cosby Show, the jumpers became a cultural touchstone for the show and trend followers. Cosby once hinted that the phrase “Cosby Sweater is to call something garish, tacky, and outdated—in an affectionate way. And in the cyclical world of fashion design, such passé looks have recently inspired a swath of contemporary prints featuring bold, geometric patterns and incorporating a mishmash of colors and textures.” Costume Designer Sarah Lemire originally made Miami Vice style suits for the actor, but due to the relaxed dynamic of the show this didn’t take off. Cosby claims “I wanted to get away from the white coat all the time or the blue blazer look, with the khaki pants and the penny loafers.” In contrast, the sweaters infused the show with a contagious, creative energy, shown through fashion, personality, acting and overall aesthetic styling of the mid-80s.
Margaret thatcher: the iron lady trend: the power suit
Power: Margaret Thatcher was no ordinary politician. She was the first and only female Prime Minister of the UK to date, and remained in office for 3 terms. Leader of the Conservative Party, she was seen as either “Superwoman” or “The Iron Lady” depending on your political views. You either loved her or hated her; there was no middle ground. In her first two years of power, she unleashed the ruthlessness that Thatcher is remembered by. She stood by her beliefs, and instantly Government spending was curbed to control the supply of money in the UK. Rather than joining the European Monetary System, Thatcher dismissed all exchange controls, and the currency existed to “float”. Many industrial subsidies were cut meaning firms would fall through. A rise in unemployment was quickly apparent across the UK, with the Miner’s strikes and regional closures. During a world recession she began to privatize companies such as BT and British Gas. “Popular capitalism” was encouraged on the back of this, allowing the public to buy shares to regain power. In 1984 the Irish Republican Army (IRA) retaliated to her prior dismissal of their movement. They bombed the hotel in Brighton where the conservatives were holding their annual conference. Again not retaliating with a strong hold for pragmatism, she signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1985, encouraging a later peace settlement. “The success of her policies at home and abroad made her, together with Ronald Reagan, the most distinctive advocate of a revived capitalism in the world.” Fashion Icon: Margaret Thatcher reined the UK throughout the 1980s and had a massive influence on fashion and style, as well as social, cultural and political issues. Thatcher was a pioneer of fashion as well as politically. She was the epitome of power, and for a female in the 80s to achieve such a position of power and authority, wasn’t seen very often. She became a role model and a fashion icon, empowering women with confidence and style. She claims that dressing well became part of her role as PM. She became known for her power suits, ‘the pussy bow’, smart tailoring, heels, pearls and rich, royal colour palette. She influenced the trends of power dressing and shoulder pads massively throughout the 80s, showing how to dress to show you’re independent, authoritative, willing, brave, powerful and confident. It wasn’t all about looks however; “What you do is decide the clothes in which you are comfortable. You must be comfortable. You are going to a great occasion. It must be a style that you are comfortable in. Must be a fabric that you are comfortable in, that hangs well, and you must know that you look appropriate for the occasion. Never flashy, just appropriate... It is not unfeminine to be well tailored. Indeed, it often perhaps concentrates on what you are going to say if you have got well-tailored things on because people no longer look at your clothes”. One of her favourite labels to wear was Aquascutum. It had royalty and regality to it, which Thatcher wore proudly. She knew that powerful males in the political world surrounded her, and by dressing the part it would help her being taken seriously, without losing all her femininity. At times when she wanted to exude her power, she often wore her “party colour” sapphire blue. She was well trained in how to look the part; professional, feminine and classy. She said that the pussy bow blouses she often wore, softened up the hard exterior of power and tailoring combined. “Margaret Thatcher dressed as a strong woman and developed a style that was very much her own brand. The hair, the bow, the pearls and the handbag all became iconic.”– Anna Hindmarch, Vogue.
1985 1985 was a powerful year for Britain. On the 15th of November Margaret Thatcher and Garret Fitzgerald, Prime Minister of the Republic of Ireland, sign an agreement based on Northern Ireland. Thatcher at the time was a very powerful woman, and was an icon in her own right. Live Aid took place in London on the 13th of July, and lasted for a total of 16 hours. It was the event that started a revolution to change the world and stop famine, and since, many other festivals and charity organisations have taken place for similar causes. It was arranged by Bob Geldof and Midge Ure to raise money for the Ethiopian famine, and was done in such a clever, unforgettable way. The event, nicknamed, “Global Jukebox”, was held simultaneously at Wembley Stadium in London, and the John F. Kennedy Stadium in Pennsylvania, USA. Overall 172,000 people attended and 1.9 billion people watched it live on TV, across 150 nations. ’85 was a big year for the arts and culture. The Saatchi gallery opened in London, showcasing the finest pieces of art. The ‘Les Immateriaux’ exhibition created by Jean-François Lyotard’s and Thierry Chaput’s at the Pompidou Centre, confronted the topic of the “postmodern condition”. Lyotard once said that he chose “Les Immatériaux as a tool with which to bring visitors ‘into the dramaturgy of postmodernism’, throwing together signs, sounds and technological artefacts as part of a bewildering display.” It was a contemporary art show, and this was new for most at the time. Meanwhile, Jeff Koons held his first solo exhibition, and Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquait held a joint exhibition. Fashion designers began to become extremely postmodern in design and textile choices, emphasizing the female form for sex appeal and power through clothing. Thatcher became a style icon, and gained a nickname of ‘The Iron Lady’ for her strong, solid exterior, but feminine charm, wit and taste. Sub-cultures began to arise through hangout spots and musical influences. Piazza San Babila in Milan became the rowdy ‘in’ place for punk and ‘paninari’ types, known for their apolitical and consumerist attitudes. Other sub-cultures included the nostaligics, extremists and occasional violent groups, as well as new romantics and rockers hanging out at The Palladium Club in NYC.
â€œAfter Wayfarers' heyday in the 1950s and 1960s, sales declined. Though Wayfarers' cultural popularity was boosted in 1980, particularly due to classic film The Blues Brothers, only 18,000 pairs were sold in 1981, and Wayfarers were on the verge of discontinuation. The sunglasses' fate was reversed, however, when in 1982 Ray-Ban signed a $50,000-a-year deal with Unique Product Placement of Burbank, California, to place Ray-Bans in movies and television shows. Between 1982 and 1987, Ray-Ban sunglasses appeared in over 60 movies and television shows per year; Ray-Ban's product placement efforts have continued through 2007. Tom Cruise's wearing of Wayfarers in the 1983 movie Risky Business marked the beginning of a Wayfarers phenomenon; 360,000 pairs were sold that year. By 1986, after appearances in Miami Vice, Moonlighting, and The Breakfast Club, sales had reached 1.5 million. Wayfarers rose to popularity among musicians, including Michael Jackson, Billy Joel, Johnny Marr, Blondie's Debbie Harry, Madonna, Elvis Costello, and members of U2, and among other celebrities such as Jack Nicholson, and even Anna Wintour. Ray-Ban's Wayfarer offerings expanded from two models in 1981 to more than 40 models by 1989, and Wayfarers were the decade's sunglasses of choice.â€?
KATHARNE HAMNETT INTRODUCES THE PHENOMENON OF TORN JEANS AND THE CREATIVE USE OF DENIM, INSPIRING A MORE CASUAL APPROACH TO FASHION FOR THOSE WITH A BUSY LIFESTYLE, AND A TREND WHICH ENCOURAGES THE YOUTH TO BE PLAYFUL AND FREE. IT REMAINS A MASSIVE STAPLE FEATURE OF EVERYDAY FASHION,
- TORN JEANS - DENIM SHORTS - DENIM WEAR
as calvin klein grew, itâ€™s advertising did. this was the samewith katharine hamnett. her advertisements get more sexual as time goes on. sex sells.
The denim trend was a major staple piece from the mid 80s. Hamnett had launched a line of torn jeans, whilst shorts, jackets and shirts were also appearing. Often they’d be seen worn on the street in the bronx or the ‘hip hop crew’s’. More variations than ever were being introduced after Hamnett’s breakthrough, and the now everyday textile, was then transformed into a world of previously unknown fashions. Denim became something for the mainstream. It was a luxury, but an everyday luxury in comparison to other trends at the time, such as haute couture. It was wearable, durable and fashionable, shaping trends. There was a major change in fashion around this time, when fashion was influenced by what was being worn on the street, not by the dsigners.
THE ‘IN’ THI NG:
viv west wood mini crini
At the height of big shoulders and power dressing, Vivienne Westwood unveils her 'Mini Crini' collection and declares her love for feminine power. Inspired by the ballet Petrushka, Westwood created a â€˜Mini Criniâ€™ that combined the tutu with an abbreviated form of the Victorian crinoline. The shoulder pads were reduced to its natural size by means of the classic proportions of English tailoring using princess lines, which can be worn over the crini. This important move redefines Vivienne Westwood's vision as a designer, English tailoring remaining to this day the foundation of her work.
Born: 1952, France First in Vogue: 1952 Labels: Jean Paul Gaultier Gaultier Paris HermĂ¨s Jean Paul Gaultier Fourrures Gaultier Jeans JPG Junion Gaultier Jean's Paul Gaultier
Jean Paul Gaultier sends male models in skirts down the runway for his spring “Et Dieu Créa L’Homme” collection in 1985. “When I dressed men in skirts,” Gaultier says, “it was because the point of view was again different. We would talk about the femininity of certain actors. Like women as sex objects, men could be sex objects. My provocation was justified. If men are valued for their power and their money, why should they not be for their power of seduction?”
Just like Calvin Klein and Katharine Hamnett, male models were used for their photo shoots and advertisements to appeal to both sexes. Bruce Webber’s underwear ad for Calvin Klein is the epitome of a sex object. Gaultier was just behind them in catching on with the trend, however the 80s was a time when sexuality wasn’t frowned upon as heavily, and homosexuality became a cliché. Cross dressing in sub-cultures such as the New Romantics, left clothing choices open to interpretation of the beholder whether male or female.
Two days before the fall show, Madonna calls requesting getups for her Blonde Ambition tour; Gaultier devises the infamous cone bra for her (and subsequently outfits the 2001 Drowned World and 2006 Confessions tours). â€œMadonna likes my clothes because they combine the masculine and the feminine,â€? gaultier on madonna.
trend: netted bow wayfarers red lips quiff & curls white dress o.t.t. jewellery lace tights black heels wasit belt attitude
desperately seeking susan
She’s the perfect definition of the 80s, especially in the film desperately Seeking Susan – headbands, bows, colour and clashing pieces, put together in a somewhat unorthodox, yet orthodox manner. It seems however she never knew she would become such an 80s fashion icon; “When my first records came out, the clothes that I was wearing at the time were the clothes I'd been wearing for the past two years in New York...All my friends were wearing all the bracelets and all the necklaces and it was very inexpensive also." Slightly later on Gaultier designed her cone-bra corset leotard, which influenced fashion, photographers and designers alike for years to come. Many designers have played on the design features for years, and imitations still appear in modern day fashion shoots and publications today; for example, Cameron Diaz for Vogue.
madonna; the icon The revolutionary Madonna; pop star and fashion icon, came to light in the 1980s. She emerged at the start of the 80s with a “Street Urchin” look – leggings, heavy jewelry, rubber accessories, fishnet gloves and tights, messy hair and ribbons. Madonna popularized many items of clothing through her personal style and stage wear. During her “Like a Virgin” era, she influenced the fashion choices of females globally, encouraging outwear as underwear and crucifix jewelry. This is said to be “an assertion of sexual freedom and a conscious rejection of prevailing androgynous fashions” of the time. Madonna combined trends to make her own, mixing new romantic with gym wear and underwear. She became an icon for her music, her charity work, her collaborations and her fashions. Madonna helped give young females empowerment, sexuality and feminism through her clothing choices. It was a conscious effort to rebel against the current, and opt to be experimental, different, edgy and risqué. Madonna pioneered confidence, power and risk taking for females at the time.
1986 saw America attacking Libya, under the control of President Ronald Reagan, and Andrew, the Duke of York marrying Sarah Ferguson. A quiet year in terms of social events, however Nintendo launched the 1st video game, which unknown at the time would spiral a new trend for generations to come. In Los Angeles, the Museum of Contemporary Art was opened, and Andy Warhol created a camouflaged self-portrait.
The grunge phenomenon broke out in Seattle towards the end of the decade, after a music scene broke out introducing the likes of Nirvana, which spoke to its youthful audience. The term “grunge” is used to define a specific moment in time in the 20th century music and fashion industries. It originally dated from 1972, but didn’t become popular until the Seattle takeover. The sound was described as “a mix of heavy-metal, punk and good old-fashioned rock and roll”.
In the 1980s grunge broke out massively and began to have effects on fashion trends. A ‘DIY’ approach was in swing, with a more thoughtless, experimental and alternative clothing being worn, and teamed with Dr. Martens.
Whilst before the 80s grunge was associated with punk’s anarchic movement, the youth of Seattle were aware of the world recession and the political storms happening globally, but instead it was fuelled by self-expression, frustration and isolation.
Women’s Wear Daily: “Three hot looks—Rave, Hip Hop and Grunge—have hit the street and stores here, each spawned by the music that’s popular among the under-21 set.”
run dmc. & adidas.
Run DMC had a major influence on fashion in the 80s, especially with the brand Adidas. Like Nike, Adidas were taking advantage of the ‘street scene’, which was dominant throughout the decade, by collaborating with music and the subsequent fashion followers. In 1986, the hip-hop group Run DMC, were so passionate about the sportswear brand Adidas, they released a track entitled “My Adidas”. They were often photographed donning new, white Adidas classics, and soon after Adidas sponsored the group. This led to sweatshirts, tracksuits and trainers becoming Run DMC’s trademark look, which led to fashionistas following. “Adidas trainers had been an anti-establishment fashion statement worn with jeans, but in the defiant, label aware 1980s branding took over and an unsuspecting sportswear company found itself at the heart of a current fashion movement”. However Run DMC, always a step ahead, decorated their Adidas gear in gold chains and jewelry. This also caught on with the street scene at the time in NYC and the Bronx.
Andy Warhol was known as an icon in his own right for decades. In the 1980s however he re-emerged showing critical signs of financial success. It is said at the time the art market or the “bull market” in New York City was dominated by younger artists such as Jean-Michel Basquait and David Salle, and seeing a space for his abstract pop-art and neo-expressionist work he made a comeback in ‘86 with a self-portrait of himself. He was previously criticized for his exhibition at the Jewish Museum in New York at the start of the decade for having “no depth or indication of the significance of the subjects”. His work was described in his diary as “going to sell” and hence was dubbed a “business artist” losing his charm and power in the art world. Warhol died a year later on February 22nd, 1987.
Hip Hop fashion and ‘gang-inspired’ clothing emerged at a time when Black Nationalism was beginning to be influential in the rap movement during the late 80s. Fashion and hairstyles were not only influenced by the street movements, and sub-cultures, but by traditional African influences. Black Nationalist colours became popular within clothing; red, black and green, and were often seen worn by the likes of Public Enemy. In New York at the time, an underground street art culture was vastly growing, influencing personality and style at the time. Many sub-cultures in different parts of the city joined the hype of painting and self-expression during the 80s, and each culture was influenced by their own trends, styles and background influences. The standard hip hop attire consisted of, jeans, blousy pants, cloth hats, chains, dreadlocks and double-breasted suits. Gold chains were an essential to complete any hip hip look, and for women, models wore “black catsuits, gold chains, big gold nameplate-inspired belts and black bomber jackets with a fur-trimmed hood”. A look dubbed as “homeboy chic”.
1987 started with a negative outlook on society, with the Catholic Church condemning all forms of artificial procreation, and Wall St stock exchanging plummeting 22.6% in 1 day. It was called “Black Monday” and affected stock exchanges worldwide. Not a positive start to the economy seeing as the world was already in recession.
Artist Andy Warhol died at the start of the year; a major loss for the art world, and many commemorative exhibitions began to take shape. However, the Erasmus programme was launched, meaning students could participate in international exchange schemes whilst at University. This was an encouragement for many students at the time to carry out a degree, with the hope of being cultured and educated abroad. It was a success, and is still in tact today. John Galliano (featured on this page) won designer of the year for his innovative designs. Katharine Hamnett continued to make statements through fashion, surprising the beholder and leaving them either somewhat bewildered or amused. In ’87 with the launch of boxes of boxer shorts, condoms were placed in each box. An impacting statement about clothing, underwear and ties to sexuality. Elle was also published in Italy, allowing European fashions to be viewed more freely, influencing trends worldwide. Anna Wintour, to be editor in chief of Vogue Magazine launches House & Garden monthly magazine. It was one of the first high end, luxury interior and exterior design magazines on the market at the time. 1987 was an experimental year for music with the introduction of Techno and Acid House, stemming from the London nightclub scene.
//////////// vivienne westwood harris tweed
“My whole idea for this collection was stolen from a little girl I saw on the tube one day. She couldn’t have been more than 14. She had a little plaited bun, a Harris Tweed jacket and a bag with a pair of ballet shoes in it. She looked so cool and composed standing there.”
a royal affair The Harris Tweed collection came together to celebrate Westwood’s obsession with royalty and traditional English clothing. The ‘Harris Tweed’ fabric used is hand-woven in the Western Isles of Scotland, and is renowned for being used for traditional clothing and tailoring. Vivienne Westwood claimed the fabrics used were like “jewels”, due to the vibrant, rich and royal colours used. The collection was British country, with a classic Westwood twist; detailing, embellishments and unique textiles. Her love of Harris Tweed is shown in her branding, using a crown emblem against the fabric. It is now used on her accessories, shoes, bags and clothing a like.
dirty dancing started a revelation of high waisted jeans and shorts teamed with crop tops; the epitome of a 80s cliche summer. The casual, loose, sexy, free look shown on camera stemmed a frenzy of day wear and night wear, stretching from leotards and shorts, to silk and chiffon evening dresses. An 80s cult classic which captured the hearts of the nation and dancers at the time. the clothes worn were chosen to be moveable, breathable and comfortable. looking effortless, yet still chic so when breaking into dance you were all ready to go. what to wear: - tied up t-shirts - high waisted shorts & belt white pumps - crop top - a-line dress
in 1987 swatch released a campaign for their new collection of watches. each one was colourful, vibrant, playful, expressive and personal. there was a design for everyone, and this was the appeal. a lihtweight, waterproof, cheap watch, which kept up with trends, in colour schemes and prints.
Swimwear became an essential item in every females wardrobe. At the time, an all in one swimsuit as shown was the staple piece to have.
With the female body being flaunted more in music, film and fashion, the mainstream were catching on and found more confidence to come to terms with being seen as ‘sexy’ or ‘sex objects’. It was not a worry anymore that females had to worry about. The Speedo Swim Team launched a campaign for the swimwear, and towards the end of the decade Baywatch was released. This itself had a huge impact on the sales and evolution of the ‘costume’ as Pamela Anderson became the definition.
WORKING GIRL Working Girl was the era’s answer to Cinderella, with a 30-year-old woman searching for business opposed to love. Competing against the boss, two women show their assertion on how to get ahead at work. dressed oppositely but for the same purpose. Desperate to win a job, Tess is portrayed as sweet, young and naïve, compared to brash Katherine. Tess was power suit, thinking you had to dress and act masculine and authoritative to secure the work. She even quoted Coco Chanel’s famous words of wisdom in a bid to back up her opinion; “dress shabbily and they notice the dress; dress impeccably and
1989 saw the end of the decade with a bang; the Berlin Wall falls, losing culture in one country, but gaining it in another when the Louvre Glass Pyramid was inaugurated in Paris. The Sistine chapel was fully restored, regaining arts, passion, religion and culture worldwide. Dolce and Gabanna released their first underwear and swimwear lines; this was a time where sexuality was no longer a problem, and women showed off their natural form for business or pleasure; however D&G made their releases at a time when Baywatch had just launched, emphasizing the power of the female form and lycra combined. Prada made a clothing debut with a womenâ€™s ready-to-wear collection, which wasnâ€™t often seen at the time, as haute couture and sub-cultures were heavily in full swing. However this made the transition into the 1990s much simpler and easier for designers such as Prada, as ready-to-wear collections would soon be the new runway line.
In 1989, Prada launched her first ready-to-wear collection for women. The praise it received was amazing for the same, seeing as the dress were in complete contrast to the fashions and trends of the late 80s. “They contained plain and strict lines” whilst remaining conscious of “highly curved designs”.
Prada claims to be inspired by her own wardrobe at time, earthy and raw fabrics, mixed with natural cuts and “hippyish” clothes. A journalist at the time commented on the fashions stating, “They were uniforms meant for the slightly disfranchised”
After the use of natural fabrics, Prada launched a second, less expensive line, called “Miu Miu”. Most fashionista’s are however unaware that the name spiraled from Prada’s nickname. The fashions were created with stylish, clean lines on fine, natural materials with “exemplary craftsmanship”, and due to the high quality of her garments, she won the Council of Fashion Designers of America International Award slightly later in 1993.
“The campaign itself is a rarity, the ad uncharacteristically characterizes Yohji Yamamoto as Japonais, drumming up his exoticism. As if to project new age-y and world cultural-ish tenets like “zen”, “purity”, and “yin and yang”, Yohji finds his Japanese identity reformed to the fit the mood of the times.”
In 1989, Wim Wenders was comissioned to make a film about fashion and its place in contemporary society. For the film/documentary he chose Yohji Yamamoto” “Like Tokyo-Ga, gradually transforms from a meditation on our relationship with fashion to an exploration of visual representation, creating a dialogue between the language of fashion and that of film. Both are rapidly changing forms of communication, whose progressiveness is often breathtaking. As Yamamoto constantly searches for new modes of expression, Wim Wenders embraces video technology, which offers more flexibility when recording such a fast-paced world.” The film moves between Tokyo and Paris, from the creation of one collection to its premiere at a fashion show, this film shows the professional background, the hard work and the visual imagery needed to complete a modern day collection.
80s fashion scrapbook; a decade of history and trends