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BREATHING INTERFACES GUANGZHOU INSTITUTE FOR RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void spaces in a material. The project deals with the porous relationship of solids and voids in order to explore dynamically changing densities and the lines of intersection between different programs and spaces.


URBAN CONSTRUCT

CITY LEVEL


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

CURRATED SPACES

CONSUMERS / CONTENT

Examples of Curative Spaces

The curative space seen as an exchange between consumers and producers. In order to stay attractive to consumers, producers of services, goods and art constantly re-invent themselves in relation to fahion and trends. The currative space is seen here as a creative process that enevitably returns to the point of orign and has a life cycle that continuously renews itself. A curator is normally “one who has the care and superintendence of something, as for example someone in charge of a museum, zoo, or other place of exhibit�. Thus Currative Spaces become an embodiment of the brand that is required to be exhibited to a targted audience.

Seeds

Currated Spaces aim to negotiate the gap between consumers of content and producers of content

The relationship between the consumers and the content is critical and relies on feedback overlaps

Updated Currated Spaces return to the point of origin and form a continous loop following trends

Cars

Art


BRAND ECOLOGIES

In the twenty-first century, we must learn to look at cities not as skylines but as brandscapes and at buildings not as objects but as advertisements and destinations. In the experience economy, experience itself has become the product: we’re no longer consuming objects but sensations, even lifestyles. In the new environment of brandscapes, buildings are not about where we work and live but who we imagine ourselves to be. Branding in architecture means the expression of identity, whether of an enterprise or a city; New York, Bilbao, and Shanghai have used architecture to enhance their images, generate economic growth, and elevate their positions in the global village.

DANIEL REYNOLDS

Trajectory of Content

DS13

11|12

CURRATED SPACES MORPHING ARRAY

Consumers

By favoring the creation of signature buildings over more comprehensive urban interventions and by severing their identity from the complexity of the social fabric, today’s brandscapes have, in many cases, resulted in a culture of the copy. As experiences become more and more commodified, and the global landscape progressively more homogenized, it falls to architects to infuse an ever more aseptic landscape with meaningful transformations. How can architects use branding as a means to differentiate places from the inside out--and not, as current development practices seem to dictate, from the outside in? When architecture brings together ecology, economics, and social well-being to help people and places regain self-sufficiency, it can be a catalyst for cultural and economic transformation.

Content

Currative Space [Generation X]

The currative space therefore should have a major presence in the city and by governed by specific parameters and localisms in order to forge an identity and become an example for future urban development.

[UPDATED CURRATED SPACE]

INFORMED MORPHING

Here, the morphing array allows for global geometrical transformations informed by local geometries at either side of the tranformation timeline.

Consumers

Content

Currative Space [Generation 1]


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

CURRATED SPACES MORPHING ARRAY

Morphing is a term derived from metamorphosis, which means to change physical shape or form. The purpose of the morph object is to create an animated object that changes shape by morphing between multiple objects. Although it appears that a single object is changing form, in reality the morphing process translates the position of the vertices from their arrangement in one object to the arrangement in another, relative to their local coordinate system. Consequently, all objects chosen to make up a morph object are effectively composed of the same geometrical make up, but the local shape changes over the course of the morphing process dictated by generative parameters.

CURATED SPACE GENERATION i

CONSUMER

MORPHING INTERNALISED VOLUME

OVERLAPPING SKIN

CURATED SPACE GENERATION X


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

CURRATED SPACES MORPHING ARRAY


DANIEL REYNOLDS

BRAND ECOLOGIES

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION

DANDELION COLINASATION

Urban Sprawl Urban cityscape is conducive to sprawl, which in turn formulates a pollinating nature. Formation of a city which has characteristics of floating and accumulating, is borne from a volumetric block distribution based on a syntactical set of rules. The strategic postioning of the construct within perceived social and economic reality encapsulates the self-sufficiency of any one brand within the whole. Using the branching Lidenmayer system most effectively known and associated with plant growth allows the modelling of morphing based on an organism.

1

2

3

The life-cycle of a dandelion is selected as a varient to investigate the extents to which this system can be applied to generate a cityscape. Growth of another district from a dispersed seedling

The process is one from a seed which is a dispersed ruderal rapidly colonizing on disturbed soil. It’s transition is from dependency, embedment and part of a colony of seeds in the head of one dandelion to becoming self-sufficient to de-seed. Scattering and regrowing in another area is uncontrollable, and not dissimilar to that of cities. Seeds depend on wind as their relocating device. Conversationally, using syntax as a variable to control the movement and location of a new development from an existing can help formulate a new, controlled city plan. Enhanced growth arrangement can benefit from secular and district divisions which feed in to one another, but can be treated individually to create a brand. Dandelion The flower heads are 2–5 cm in diameter and consist entirely of ray florets. The flower heads mature into spherical “clocks” containing many single-seeded fruits called achenes. Each achene is attached to a pappus of fine hairs, which enable wind-aided dispersal over long distances.

Network interlinking between seeds which have dispersed from the

4

1. BUD

2. FLOWER

3. “CLOCK”

DANDELION LIFE CYCLE

4. ACHENE

Continuality of dispersement and growth from an initial branch


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION URBAN GROWTH MODEL

The formulae to conceive a module which stems from an existing condition. Based on fixed and variable parameters allows the module to change and grow and in turn, spawn another, hence continuing the development. Such parameters are generated from the construct of the dandelion.

PACKING DENSITY AT NODE

CENTRALISED

DE - CENTRALISED

DISTRIBUTED

NETWORK STRATEGY

COMPOSITIONAL FORM OF URBAN BLOCK

Translating the literal in to an applicable method towards designing a new cityscape is formulated via analysis of the dandelion’s multiplication. The beginning stages of centralisation are symbolised by the many seeds rooted in the head of one mature dandelion. This theory can be applied to how one city can develop from the center branching in to its components which are dependent upon it.

Infrastructure (Main Arterial)

The next stage shows the intermittent interaction between one dandelion and another. Challenging the scales of comparison, this could be the interaction between one city and the next, or of one district and the next.

Syntax

The last stage of distribution reiterates the scope of dependency from one dandelion in relation to its consequential seedlings. The city is stable within itself, and yet still requires the nurture of others. At city scale, the components are related to each other through districts.

Understanding components of a city have a relation with each other helps to distinguish the variable and fixed control factors in order to discover the capacity and intended effect each has with another.

Density

Over-laying expanding forms in three-dimensional creates an interesting array in perspective which allows a free movement in and around planes. The dynamic of each individual form to another can be manipulated to stimulate a experiential growth dependent on demand.

Circulation

Infrastructure (Subsidery Route)

Public Green Space

The results differ according to the number of variable factors which are in common. Hence, proposing a situation where there is a limit to how far one can grow in correlation to another describes the lack of emergence of derelict or non-use areas, which can be suitably used for green/public use.

URBAN GROWTH

NEIGHBOURHOOD WITH PURIFYING GREEN SPACE

UNDERGROUND NETWORK + GREEN GARDENS = REDUCTION IN POLLUTION

COMPOSITIONAL FORM OF URBAN BLOCK


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION URBAN GROWTH MODEL

Every neighborhood has “green” (ecological or natural) and “gray” (human, built) networks. Integrating the two creates opportunities to improve the environmental performance of a neighborhood, create more beautiful places, and often reduce costs.

The key is to integrate green elements into every scale of design to produce multiple benefits. At each scale – region, community, neighborhood, street, building – integrated green networks can perform multiple functions: Provision of habitat – for fish, birds, small mammals, butterflies, and others

DISTRICT

URBAN BLOCK AS POLLUTION FILTER Green Network (Green Spaces and Paths)

URBAN BLOCK Storm water systems, for example, often consist of pipes and treatment plants that deal with runoff from pavement and roofs. But installing green roofs, pervious paving, and landscaped swales, a storm water system evolves into part of the neighborhood’s green network.

Green Network

GREEN NETWORK OF FILTERING SPACES AT CITY SCALE (PHASE I)

Districts with highest pollution rate (Industries)

High Rise Density Low Rise Building Blocks Infrastructure

02 GENERATION

PARKS / GREEN SPACE GREEN NETWORK HIGH RISE DENSITY

Sequestration of carbon and improvement of air quality

INFRASTRUCTURE

LOW RISE BUILDING BLOCKS 02 GENERATION

Infrastucture

02 GENERATION

Districts with lowest pollution rate (civic)

Low Rise Residentiial and Industry

High Rise Commercial Building (Core)

CO2 CONCENTRATION

Total

Reduction of the urban heat island effect.

Uniform Urban Block

Green Spaces / Parks

Management of water quality and erosion, and protection from floods

Reduction of heating and cooling loads through shading and insulation

GREEN NETWORK OF FILTERING SPACES AT CITY SCALE (PHASE I)

C02 EXTRACTION C02 EXTRACTION

C02 EXTRACTION


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION URBAN GROWTH MODEL High Rise Commercial and Public Building Blocks

OVERGROUND

Overground Green Network

OVERGROUND

UNDERGROUND

Low Rise Residential Urban Blocks

Overground Infrastucture

UNDERGROUND

Underground Infrastucture

Underground Green Network


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

To reduce neighbourhood greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, focus on location, then emphasize pedestrian design, moderate density, and mixed uses Green neighbourhoods can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions related to daily life if their location puts residents close to jobs, businesses, and recreation. Design and density also play important roles. A recent lifecycle cost assessment study suggests that construction of buildings and infrastructure is responsible for about 20 percent of neighborhood energy and greenhouse gas emissions over a 50year assumed lifespan. Therefore, by minimizing the amount of infrastructure in the city, by limiting its growth to 8 main branches of high density traffic arrayed around a multi- level density node where activity is very high, the city will reduce its need for infrastructure. To compensate for the C02 pollution emission, voids are create at the centre of the density nodes, which are a catalyst for absorbing the emissions caused by such density traffic. Air is channelled down into the void and pushed towards the outside of the density node, filtering through a green network of parks and paths, eventually arriving at low rise residential urban blocks where air has already been purified.

11|12

URBAN FORMATION URBAN GROWTH MODEL

MULTI LEVEL DENSITY NODE

INFRASTUCTURE

GREEN PARK [ C02 EXTRACTOR ]

GREEN VOID AS CATALYST FOR AIR PURIFICVATION

GREEN LANDSCAPING FILTER NETWORK

LOW RISE

HIGHRISE

LANDSCAPING NETWORK


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION

RELATIONAL FORM EXPANSIONS

The life cycle of a city is dependent on it’s growth and capacity, which in turn effects the surrounding environment. To investigate the nature of one’s effect on another, a context is presented where two points of a component are connected by a relationship. The common factor of cities is described as variable in model form, indicated by the direction in which the movement is available - in this case, the Y-Axis. Both the X- and Z-Axis’ indicate a notion of fixed points which cannot be changed in a city. However, fixed and variable aspects of a city are undefined at this stage, but can be suggestive of such relationship involved in growth.

a) One seed with one variable point and two fixed points

b) Two seeds with one variable points in common and four fixed points

c) Three seeds with one variable point in common and three fixed points in common

d) Variable point changing position to show evolution


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION

RELATIONAL FORM EXPANSIONS

The ability of the construct is dependent on variable and non-variable agents which are undefined. It exposes the limits at which one works with the other in multiples. The growth of each component is tangible both in space and variety, and the representation of the frame is limitless.

A.

A scenario derived from the construct is to think of the minimal surfaces made when pulled to tensity as volumes of green space which are within varying layers of building form illustrated by the frame. As the green spaces expand and contract, the volume of the external space is equally apportioned. Interpreting the invert of this, the volumes can become components which morph and control one another, hence representing buildings themselves where the frame becomes the network infrastructure. Planarity - a discovery of relational planes when looking in plan view where pockets of ‘green space’ evolve and have an affect on one another. Here, the aspect of light is derived from layering each pocket above another, giving way to another parameter which could be interchangeable.

Fixed Factor which is independent and only effects a component individually

B.

Network

Component

C.

Variable Factor which suitably changes two conjoining a components

D.


From organic roots through to modernism, sprawl and then satellite sub centres it is possible to identify where the city has been most successful and where it has not via comparison with other modern day precedents. Such analysis suggest the development patterns of the modern grid and sprawl are clearly the least efficient using the most gasoline and with organic patterns and higher densities performing the most efficiently. The concept of a highly dense city was thus conceived in the light of energy efficiency and sustainability. The geometry of the Gyroid minimal surface was developed in order to create a 3D dense urban grid whilst at the same time enabling void spaces for the use of public green spaces. These green spaces enable the highly desnse city grid to breathe and capture the carbon dioxyde emited by public transport.

11|12

URBAN FORMATION 3 DIMENTIONAL DENSITY GRID CAPSULE POPULATION

Green CO2 Catalist Network

Inhabitation by means of Ceiled Environement Capsules

While the modernist movement produced some excellent architecture, its minimal method has led to city urban planning that considers function before humanity. Le Corbusier once described buildings as “machines for living�, but people are not machines and nor do they want to live in machines. The same applies to our towns and cities where modernism has failed miserably. The combination of the grid as a urban planning tool and the rise of the car has left many cities with a legacy of problems such as dispersion of land uses, poor quality public realm, and pedestrian experience, traffic jams and densities unable to support basic daily functions such as shopping without having to travel long distances by private vehicle. Cities designed on the grid where the car is king are inherently unsustainable. The historic cities of the world remain amongst the most sustainable due to their organic pattern, density and proximity of uses needed to go about our daily lives. The concept of Organic Urbanism is not a new discovery but a return to the values we have lost throughout the 20th century.

DS13

Capsules Populating the 3 Dimensional Density Grid

The twentieth century has seen acceleration in technical advancement unparalleled in our history. This has impacted on the way we live, how our cities are arranged, function and interact upon the wider environment. In general, technological advancement has been a positive force in the story of human evolution. However, the development of fossil resources such as gas and oil, as sources of energy have led to the rise of the private motor vehicle which has arguably led to many of the functional problems of town and cities coming of age in the 20th century.

DANIEL REYNOLDS

Green CO2 Catalist Network

BRAND ECOLOGIES

Green CO2 Catalist Network


BRAND ECOLOGIES

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION

3 DIMENTIONAL DENSITY GRID

CAPSULE TOWER


BRAND ECOLOGIES

The density nodes can grow and evolve in their by stacking more ro tacking away capsules of inhabitation and 3 dimentional grid modules.

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION 3 DIMENTIONAL DENSITY GRID NODES


BRAND ECOLOGIES

As the density grid goes lower and inside, artificial light produced by the zones of energy production will compensate for the dim light conditions around.

DANIEL REYNOLDS

DS13

11|12

URBAN FORMATION 3 DIMENTIONAL DENSITY GRID

BREATHING INTERFACES - Urban Construct  

M.Arch (RIBA Part II) Year One - Semester One: The concept of a highly dense city was conceived in the light of energy efficiency and sust...

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