Southeast Tines Summer 2024

Page 1


CWD Quarantine Zone Causing Angst for Florida Deer Farmers

Sponsored by SETDA




Making Gainful and Groundbreaking

Strides in Cervid Disease Control and Prevention

Summer 2024 l Volume 12 l Issue 2
Sudden Express / Witch Dr / Express NADR# 295744 See Ad Inside

Thank You

From J. Mark Owens and Whitetail Country Plantation

The morning of August 30, 2023, began with anxious anticipation for what lay in store with Hurricane Idalia. We had prepared to the best of our ability: bucks’ antlers had all been cut, trees trimmed, fences tightened, fuel tanks filled. All behind the previouslyfelt security of a double fenced facility since 2012. All our plans, our grand designs to mitigate the possible damage were for naught, however. What we were to experience that morning was over 400 trees down and 8,000 feet of fence laid over. Nothing short of catastrophic damage, devastation; the likes of which we had never seen before, and pray, we never see again.

People demonstrate their truest character and greatest generosity in times of hardship. As the song goes, “this is where the rubber meets the road… You’ll find out who your friends are’. From the moment the wind subsided, we received numerous calls from friends wanting to know how we fared, and what they could do to assist us in our time of need.

August 31st dawned with Rob Lloyd arriving with food, water, Gatorade, fuel, generators, ice chests, chain saws and a “We can do this” attitude. Kaleb Ellis (Bear Creek Whitetails/ Bear Creek Mines, Quincy) brought ice chests of drinks and a number of chainsaws

we desperately needed. (We had over a dozen chainsaws going and needed every one of them.)

By 11am, Brad Benners (Benner’s Contracting, Tallahassee) had sent a Cat 930K loader with grapples, and Chase Spears, the operator. (Chase and the loader were absolutely critical for us.) By 1pm, Matt Marshall (Marshall Brothers Construction and Engineering, Panama City) had sent us a 25Kw generator and Cat 315F excavator. This loader and excavator successfully condensed months of cleanup into weeks. Bob and Sherry Rice (Alouko Farms, Tallahassee) arrived with chain saws, fencing supplies, fuel, oil and worked many days over the following weeks. Benny Wilkison (‘Lil Oak Whitetails, Lawtey) brought his tractor and grapples and also worked tirelessly moving tons of debris to burn piles and raising downed wire/patching fence wherever possible. Bob and Benny were instrumental in the clearing of a path to the “back 40” so we could assess the damage and check on the animals in those pens. Neil and Austin Steinmetz (Paradise Pavers, Paradise Whitetails, Lady Lake) brought their skid steers and moved a mountain of debris, made large piles of logs and stumps for the 930K to move to burn piles. The Steinmetz boys were very proficient in the use of their skid steers. Ginger and David Mansour, deer friends of ours, brought rolls of high fence wire we desperately needed for

the fencing repairs. Terry Roach (Woodland Whitetails, Greenville) was so kind to come and hook up the generator so we could shower, stay cool, and have a means of cooking and heating food. And finally, a thank you to the chain saw crew tackling a seemingly insurmountable task that burned hundreds of gallons of fuel.

After weeks of cleanup, but in time for our 13th year of laparoscopic AI, Troy and Witt Register (Register Ranch), Jerry and Caden Coker, Tobin Royal (The organizer of this project), and Jay Williams came and helped rebuild the lane going into our deer barn.

To my brother Andrew, Robert “Stump” Skinner, and my son Andrew “Polatta”, the hours you poured your heart, time, and effort into the farms are more appreciated than you know. These farms would not have the success without you. You are ”Owens Farms” and “Whitetail Country Plantation” and we are eternally grateful.

May God Bless ALL of Our Friends and their families.
We are honored to call you “OUR” family.

With Sincerest Gratitude, J. Mark Owens

A special thanks to all our friends who helped us after hurricane Idalia.

Brad Benners - Benners Contracting, Inc

Matt Marshall - Marshall Brothers Construction & Engineering, Inc

Neil Steinmetz - Paradise Pavers / Paradise Whitetails

Bob Rice

Sherry Rice

Austin Steinmetz

Rob Lloyd

Benny Wilkison

David Mansour

Ginger Mansour

Andrew Owens

Polatta Owens

Robert Skinner

Long Fencing

Kaleb Ellis

Chase Spears

Troy Register

Witt Register

Jerry Coker

Caden Coker

Tobin Royal

Jay Williams

Terry Roach

Ryan Boyd

Glorianne Boyd

2 ADVERTISERS INDEX 2 Base Down Farms Back Cover All Game Coverage 10 AR&R Antler Replica & Repairs ................... 24 BDRL Whitetail Paradise Farm ...Center Spread Bella Mia Ranch ............................................... 5 Blessed Bayou 49 Blosser Whitetails 38 Cervid Solutions, LLC 18 Cervidae Health Research Initiative 15 Clay Kuntry Whitetails ................................... 44 Dan-Inject North America............................. 22 Droptine Studios ............................................ 39 EZid, LLC 24 Fox Valley Animal Nutrition, Inc 55 Headgear 58 Hilty Whitetails 7 Illini Whitetails ................................................ 35 Jo Jo’s Whitetails ............................................. 46 North American Deer Registry..................... 18 Pine Creek Deer Farm ................................... 17 Pneu-Dart 11 Prime Acres Whitetails 25 Purina 48 Rocky Ridge Whitetails .................................. 43 Rolling Ridge Whitetails ...................... Cover, 3 Straight Shooter Game Fencing................... 10 Storm’s End Whitetails Inside Back Cover Stubbs Whitetails 33 Tajada Whitetail Ranch 36 Walnut Ridge Whitetails 52 Whitetail Country Plantation/Owens Farms ... .......................................... Inside Front Cover, 1 White Mountain Whitetails........................... 56 Whitetail Sales Auction 45 Woodard Whitetails 40 IN THIS ISSUE Activity Pages 54, 60 Advertising Information 59 Application for SETDA Board of Directors Position ............... 60 Membership Application 57 Quarterly Calendar 19 SeTDA Board of Directors.............................................................4 Recipe: Venison Fajitas 42 FEATURED
Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer ........................ 32, 34, 37 Featured Farm StoryCWD Quarantine Zone Causing Angst for Florida Deer Farmers ......... 8-9 FWC’s Beliefs Concerning CWD 20, 21, 23 Hemorrhagic Disease in Deer ..................................................................... 14 My Most Memorable Hunt ..................................................................... 50-51 Selling Deer North to South – Insight from South Dakota...................... 41 The Cervid Health Education Research Initiative (CHeRI)Making Gainful and Groundbreaking Strides in Cervid Disease Control and Prevention ............................................................................... 16 The TRUTH About CWD - Part 2 by Dr Bill Leffler ................................ 26-29 Top 30 North and South and Chupp’s Auctions Offer Valuable Networking Venues 53 SETDA INFORMATION: Scholarship Information .............................................................................. 51 Spring Fling - Event Overview 12-13 Spring Fling - Event Photos.......................................................................... 47 Vice President’s Message .............................................................................. 6 CONTENTS GRAPHIC DESIGN AND PUBLISHING Kathy Giesen, Editor/Publisher 305 E. 350 N., Ivins, UT 84738 435-817-0150 • Fax: 435-359-5333 Website: (Editorial Provided by Contributing Writers) Fall Magazine Deadline: August 7th



James “Smitty” Smith

Gum Creek Hunting Preserve 813-714-5045


Dr. Bill Leffler

2 Base Down Farms PO Box 159 Morriston, FL 32668 561-373-2353


Tim Cromwell 18015 NE CR 1471 Hampton, FL 32044 352-727-9528


Ryan Boyd Legacy Ranch 3000 NW 28th Trail Jennings, FL 32053 904-874-4537


Benny Wilkison Lil Oak Whitetails 3193 NW 216th St Lawtey, Fl 904-424-7233

Mike Hunter

MS Hunter Farm 8479 Puckett Rd Perry, FL 32348 850-843-0881

Mike Vizcaino Osceola Whitetails 149 Sand Lake Dr Pomona Park, Fl 32181 904-814-7214

Ryan Stubbs Stubbs Whitetails 16518 Alderman Turner Rd. Wimauma, FL 33598 (813) 924-1136

Matt Young 13669 Buckskin Rd Brooksville, FL 34601

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Vice President’s Message from Dr. Bill Leffler


There were a few people missing at this year’s auction but none missed more by me than our President Smitty. He would have been there if his doctors would have let him, but unfortunately, he was re-hospitalized just days before our event. He is doing better but our continued prayers go out to him and all of those in our deer farming with medical issues. His shoes were very large indeed to try to fill. Thank you for your patience with me at this year’s auction.

I do have to apologize to everyone who came expecting Keith Warren to be at our event. I spoke with him on Wednesday evening just before the event when he informs me that a personal conflict had come up and he would not make it to our event. Having less than 48 hours there was no way I could get the word out in time, for that I am sorry.

Florida’s Ag Commissioner, Mr. Wilton Simpson did speak Friday evening to the audience about many of his accomplishments but for some unknown reason he failed to address the topic of CWD. Fortunately, we do have the answers to a number of questions on that issue which he was supposed to address. He told me that these were prepared for him by FWC personnel in advance of our event so that he would be better informed. These answers are found in this issue and give us an insight about FWC’s beliefs concerning CWD.

You will also find Part 2: The Truth About CWD, an in-depth article which addresses the same questions but with very different answers. What will surprise you is the answers. Many are either unknown or known by only a few and/or seldom shared with the public. This information is critical for the public and deer farmers to better understand CWD and how to protect ourselves from those who might try to take away our rights. Let science speak for itself! Speaking of taking away someone’s rights, you may be quite alarmed to really learn what is actually happening in the CWD Quarantine Zone, see the interview with Steve Padgett in this issue.

I want to thank Dr. Juan Campos for the fine article on Capture Myopathy, a problem that will arise sooner or later for many deer farmers and preserve owners.

I want to wish everyone a very joyous and hopefully stress-free fawning season. Please remember to get your pens ready (fire ant free with Extinquish and limed), fawn paste, and all your other supplies ordered before the first fawns arrive. I have already heard from many that they are having problems finding C&E antitoxin, certain medications, and even ear tags. Don’t wait, order all your supplies asap. Regardless if you plan on bottle feeding or not, have supplies ready just in case of emergencies.

The next time we will be getting together will be for our Summer Picnic, the date, time and location to be announced. Look on our website for information and your emails that we send out from Southeast Trophy Deer Association. If you have not been getting emails from us, please check your junk or spam files and reset your settings to receive them. This year all donors were either emailed (when possible) or mailed, a Thank You letter for their charitable donation to a 501-C non-profit for tax recording.

Memberships are now annual and expired on December 31st. If you hear from a friend and fellow deer farmer who has not received the Southeast Tines or any communications, ask them to double check their membership status first, as well as get in touch with any board member who can assist them.

To quote a friend of mine, “the easiest way to ruin a friendship is to talk politics or religion, and the best surefire way to bring people together was to find a common cause or enemy”. Well folks, we are ALL in the same industry, we need to put any and all differences aside and become united and help to support one another. Our common enemy wants to use CWD as a cause to one day kill our deer and shut us down. We must get the TRUTH ABOUT CWD to as many as possible and always let the science speak loud and clear.

As always, your Board and I are here to HELP AND SERVE YOU, with your active participation we can continue to accomplish great things. If you have not already renewed your membership, please go online to our website and do so.

Stay Safe, Well, United, and “Florida Strong”

God Bless, Dr. Bill Leffler

Storm Express / Express / Silver Hawk 6.5 PRC HILTY WHITETAILS Noah & Sarah Hilty South Whitley, IN 260-248-1684

One of Steve Padgett’s greatest joys in life for the past 10 years has been his beloved deer farm and preserve, Bunkhouse Bucks in Chipley, Florida. However, since June 15th, 2023, the day a CWD quarantine zone was issued by The Florida Department of Agriculture, it has turned into perhaps his biggest heartache. A telephone call from the Department of AG on June 15th delivered some bad news. Six months earlier, on January 4th, 2023, a wild deer was found dead near the Alabama state border in Holmes County. A CWD test, conducted on that same deer six months later in June, was found to be positive. As a result, Padgett’s farm and preserve were placed under immediate quarantine. The representative from the Dept. of AG “was Johnny on the spot,” Padgett said, in referring to how fast he appeared at his office after the phone call. Signs were posted around Padgett’s property stating, “These premises and all cervidae are under quarantine due to the presence/suspicion of


CWD Quarantine Zone Causing Angst for Florida Deer Farmers

the contagious or infectious disease CWD.” Although Padgett pursued having the signs reworded, he was unable to do so. The Dept. of AG representative told Padgett that a Dr. Kitchens would fill him in on all the remaining details the next day.

When Padgett and Dr. Kitchens met that following day, Padgett, 62, had several concerns. First and foremost, he believed much more evidence was needed in order to make (what he felt) was such a slanderous statement about his deer farm and preserve that he had worked so hard in the last 10 years to maintain, while also building a good reputation with his clients. The other concern was the accuracy of the test itself. Because the deceased deer was not tested until six months later, contamination of the deer was a possibility. When Padgett presented his latter concern to The Dept. of AG, he was told that contamination was “impossible.”

Subsequently, he is now personally in the midst of unchartered territory as a deer farmer. After brief

negotiations during the weeks that followed with the Dept. of AG, the quarantine was lifted on his 3-acre deer farm, but not on his 240acre preserve. Today his preserve is still under quarantine. Calls made and emails sent on Padgett’s behalf to The Florida Department of Agriculture asking when the quarantine would be lifted, were diverted to The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. At press time, The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission had yet to respond to a request for an interview or to provide a written and emailed statement.

Two other deer farms were affected as well by the quarantine, and only given the initial opportunity to sell deer to each other’s farms within the established quarantine boundary. Yet, even that has now changed as Padgett has been attempting since October of 2023 to send deer to his neighbor one mile to the north of him. “The Department of AG cannot give me a reason as to why I can’t move these deer except to say my neighbor ‘doesn’t need more than



one deer,’” Padgett explained. “It’s especially frustrating knowing the immense numbers of wild deer that have been tested for CWD since this has happened, and every test has turned up negative.”

When Padgett started his farm in 2013, his vision to grow healthy and marketable deer was realized. At that time only one other deer farm existed within 30 miles of his. The first three or four years were akin to magical compared to what is currently happening today. He remembers fondly the joy of raising fawns those first few years, seeing which ones would become “instigators” and others, more accepting and obedient.

Today, Padgett, like every diligent deer farmer, breeds for CWD resistance and dreams of the day that CWD is no longer an issue and farmers aren’t required to erect expensive double fences or follow protocol that simply doesn’t address the problem realistically. While he has attended several monthly Dept. of AG meetings in an attempt to get back to business as usual, no progress has been made. In order to operate his hunting preserve, every deer harvested must be kept on the premises (and preferably inside a cooler) for future Dept. of AG testing.

“How do I explain this to my hunters when all they have been hearing from public meetings and social media is ‘Zombie Deer and Mad Cow Disease.’ This paints an extremely inaccurate picture and hurts my business. I’ve already lost $20,000 trying to maintain my farm and feed my deer,” Padgett said, in reference to misinformation received from these platforms. “It is every deer

farmer’s hope that we are eventually seen as a solution to CWD based on our research to breed for CWD resistance, and not the cause. We would like all powers that be to work with us, not against us, and to know how diligent we truly are,” he emphasized.

CONTACT: Steve Padgett 850-638-6540
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Southeast Trophy Deer Association

Strong and Viable Organization


This past March during our annual SETDA Spring Fling in Orlando, Florida, we enjoyed perhaps one the biggest events we’ve had to date. Every booth space was full, the crowd was enthusiastic and the excitement for the deer industry was palpable. We are extremely grateful to CHeRI (Cervid Health Research Initiative) for their continued sponsorship of our event as well as to everyone who purchased ads, booth space, offered consignments and gave donations. We had 114 lots offered which included 17 live animal lots, eight guns, one PSE bow and two “coolers of cheer.” We even had several anonymous donations and greatly appreciated the enormous generosity of each donor. We also welcomed fellow deer farmers from out of state and within our beautiful state of Florida and were grateful for the auction participation from fellow deer farmers from out of state who bid on-line for semen straws and various items. While we acknowledge how convenient it is to participate on-line, we would love to see more of our friends and supporters in person next year to share stories, network and enjoy camaraderie. The value of in-person meetings cannot be matched on-line.

One of the biggest highlights of our event was the awarding of a $3,000 scholarship to Presli Busby, a bright, ambitious young woman who embodies everything that we were searching for. We wish her the best of luck in the future as we in the industry know she has so much to offer. We were also very pleased at have Kathy Giesen of D & K Design among us to help things run so smoothly.

As we forge ahead in the raising of deer and doing what we love, we will work hard to educate the public and our state governments about the real truth on CWD. We will diligently stand with the entire deer industry in a united effort with NADeFA and other state deer associations, to protect our rights and freedoms. We will also be very glad when our very own President Smitty is well enough to join us. Thank you to everyone who makes our industry a great thing to be a part of.

Bill Leffler 2 Base Down Frms 561-373-2353

“Thank you to everyone who makes our industry a great thing to be a part of. “ - Bill Leffler

Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is a general term for illness caused by the two viruses: Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV) and bluetongue virus (BTV). HD primarily affects white-tailed deer, often resulting in notable mortality rates. HD also affects mule deer and pronghorn antelope, and domestic ruminants (cows, goats, sheep). While cows typically remain asymptomatic, BTV infection can lead to severe illness and death in sheep.

Clinical Signs Transmission

Clinical signs of HD can vary depending on the serotype of EHDV or BTV that the animal is infected with, and whether the deer has developed immunity. Common signs include:

- Lethargy, weakness, lameness

- Reduced appetite

- Lesions or sores on the mouth

- Excessive salivation

- Hoof pain and abnormalities

- Dental pad erosion

- Ulcers in tongue or stomach

- Fever

Keep in mind!

Some deer infected with EHDV or BTV are found dead with few or no visible clinical signs

- Swollen head, neck, tongue, or eyelids

What to do if you think a deer is infected with HD?

• Promptly contacting your veterinarian is crucial if you notice any signs of illness in your deer.

• A proper diagnosis can be made through clinical assessment and virus testing on tissue and blood samples, enhancing the likelihood of your deer recovery with timely treatment.

HD cases in Florida

• In the unfortunate event of a deer’s death, CHeRI offers complimentary field necropsy and HD testing services in Florida. Additionally, blood samples can be sent to the CHeRI lab at no cost. Call 352-562-DEER

HD outbreaks occur in late summer and early fall. However, sporadic cases of EHDV and BTV can be observed throughout the year.

Public Health

• EHD and BT viruses do not infect humans. Humans are not at risk of infection when handling infected deer, eating venison from infected deer, or being bitten by no-see-ums. However, consuming meat from animals with generalized disease is not recommended.

Additional resources

Visit for information about HD cases in Florida, EHDV vaccine trials, and vector educational resources to learn more about no-see-ums and vector control strategies.

Scan the QR code with your camera to complete a 3-min survey

HD viruses are transmitted when a female Culicoides biting midge (no-see-um) picks up the virus from the blood of an infected animal and then transmits the virus to another animal.

White-tailed deer


EHDV vectors: Culicoides sonorensis is the main vector of EHDV in the US, but they are rarely found in southeastern US. Culicoides stellifer and Culicoides venustus are the common vectors of EHDV in the southeastern US.

BTV vectors: Culicoides insignis is the main vector of BTV in the southeastern US.

HD Prevention & Vector Control

Medgene’s vaccine, proven effective in field trials, is available as an experimental product to protect deer against two EHDV serotypes (2 and 6). Contact Medgene to order directly. Unfortunately, no BTV vaccines are approved for deer. For best results, vaccinate does and bucks in March/April and fawns in August/September. Initial vaccination requires two doses, 21 days apart, with yearly revaccination

HD cases may be reduced by killing the insects that transmit it. No-see-ums are typically controlled with insecticide applications in and/or around pens.

• The number of no-see-ums can be reduced by modifying the habitats where these insects develop, including changing the location and depth of watering holes, like ponds. Try to keep captive deer as far away from midge breeding sites as possible (muddy areas, ponds, creeks)

• Researchers at CHeRI are working to develop an integrated pest management program to control no-see-ums in deer farms.

Would you like more information? Contact us, and stay connected

Authors: Vilma Montenegro, M.S., Samantha Wisely, Ph.D., Juan Campos, Ph.D., and Nathan Burkett-Cadena, Ph.D. University of Florida.

14 H e m orrhagic D i sease i n D e e r




Of the 52 midge fly (Culicoides) species found in Florida, only three actually carry the EHD virus. This groundbreaking discovery provides incredible insight into managing the disease, explains CHeRI Professor of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, Dr. Samantha Wisely. The study that pinpointed the culprit midge flies, led by Florida Medical Entomology Lab Graduate Student Vilma Montenegro and Dr. Nathan Burkett-Cadena, Professor of Entomology and a CHeRI affiliate faculty member, may allow Florida deer farmers to develop more efficient insect fogging strategies and perhaps more effectively suppress the occurrence of EHD.

In reference to the extensive time and research it took to zero in on the three culprit species, Dr. Wisely shared this. “Even though there are 52 species of midge flies, they all act completely differently,” she said. “Some like to fly at night. Some like to fly during the day. Some live in trees. Some live in grasses and soil. If you as a deer farmer know which species is present on your farm, you can tailor your spraying strategy to what might be the most effective time, such as spraying at midnight or spraying at sunrise.” As important as it is to spray at the most effective time, is that the spray itself (the most common being permethrin) breaks down quickly and does not harm or eradicate other species crucial to ecological balance, Dr. Wisely emphasized.

Repressing EHD, whether by developing vaccines or other management strategies has been

essentially the bread and butter or heart and soul of research efforts at CHeRI, located on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville. CHeRI, created to promote interdisciplinary deer science, education and outreach that increases the health and production of captive cervids in a sustainable manner, also promotes the health of native wildlife and the ecosystems in which they live. “The success of deer farming is the production and maintenance of healthy deer,” Dr. Wisely said. “Farmed deer give us much easier access when it comes to studying diseases that affect all cervids, farmed or wild.”

To that end, CHeRI is also beginning to formulate plans for the development of a deer pox vaccine. Deer pox, an extremely contagious disease whose trademark is facial lesions, was first noticed in 2017 by CHeRI Wildlife Extension Veterinarian Dr. Juan Campos, with the Department of Large Animal Clinical Science and the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation. As fawns began dying for inexplicable reasons, Dr. Campos realized they all had something in common. Facial lesions. “We geno-sequenced them and noticed we had a pox virus that we had seen in mule deer but not whitetail deer up to that point,” Dr. Wisely explained. “We were able to put two and two together. We are in the process of asking ourselves ‘what does a vaccine pipeline look like’ and what additional types of studies could we need?” Realistically, Dr. Wisely feels that should a vaccine be developed, it could take between three and five years.

“I think that in addition to all the medical research and efforts we are committed to, we want everyone to understand what deer farming is and to see deer farmers in a positive light,” Dr. Wisely said. “Deer farming continues to be one the fastest growing rural industries. The deer inventory of Florida farms alone is $200,000,000.” CHeRI also seeks to test deceased farmed deer and will do necropsies free of charge, in a never-ending effort to learn more about the various diseases that affect cervids. To contact CHeRI call them at 352-562-DEER.


Quarterly Calendar Update

Ad Deadlines & Events

Calendar Update ~ Ad Deadlines & Events

19 Indiana Deer & Elk Farmers’ Association Annaual Meeting Benefit Auction Whtietails of Louisiana Expo & Auction New York Deer and Elk Farmers Association Summer Picnic North Dakota Deer Ranchers Annual Meeting Southeast Tines Fall Deadline The IDEFA Journal Fall Deadline Pennsylvania Fall Deadline Upper Midwest Summer Deadline Mulit-Magazine Fall Deadline Kentucky Alternative Livestock Association Summer Showcase Fundraiser Auction Event Indiana Deer & Elk Farmers’ Association Annaual Meeting Benefit Auction Whtietails of Louisiana Expo & Auction New York Deer and Elk Farmers Association Summer Picnic TBD North Dakota Deer Ranchers Annual Meeting Texas Deer Association Annual Convention 2023 Ohio Fall Deer Convention Bluegrass Trophy Buck Auction, Cave City, KY Southeast Tines Fall Deadline The IDEFA Journal Fall Deadline Pennsylvania Fall Deadline Upper Midwest Summer Deadline Mulit-Magazine Fall Deadline Kentucky Alternative Livestock Association Summer Showcase Fudraiser Auction Event Visit our website for more details realated to events: *SHOWCASE BOOK IN THE MAIL! to Deer Farmers in over 20 States! * See Showcase Flyer in this magazine for more information * LAST DAY TO SUBMINT UPDATED BUCK PHOTOS Labor Day Pennsylvania Deer Farmers Association Fall Classic Stocker and Breeder Auction & Annual Pennsylvania Deer and Outdoor Expo 2023 SOUTHERN TOP 30 Whitetail & Specialty Extravaganza Great Wolf Lodge, Grapevine, TX Louisiana Fall Deadline Kentucky & New York Fall Deadline Tri-State Associations Fall Deadline Labor Day Pennsylvania Deer Farmers Association Fall Classic Stocker and Breeder Auction & Annual Pennsylvania Deer and Outdoor Expo Louisiana Fall Deadline Tri-State Associations Fall Deadline Columbus Day Halloween Quest for Michigan’s Best Fall Deadline Quarterly
Provided by D&K Design, Publisher for State Association Magazines l VISIT OUR WEBSITE FOR MORE EVENT DETAILS: DEERSITES.COM AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER * See Showcase Flier in this magazine for more information
IDEFA Journal Summer Deadline JUNE Kentucky & New York Summer Deadlines MAY Summer Quarter Begins Southeast Tines Summer Deadline Pennsylvania Summer Deadline Tri-State Associations Summer Deadline Mother’s Day Memorial Day Louisiana Summer Deadline Father’s Day Flag Day JULY Louisiana Summer Deadline Alabama Summer Deadline Ohio Summer Deadline Michigan Summer Deadline UpperMidwest Summer Deadline KEDA Summer Picnic Independance Day IDEFA Summer Picnic Fundraiser

FWC’s Beliefs Concerning CWD

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Part 2 of our continuing effort to inform and educate as many as possible on The Truth About CWD.

In the preceding pages you just read the prepared answers to a series of questions that Florida’s Ag Commissioner, Mr. Wilton Simpson was supposed to answer at our Spring Fling Auction. Unfortunately, for some unknown reason he never got around to the subject regarding CWD or spoke about it. The forementioned answers were prepared by FWC personnel for Mr. Simpson.

As always, the answers I present are available on various sites online and from many different sources, including Federal and State agencies, scientific journals, and research papers. It will become apparent that as each question is addressed the answers only seem to create more questions and further research being needed as we search for the Truth About CWD.

Question #1. When and where was CWD first detected?

ANSWER: see Spring issue

Question #2. Currently, how many states and provinces has CWD been found in?

ANSWER: see Spring issue.

NEW QUESTIONS If, “ all 18 states with positive captive herds are within one of 32 states with positive wild deer” then how did CWD get into the wild population in the other 14 states? Where did the infected wild deer in north Florida found dead along a highway actually come from since no other deer in the state has tested positive to date? How can captive deer farmers in the other 14 states protect their captive herds from being infected with CWD?

Question #3. What was the population of deer in the US when CWD was first detected? What is the population today?

ANSWER: The population of deer in the US from past to present: in 1930 it was apx. 300,000; in 1950 it was apx. 476,000; in 1970 it was apx. 3 million; and presently the US deer population is apx. 35-36 million. This represents nearly 12 times increase in the deer population since CWD was first discovered. NEW QUESTIONS. Where have deer populations decreased? What specific studies prove deer populations have decreased? Are these studies of captive or wild deer populations? We are well aware that due to the long incubation period and long-time frame before death after infection, that some “older” aged classes of animals are declining, however the total population is still increasing.

Question #4. What does it take to kill or destroy the prion responsible for CWD?

ANSWER: You cannot kill what is not alive. Prions cannot be destroyed by freezing, boiling, alcohol, bleach, acid, radiation, or standard autoclaving methods. In fact, infected brain tissue that have been sitting in formaldehyde for decades can still transmit spongiform disease. Sustained high heat, temperatures over 900 degrees C ( or 1652 degrees F) are needed to “destroy” the prion. At temperatures of 600 degrees C, the prion still has relative infectivity. Hospitals and research facilities had to change from standard autoclaving techniques in order to “deactivate” prions. It has been reported that it takes steam autoclaving at temperatures of 270 degrees F at 21 psi for 90 minutes or steam autoclaving in a solution of sodium hydroxide at 250 degrees F at 21 psi for 1hour to deactivate prions. Prions have been deactivated from smooth stainless-steel surfaces and stainless-steel wires after being soaked in 40% bleach for 5 minutes.


NEW QUESTIONS. Where is either 40% or 50% bleach available for the public to purchase?

Swimming pool bleach is 10%-12% and laundry bleach is only 3%-4% bleach. How toxic is 40%-50% bleach to humans? Other than hospital and research settings, what “environment” has the CWD prion ever been killed from?

Question #5. Can meat processors and packers sterilize their equipment to prevent the possible contamination of meat from other animals being processed?

ANSWER: Presently NO. In the future is a valid assumption, but at what cost. Currently it has only been done in hospital and research settings.

NEW QUESTIONS. What other surfaces can be cleaned and disinfected with 40%-50% bleach? How caustic is it to other materials? Where do waste products from meat packers and processors go? What regulations are in place or planned to be put into place to stop contamination and the spread of CWD? Will hunters be able to continue to process deer they have harvested themselves?

Question #6. Has any human ever been reported getting CWD from eating venison or any other means? ANSWER. NO, see Spring issue

Question #7. Has the CWD prion been discovered in soils, plants (including grasses, hay, and grains) and in bodies of water?

ANSWER. YES, it has been found in all of these, and yet these things are being transported daily both interstate & intrastate, as well as being exported all without testing. Fortunately, the prion can easily be removed from drinking water with proper filtration. Some of this has been known since 2014. Please see the following:

(1) National Library of Medicine, 2/2014 Concerning Wheat Up-taking the Prion

(2) National Library of Medicine, July 28, 2021, Prion Dissemination through the Environment

(3) National Institute of Health, Pritzkow, 2021, found CWD prion in water

(4) I-Science, December 15, 2023, found that Thale cress, a small plant from the mustard family (Brassicaceae), as well as barley and alfalfa could up-take CWD prions into the stems and leaves in an amount to pass the prion to mice.

NEW QUESTIONS. How many Federal and State agencies are aware of this information? Why has this information not been made readily available to the public? What can be done to stop the spread of CWD prions in contaminated soil, plants, and water? Can these proposed methods stop the spread caused by severe natural weather events, such as floods and wind storms? Can we actually remove the prions from the environment once the environment is contaminated, or do we just have to live with it?

~Continued 27

Question #8. Has the CWD prion been discovered in the feces of scavengers, including avian scavengers (such as migratory birds like crows, vultures, and eagles) and arthropods (otherwise known as insects) ? ANSWER. YES, YES, AND YES. Please see the following:

(1) This concern was presented over 40 years ago by Dr. Kurt VerCauteren, NWRC, WS-ALPHIS-USA.

(2) November1, 2009 a study at Texas A&M found that crows played a role in spreading CWD through feces of digested infectious carcasses.

(3) A study in Wisconsin, from September to April, from 2003 through 2005, monitored scavenger activity at carcasses and gut piles of white-tailed deer. They recorded 14 species of scavenging mammals (and 6 species of visitors which included other deer and cattle), plus 8 species of scavenging birds (and 14 species of avian visitors). The carcasses persisted for 18 to 101 days depending upon the season and year, while the gut piles lasted for a median of only 3 days. Wisconsin and other states are currently running studies about scavengers spread of CWD prions.

(4) new study in 2017 found that pigs (an omnivore), tested positive for CWD prions

CWD prions have been discovered in insects as far back as 2001. Many studies have proven that flies and ticks are known vectors. Other insects are currently being studied as potential vectors. Please see following:

(1) National Institute of Health in 2001 found CWD in ticks from elk.

(2) USGS confirmed studies from Wisconsin in 2003, that ticks carry and “shed” CWD prions, as a possible vector in spreading it to other deer.

(3) the most recent study, January 8, 2024, EMBO press, found Nasal bots carry relevant titers of CWD prions.

NEW QUESTIONS. How many Federal and State agencies are aware of this information? Why has the information not been made readily available to the public? What can be done to stop the spread of CWD prions from insects? What can be done to stop the spread of CWD prions from migratory avian scavengers? What can be done to stop the spread of CWD from mammalian scavengers? The list is so great but must include bears, lions, wild hogs, wolves, coyotes, feral dogs, raccoons, possums, just to name a few.

Question #9. Has double or even triple fencing or depopulation stopped the spread of CWD? ANSWER. NO. Outside of the 1 instance in New York, back in late 2005, nothing has been proven to be effective in stopping the spread of CWD, see the current spread of CWD in the answer for question 2 above. Tit has not been proven that double or triple fencing is 100% effective in stopping the spread of CWD or it would be mandated in every State and Provence. Multiple layers of fencing can only stop direct deer to deer contact from those animals outside of a pen to those inside of a pen, regardless if that pen is less than one acre, or an entire county, or multiple counties, or an entire state. Multiple layer fencing cannot stop CWD from entering or exiting a pen because of all the other possible routes of transmission ( see answers to Questions 7 and 8 above ), including natural weather events like flooding and large wind storms. Depopulation, or the killing of all or nearly all deer from contaminated geographic areas may slow the direct horizontal spread from deer to deer, only because there are no or so few deer left. However, once new deer travel into those contaminated areas, they can become infected and start the cycle all over again. Once the environment is contaminated with CWD, “we cannot clear the environment of the prion. Once a captive premises has been infected the other deer in the facility will become infected.” is a direct quote from Fl Ag Commissioner, Mr. Wilton Simpson.


NEW QUESTIONS. What does “extensive management” mean? What level of depopulation does extensive management equate to in order to reduce the incidence in the wild population and slow the spread? Will the general public have a voice regarding extensive management, and will they be informed prior to it taking place? Will the carcasses be left at the kill site or collected, taken, and disposed of at a designated landfill site? What explanation is there for CWD being found inside of double fenced pens, where no deer movement into those pens from outside of the double fenced facility has taken place? Where has extensive management been proven to be 100% successful in stopping the spread of CWD since 2005? What can states do to protect captive herds from being infected from the wild deer populations? How long do CWD prions last in different environment and soil types?

Question #10. Since the CWD prion can be found in all tissues and fluids of infected deer, why is live animal tissue testing not accepted or approved? Doesn’t it make sense to remove the infected animals versus killing the entire herd?

ANSWER. It is completely uncertain at this time why Federal (USDA) and many State agencies do not allow live animal testing. Eventually, prions are found in all tissues and fluids. Rectal and tonsil biopsies (RAMALT) tests are approved in some states but not others. One of the most promising tests, real -time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) test has been in testing since 2013 and as of 2020 was able using an ear punch sample, to detect 85-90% of infected animals while still alive according to Davin Henderson with CWD Evolution. Currently there are many various live animal tests in the works. One of the most recent as of 2/2024 Fecal Testing for CWD. No where have I found that researchers, scientists, or owners of any type of livestock believe that it is best to destroy the total population (an entire herd) versus remove the infected animal(s).

NEW QUESTIONS. What is the reason for not approving live animal testing? What specificity and sensitivity does a test need in order to get approval? How long once an environment is contaminated with CWD prions must it remain void of any deer before it is safe to reintroduce deer back into that environment? Will this be true for wild populations of deer as well as captive populations? If so, how will wild deer populations be prevented from entering contaminated lands until it is deemed safe again?

Question #11. Following the recent discovery of CWD positive deer in Florida, two privately owned cervid facilities were quarantined. What are the terms of the quarantine orders? Since the CWD positive animal was a wild deer with no genetic ties to a high fence facility, why were privately owned cervid owners quarantined? What rationale justifies quarantines for facilities that have no ties or links to the CWD positive animal?

ANSWER. The best source for answers is to ask those directly impacted. Read the CWD Quarantine Zone Story about Steve Padgett’s deer farm and hunting preserve in this issue of Southeast Tines.

NEW QUESTIONS. How long will the quarantine last? What changes will be made? What needs to occur for the quarantine to be removed? What steps are being taken to discover where the positive deer actually came from? Can we genetically prove that the deer was a Florida native or non-native animal? How can anyone be certain of the genetic origin when Florida’s deer genetics have been altered since the importation and release of deer form other states. See the book titled “ A History of Restocking Whitetailed Deer in the United States:1878 to 2004” authored by J. Scott MacDonald and Karl V. Miller. According to this book, 1513 deer were imported into the state of Florida over four decades, and 1409 were relocated from one part of the state to another. In 1941 the first deer from Bull’s Island, South Carlina were released in Florida; deer were introduced from Wisconsin from 1949 through 1950, from Texas between 1949 through 1969, and in the 1960’s from Louisiana. Other deer also came from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina.

Question #12. Are any Florida legislative changes being considered in the wake of the CWD positive animal? If so, what changes are being considered?

ANSWER. YES. On 4/17/24 , FWC had a public meeting in Gainesville to discuss possible rule changes for Game Farms and Hunting Preserves.

NEW QUESTIONS. What are the total dollars budgeted annually in Florida to attempt to stop the spread of CWD? Where are the funds coming from? What testing plans are being considered of wild deer to fully understand the prevalence of CWD in the wild deer population?


Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

White-tailed deer farming is a rapidly growing industry in rural North America, with nearly 400 deer farms and preserves located in the state of Florida alone. Deer farming involves housing, handling, and transporting deer to new enclosures, preserves, or other farms. However, regardless of the management strategy or technique used, the process of capturing, handling, and transporting the animals can cause significant stress. While this stress may not be immediately evident, it can lead to a complex degenerative disease of the skeletal muscle, known by various names but referred to here as capture myopathy (CM). This condition can occur not only in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) but also in other ungulates (hoofed animals), as well as some species of birds, reptiles, and fish.

CM is a non-infectious disease of wild and domestic animals that is directly associated with the stress of capture, restraint, and transportation. In ungulates, the disease can lead to significant illness characterized by depression, muscle stiffness or weakness, tremors, rapid breathing, high heart rate, high body temperature, lack of coordination, paralysis, metabolic acidosis (pH change in the body), dark red urine and/or death. CM resembles the muscle disorders of domestic cattle, sheep, horses, and swine.

One of the earliest reports of symptoms consistent with CM was described in a white-tailed deer in 1955. Later, CM became widely recognized in Africa in the late 1960s and early 1970s when many rare animals died during or soon after capture. Subsequently, CM was described in many other North American species, such as black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), moose (Alces alces), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana), Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and elk (Cervus canadensis).


One of the most common causes of this disease is muscle exhaustion. Prolonged muscle exertion changes the body’s metabolism from aerobic (uses oxygen) to anaerobic (uses stored energy in the muscles without oxygen). This change in metabolism leads to the production and buildup of lactic acid. Lactic acid enters the blood and lowers the pH in the body affecting heart muscle and decreasing the efficiency of blood flow. When the heart does not pump sufficient oxygen to the muscles, the muscles become damaged, releasing myoglobin (a breakdown product of muscle) into the blood. Excessive myoglobin damages the kidney, producing kidney failure and ultimately death of the animal. In severe cases, death may occur in only a few hours. In less severe cases, animals may succumb to the disease days or weeks later due to kidney failure.

Young or old animals as well as those that are in poor physical condition or overweight are more prone to develop capture myopathy than healthy adult animals. Similarly, pre-existing diseases, infections, and severe parasite burdens can predispose animals to capture myopathy. Female animals in their final trimester of gestation may also be at greater risk of developing CM.

Credits: Dr. Juan M. Campos Krauer

Yearling bucks recently worked to cut their antlers. This is crucial to keep bucks together in the same pen during the rut season.
Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer - Continued on Page 34


Be aware of the following signs.

• Depression

• Debilitation

• Lethargy

• Muscle stiffness or weakness

• Tremors

• Ataxia (lack of muscle control or coordination of voluntary movements)

• Firm stepping (muscle tremor is evident in muscles of back and legs that progress to muscle rigor, and the animal is reluctant to move)

• Tachycardia (heart beats faster than normal while at rest)

• Open-mouth and rapid breathing

• Hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), white-tailed deer have a normal body temperature of 38.5°C (101.4°F) and hyperthermia is considered at temperatures over 40.6°C (105°F).

• Red-brown urine

• Unresponsiveness to human presence


• Plan the work and have all the necessary equipment, tools, and staff to minimaze animal handling time.

• Always work during the coldest hours of the day (early morning) or on days when the ambient temperature is lower.

• Trapping or darting animals is always preferable to chasing them. If animals must be pursued, limit the pursuit to 5-10 minutes.

• Once the animal is immobilized, blindfold and reduce noise to a minimum.

• During immobilization or when recovering, ensure the animal is in a position where it can breathe easily, and never place the mouth or nose close to objects that can block airflow. Consider the use of oxygen if the animal is not breathing well.

• Consider using oximeters (an instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of the circulating blood). Currently, oximeters are widely available and can alert handlers if low blood oxygenation is detected. For more guidance on this equipment, contact your veterinarian.

• Always check the animal’s temperature throughout the procedure. We recommend taking rectal temperature.

• Use good ventilation and damp cloths over the body if required. Overheating can have deadly consequences.

• If an animal is transported, use trailers designed for deer, always supervising the temperature inside the trailer.

• Vitamin complex of selenium and Vitamin E is suggested as a prophylaxis (prevention) or treatment for CM, however, the efficacy of these supplements is unclear.

• Preferably, all animal work should be done by or under the supervision of a veterinarian.


Capture myopathy is very difficult to treat, so prevention by minimizing stress is critical. Treatment consists of removing animals from the primary source of stress, administering intravenous (IV) tranquilizers and fluid therapy to correct pH imbalance. Surface cooling and oxygen supplementation are recommended. Treatment should always be done by or under the supervision of a veterinarian.


On occasions, animals that die due to capture myopathy can have areas of pale muscle on the heart or thigh, as well as dark reddish brown, cloudy urine. However, without a detailed animal history, a complete necropsy, and specific histopathologic testing, it can be challenging to clearly identify CM as the cause of death.

Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer - Continued on Page 37 Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer - Continued from Page 32


Conditions that could resemble or share similar signs or symptoms to CM in wildlife may include: white-muscle disease (named because of its characteristic pale coloration of the muscle, caused by selenium deficiency in areas where the mineral is scarce in the soil), some plant toxicities such as found in Cassia occidentalis (coffee senna), and Cassia obtusifolia; early tetanus, hypocalcemia (low calcium levels in the blood); and myositis (a disease that makes the immune system attack the muscles). Conclusive diagnosis of CM depends on history, symptoms, and gross and microscopic pathology.


CM is a condition that can cause the death of many species, including white-tailed deer. Despite being frequently reported by veterinarians, the condition is still poorly understood. It is characterized by severe direct or indirect muscle injury, kidney failure, and elevated body temperatures. Currently, there is no cure for CM. At present, preventing the condition is the best approach. Deer capture and immobilization events should be carefully planned, taking all possible preventive measures to minimize risks and decrease animal handling time.

Campos Krauer, Juan M. Facts about Wildlife Diseases: Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer © 2024 UF/IFAS. Licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0.


Abbott, C. W., C. B. Dabbert, D. R. Lucia, and R. B. Mitchell. 2005. “Does muscular damage during capture and handling handicap radiomarked northern bobwhites?” The Journal of Wildlife Management 69:664–670. https://doi. org/10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069[0664:DMDDCA]2.0. CO;2

Antognini, J. F., P. H. Eisele, and G. A. Gronert. 1996. “Evaluation for Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility in Black-Tailed Deer.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32 (4): 678–681. https://doi. org/10.7589/0090-3558-32.4.678

Beringer, J., L. P. Hansen, W. Wilding, J. Fischer, and S. L. Sheriff. 1996. “Factors Affecting Capture Myopathy in White-Tailed Deer.” Journal of Wildlife Management 60 (2): 373–380. https://

Breed, D., L. C. R. Meyer, J. C. A. Steyl, A. Goddard, R. Burroughs, and T. A. Kohn. 2020. “Conserving Wildlife in a Changing World: Understanding Capture Myopathy—A Malignant Outcome of Stress during Capture and Translocation.” Conservation Physiology 7 (1): coz027. https://doi. org/10.1093/conphys/coz027

Businga, N. K., J. Langenberg, and L. Carlson. 2007. “Successful Treatment of Capture Myopathy in Three Wild Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida).” J. Avian Med. Surg. 21:294–298. https://doi. org/10.1647/2005-013R1.1

Chalmers, G. A., and M. W. Barrett. 1982. “Capture Myopathy.” In Noninfectious Diseases ofWildlife, edited by G. L. Hoff and J. W. Davis. 84–94. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Chalmers, G. A., and M. W. Barrett. 1977. “Capture Myopathy in Pronghorns in Alberta, Canada.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171:918–923.

Dechen Quinn, A. C., D. M. Williams, W. F. Porter, S. D. Fitzgerald, and K. Hynes. 2014. “Effects of Capture- Related Injury on Postcapture Movement of White-Tailed Deer.” J. Wildl. Dis. 50 (2): 250–258. https://doi. org/10.7589/2012-07-174

Fraser, C. M. 1991. The Merck Veterinary Manual. Merck Publishing Group. Hadlow, W. J. 1955. “Degenerative Myopathy in a White- Tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus.” The Cornell Veterinarian 45:538–547. Haigh, J. C., R. R. Stewart, G. Wobeser, and P. S. MacWilliams. 1977. “Capture Myopathy in a Moose.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171:924–926. Hamidieh, H., A. Alhami, and J. Mirian. 2011. “Capture Myopathy in Red Deer and Wild Goat.” Archives of Razi Institute 66 (2): 147–149. Harthoorn, A. M. 1973. Physiology and Therapy of Capture Myopathy, 2nd Annual Report. Pretoria, South Africa: Transvaal Nature Conservation Division. Harthoorn, A. M., and E. Young. 1974. “A Relationship between Acid-Base Balance and Capture Myopathy in Zebra, Equus burchelli, and an Apparent Therapy.” The Veterinary Record 95:337–342.

Herráez, P., A. Espinosa de los Monteros, A. Fernández, J. F. Edwards, S. Sacchini, and E. Sierra. 2013. “Capture Myopathy in Live-Stranded Cetaceans.” Vet. J. 196:181–188. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.09.021

Jarrett, W. H. F., F. W. Jennings, M. Murray, and A. M. Harthoorn. 1964. “Muscular Dystrophy in a Wild Hunter’s Antelope.” East African Wildlife Journal 2:158–159. https:// doi. org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.1964.tb00204.x

La Grange, M., J. Van Rooyen, and H. Ebedes. 2010. “Capture Myopathy.” In Game Ranch Management, 5th Edition, edited by J. d. P. Bothma and J. Du Toit. 556–565. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

Lewis, R. J., G. A. Chalmers, M. W. Barrett, and R. Bhatnagar. 1977. “Capture Myopathy in Elk in Alberta, Canada: A Report of Three Cases.” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 171:927–932.

Montane, J., I. Marco, X. Manteca, J. Lopez, and S. Lavin, 2002. “Delayed Acute Capture Myopathy in Three Roe Deer.” J. Vet. Med. A. 49:93–98. Nielsen, L. 1999. “Postcapture Management.” In Chemical Immobilization of Wild and Exotic Animals, 1st Edition, edited by L. Nielsen. 161–187. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Spraker, T. R. 1993. “Stress and Capture Myopathy in Artiodactyls.” In Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine: Current Therapy, 3rd Edition, edited by M. E. Fowler. 481–488. Saunders. West, G., D. Heard, and N. Caulkett (Eds.). 2014. Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ProQuest Ebook Central. http://ebookcentral. proquest. com/lib/ufl/detail.action?docID=1747517

Capture Myopathy in Farmed White-Tailed Deer - Continued from Page 34



Selling and moving stocker deer from northern to southern states generally revolves around one important factor – the first hard frost. In an effort to avoid epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) outbreaks, it is safer and more advisable to wait until the possibility of EHD has passed for the year, shares Greg Leenderts, Vice-Chairman of the South Dakota Deer and Elk Breeder’s Association (SDEBA). After the first hard frost, most culicoides midge flies, the “no-see-um” biting flies responsible for transmitting the disease, have died off. In states such as Kansas, this happens much earlier in the year as opposed to states such as Texas where the climate can remain warmer well into the fall.

Although deer might develop a certain degree of immunity to EHD for the particular region where they live (and may even receive a vaccine), several strains of EHD are found throughout the U.S., as there are more than 1,000 culicoides species. Known to affect whitetail deer, elk, pronghorn antelope and bighorn sheep, EHD is a blood borne disease and the most prominent infectious disease among whitetails. However, while outbreaks

can prove quite deadly, the disease is not contagious.

“Deer in northern states deal with different EHD strains than deer in southern states,” said Leenderts, who owns Whitetail Farms in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. “There is a fine and tricky line as to when you should transport.”

And while he can never guarantee that a northern deer will not succumb to EHD in the south (despite administering vaccines, feeding vitamins such as “K” to boost their immune system and using fly spray), he can guarantee that northern deer will be naturally hearty with sizable racks and substantive bodies. “Hunters really like them because they look mature even when they are younger,” Leenderts explained. “The yearlings mix right in with the older ones.”

Having spent the better part of ten years raising a CWD certified herd and selling and transporting typical whitetail deer and mule deer to certain southern states, Leenderts, 43, appreciates the business relationships he has established and keeps in contact with each preserve throughout the year.

“I don’t sell mine until they are done growing and don’t price the deer until

early fall,” he said. “There can be a huge price difference in having ten more typical inches on a rack versus not.”

Other considerations when selling and transporting northern raised deer to southern states, is the unavoidable temperature fluctuation between colder and warmer climates. “Your trailer ventilation is key along with air conditioning,” Leenderts said. “If your deer get warm, they are going to get worked up. It’s also always better to haul at night when temperatures are cooler.”

In addition to his loyal customers who keep him busy, Leenderts is also grateful for the support shown to deer farmers in his state by the South Dakota Animal Industry Board and the South Dakota Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. “We have a supportive government here and it’s great,” he said. “Having moved here from Minnesota three years ago, I can tell you that South Dakota is a very welcoming place to raise deer.”



The perfect sizzle for your early summer afternoons!


• 2 teaspoons seasoned salt

• ¼ teaspoon garlic salt

• ½ teaspoon black pepper

• ½ teaspoon cayenne pepper

• 1 teaspoon dried oregano

• 1 ½ pounds venison, cut into 2 inch strips

• 4 tablespoons vegetable oil

• 1 medium red bell pepper, cut into 2 inch strips

• 1 medium yellow bell pepper, cut into 2 inch strips

• 1 medium onion, cut into 1/2-inch wedges

• 12 fajita size flour tortillas, warmed


1. Combine seasoned salt, garlic salt, black pepper, cayenne pepper, and oregano to make the fajita seasoning. Sprinkle two teaspoons of the seasoning over the sliced venison. Mix well, cover, and refrigerate for 30 minutes.

2. Heat 2 tablespoons of oil in a heavy frying pan. Cook bell peppers and onion until starting to soften, then remove. Pour in remaining oil, then cook venison until browned. Return pepper mixture to the pan, season with remaining fajita seasoning, and reheat. Served with the warmed tortillas.

Do you have a favorite recipe? Email it to for a chance to be featured in one of our magazines!

Please list the ingredients, linstructions, and include a photo or two! (Recipes don’t need to include venison!)


Spring Fling 2024

My Most Memorable Hunt

Cliff with a Florida buck that forgot to walk out in front of his son.

Gator-boys ain’t got nothing on this Gator-girl, 11’8”. Way to go Becca.

Jim flew in from Texas for his first Osceola. He bought the donated hunt at 2024 SETDA Spring Fling for our scholarship fund.

This is Taylor’s 3rd buck ever and battled through buck fever to make a nice shot. That feeling is contagious.

Daniel killed this blesbuck with his dad Joe Barcia in South Africa.

Killon Wilkison killed this nice 8 pointer in North Carolina.

To have your Most Memorable Hunt featured in the next Southeast Tines send a photo and a short story to Subject line should be “My Most Memorable Hunt”.

December 15th 2024

December 15th 2024

PO Box 159, Morriston, FL 32668


The annual Chupp Auction and the Top 30 North and South Auctions not only provide opportunities to promote a farm or product, they are vitally important to keeping the enthusiasm for the deer industry going. The Chupp Auction, thought of by some as the “springboard” to Top 30 “encourages farms to put their best stuff in,” offers Ivan Hochstetler of Double D Whitetails in Dundee, Ohio. “It gives people the incentive to keep breeding ‘up’ with the best genetics they can afford and gets them more excited for Top 30.”

According to Whitetail Sales and Service co-owner Chris Ezell “we had a great turnout this year at Top 30,” he said. “We want everyone to realize how necessary it is to make time for events like these. This is almost as important as attending the annual NADeFA convention.”

Hochstetler, who has spent the last 14 years breeding deer, has been in the Top 30 North auction for the past 10 years, offering an auction lot of three bred does. “I’m extremely happy with what I got this year for my lot,” he said. “It’s very meaningful to be included. We are grateful to Kevin Grace who started it all.”

When Eddie Ray Borkholder and his wife Diane prepare to participate in the Top 30 North auction, loading up to come includes more than packing a suitcase and deciding which three of his treasured Patrick-line does will be sold. It also includes a production of baking “Fry Pies” started long before the actual auction date. “This year we brought 300 pies,” Eddie Ray said. “We give them away at our booth. It’s a half-moon glazed pie filled with blueberries, strawberries, coconut or apple. We never have any trouble attracting people to our booth. That’s one of the best things about auctions like Top 30. Meeting all the people who attend. A lot of the guys in it back then are gone and it’s a whole different group of people now talking about deer. We love it. We are very thankful to Kevin Grace and the Chupp brothers for starting these auctions, and to Chris Ezell and Lester Eicher for keeping it going.”

Like Hochstetler, Eddie Ray, who has been participating in Top 30 North since 2001, was also extremely happy with what his auction lot brought in this year. “The atmosphere of the auction and the excitement of bidding might entice someone to pay more for what you’re selling compared to if you

were just selling the same deer off of your farm,” Ezell said. “That’s another great aspect about being involved.”

Getting into the Top 30 as a consignor is not quite as daunting of a task as it might seem, Hochstetler, 67, shared. Along with the Top 30 North or South is also the Select 20, a secondary group of auction participants. Each year, the top five Select 20 auction winners take the place of the lowest Top 30 auction participants when the next Top 30 Auction North or South occurs. “This makes way for newcomers and encourages everyone to bring their best,” he added.

“Every deer farmer should do whatever it takes to be a part of these auctions,” Ezell said. Dates, times and places for each and every auction (as well as advertising deadlines) can be easily found by visiting https://www., or talking with Eicher or Ezell. A percentage of the profits from auctions often end up being donated to a worthy cause such as nonprofit organizations that support hunting or land conservation.


Word Search


The rules for sudoku are simple:

A 9x9 square must be filled in with numbers from 1-9 with no repeated numbers in each line, horizontally or vertically.

To challenge you more, there are 3x3 squares marked out in the grid, and each of these squares can’t have any repeat numbers either.

Fawn Bottle Milk Bucket Blanket Doe Planting Tractor Garden Fence Greenhouse Ranch Seed Vineyard Windmill Lamb Chick Calf Foal Piglet Answers to puzzles will be available in the next issue, or can be found on our website:


Species - Specific for Whitetail , Mule Deer & Elk

“Better Than Mother’s Milk”


• Fawns up to 1 week of age: Feed 16 oz. of formula daily, divided into 4 – 6 feeding.

• Fawns 1 week to 1 month of age: Feed 24 to 30 oz. of formula daily, divided into 4 feedings.

• Fawns 1 month to 2 months of age: Feed 30 to 35 oz. of formula daily, divided into 2 to 3 feedings.

• Fawns 2 months to weaning: Gradually decrease formula and number of feedings to approximately 15 oz. of formula once daily until fawn is fully weaned at 12 to 14 weeks of age. Provide a weaning diet and fresh clean water to the fawn.

For oral use only. These feeding directions are guidelines. As each animal is an individual, the feeding rate may be increased or decreased according to the needs of the neonate.

Feeding directions for other species can be found on our website.

• All-Milk Protein from Premium Food-Grade Milk Ingredients

• Essential Vitamins and Complex Minerals

• Balanced Fatty Acids

• Improves Digestion

• Promotes Growth and Performance

• No Refrigeration Needed

• Easily Palatable

• 18 Month Shelf Life

• Available in 20# & 8# pails

• 24/7 Technical Advice & Support

55 Nick Vlamis, President Email: DON'T LOSE A FAWN THIS YEAR TO POOR NUTRITION (847) 687-3200 (800) 679-4666



PO Box 159

Morriston, FL 32668


Science that delivers the health & productivity you require



Nutrient rich formula contains highly bioavailable ingredients, including our proprietary calcium/phosphorous complex with Antler D TM, that are required to support body and bone growth, especially for fast growing bucks

Contains probiotics and targeted enzymes to support gut health and proper digestion

Available in pellet or powder that can be top dressed or mixed in feed. Great for antler growing season and young bucks, too



Provides optimal levels of magnesium, Vitamin B1 and inositol to promote calmness and provide help for restless animals

Contains no herbals, tryptophan or chemicals, eliminating concerns of unwanted side effects

Use PeaceMaker to “keep the peace” during pre-rut, rut, transportation, weaning and anytime destructive behavior may occur



Helps maintain digestive health and productivity

Contains micro-encapsulated probiotics, targeted enzymes and a novel fiber complex

Use in does before fawning, during lactation and all cervids during times of environmental stress



Helps maintain normal digestive health

Supports a healthy immune system

Feed powder for 14 days to bottle fed fawns

Paste is ideal for fawns left on does



Innovative formula delivers max digestive support, especially in newborns

Rapidly delivers help for GI health and a functioning immune system

May also be used post-tranquilization to support healthy recovery

Science Geared For Deer H ead G ear LL c 1383 arcadia road , suite 102 / L ancaster , pa 17601 p H one 717-509-5724 www H ead G ear LL c com scan to L earn more

Dear SeTDA Member:


The Board of Directors (Board) for the Southeast Trophy Deer Association (SeTDA) has several Board positions set to expire. Therefore, the SeTDA will be holding an election for the expiring Board positions. The SeTDA is looking for HARD WORKING individuals who will devote the necessary time and energy to accomplish the following mission of the SeTDA:

• To promote the business of raising and marketing Whitetail Deer in the State of FLORIDA.

• To provide educational opportunities for members of the Corporation and other interested people through the sharing of information concerning Whitetail Deer.

• To serve as a collective voice in governmental issues that affect whitetail deer producers, so as to enhance the Whitetail Deer industry.

• To promote high ethical standards in the care, handling and harvesting of Whitetail Deer.

• To require members of the Corporation to operate in a legal, honest and forthright manner with fellow members, other Whitetail Deer producers and the general public.

If interested in running for one of the expiring Board positions, please answer the following questions:


1. Please describe yourself and what you do outside of the cervid industry.

2. Please describe your operation. (How long have you been raising deer? Where is your farm located? What species are in your breeding program? What are your primary markets? Etc.)

3. Describe any roles you have served in (committee member, officer, etc.) for your state and/or national association (NADEFA).

4. Describe your position on open borders for your state of residence, as well as from a national perspective.

5. Why do you want to serve as a SETDA Director?

Mail to Dr Bill Leffler c/o 2 Base Down Whitetails, PO Box 159, Morriston, FL 32668 or email to

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