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July-September 2012

PLUS Issue # 6

Paddy seed Plantation is being done by delicate human craft.

Editorial Board

Co nt en ts

July- September, 2012

Chief Editor Hamlik Managing Editor Rahmat Ullah Rozeen Shaukat English Editor Maryam Naseer Business Development Manager Mujahid Ali Graphic Designer Mohammad Zakriya Marketing Executive(s) Sarfraz Ahmed Khalid Shabbir (UAE) Shamsahd Ahmad (Saudi Arabia) Legal Advisor Advocate Zaheer Minhas Editorial Advisory Board 1. Admiral (R) Hamid Khalid 2. Javed Islam Agha 3. Ch. Hamid Malhi 4. Dr. Akhtar Husain 5. Dr. Fayyaz Ahmed Siddique 6. Dr.Abdul Rashid (UAF) 7. Islam Akhtar Khan

Editorial Note


Bran Oil


Threats to Basmati Rice Production Rice: Steps towards High Yield and Quality

4 5

Management of Mycotoxin Contamination in Rice


Rice Personality


Weed Control In Rice


Glimpse of UIP Exhibition


Country at a Glance


Who Eats Rice? Call for Exporters


Crop Simulation- Rice


Rice Market and Exports of Pakistan


Green Revolution at Risk - PARB Efforts


Oryza News


Current News


Upcoming Conferences on Rice/ Agriculture Events, 2012


Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. (ZTBL)Islamabad


Rs.400/- per copy inclusive of postage Rs.1400/-annually (four issues) inclusive of postage 5$ without postage charges Disclaimer: Rice plus Magazine is owned, managed and published by Induss Pak Corporation Lahore, represented by Hamid Malik, which has been outsourced to Institute of Research Promotion (IRP). All the rights of ownership, reprinting, editing and copyrighting are reserved with Induss Pak Corporation. No responsibility is assumed by Induss Pak Corporation for any kind of contribution/published material by authors.

Rice plus A Quarterly Magazine IRP, Suite # 11, Floor # 7, Central Plaza, Barkat Market, New Garden Town Lahore, Pakistan. Tel: +92-42-35846988, +92-42-35845551 Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Editorial Note Welcome to the summer edition of Rice plus Magazine. In sub-continent, farmers are busy in planting or transplanting the rice nurseries for main crop. In Vietnam crop is ready but farmers are delaying harvest as the prevailing prices are 55% less than last year, inspite of cost increase. The global rice trading turmoil which started by the entry of Indians with lower prices is continuing. Thailand, India and USA policies of irrational subsidy to the farm sector is creating a great distortion in rice global trade. The prices at which Thailand government is buying under rice mortgage prices are $150 to 200 per ton more than prevailing international prices. Indian government is doing same thing under MSP(Rs 10800 per ton/49=220$,when converted to rice is$430 ex mill and $470 FOB. While India is selling at $430 per ton thanks to 19% devaluation of Indian rupee at INR10800 per quintal cost millers US$430 per ton ex mill and $470 FOB currently. Same is the case with USA who pays subsidies to the farmers. This is causing distortion in the global rice market for countries like Vietnam and Pakistan. This is a very critical time for importing countries specially Nigeria, East Africa, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Korea and may be for China, as Thai government is going to hold the stock till 5% benchmark prices reaches $800 .If Indian government raises MSP by $32 per ton (as recommended by CACP) then prices can go very high but India can offload another 5to 6 million tons at least out of 32 million tons stocks which is 4 times high. Indian can afford to allow export of another 8 to10 million ton to rival holding. A week monsoon will not allow them to continue for a longer time is the only possibility of slow export from India. So, global rice prices after remaining under pressure for another four months may start rising. Rice industry has played a very effective and positive role in managing food security situation by supplying adequately and with reasonable prices. The good news are coming about the performance of CL 8, hybrid rice developed by Philippine-IRRI department (not International Rice Research Institute).For the last three years global rice production has outpaced consumption, inspite of increasing population pressure. Aromatic rice prices are now establishing over $1000 per ton mark. It is a good sign, though it has touched $1400 per tons. The biggest challenge for rice scientist in India and Pakistan is to develop basmati varieties which has aroma and higher per acre production. Water conservation in growing rice is another challenge. Historically rice growing is considered a water intensive activity. In many countries flood irrigation is being used at large scale. Excessive use of water not only drops water table but at the same time it is harmful to ozone layer due to methane production. African countries especially east Africa is in danger of having famine and drought, resulting in low rice production. Weather pattern in Indonesia and India (re appearance El Nina) are worrying point. It is encouraging to see new players in global rice trade. Cambodia, Myanmar, Brazil and Uruguay are proving consistent suppliers in global rice market. Upcoming challenges for Rice scientist community are reduction in use of chemical fertilizers, heavy metal contents, MRL (insecticides) less use of water, pre/post harvesting losses, long term storage solutions, improving milling recovery(reducing husk weight from 20%),efficient milling machinery etc. All the stake holders of rice Industry especially non-basmati segment, which accounts more than 85% of total global trade are going to face many challenges like rising input cost and environmental aspects(rice cultivation contributes 20% of total global production of Methane gas). Keep watching Indian monsoon movement, may impact global rice drastically.

Hamlik Chief Editor Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Bran Oil Ubaida Nisar , University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Rice bran, one of the main by-products of rice milling industry, has been recognized as an excellent source of edible oil, protein, dietary fiber and allied micronutrients. In Pakistan, it is under-utilized and generally used in poultry feed and fuel purposes. It contains about 15-20% edible oil, which could efficiently be used for covering the oil deficiency in the country. From the investigations, it is found that rice bran has a potential to be used for oil extraction and preparation of value added products. This will not only be helpful to fulfill the country's edible oil requirement but also to cope with the protein deficiency in the communities at risk through bran supplemented value added products. Rice bran oil has been used extensively in Asian countries like Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, and Pakistan. India tops in producing rice bran oil in Asia, followed by Japan and Thailand. It is the preferred oil in Japan for its 1 subtle flavor and odor. Interest in rice oil in the United States was initiated after WWII, primarily to provide an additional revenue stream to the rice miller. Recently, interest in bran oil escalated with its identification as a ''healthy oil'' that reduces serum cholesterol. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that the average intake of fat should be 30% of your total caloric intake. This fat intake should consist of balanced fat, which provides nutrients that are essential to sustain life. A balanced fat intake should contain approximately 30% saturated fat, 33% poly-unsaturated fat, (containing Essential Fatty Acids) and 37% mono- unsaturated fat. Rice bran oil is used in foods, feed, and industrial applications. Only high-quality oil is targeted to foods. The use of rice bran oil in Japan, where it is the largest volume domestically produced vegetable oil, is used as frying oil while its flavor is preferred over alternative oils. The oxidative stability of rice bran oil is equivalent to peanut and cottonseed oil in deep frying applications, blends of rice bran oil with soybean oil reduces the increase in total polar material (TPM) depending on the amount of rice bran oil in the blend. Potato chips fried in rice bran oil show flavor and odor stability at elevated temperatures between that of peanut and cottonseed oils. The nonfood uses of rice bran oil are feed formulations, soaps and glycerin. Waxes may be used as a carnauba wax replacement in confectionery, cosmetics and polishing compounds products. Use of rice bran oil grows as a specialty ingredient in the cosmetic/personal care market.

Rice bran oil contains a range of fats, with 47% of its fats monounsaturated, 33% polyunsaturated, and 20% saturated. Fatty acid composition of rice bran oil has Palmitic 15.0% Stearic 1.9% Oleic 42.5% Linoleic 39.1%

Bran Rice Provides Great Potential for Investment in Pakistan The demand is for natural, value-added healthy ingredients. This oil is the most balanced

and versatile oil in the market and closest to the AHA recommendations. Rice bran oil is a superior salad for cooking and frying which leaves no lingering after taste. The high smoke point prevents fatty acid breakdown at high temperatures. Its light viscosity allows less oil to be absorbed in cooking, reducing overall calories. It mixes better in salad dressings and improves the taste of baked goods, providing cholesterol reduction, nutritional and anti-oxidant value. Extraction of oil from Paddy bran is one of the main by- products of the rice milling industry. In first phase if we successfully install more than 20 Bran Oil producing plant nearest to rice mills, the project will initially yield an annual income ofbetween 50.00 to 60.00 Million US $. As far as this project is concerned, if the Government give incentives to Rice Millers in connection with Duty Free import of such Plant, we can definitely save heavy foreign exchange incurred on import of cooking oil . Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Threats to Basmati Rice Production Hamid Malhi, President, Basmati Growers Association. Basmati Rice contributes nearly half of the total rice export returns each year. During 2010-11 Basmati exports of 1.138 Million Metric Tons earned 953 Million $ whereas non Basmati exports of 2.554 Million Metric Tons earned 1138 Million $. Basmati has been exclusively grown in the fifteen Basmati districts of Punjab in Pakistan since centuries. The districts of Lahore, Narowal, Sialkot, Gujrat, MandiBahau Din, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahib, Chiniot, Sargodha, Khushab, Faisalabad, Jhang& Toba Tek Singh have traditionally grown for the different varieties of Basmati. The first variety was identified and later registered in 1933 then; Kala Shah Kaku Rice Research Station has Basmati 370 or the well known 'Desi Basmati'. Many other varieties of Basmati were also identified or developed and registered later by the Rice Research at Kala Shah Kaku but those which have made major impact on the farmer's incomes are Kernel Basmati in 1968, Basmati-385 in 1988, Super Basmati in 1996 and to some extent Basmati 2000 in the year 2001. Basmati-515, a new Basmati variety was introduced in 2011. Basmati has survived production road blocks over centuries due to its inherent price advantage to the farmer. Advancement in research in the non Basmati sector has led to the introduction of Hybrid rice technology. This technology achieved a land mark break through over a decade ago and now is reaching new heights of production levels of up to 200 maunds per acre. Although these super hybrids have not reached the country yet but time is not far away when they will. Even with the first & second generation of imported hybrid seeds currently available in the country, the area under Basmati cultivation is reducing each year. It has reduced by 15% in one year, from 13.338 Million Hectares in 2009-10 to 11.347 Million Hectares in 2010-11. The increasing hybrid rice seed imports are a clear indication of this trend. These imported hybrids are claimed to yield 100-140maunds per acre of paddy which at the current market rate of Rs. 85 of per 40 kg fetch Rs. 80-90 thousand to the farmer. These returns can surely cover the increased production costs which have doubled over the last two years. Increase in yield is not the only advantage, early sowing & early maturity saves crucial production costs & vital sowing period for wheat sowing, so the benefits are multifold. These factors are gradually luring the Basmati farmer towards sowing hybrid rice varieties. The consumption pattern and culinary habits of the Basmati consumer will be put to test when competition would either double the current paddy price to ensure at least equal returns to the Basmati farmer or face decrease in production and eventual increase in price due to lesser availability. It will come through market adjustments if the current yield per acre of Basmati does not increase to compete in returns with the hybrid rice production figures. The threats are not limited to the domestic front only. India, the only other producer of Basmati is also not playing fairly. During the last few years when all rice exports, except Basmati were banned by India to ensure sufficient availability for domestic consumption, the Commerce Ministry of India termed a non Basmati variety as Basmati and got permission for exporters to export this non Basmati variety. Since it was labeled as Basmati it was marketed at the same pricing ranges as those prevalent for Basmati. This year, in 2011-12 when India opened up rice exports of all varieties, the same variety was marketed at low rates of 670 $ per ton which came as a shock for the Basmati exporters of Pakistan causing paddy buyers to pull out from the market when it was peak harvest time. It took about a fortnight to finally settle down. Thanks to the Basmati Rice Millers & Traders who have an uncompromising faith in the value of Basmati that the paddy market did not take the deep plunge and the Basmati paddy price kept stable at Rs.1500/ per 40Kg. This price range too, is becoming meaningless for the Basmati farmer. Things have to improve in a year or two and it is a big challenge for the whole Basmati sector. The inherent threats of disease spread, the import of new plant diseases, the continuous reliance totally on imports and loss of the comparative advantage of Basmati are the apparent risks to the farmer. In the absence of a competitive policy the trend is bound to accelerate in the coming years. It is high time that the stakeholders chalk out a strategy to counter the onslaught before it is too late. During 2011-12, total production of rice in the country increased by 16.6 per cent due to 8.86 per cent increase in area and 7.11 per cent in yield. However, production of Basmati rice declined by19.30 percent over the last year. Basmati Rice has recently been bullish and has reached new heights at Rs3300 -3400 per 40 Kg. This encouraging trend has sustained for over a month and will have a positive effect on the coming Basmati paddy prices which are expected to range above Rs 2000. This is bound to pull non basmati paddy prices above Rs1000, making it feasible to grow for the farmers. The another good news is the reduction in Urea prices from Rs 1810 per bag by Engro Fertilisers to Rs1650. This is timely and appropriate for rice growers and all agriculture. Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Rice Personality Mr. Javed Islam Agha Chairman, Rice Exporters Association of Pakistan CEO, Reem Rice Mills (Pvt.) Limited Human development is product of short and long term struggle of few legends in the history. But there are individuals, who did struggle in life synonymous to each other. Rice sector of Pakistan is highly indebted to 4-5 legends, who devoted themselves for the progress of rice sector by inspiring vision, taking bold initiatives and leading the sector through odds. Javed Islam Agha is appraised as one of the legendry pioneers who made the struggle for rice as part of life during last 25 years. He is an Electrical Engineering Graduate from UET, Lahore having experience with national and international market. He was the founder chairman of Rice Exporters Association of Pakistan from 1994-1997. Again he is elected Chairman REAP for the period of 2011-2012. He is Chief Executive officer of Reem Rice Mills (Pvt) Ltd, a joint venture of Al-Muhaidib group of Saudi Arabia and Al-Ghurair group of U.A.E since 1997. Mr. Javed Islam Agha agreed to share his views on global & domestic rice sector by sparing his valuable time. Rice plus: How do you feel by taking additional responsibilities of being chairman REAP? Mr. Javed Agha: REAP is brainchild of a few friends including myself. We always own it and feel pleasure for its working & improvement along with other professional responsibilities. It is very challenging time & this position requires lot of attention to lead, manage and monitoring. Being a Chairman, it is more important for me to enhance the growth of Pakistani rice export through the platform of REAP. We are rigorously and consistently working for better marketing and achieving standardization of rice quality being exported from Pakistan. Rice plus: How you will justify the role of QRC in the changing scenario of Basmati trade globally?(Especially, in the case when, India has changed the definition of Basmati Rice to facilitate the export of C1121 variety, which has non-basmati parents). Mr. Javed Agha: Inspite of all opposition from vested interests, the self- disciplinary mechanism of QRC has proved very effectively for the promotion and recognition of Pakistan's Basmati Rice which is photo period sensitive and aromatic. The new Indian varieties including Pusa 1121 are neither photo period sensitive nor aromatic. The presence of QRC is very essential to check adulteration and certify the authenticity of Basmati Rice of Pakistan which is unique in the world. We must pay attention for the development of new rice technologies, modern production facilities and improved quality of rice to compete the Indians who are making fast developments in this area. Rice plus: The trade between India & Pakistan is going to be liberalized now. Do you think that it will affect Pakistan's rice industry? How can we overcome upcoming challenges? Mr. Javed Agha: The trade between India and Pakistan will not pose any threat as long as Level Playing Field is provided to Pakistani traders and exporters. If we just analyze the prevailing scenario of both countries, the Indian farmer has more subsidies, cheap electricity, fertilizers and taxes. On the contrary, Pakistani farmer has no subsidy, less support of government, high energy prices, and very high cost of fertilizers almost double as compared to India. The import of rice in India is subject to 70 – 80 % duty while import of rice in Pakistan is having 14% duty and other taxes. We have to protect our farmers by Counter Veiling Duties. We have to ask our authorit

Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Rice Personality Mr. Javed Agha: Historically pure basmati 370 was first developed by Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku (RRI-KSK) in 1937, which means it belongs to Pakistani territory. During the war of 1965 Indians took basmati paddy from Sialkot area to India and multiplied it in their own country. India has developed big brands by taking the advantage of our nationalization policy in early 70s, when, Government of Pakistan nationalized rice business and export control was given to RECP. It banned export of rice by private sector and mechanism of Government to Government (G to G) export was introduced. It ultimately damaged the name of Pakistani rice in international market. In early 90s an eminent scientist of Pakistan Dr. Abdul Majeed, Director General of Rice Research Institute-Kala Shah Kahu developed another pure strain of Super Basmati Rice which was photo period sensitive and aromatic. In the mean -time rice trade was deregulated in 1989-90 and Pakistani private sector started developing new markets for rice export and developed earnings of Pakistan from US$300 Million to US$ 2 Billion. The new varieties such as Pusa and 1121 developed by the Indian recently although have longer grains but they are neither photo period sensitive nor aromatic. I can see a promising future of our new Basmati variety 515 recently developed by RRI-KSK which will Insha Allah replace Super Basmati. It has better yield extra -long grain and aromatic. Rice plus: How electricity shortage and water deficiency is affecting the production of rice? Mr. Javed Agha: This is very serious issue as cost of production is increasing everyday with the continuous increase in the prices of electricity. There is no subsidy by the government. Water is also becoming scarce in many areas.. We should preserve and store water by developing water reservoirs / Dams through consensus otherwise our land will become barren. The rice industry of Pakistan is earning two billion dollar per annum and become second largest foreign exchange earner after textile. The government is paying more attention to solve energy crisis of textile industry while the rice industry equally deserves the same. Rice plus: Pakistan is known as one of the largest rice exporter, but the changing situation needs more advancement and exploration of new opportunities. Is REAP also trying to approach new emerging markets for export? Any policy or plan about this? th

Mr. Javed Agha: Being the 5 largest exporter of the world, we enjoy this esteemed position. Yes, I agree that ultimate achievers always keep an eye on the development of the new technologies for winning the future. The platform of REAP is aware of this vital demand. Now we are exporting rice to more than hundred countries in the world and our new variety basmati 515 carries lot of potential e if it is developed and commercialized properly. For having a winning edge, we are trying to approach new markets as well. In future, export is going to be technical. For this, we should try to modernize our milling pattern for generating less broken and pinheads to achieve better Head Rice yield and longer grain length. We also need clean and protected warehouses from insects such as beetle khapra with improved sanitary measures, consultancy to farmer and miller for pre and post harvesting technologies, marketing strategies and up gradation of our labs according to international standards so that our certifications process can be equal to international standards Rice plus: How can an entrepreneur enter into rice business and how REAP can help? Mr. Javed Agha: The orientation of basic knowledge is very important. As a Chairman REAP, I will recommend three steps for interested entrepreneurs who want to enter into rice industry. First, start from trading of rice to understand the various varieties and there price structure in the market which should follow by exporting smaller quantities to understand the complications in the field of export. Third, when you get sufficient knowledge and experience, you can make your own processing facilities. The proactive and aligned approach will help for better growth of this industry. Rice plus: How the increase in prices will have impact the preferences of global consumer? Mr. Javed Agha: The increase in prices is definitely affecting the preferences of our global consumer. They are going for products having cheaper prices. Our basmati is still sold at high price because of its aroma, taste and quality.. Basmati is our identity but we should try to keep its pricing within reasonable limits otherwise the cheaper rice of other countries will take its place in the international market. (Contd...)


Rice plus: How REAP can bring foreign investment in the rice industry of Pakistan? Mr. Javed Agha: Being a commodity, Basmati business has low margins as compared to other businesses. The margin would be increased only by developing value added products like rice bran oil, instant rice products and rice nutrient cereals etc. We can attract foreign investment by ensuring our brands having good quality and cheaper price as has been recently achieved by MATCO. Rice plus: How Pakistan can protect our rights keeping in view Geographical Indications (GI) laws? Keep in view the heritage of hamalyian terrain, Basmati is grown in Sudan, Ethiopia and Philippine has announced export to Middle East. Mr. Javed Agha: Strategic Trade Policy Framework 2009-2012 clearly showed government decision that a sui generis GI Law will be enacted on fast track basis and TDAP was given the authorization to hold ownership of all GI products of Pakistan on behalf of the people of Pakistan. My question to TDAP is what the status of this decision is and why it was not followed properly in the first place for the past three years? Once it is done no country can sell rice by using the name Basmati. Rice plus: In your opinion which steps are needed to improve economy & increase rate of innovations in rice sector? Mr. Javed Agha: We have to do lot of research to develop new varieties having better yield and quality; we have to improve our harvesting technique to avoid breakage and aflatoxin in paddy; clean and healthy storage facilities to avoid infestation and our Millers have to upgrade processing units in order to control wastage. The support of Government plays a vital role. Government needs to spend more on R&D by providing timely funding. The laboratories should be well equipped and must have necessary infrastructure f or Research purpose. We just need to develop more rice varieties on frequent basis. Our R&D centers must produce quality products and their certification must be acceptable all over world. End of the interview

Weed Control in Rice Khuram Mubeen and Dr. M. Ather Nadeem Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Profitable rice production is out of question without a systematic weed control plan worldwide.Loss to yield due to weeds in rice field is estimated to be between 30 to 60%.An integrated weed management approach is the best way of controlling weeds. Being cash crop in Pakistan, control of weeds in rice crop is of paramount significance. Development of herbicide resistance also explains why the same weed biotypes persist in field despite employing a specific herbicide. “One year seeding and seven year weeding� explains the reason for establishment of noxious and/or mimicry weeds because many different types of weeds infest the rice field at a single time which can't be controlled economically by any single weed control method owing to differences in germination, root system, life cycle etc, therefore there is a tremendous heed to adopt an integrated way of managing weeds. Losses to rice production due to weeds depend on many factors like rice cultures, varietal selection, maintenance of optimum plant population per unit area, type of weeds, their frequency and infestation time are some of the very important aspects to ponder. Rice is either grown through transplanting nursery in standing water or sown directly in field. Higher weed infestation is usually observed in fields when rice is grown by direct seeding rather than by conventional transplanting of nursery. Weeds compete with rice more in first 8 weeks after sowing and could cause yield loss of up to 43%or even more in direct seeding rice culture. In this rice growing system, weeds grow at the start and offer more competition with rice plants therefore the damage by weeds is more in direct seeding culture. Whereas in nursery transplanting system due to puddling most of the weeds are either buried or removed and subsequent standing water in field prevent the weeds (Contd...)


Weed Control in Rice to germinate for most of the early crop growing season. When weeds start to grow, the rice plants are better able to compete with weeds and suppress their growth, thereby resulting in higher outcome as compared to rice grown through direct seeding. Keeping in view the history of weeds in a specific rice field if the weed abundance is likely to be higher then spray of any recommended herbicide should be done within 3 to 5 days after transplanting nursery. Maintain standing water in field for at least 5 to 7 days after spray. Weeds should be managed by adopting an integrated approach which has been summarized hereunder (1) Weed Scouting (Continuous and close check) (2) Biotechnological Methods (3) Agronomic Methods (4) Chemical Methods Hereunder these four methods are discussed in detail now. Weed Scouting In rice fields weeds like jungle rice, barnyard grass and purple nut sedge etc appear frequently. ploughing cause changes in depth of weed seeds by burying the weed seeds present on the soil surface under the soil.On the contrary, the weed seeds which come on the surface of the soil due to ploughing are picked up and eaten by birds.Broad leaved weeds can't grow in standing water and some grass weeds also show decreased growth in standing water.Weeds like purple nut sedge, barn yard grass are abundant in field where rice is grown through transplanting in standing water as compared to direct seeding. Biotechnological Methods Prior to use of these methods, it is imperative to ensure that it must be harmful only for weeds and not for rice crop or any other crop in succession. This approach is also helpful in preparing allelopathic extracts. Purple nut sedge can be controlled by beetle or weevil. COLLEGO and BIOLAPS are the natural poisons used for weed control in rice. But these poisons are still not being used in Pakistan. (1.) Agronomic Methods 20 Daab method In this method the land is left fallow for a certain period after ploughing and weeds are allowed to germinate and grow. Then these weeds are ploughed under the soil. a. Experiments have revealed that use of high seed rate and reducing the distance between crop rows are quite helpful in controlling weeds. b. Fertilizer should be used in such a way and at a time that least fertilizer nutrients reach to the weeds. If fertilizer is used at the start of growing season by use of drill, it will help grow weeds vigorously. c. Cultivars having better canopy cover, tillers and panicles should be selected as these will leave less space for weeds to grow. Chemical Methods If field is heavily infested with weeds,the use of herbicide is quite beneficial and effective. Selection of herbicide depends on type of weeds and their frequency. With respect to time of herbicide application these can be divided into three groups given hereunder Pre- planting herbicides These are herbicides applied in the field at the time of land preparation. It prevent weed seeds to germinate. (2.) Pre emergence herbicide Herbicides used soon after sowing but before emergence of crop. (3.) Post emergence herbicide such herbicides are sprayed after the emergence of crop and weeds.For purple nut sedge appears in rice nursery then use Sunstar 80 g by mixing in 120 liter of water for one acre area within 20 days of sowing rice nursery. Irrigate the rice nursery after one to two days.To reduce the potential damages of herbicide,it has been proved via series of experiments conducted at Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad that use of water extracts of sorghum, eucalyptus and sunflower etc in combination with reduced doses of herbicide give similar weed control efficiency as with full herbicide dose. Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Rice: Steps towards High Yield and Quality Dr. Muhammad Tahir, Assistant Professor and Haseeb ur Rehman, Ph.D Scholar, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world, an important staple food and cash crops of Pakistan. It is not only contributes to foreign exchange earnings, but the acreage, production and yield per hectare also indicates its importance. Rice prefers 5.0 to 6.5 soil pH and tolerant to exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of the level of 2040%. This culture may also be tolerated up to 0.40 per cent to 0.60 percent of white alkali and 0.10 to 0.20 black alkali in the soil. Rice is often grown on heavy clay soils that have a hard subsurface layer (hard pan), which limited the discharge, because it requires a constant and abundant supply of water. Rice production can be used to remove the salt by leaching salts. The rice crop is exposed to more than forty diseases, which is a factor for a low yield of rice including Pakistan. The diseases can occur at any stage of growth and development of the plant by attacking seed, root, leaf, stem, leaf sheath, inflorescence and even the development of grain. Fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses cause different diseases. The causes of variations in prod uction can be more, but the disease cannot be ignored, neglected, or regret, because they also cause loss of time variable in the time of harvest. These diseases are all harmful, in some areas in recent years and parts of plants. All plant parts are susceptible to disease and one or more diseases can occur in virtually all plants and in all areas. All attention because of symptoms or signs, generates great concern because of their effects on the quality. Brown spot, blast, stem root, decay, bunt and bacterial blight are sometimes regarded as an important diseases in different parts of rice growing regions of Pakistan. The production limitations regarding rice are: low organic matter in the soil, poor quality ground water, low soil fertility, salinity of the soil, non-realization of potential returns, water shortage / drought, low plant population, losses caused by pests (insects, diseases, weeds) and postharvest crop losses. The production tools for enhancing rice yield are: development of high efficiency, short term and better varieties of rice in quantity, identification and use of resistant genes through biotechnology tools, improved production methods, closing the achievement gap, and expansion of hybrid rice. Especially in Sindh and Baluchistan, the development and commercialization of technologies for the creation of crops are : Direct seeding.

The precise land leveling (laser leveling).

Transplanting and mechanical plant bed.

Green manure in rice-wheat cropping system.

Appropriate / optimal utilization of nutrients. Management of crop residues.

The development and promotion of aerobic rice.

Technologies for water conservation and nutrient management.

The inclusion of legumes in rice-wheat cropping and minimize yield losses.

Development and distribution of pesticides savings.

Environmentally friendly IPM technologies and improving the marketing system.

The suggestions for boosting rice yield are: varietal improvement for better agronomic traits and quality with the disease / insect resistance, development and application of IPM technology for better yield and cleaner environment, improving the quality of cereal production through improved harvesting and post harvest operations, improving productivity through better crop stand establishment, economic and sustainable management of nutrients, improvement in rice acceleration, training and dissemination of information, continue public-private cooperation, the development and commercialization of hybrid rice, development of high efficiency, short duration, resistant to pests and abiotic stress tolerant varieties with the desired grain quality through conventional and innovative approaches, improvement of traditional methods of rice cultivation, making innovations in breeding, stand establishment of crops, harvest and postharvest operations.

Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Management of Mycotoxin Contamination in Rice Dr. Shinawar Waseem Ali, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab. The article having over-view of mycotoxigenic fungi, mycotoxins and different decontaminating strategies to mitigate the risk of mycotoxins contamination in rice grains of our area. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites, produced by filamentous fungi, contaminating most of the cereal crops throughout the food chain. There are number of fugal toxins has been discovered and investigated, among them few are potential threat to food safety. About 25 years ago, World Health Organization (WHO) reported that around 25% of the world's cereals grains produce are contaminated with myctotxins, and these figures would have remarkable increase in current years due to increased global market and the changing weather and environmental factors. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop along with wheat and corn, being used as staple food in most of the countries worldwide. Rice is also not free of mycotoxins contamination, as most of its production is during wet/kharif season. Frequent rain fall near harvesting of rice make it more prone to the growth of mycotoxigenic (Mycotoxin producing) fungi. Sun drying of rice crop, as practiced by most of the farmers, does not reduce the moisture level desired for adequate storage of rice grains. In result, rice grains with higher moisture level enter in the storage, which provides quite favourable conditions for the growth of mycotoxin producing field as well as storage fungi. Climatic conditions also play an important role in the growth of mycotoxin producing fungi, and the quantity of mycotoxins produced e.g. warm and moist climatic conditions are more favourable than cold and dry ones. Moreover, mycotoxin producing fungi shows a considerable diversity in changed geographic conditions too. Table 1.Mycotoxins contamination in rice and rice based products Disease/ Mycotoxin: Country Levels (Range) Fungal Speices Syndrome

Rice crop may get infestation of mycotoxin producing fungi, usually, in two phases. First, the contamination may take place in growing crop in the Aflatoxins: Liver lesions, China 0.99 - 3.87 µg/kg field, or secondly in the mature rice grains after Aspergillusflavus, Cirrhosis, Primary India 0.1 - 308 µg/kg Aspergillusparasiticus hepatocellular Korea 1.8 - 7.3 ng/g harvesting in field as well as in storage conditions, carcinoma, Philippines 0.27 - 11 µg/kg where even dried rice grains are susceptible to the Kwashiorkor, Vietnam 3.31 - 29.8 ng/g Reye's syndrome growth of the mycotoxigenic fungi. The major Fumonisins: Esophageal Canada 0 - 10 ng/g mycotoxin producing fungi in rice are Aspergillus Fusariumverticillioides Carcinoma India 0.01 - 65 mg/kg Fusariumprolifratum Korea 0.02 48.2 - 66.6 sp., Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp. The growth of US ng/g these fungal species may cause rice grain 2.2 - 5.2 mg/kg discoloration, loss in viability, quality and presence Ochratoxin A: Endemic Canada 0.3 - 2.4 ng/g Aspergillusochraceus nephropathy, Korea 0.2 - 1 ng/g of myctoxins in the final produce. Aflatoxins, Aspergilluscarbonarius Urothelialtumours Morocco 0.15 - 47 ng/g fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, Penicilliumverrucosum Nigeria 24 - 1164 µg/kg Vietnam 0.75 - 2.78 ng/g cyclopiazonic acid, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol Deoxynivlenol: Nausea, Vomitting, Germany 0 - 0.058 mg/kg (DON), citrinin, gliotoxin and sterigmatocystin are Fusariumgraminearum Headache, the mycotoxins reported in rice (Table 1). Among Fusariumculmorum Abdominal pain, Diarrhea, Dizziness these rice mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Zearalenone: Premature puberty Canada 0.1 - 1 ng/g fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A are the most toxic Fusariumgraminearum in girls, Cervical Korea 21.7 - 47 ng/g Fusariumculmorum Cancer Nigeria 24 - 116 µg/kg for mammals and have hepatotoxic, teratogenic, Source: (Reddy et al., 2010) and mutagenic activity, causing damage such as toxic hepatitis, hemorrhage, edema, immunosuppression, hepatic carcinoma, equine leukoencephalomalacia, esophageal cancer, and nephrotoxicity. AFB1 has been classified as a group 1 human carcinogen and fumonisin B1 and B2 as group 2B carcinogens by the International Agencies for Research on Cancer (1993). Several mycotoxicoses in humans and animals have been reported due to the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed. Remaining at page #15 Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Glimpse of UIP Exhibition on Rice Techologies “Technologies on Rice Sector� on 7th May, 2012 at Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry The UIP exhibition on rice technologies aimed to highlight the issues and agendas of locally developed technologies of rice and find out the areas where we need to put our efforts more. The session was very vibrant, interactive and full of knowledge exchange. Heads of three partner organizations (PSF-PASTIC, GCCI & IRP) shared their roles and agendas for promotion of R&D. Javid Islam Agha, Chairman, REAP representing rice stakeholders shared challenges and required solutions. Chief Guest of the session has summarized the issues and instructed to initiate solution oriented action plans. Inauguration session inc luded speeches, interactive conversation, questions and answers, sector perspectives and awarding shields to guests. .The general issues of rice industry were highlighted there as following; o Link between various stakeholders of rice is weak o Lab testing for various rice issues is extremely needed o Very low amount of fund is given to rice sector o Very few projects on rice are funded and conducted o Joint funding of R&D organizations is not in place o No accredited labs in Pakistan o Untrained manpower in rice cultivation, processing and machinery manufacturing o No allocation of funds for Rice sector development from Export Development Fund Highlights of technical session one: Pre-Harvesting o Pre harvesting practices by Farmers are poor as wet paddy is being supplied. o Agri-extension interventions are needed to improve rice cultivation & harvesting. o Farmers are ill informed regarding modern farm practices. o Current varieties are losing their yield and worth due to intensive inbreeding. o Speed and rate of new varieties development is very slow. o Immature paddy harvesting causes loss of above 20%. o Concept of drying and pre-cleaning at farm level has to be introduced o Modern cultivation techniques are not introduced Highlights of technical session two: Post-Harvesting o Harvesters make loss of above 20% of Paddy produce due to old technology. o Rice processing machinery is not consistent in fabrication/finishing & has lack automation. o No certification protocol for rice machinery, being manufactured in Pakistan. o Locally developed color sorter is not available o Logistics & storage facilities are unhygienic and not certified. o Branding is not developed of Pakistani rice o Bran oil is not produced o Value addition in by-products is lacking. o Wastage during milling is very high o Investment in consumer products is not encouraged The closing session was chaired by chief executive, PARB and DG, PASTIC. The importance of joint working was very much highlighted in the closing session. The need for involvement of private sector in the process of R&D funding was very much emphasized. All the exhibitors and presenters were granted shields as token of acknowledgement for their active participation & service for rice sector. Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Country at a Glance Nigeria: One of the Big Rice Importers Rice in Nigeria at Glance

Unit of Measure (1000 MT)


Domestic Consumption











































Nigeria with 150 million population backed by 1.93% th annual population growth is ranked 8 country in world population. Nigeria is the largest country in continent Africa and because of rising consumption of rice it became a matter of attention for rice exporting countries. Due to continuous population growth and improving life style, the demand for rice is growing. The import estimates in 2010/11 is 2.3 million tons, up from 1.75 million tons in 2009/10. The increase reflects the fact that rice is well established as a basic food staple and the price of imported parboiled rice competes effectively with local alternatives.The statistics in graph presents very lucrative options for rice exporters of Pakistan. Especially, the new entrants in rice export can explore this opportunity and gain competitive edge by ensuring strong presence there.

The experienced business holders can diversify their rice export by finding rice importers in Nigeria. It produces almost half of its rice consumption through local cultivation. Therefore, Nigeria has to feed rest half of rice demand from sources outside the country. There is another fact that demand of rice consumption is growing more rapidly than growth of production. Demand of rice in Nigeria has increased from 3307 (MT in 000) to 5000 in 2011 and local production has increased from 1757 to 2709 in the same period. The growth in consumption is almost double than growth in production of rice. The gap has to be responded by exporters of quality product and Pakistan should be among those countries who can earn the fruits at highest level from Nigerian market.

Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Who Eats Rice? Call for Exporters There are very lucrative options and opportunities for rice growers and exporters in the markets having highest rate of rice consumption. Although, the growers have natural advantages to first serve the market where rice is consumed. The global emerging trade scenario has given access to exporters of the world to sell on competitive prices also. The per capita consumption of rice by top 20 countries starts from 245 Kg/person/year in Brunei Darussalam, followed by Vietnam, Laos, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Among the lowest consumers of top 20 countries are China with 77 Kg/person/year, followed by Malaysia and Republic of Korea.

The per capita consumption of rice by top 20 countries Countries Brunei Darussalam Vietnam Laos Bangladesh Myanmar Cambodia Philippines Indonesia Thailand Madagascar

Consumption Per Capita 245 166 163 160 157 152 129 125 103 102

Countries Sri Lanka Guinea Sierra Leone Guinea-Bissau Guyana Nepal Korea,DPR China Malaysia Republic of Korea

Consumption Per Capita 97 95 92 85 81 78 77 77 77 76

Source: Rice Today, IRRI (2011)

Rice exporters around the world must have strategies to serve the market of high potential. Although, population size determines the potential also, but there are factors, like pricing, consumed varieties, marketing trends and consumption style of consumers, which offers attractive options for rice exporters.

Eating Rice Helps You Lose Weight, Finds Study; Is the Indonesia Trade Minister Reading This? A new study conducted at the University of Minnesota, U.S. has found that the fullness and satisfaction experienced by eating rice is important for people trying to lose weight. In effect, the study dismisses deep-rooted beliefs in several rice eating countries that eating rice makes one overweight. Researchers presented their finding today & said that hunger and satiety lasted longer for rice eaters, thus preventing them from gorging on food again and again.The research also found that both white and brown rice measured up equally on satiety and fullness scale. It's no surprise that populations in countries that eat the most rice are often the leanest and among the healthiest in the world. Rice is also a budget-friendly food, costing just 10 cents per serving. Source: Oryza News, 27 June 2012


Crop Simulation- Rice Shehzad Mehmood, Plant Sciences Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. Rice (Oryza sativa) a member of the poaceae family, along with wheat and corn, is one of the three crops on which the human is largely depends. The world will require 70% more rice than that it requires today in the coming 30 years. It has been estimated that half the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice. Climate change in many countries is under threat from unpredictable changes in rainfall and more frequent extreme weather high temperature and high concentration of Co2. The emission of methane and nitrous oxide gases from lowland rice production and the deforestation in upland rice production under slash and burn shifting cultivation are contributors to global climate changes. Due to global warming, increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, pattern of rainfall and other greenhouse gases are expected to modify the climate of the earth in the next 50–100 years. Crop simulation model is mathematical and statistical programme that simulates (predicts) the behavior (output) of a plant (e.g. yield) from environmental conditions (inputs, incl. management) and variables describing the plant's ecophysiology (parameters). Crop modeling systems are designed to assist in analyzing the growth and development of crops and the environmental variables to which they are exposed. The model below schematically illustrates the operation of a typical simulation. Crop modeling and most numerical applications in natural sciences became actually possible because of development of computers. Crop weather models can improve response farming in two different ways. •One is to better understand the impact of local weather on cal crops. •Second the models could be run with data of the current year to experiment with the management options and decide on the most appropriate strategies. Mechanisms of plant response to these changes need to be incorporated in models that predict crop yield estimates to obtain an understanding of the potential consequences of such changes. Uncertainty about global impact on crops is caused by both GCMs and the crop simulation models used for such global predictions. In particular, we lack a good understanding of the complex interactions of CO2 and temperature effects at the process level of plant physiology and development. Likewise, the combined effect of temperature and humidity is not taken into account in the available crop models. All in all, there is much scope and need to improve these models and also incorporate mechanisms that will allow us to more reliably explore ways to adapt to climate change, through genetic improvement of specific traits or shifting crop management. The models are able to predict how the changes in the environment will affect the growth, development and the of impact yield. It is possible to change one or multiple environmental variables in order to predict the response of a target crop for various environments. The models can also provide support for crop improvement and especially plant breeding where predictions of differences between cultivars in response to different environments still need improvement (Banterng et al., 2004, 2006) Gene-based crop models can provide valuable insights into which combinations of alleles favor adaptation to specific environments (Messina et al., 2006). The crop modeling would help us as; • Understanding and knowledge of the current cropping system. • Affect the growth, development and the impact yield. • Realization of crop species and cultivar responses to temperature, day length, solar radiation, water, nitrogen and other environmental conditions and crop management factors. In agronomy, efficient crop improvement is needed to guarantee a continuous increase in yield. With no exception, crop yield improvement also requires joint interdisciplinary ventures to help develop new knowledge and tools. Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Rice Market and Export of Pakistan Samee Ullah Naeem , Director Altas Foods (Pvt) Ltd. Pakistan. Current market condition of Rice in Pakistan and total volume exported from July-11 to mid April-12. The information is shared time to time in order to keep our buyer fully awarded with export statistics and price indications. Market is standing at high nodes and buying/selling momentum yet continues. Iranian buyers are getting stronger and stronger in the market and picking up the stocks on higher prices than rest of exporters. The demand of Afghanistan is also there in the market which is triggering it towards further inclination. Prices are now stable at higher end but not receiving any depreciation because of their acceptance in trade. It is opened from the market that prices will not remain stable at this end and will get further price hike. The announcement of Qatar tender of 240,000 tons of Basmati Rice in Indian Market and Iraqi tender of 30,000 tons of Basmati Rice in both Indian and Pakistani market may also act as catalyst to increase the prices. China this year emerged as leading long rice importer of Pakistan because of comparatively higher prices of Thailand and Vietnam which tilted this market to Pakistan. The freight cost from Pakistan to China is also near to free therefore incurring less transportation expenses and making prices more competitive. China has picked around 120,000 tons of long grain rice from Pakistan and demand yet alive here. China is expected to increase rice imports about four-fold to more than 2 million tons in 2012, on track to become the world's third-largest buyer after Indonesia and Nigeria. The Ramadan buying is other parameters on which the local hoarders have kept their hope and expecting for good demand from all Muslim importing countries which may further increase the prices. Saudi Arabia demand is also on hold while stocks in Iran are also seen miserable. Therefore Ramadan buying may also amplify the prices further. The total exports proceeded from Pakistan in period from 01-July-2011 to 15-April-2012 is as follows;

Basmati Segment

Non Basmati Segment

Super Basmati (White)

409,336 Tons

Blended Rice (White)

162,129 Tons

Super Basmati (Parboiled)

115,350 Tons

IRRI-09 Long Grain Rice (White)

47267 Tons

Basmati Rice

167976 Tons

IRRI-06 Long Grain Rice (White)

1,848,651 Tons

Super Basmati Brown Rice

63468 Tons

Blended Rice (Parboiled)

19,755 Tons

IRRI-09 Long Grain Rice (Parboiled

19,995 Tons


IRRI-06 Long Grain Rice (Parboiled)

233,634 Tons


2,331,432 /-


Even Indian Rice prices remained very much competitive than Pakistan and good demand shifted to India but still performance of Pakistani export is quite satisfactory and will meet the target of exports of 04 million this in this fiscal year. Remaining part of page#6

Most of the time, mycotoxins production is unavoidable, and unpredictable too, which makes it a unique challenge with reference to food safety and human health. Control of mycotoxins in rice is the need of time, and should be integrated control strategies for its decontamination, as a single remedy is unable to fulfill the requirements of food safety. One thing should be clear at this stage that complete elimination of mycotoxins from rice grains is impossible in our climatic and storage conditions, however, the contamination level can be managed to a certain level, acquiring the food safety standards described by various international agencies. Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Green Revolution at Risk - PARB Efforts Maryam Naseer: Research Publication of Research Punjab Agricultural Research Board Climate Sustainable Agriculture or eco-friendly environment is on priority of many countries while discussing food security issues, especially feeding 9.1 billion people on a single planet till 2050. While climate change is a global phenomenon, its negative impacts are more severely felt by poor people in developing countries who rely heavily on the natural resource base for their livelihoods. The worst picture of climate change, in shape of recent floods (2010 & 2011), devastating floods 2011 in Sindh Province alone damaged at least 880,000 hectares of standing crops, which represent about 3.7 per cent of total national crop area, The United Nations' food agency. According to World Bank report “Pakistan Water Economy: Running Dry: Nov 08-2005” Pakistan is also facing severe shortage of good quality water and this problem is mounting with time. PARB has funded following projects that will be helpful in combating effects of climate change: 1. Development of nutrient efficient wheat germplasm for food security in rain fed areas of Pakistan.

PARB Corner

2. Wheat crop improvement for drought tolerance through biotechnology: 3. Development of Drought Tolerant Cotton Variety. 4. Improvement of chickpea productivity through identification of drought tolerant and disease resistant chickpea genotypes for marginal lands. 5. Transgenic approach to improve drought and salinity tolerance in wheat. 6. Development of transgenic sugarcane against major abiotic stresses. The detail of each project is available on PARB - 1.

Executive Committee Meeting of FAP The Executive Committee Meeting of Farmers Associates Pakistan (FAP) held under the Chairmanship of Sultan Hameed Director FAP. The Chief Executive PARB, Dr. Mubarik Ali, was invited in the meeting to brief the Committee about PARB. He highlighted the role of research and innovation in instigating sustainable growth in the agriculture sector and economic uplifting of rural communities in the Punjab province. The PARB was created to overcome the constraints of research system, but unless private sector like FAP, politicians and government take keen interest in boosting the solution-based research & innovation system in the province, the agriculture sector will continue growing at 2-3% instead of its potential of 6-8% annual growth. Dr. Tariq Bucha President FAP thanked Dr. Mubarik Ali and acknowledged the efforts of PARB for bringing the fruits of science and innovations to the farmers.

2. National Workshop : 3.PARB hold Consultative Food Security in Pakista. Future Meeting on Challenges and Coping Strategies Agricultural Research Issues A six day workshop was held to produce a set of guidelines and frameworks to formulate the operational strategy of the newly created Ministry of National Food Security and Research (FS&R).Chief Executive PARB Dr. Mubarik Ali briefed about steps being taken for ensuring food security in Punjab Province. He suggested that FS&R should work only in those areas which are not being undertaken by Provinces in order to avoid duplication and competition of resources. “We must learn from the mistakes of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MINFA) and the new ministry should generate the impression of useful partner with the provinces to promote food security in the country he added.

A consultative meeting was held under the Chairmanship of Secretary Agriculture Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed to suggest how to reform agricultural research system in Punjab and identification of high priority researchable issues. During the discussion, Sudden Death diseases in fruits, L & DD vaccine, development of disease tolerant, micro and macro nutrient deficient varieties, data base for different crops and strengthening public- private partnership were highlighted as key issues.


4.Board Meeting The 26th Board meeting of PARB held under the Chairmanship of Minister for Agriculture Punjab, Malik Ahmed Ali Aulakh. The Board granted approval for appointment of Executive Member (M&E) and Executive Member (A&F) whereas the recommendation against the appointment of Executive Member (P&P) was referred back to Selection Com ideration. The meeting also decided to technically monitor 12 PARB funded projects for third party evaluation.

Oryza News 1. Philippines to Export 'Wild Rice' (Not Basmati) Next Year The Philippines' Agriculture Secretary has reiterated that the country will begin rice exports next year, but has for the first time said that the rice will labeled as "wild rice" and not basmati. The news came as a jolt to basmati rice stakeholders in India and Pakistan, two countries that claim that basmati is their national heritage and is protected under the Geographical Indication (GI) Act. Pakistani officials told Oryza that basmati rice can be neither grown nor exported from any other country except India and Pakistan, and threatened to take up the issue in the World Trade Organization against the Philippines.However, the Agriculture Secretary said that the aromatic rice will continue to be known as basmati rice locally. 2.

U.S. Senate Passes Farm Bill 64-35 - Commodity Organizations Pleased, Rice Farmers Disappointed The U.S. Agriculture Committee has passed the Farm Bill, "The Agriculture Reform, Food and Jobs Act of 2012,". Some Republican and Democratic senators say that the Farm Bill will cut overall spending by $23 billion over 10 years, and several large commodity organizations congratulated the Senate on its passage. However, several rice farmer groups and Senators representing them are disappointed. They say that besides other lacunae in the Bill, rice farmers have been unfairly asked to take a 65% reduction in the safety net funds, against the 30% average reduction for other crops. Rice farmer groups are also worried that stopping direct payments will hurt rice farmers the most. They have expressed hope that the House of Representatives will consider the interests of the U.S. rice industry before legislation. 3. Indonesia Rice Output Forecast to Rise 3.3% in 2012 Indonesia's Deputy Agriculture Minister has said that rice production in the country is expected to increase by 3.3% in 2012, and that Indonesia has not decided on the volume of rice imports for this year. A rise of 3.3% in rice output could reduce demand for imported rice by Indonesia significantly. Though Indonesia is a large producer of rice, it is also one of the largest rice consumers and importers of the world. Last year, the country imported about 2.8 million tons, about 7.8% of the total domestic production of about 35.5 million tons. Indonesia's import policy bars the government from announcing import requirements before the harvest completes in June. However, the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that Indonesia will import about 1.5 million tons of rice in 2012, including the 700,000 tons of rice already exported before harvest began 4. Oryza Rice Recap - Rice Subsidies in the U.S., India, and Thailand The Indian rupee has declined about 25% since May of last year, compared to about a 10% decline in the Pakistani rupee over the same period. Thai and Viet currencies have been little changed. India's decision last autumn to allow exports of non-basmati rice for the first time in 4 years weighed upon prices and so too did the weakening rupee, making already very competitive Indian rice priced yet more competitive on world markets. Pakistan's rice exporters have recently expressed frustration in the rupee's downward pressure on rice prices, saying that the Pakistani government needs to provide additional support to the sector. Thai rice farmers are receiving via the Thai rice mortgage scheme. Promising fair bounties for all is politically popular, but often the easiest promises to make are the hardest to keep - in the long run. Source with Thanks:

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Current News 1.

A week monsoon is expected in India and onset of monsoon on Kerala state in South is delayed by six days.


Cambodia is expected to have rice surplus of 2.78 million tons which will be available for export. Last year Cambodia exported 750,000 tons.


Bangladesh lifted ban on export of Aromatic Rice, due to bumper crop.


Sri Lanka has decided to allow export of 50,000 tons of rice primarily to South Africa in anticipation of good crop area under Hybrid rice cultivation which will increase upto25% in India.


Iran again defaults on rice payment.


International Finance Corporation and MATCO rice Processing Pakistan has entered into a deal after resolving quarantine related issues. China has allowed the resumption of rice import from Cambodia.


Minimum Support Price (MSP) of paddy issue in India is getting confuse. As ministry of food is not agree to the recommendation of Ministry of Agriculture which has suggested an increase of $32 per ton and $18 per ton as bounce.


Ghulam Rasul & Co, a Pakistan based contractor of Saudi star company in Ethiopia lost three of its workers in Gambella during a rebel attack.


TTY to open $6 million rice plant in African countries especially east Africa may face feminine and hunger.


Philippine is seeking an extension of three years in Quantitative Restriction Quota for 3 years.


Thailand has extended rice mortgage scheme till 2013, the price of 5% bench mark grade to $800 per ton. Current price is $625.


A week monsoon is expected in India and onset of monsoon on Kerala state in South is delayed by six days.


Bangladesh may import 900,000 tons of rice due to less than targeted production this year (production is expected 33.87 million tons against target of 34.7 million tons.


Philippine is expected to limit rice import to 500,000 metric tons next year but it seems an uphill task.


El-Nino might adversely impact rice production in India and Indonesia.


Vietnam rice farmers plant inferior varieties of rice despite warning from Government department.


Pakistan Customs Authorities turn down a request from REAP to exempt grain Silo import from duty.


Philippine company has developed a hybrid seed (SL8), capable of producing 12-15 tons/hectare.


Indonesia will import 1.5 million tons this year including 700,000 tons already imported.


Brazil will be aggressive exporter of rice like in 2009-2010(exported more than 1 million tons) after a week export performance in 2011.


Philippine finally agreed not to use "Basmati� name while exporting rice to gulf countries, but will continue to call it "Basmati" locally.


Russia might import 200,000 tons of rice this year due to less production.

Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Upcoming Conferences on Rice and Agriculture, 2012 Date Event Detail Venue July 10th -12th,2012 Singapore World Sustainable Agriculture Congress 2012 The congress aims to bring together businesses from across the entire food value chain to explore ideas, strategies, partners hips and CSR initiatives to ensure food security, business sustainability and long term profitability. July 16th -19th, 2012 Greece 5th Annual International Symposium on Agriculture The conference aims to bring scholars and students together in the discipline of agriculture July 20th , 2012 Germany Workshop Data Mining in Agriculture DMA 2012 The workshop aims to provide a forum for identifying important contributions and opportunities for research on data mining as it applies to agriculture to promote the systematic study of how to apply data mining to agriculture data. July 23rd -25th ,2012 South Africa Africa Rice Outlook 2012 - Optimizing Rice Trading The event focuses to share latest rice market insights for not only Africa, but also the major foreign exporting players that do business there. July 25th -26th , 2012 Myanmar: Agri Trade, Investments &Infrastructure 2012 Myanmar The event aims to tap into the emerging agro opportunities, both upstream and downstream processing in Myanmar. August 7th -10th India Biodiversity Asia 2012 Biodiversity Asia 2012 will include important updates on conservation research in Asia in lectures, workshops, plenary sessions, symposia and poster sessions by leading scientists and students. August 11 th -12th 2012 Thailand International Conference on Environment, Agriculture and Food Sciences The conference aims to share new advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied Environment, Agriculture and Food Sciences and its Applications . August 19 -22nd 2012 th

China The 2012 International Conference on the Utilization of Heterosis in Crops The 2012 International Conference on the Utilization of Heterosis in Crops (ICUHC) having optimal themes to strengthen broader international academic exchange and cooperation, vigorously motivate sic-tech developments. September 3rd -6th 2012 India Agritech Asia 2012 It aims to bring together latest agriculture technologies and professional to interact and bring awareness to all segment of end user. September 3rd to 7th 2012 Nigeria 2012 International Conference on Agriculture, Science and Engineering The major objective is to provide a unique environment to sharing innovative practices, cutting-edge research and unique experiences as well as strategies. September 4th -6th ,2012 Malaysia Agri Congress The Agriculture Congress 2012 is arranged with the theme of "Transforming Agriculture for Future Harvest" September 10th -12th,2012 India The 6th International Hybrid Rice Symposium The symposium aims to facilitate a discussion platform to tackles the issue of increasing rice yields and worlds’ increasing demand for rice. September 18th -20th ,2012 Indonesia The 2nd Asia Pacific Symposium on Post Harvest The symposium focuses on post harvest technology innovation, GAP implementation, post harvest in plant factory, quarantine system and policy supporting food safety for horticultural products, grains and tubers plus one day field visit. September 26th -28th 2012 Indonesia TRT World Rice Conference This conference aims to share the cutting edge information about world of rice trade and networking. October 4th -5th ,2012 Second International Conference on Food Studies USA The conference aims to bring knowledge community together by a common interest to explore new possibilities for sustainable food production and human nutrition and dimensions of a new green revolution. October 15th -17th ,2012 South Africa Agri Congress Africa 2012 It aims to bring together businesses from across the entire food value chain to explore ideas, strategies, partnerships and initiatives to ensure food security, business sustainability. October 16th -18th,2012 Singapore Agriculture Investment Summit Asia An event for inv estors and agriculture companies to learn about partnership & investment opportunities in commodities, companies and farmland in Asian regions. October 29th -1st November 2012 Uruguay Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development (GCARD) The conference brings together all the AR4D stakeholders from all over the world. November 26th 28th ,2012 Malaysia International Conference on Agricultural & Food Engineering The main objective is to provide the forum for discussion of research results and new scientific knowledge, promote networking, interaction among academia and industry. November 26th -29th ,2012 Thailand 10th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics (ISRFG 10th) The symposium aims to bring together rice functional genomics research community and imminent climate change on rice productivity. It also have focus to develop a concrete strategic for innovative genomics tools and genetic resources to enabling breedin g-by-design more efficiently and effectively in all rice growing countries. Note: The Complete detail is available on Rice Plus July- September, 2012


Zarai Taraqiati Bank Ltd. (ZTBL)Islamabad

Press Release dated 11 June,2012

Types of Deposits PLS Saving Account Business Deposits Accounts PLS Term Deposits 03 Months 06 Months 12 Months 24 Months 36 Months 48 Months

Rates of Return 6.00% p.a 6.00% p.a 6.10% p.a. 6.20% p.a. 6.30% p.a. 6.60% p.a. 6.80% p.a. 7.10% p.a.

60 Months & Above

7.40% p.a.

Zarai Munafa Term Deposit Certificate ( Fixed)

10.50% p.a.

Types of Deposits Rates of Return Mustaqbil Mehfooz Deposit 8.00% p.a. (Fixed). Zarai Term Deposit 6.00% p.a. Certificates ( Fixed 3 Years) Rozana Bachat Accounts (Deposit Balance ) Less than Rs. 10,000/ 6.00% p.a. Rs. 10,001 / - to Rs. 100,000/ 6.50% p.a. RS. 100,001/ - to Rs.500,000/ 7.00% p.a. Rs. 500,001 to Rs. 5,000,000/ 8.00% p.a. Rs. 5,000,001/ to 10,000,000/ 9.00% p.a. Rs. 10,000,001 / and above 10.00% p.a Minfa Revolving Fund Deposit Account 7.50% (For Village Organization ) Minfa special saving Deposit Account 7.50 % (For Village Organization )

Profit Rate on Premature Withdrawal

Note: Return on different types of deposits effective

Deposit Period Less than 3 Months 3 months & before 6 months 6 months & before 12 months 12 months & before 18 months 18 months & before 24 months 24 months & before 30 months

from May 1, 2012

At completion of 36 months

Rates of Return Nil 2.5% p.a. 3.00 % p.a. 3.50 % p.a. 4.00 % p.a. 4.50% p.a. 6.00% p.a.

Contact: ZTBL. Public Relations Department & Media Services Department 9253081

Tel: 9253081, Fax:

Agriculture stakeholders can benefit from the information about rate of returns offered by ZTBL. Rice plus Magazine always try to provide information useful for rice and allied sectors stakeholders.

Note: This Press Release have been received from ZTBL,Islamabad Rice Plus July- September, 2012


6th issue july september 2012