DAYLIGHT & ARCHITECTURE MAGAZINE BY VELUX GROUP SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21 10 EURO THE FUTURE IS LIGHT
FURTHER INFORMATION ON PP. 13–15
THE FUTURE IS LIGHT
“Eternal though daylight may be in physical respects, it is ripe for redefinition as regards its cultural significance. The light of tomorrow will be shed upon a new architecture.” wrote Ole Bouman ten years ago as one of the first jurors of the International VELUX Award for Students of Architecture. From modest beginnings in 2004, the award has grown into one of the most important awards of its kind worldwide, with the participation so far of almost 4,000 student teams from more than 60 countries. From the start, the theme of the International VELUX Award has been ‘Light of Tomorrow’. We are convinced that tomorrow’s light will be of natural origin, for nothing can match daylight in its variability, dynamics and beneficial effect on human health and well-being. Over the years, the participants in the award have developed thousands of ideas of how this natural gift can be used in buildings and dense urban spaces, as well as in the remotest rural areas. Who – if not future generations of architects – could create the new architecture that Ole Bouman calls for? And where, if not in the architecture schools of the world, should aspiring architects learn the skills to redefine the state-of-the-art in architecture, to create healthier, more people-friendly and more sustainable buildings? This issue of Daylight/Architecture celebrates daylight – and the thousands of bright reflections and ideas from students from all over the world – and embarks on a conversation about the future of architectural education. We start this dialogue by looking back at the ten years of the International VELUX Award, recapitulating some of the discussions among jurors and the issues that have been raised by the students in their submissions. This is accompanied by images from some of the award-winning and honourably mentioned projects from the last ten years. The second part of the magazine discusses
the future of daylight in architecture and how architectural education should develop to support its use. We have spoken to all previous winners of the award, as well as representatives from the schools of architecture where the winners studied, and asked them about the changes and challenges that architectural education is facing. They all agreed on one point: although architects today face the need to acquire all sorts of specialist knowledge and technical skills, there seem to be a number of enduring virtues that make a good architect. These include the ability to think holistically, the capacity for creative problem-solving and for teamwork, as well as the willingness to take on responsibility for our society and the environment. Furthermore, as the future – including the future of architectural education − is intrinsically uncertain, students should be given freedom of thought and freedom for experiments, and be taught to ask the right questions before trying to find answers. In the months and years to come, we would like to expand the discussion on architectural education with all schools and teachers, with the international organisations involved in architectural education, and with all of our readers. The dialogue on daylight and its significance in architecture will also continue this year with the sixth edition of the International VELUX Award. In June, an international jury will select the winners and honourable mentions of the 2014 award; their names will be announced and award presentations made in October. Look out for the results on iva.velux. com – and be inspired to participate in a future edition of the award if you are yourself a student or a teacher of architecture. Enjoy the read! The VELUX Group
ISSUE 21 CONTENTS
JURORS AND PARTICIPANTS
4000 BRIGHT IDEAS
The growth of the International VELUX Award in figures and graphics: from 2004 to 2014, these pages present a list of all participants and jurors in the ten-year history of the International VELUX Award.
With almost 4,000 submissions so far, the International VELUX Award represents an almost inexhaustible collection of ideas on daylight and its use in architecture. This article presents a collage of some of the most interesting projects and recurring themes that the students have dealt with.
VELUX Editorial 1 Contents 2 Jurors and participants 4 4000 bright ideas 7 Ten years of daylight 23 Learning for the unknown 32 A world of opportunities 35 The debate continues 72
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13â&#x20AC;&#x201C;15
DAYLIGHT & ARCHITECTURE ISSUE 21 FREE IPAD VERSION
TEN YEARS OF DAYLIGHT
LEARNING FOR THE UNKNOWN
A WORLD OF OPPORTUNITIES
THE DEBATE CONTINUES
What does the history of the International VELUX Award tell us about the significance of daylight in architectural education? And what trends in architectural education are reflected in the submissions? At its tenth anniversary, it is time to trace the development of the Award so far, and recapitulate the most interesting discussions among the jurors.
How to prepare a new generation of architects for a future that is uncertain? This article discusses some of the premises: give students freedom of thought and experiment, teach them to take on responsibility for society in general, and provide architectural education with a value base.
Architectural education has to do more than prepare young professionals for the labour market. But what precisely are the requirements that architecture schools must live up to? The former winners of the International VELUX Award, as well as their professors and the heads of school where they studied, discuss this question in their statements.
At the end of this issue of Daylight/ Architecture, we call for professionals world-wide to continue the debate on daylight and architectural education on the Internet and on Twitter. To carry the issue beyond the pages of this magazine, we are addressing all of our readers with a letter.
THE INTERNATIONAL VELUX AWARD 2004
Architect, Asymptote Architecture (USA)
Architect, Snøhetta (Norway)
Architect, heneghan peng architects (Ireland)
Architect, Enrique Browne & Associates (Chile)
Architect (United Kingdom)
at the time MIT student (Egypt)
Architect, Eva Jiricna Architects (United Kingdom)
Architect, at the time editor-in-chief of Archis (The Netherlands)
Architect, at the time AIA President, appointed by UIA (USA)
Architect, ZlgDesign (Malaysia)
Per Olaf Fjeld
Architect, at the time president of EAAE (France)
Architect, at the time president of EAAE (Ireland)
Architect, at the time president of EAAE (Norway)
Ahmet Gülgönen Architect, appointed by UIA (France)
General Manager, VELUX Italia (Italy)
Francis Nordemann Michel Langrand General Manager, VELUX France (France)
At this time General Manager, VELUX Germany (Germany)
686 SUBMISSIONS 46 COUNTRIES 557 SUBMISSIONS 53 COUNTRIES
258 SUBMISSIONS 27 COUNTRIES Christian Hoffelner, Evelin Temmel, Tobias Brown Nicole Eveline Stoecklmayr Azra Fejzic, Ivana Juric, Azra Sugkic Michaela Weninger, Elisabeth Aberger Claudiu Cristian Silvestru, Carmen Ivona Dumitrescu, Gabriela Petrescu Markus Dröscher, Melanie Klocker, Ingomar Platzer, Barbara Sieber Gregory Bieker Eva Garcia Torrejon Brice Polomé Sebastien Sainsard, Blandine Delaporte, Jean Delavne Benjamin Moray Xavier Delpire Laura Anzaione Julien Stasse Dave Grosemans, Haroen Martens Lejla Babic Alma Džinalija, Dženida Vrtagio Hana Kevilj Sanja Vrzic Sandra Martinovic, Nihada Pustahija, Maja Stabek Jasmina Mitrovic Husein Mirašcic Milena Antonic Jusuf Zilic Vladimir Stanarevic Ivana Borovnjak Dario Šišak Luka Franjesevic, Andrea Vukojic, Adam Vukmanov Adam Baricevic, Ivan Buden, Rozaljija Muhek Lea Petrovic Ivan Laškarin Hrvoje Zuparic, Dean Niskota, Ivan Starcevic Ivan Foretic, Berharda Cesar Saman Saffarian Ondrej Cisler Michaela Dytrová Štepán Martinovský Marek Ružicka, Michal Kutálek Vitka Navrátilová Ondrej Cisler Bronislav Stratil Eva Neumayerová, Martina Polachová, Jana Jandová, Lucie Zillichová Stephan Gustin Melanie Ann Bech Lisbeth Werup Nielsen Gustaf Erik Lohm Christina Augustesen Marie-Louise Mejlholm Rene Ruprecht Karsten Hammer Hansen, Maria Jensen,Henrik Søgaard Jensen, Lars Mortensen, Sine Maria Peitersen, Jens Christian Sørensen Lise Dybkjær, Mads R. Holst, Christian B. Jørgensen, Anders G. Rasmussen, Ane J. Gram Steinar Bakke Kaur Talpsep, Kristiina Aasvee, Joel Kopli, Jürgen Lepper, Margus Soonets Ringevalle Julien, Jesop Satchmo Rémy Claden Marie Richard Julien Stephane Plessis, Grégory Lambart Eric Sontag Andrei Badescu Jean Paul Meyer, José Da Costa Grichka Martinetti, Antoine Petit, Nicolas Debicki Michael Brinschwitz, Marco Bartsch Caroline Hörning, Marcel Lenk Alexa Schröder Dirk Siebel Ralf Wilkening Khvichia Zia, Levan Asabashvili Daniel Weide Hendrik Bahr Marc Aurel Jensen Jinwei Lin, Xuan Yang Daniel Hoch Kai Beck, Jens Hogekamp Volkmar Schultz, Monika Marasz Katrin Bernickel, Christian Oberteicher, Holger Paul Christoph Jantos Jens-Peter Veddeler, Jens Veddeler, Christian Boland Matthäus Wirth, Irina Koerdt, Jacqueline Pehlemann Inga Geister Susanne Kiesewetter, Melchior Cremer Christian Hahn, Frauke Röth, René Arlitt Franca Reifner, Nikolaj Von Brandis Tobias Schmitt Petra Schlömer, Sabrina Peters, Andreas Allen Max Gunst Sandra Hannemann, Adam Gonsior Thomas Schneider Roland Haehnel Jan Pingel Natalia Soukhova Thomas Heidebur Luke Samuel Pendergast Krzysztof Kotala Vasia Liri Margarita Gkika Manolis Paravoliasis, Stefanos Papadatos, Andreas Halaris Maria Danilatou, Angela Danilatou Achilleas Psillidis, Michalis Pissaridis Argyro Skouloudi, Despoina Loukadaki Myrtia Fasouli Christina Tsironi Mikaela Liakata, Melina Mezari Panagiotis Rupas, Georgia Voudouri, Panagiota Passia Costandis Kizis, Nikos Katsikis Vasileios Moustakas, Charalampos Giannikopoulos Flina Axioti Aikaterini Drakou, Despina Mahairidou Ioulia Goula, Aikaterini-Olga Kefalogianni Chariklia Makedonopoulou, Maria Doxastaki Nancy Psaraki Maria Brassinika, Sofia Lagiou Balázs Szirmai Attila Makay Attila Bujdoso, Ildiko Bujdoso Fajcsa'k De'nes Balázs Baranyai Zsolt Fézler Bala'zs Turai Orsolya Maza Daniele Piludu, Matteo Pace Francesco Garutti Emanuel Pozzoni, Amalia Siriana Vivian Argon Islami, Albana Rexhepi Baiba Bekere Lina Ruskyte-Lukoseviciene Mindaugas Staniúnas Mindaugas Butvila Nils-Anders Gjulem Kristine Langfeldt Wessel Kwang Wook Ryu Eivind Nygaard Erlend Torkildsen Claes Heske Ekornås John Christer Høiby Nils Ole Bae Brandtzaeg Caroline Marie Damhaug Mateusz Stolarski, Aleksandra Zdziechowska Tomasz Szczepanik Adam Radzimski Dagmara Turska, Rafal Witusik Barton Rusztyk Zofia Sobolewska Marcin Pilsniak Liliana Krzycka Anna Nowacka, Katarzyna Turbiarz Marcin Rok Mariej Jaroslaw Slowinski Mariusz Nowak Anna Gawronek, Izabela Pielesiak Monika Dziadosz Jakub Manek Aleksandra Sabramowicz Tomasz Berezouski Mateusz Januszeeski Beata Kosok, Anna Wilk Urszula Kijek, Adam Rzeszotalski, Mikolaj Wower Justyna Maria Dawicka, Agnieszka Anna Konca Krystian Nawrocki Paulina Korkozowicz, Joanna Jarczewska Iwona Kleczaj Karolina Rosinska - Stochaj, Agnieszka Sowinska Alicja Bednarczyk, Tomala Malgorzata Szymon Jawor, Przemystaw Fojcik Luis Reis Pedro Ribeiro, André Bessa Ricardo Jorge Sonia Maia, Maria Joáu Costa Cláudio António Carmo Reis Andrea Fragoso Serban Cálin Spanu, Anda Teodora Otel Dragos Horia Buhociu Andra Maria Pop Ksenia Boksberg Nadezhda Melennaya, Alexander Gupalov Ibia Ekonomov Alexander Demin, Svetlana Danylova Svetlana Choumskaya Semyon Gennadievich Starikov Andrey Ur’evich Paul Mazin Marko Petrovic, Tamara Popovic Vesna Pušara Mladen Koprivica Tomáš Amtmann Martin Reznik Erik Kocka Matej Grébert Pavol Drela Vozef Bator Michal Mihaiák Zuzana Jacková Peter Kotvan Katarina Ciglanová, Miroslava Gasparová Igor Šarocký Emilia Mindeková, Tatiana Hubová Zuzana Knazeova Igor Kyselica Gabriel Noga Peter Štucka Juraj Cisarik Miroslav Šurka Tomas Hál, Peter Gonda, Juraj Siarnik, Martin Comor, Jaroslav Sugár, René Dlesk Casany Estrada Marc, Francesc Baqué Ramis Daniel Martinez Diaz Javier Moreno Del Ojo, Miguel Guerrero Pinar Jesis Torres Garcia, Francisco Daniel Munoz Garúa Carmen Fdlz-Caballero Olhando, Nestor Marco Montanana, Angel Miguel Pérez Mesa Natalia Ibanez Enrique Vizuete Albaladejo, Garrote Raquel Martin Luis Miguel Ramos Castro Hyung-Sup Soh Svenja Hörtdörfer, Jenny Keller Emilia Maria Duda, Moghaddam Golrang, Roman Calzaferri Jong-Jin Park Karin Thalmann Gideon Hartmann Annina Ludwig, Martin Matter, Patrick Maisano Hasan Deniz Deniz Idil Erdemli Lusi Morhayim, Selim Ökem Hande Ünlü Nihal Kayapa Kerem Sürmelihindi Salih Oktay Uzumcu Hiläl Aktur Nazmiye Ozturk, Mert Uger, Yuvacan Atmaca, Israfil Konyali Sofia Yatsiv, Olga Yatsiv Yuriy Vakula Olena Kovalchuk Vladimiz Kozol Pavlo Benedyuk Lei Yu, Ying Wang Hanna Zminkowska Karolina Szynalska Susan Ann Gravgs-Thomas Jenny Melville Rohan Patil, Zubin Masters Andreas Chadzis, James Erickson Jason Tristram Pettit Rodrigo Velasco, Chunxiao Lu, John S. Imeson Salvador Rivas Michael Tze Wei Na Dimitri Argyros Sophie Anna Campbell Kyong Joo Kim, Dong Ku Kim Yuting Jiang Li Jia Yang Jonathan Fraser Morrison Petra Lui
Carmen Blanc, Alvarado Jiri Orol Ana Luis Daniel Rey, Machuca, Hermán - Marcos, Lucas - Otero, Carolina Juan Ignacio Diana Menéndez, Granero Realili Guadalupe, Risso Patron Domingo, Sellant Ayelen Ricardo Antonelli, Carlos Beghetti Christian Ramón Ignacio Del Blanco, Mariño Sebastián Manuel Leandra Hanlon, Trejo, Matias Augusto - Zottig, Ivo Lucas Catriel Rodriguez, Susana Kaplan Damian Plouganou, Turrin Maria Cecilia, Jaume Natalia, Fernandes Esteban Ignacio Arjol Acebal, Ghiggino Ricardo, Villar Rojas Adrian, Villar Rojas Sebastian, Bermudez Diego, Maria Del Pilar Navarro Laura, Beatriz Juárez, Busaniche, Mariano - Spesso, Martin Alexandra Brown Yin Wang Colin Ng, Galut, Dan Oliver Huw Wellard, Perversi-Brooks, Sam Jan Alexander Golembiewski Nikolina Bobic Ilan Machoro Jan Alexander Golembiewski Tomoko Suga Julia Url Claudiu, Christian Silverstru Katharina Volgger Alexander Eberl, Piker, Cornelia Barbara Hohensinn Viktoria Hohl Florian Absenger Stephan Brugger Dominik Troppan Robert Guenther Zarko Koyacevic, Racic, Radomir Bence Pap Alexander Gastager, Lukasser Mathias Monika Ponjavic, Krivosija Damjan Jasmina Mitrovic Bojan Erceg, Gacanovic Alexander Maja Vujovic, Bodroza Marija, Kacar Jelena, Dundic Vanja Mejrema Zatric, Kurtic, Amra Carlos Lima Andiara Campanhoni, Palhas, Ana Cristina Menezes - Flores, Alice Leite Felipe André Rodriguez, Vargas, Fernando Borderes- Shimizu, Chirochi Jr Alexandre Nagazawa, Lacerda Bernardini, Patricia Ricardo Bórmio Pacheco De Carvalho, Iwamura, Francis Camargo - Maoski, Thiago Fernando Paulo André Ronconi Holand Ricardo Bonini Ricardo Bórmio Pacheco Da Costa Lima, João Gabriel Lobato, Flavia Syrio De Carvalho, Juliana Tavares Gustavo Dieckmann, Paulo Neves Siqueira, Rafael Roque, Pablo Assis Fernando Augusto Yudyro Hayashi, Vilela Rodrigues Da Silva, Tagore Carolina Comim, Christiane Gnilherme Mendonga Simon Daniele Countinoho Moraes, Barth, Adriana - Barth, Michele Emanuelle Tatiana Delattre, Rodrigues Anna Luiza Agoitinetto, Delattre Tatiana Santiago, Amaro Tatiane Andrasc Ana Gisele Ozaki, Máximo, Monica - Matsune, Silvia Thiago Albino Maso, Silva, Francis Juliane Kalil Da- Falavinha, Carolina Lourenco Flavia Cristina Silva, Bonadio, Mariana G - Diniz, Renata A. Livia Iwamura, Hirai, Juliana Ciro Gustavo Scheraiber, Sebben, Felipe- Reichmann, Natalia Karina Yurk, Talita Paulo, Debora Yang Erico Flumignan Pacheco Lenita Pimentel, Polastre, Bruno - Pereira, Cassio Vinicius - Sandoli, Renata Rafael Costa Ana Paula Harumi Eguchi, Kfouri, Tatiana Abbud Rafael Gazale Brych, Neves, Rafael H Sabrina Gilbert, Annie Beaudoin David Brassard, Saucier, Jean Philippe Mathieu Turgeon, Bourdon Paule Karine Guerrette, Laprise, Alexandre Maxime Turgeon, Cyr, Marie-Eve Tina Levesque Cahill, Biboud, Emilie Nathalie Pinealilt Page Roxanne, Johanie, Boivin Isabelle Dallaire, Potvin-Jones, Jody Lee Rachel Simard, Julie Lussier Laurie Gosselin, Karine Renaud Faiyaz Zakaria Khan Adam Clark, Cheung, Jessica Sandrina Dumitrascu Erika Kulbach, Hunter, Carrie Anne-Marie Paula Armstrong Neal Panchuk Francisco Breton, Reyes Emilio, Retamal Octavio, Maureira Luis Felipe, Araya Claudio, Flores Paulina Erwin Baeza, Barrera Lorena, Benitez Ricardo, Figueroa Alex. Guinez Rodrigo, Llanos Javier Claudio Barria, Roa Paulo, Villarroel Daniela, Quevedo Sady, Llanos Jonathan, Mendez Orlando, Flores Pamela Zaror, Ramirez Monica, Valenzuela Evelin, Renault Sarah, Tapis Alicia, Pantoja Roberto, Utrer Sofanor Rojas, Marcos Ramirez ShiShian Lee, Chang, Yin-Shing - Hsu, Chia-Yuan Wei-Hung Peng, Fan, Yang-Chen - Chen, Sheng-Nan Min-Hung Chen, Han-Shu Yi I Chia Chiang, Lu, Meng Shan Shiuan-Ming Hwang, Chen, Guan-Jie Liao Ya Hui, Yang, Ya Shu Guang Zhi You, Wu, Han Jun Ching Chan Chung, Ou Yang, Zhi Hong Chung Chun Chiu, Hsin-Yi Liu Xing Yun Yan, Chen, Hui Ting- Qiu, Hui Wen Fani Yang Wei-Ting Yu, Ying-Zhen Su, ZheWei Lin Jia Hao Zhang, Zhuang, Ming Zong Ming-I Wu Zi Qiu Yan, Qin Tuo Sinan Yuan, Xue Yuan Keming Wang, Liu Yang Gong Huan, Wang Xu Alice Hwa Kam Fai Hung, Tse, King Tong Kenneth Hin Fai Kenju Wong, Wong Yuen Yam Samuel, Yiu Tsz Yan Ryan, Kua Hwa Cheng Willie Xin Li, Zheng Chao, Yu Yisi, Xu Min Luis Armando Viteri Revelo Damir Glavinic, Stambuk, Duje Vlatka Vidakovic, Vrancic Sanja, Vidakovic Visnja Ivan Foretic, Ilicic Emilio, Dubravcic Mihovil, Krcmar Valentina Ana Bilan, Brucic Maja Eva Cotman, Galic Mia Dario Sisak, Opalic Bosko Sara Marenic, Plazibat, Marijana Anja Kresic, Kranjcec, Ivana Luka Ivancic, Jambrovic Marko Veljko Linta, Katic, Duje Mario Furcic, Cmogaca, Adrio Daniel Novak, Matejicek Michal, Vrabcova Alzbeta Dana Krcmarova, Tomashanulik, Tomas Mana, Rdek Horak Barbara Mantovani, Lorenzo, Masini- Caroline Willeit, Adrian Torres Astaburuaga Anette Bjerring Gammelgård Kamille Le Fevre Sckerl, Roedbro, Mathilde Asgaard - Eng, Christine Erika Troelsen, Darre, Charlotte Carl Henrik Graff Aslaug Thorgeirsdottir Frej Tobias Lotus, Ahm, Isabel- Rugaard, Mikkel- Andersen, Morten Manuela Vanotti, Bayle, David Nana Diercks, Sharon Ruben, David Strebicki Mette Rasmussen, Horsving Barfoed, Anne- Poulsen, Jacob- Nielsen, Ulrika Kvist- Vladykova, Petra- Pi Anja Birkkjaer, Nordbladh, Catarina- Boutrup, Mette Bagge- Bertelsen, AndersIversen, Anne- Mortens Signe Skaar Pedersen, Ladawal, Narisara- Gustavsen, Sine- Korsbäk, Mikkel- Staugaard, Gitte- Anderse Sebastian Soelberg, Preisler-Berthelin, Marie- Rahlff, Sören- Packuess, Rune Ylva Hegelund, Eftestö.l, Evy Louise Grønlund Blazej Zemleduch, Michele Cerruti But Moataz Ali, Niveen Mahmoud, Heidi Mohammed Eslam Ahmed Mohammed Abdelkader, Ahmed Mohammed Kamel Nasar, Mohammed Magdy Viktoria Stana Ngai-Sze Kiang Ayako Hamada Nelly Weiss, Arbei, Dori Deré Gum Bauche Stephane, Simon, Boudet- Adrien, Durrmeyer Samuel Concas Veronique Delplace, Toulotte Rudy Nicolae Duduta Saizic Bernier Ludivine Loison Adis Tatarevic Le Pichon Julien Francois David Marie Hascoet, Lemaitre Delaide Paola Pfenninger, Petrini, Silvia Marie Guillard, Gaignard, Florie Hans Lefevre, Tony, Dos Santos Benjamin Saragoussi, Bismuth; Gregory Alessia Zarzani Catherine Pellegry, Zih, Kata- Witkowska, Katarzyna- Van De Keer, Julie Louise Michelin, Brouette Aurelien, Blondin Agnes Victor Rivera Crespo, Molins Freire, Jaume- Pesqueira Sanchez, Maria Ceisa Legrand Delphine, Dorothee, Hars Montreuil Alicia, Chiappone-Piriou Emmanuelle- Messmer, ClothildePlouvier, Charles-Eric Mourier Camille, Germain, Pluvinage- Joseling, Vamour- Adrien, Delattre Emmanuel Garcias, Leu, Matthieu- Herbin, Stephane Juang I-Fan Marie Fontaine Milosevic Sylvie Allison Dublinski Catherine, Elizabeth Stevens Jessica Lord Jessica Pierce Katherine Green Vineet Diwadkar, Kulik, Michael Yuta Aida Nathalie Ward Matthew Garner Nicholas Faulconer Julia Praser Stefanie Wahl Alexander Deutschman Jonathan Henry Helen Chen Elliot Grochal Rae Smith Anneapurna Akkineni Ryan Haney Arseni Zaitsev, Kahlo Anya Alexandre Granger Geoffrey Reynis Sylvain Bordron Tu Ly Ba Hoang, Luong, Van Thanh Joris Jakob Fach Markus Mueller, Harant, Eike Anh Quan Do, Nguyen Khac, Nguyen Van Trieu, Dinh Hiei Ervan Esen Claudia Hograeve, Woempner, Julia Malte-Carsten Seidler Alicja Lidia Sokalska, Okroj, Magdalena Ruth Cuiper, Böhm, Peter Johannes Hegger, Seifried, Thorsten- Anders, Stephan Hye-Mi Lee, Syarova, Evgeniya Anna Kyprianou, Antoniadoy, ElenoraNikolaidoy, Efrosini Andreas Ventourakis, Komninos, Aristodimos- Chronopoulou, Anastasia Anastasia Koukoula, Stavrakakis, Emmanouil- Hiliadis, Georgios Sofia Krimizi, Kyriakou, Kyriakos Jasmine Kastani Yannis Kitanis, Chondrou, Dina- Pafilis, Thanasis- Papathanasiadi, Eleanna Szabolcs Csaki, Kiss, Tamas Vilmos Katona, Mosonyi, Robin Denes Ghycz, Boronkay, Peter- Szederkenyi, Lukacs Matyas Hollo Daniel Kulinyi, Szocs, Istvan Levente- Molnar, Jozsef Botond David Nemeth, Nagy, Andras- Szasz, Csaba Janos Szepesi, Racz, Sandor Tamas Petery Adam Nagy, Schiszler Attila Azadeh Ali Ghanbari, Jabbari, Jahromi Ali Arash Dailami, Sahraeeyan, Azadeh Faraz Soleymani Sara Norouzi, Saberi, Keivan- Niaparast, Ghazal Elham Alavizadeh, Alavizadeh, Hassan Azar Mohammadpanah, Zareiy, Shailan Shahab Mirzaen Mahabadi Ladan Sadeghian, Ghasempoor, Amir- Ghasempoor, Samaneh- Refalian, Ghazal- Abrishami, Hadi Almara Melkomani Mahssa Pahlavan Arash Adel Ahmadian, Momtaz, Sina- Mesdahi Sina- Khodadad, Arsh Mahssa Pahlavan Hila Sharon Rinat Dolev Netaly Goren Yosi Hayun Keren Klein Sivan Solnik Inbal Levi Maria Berlin Ravid Livne Zedar Hadas Raiss Efrat Levy Tal Kesten, Eytan, Alex Matteo Tronti Emilio Colombo Leonardo Zuccaro Marchi Marco Lampugnani Paola Palomba, Morello, Erica Valentina Gabriele Lobaccaro, Balconi, Gabriele- Borghi, Andrea- Pari, Marcello- Sangalli, Stefano- Zani, Giul Andrea Corindia, Carmosino, Salvatore- Carrozzo, Cosimo- Ciccocioppo, Eugenio- Pallotta Antonio Daniele Madeddu Dario Vivaldi, Santoni Filippo, Liga Sparite Santolo Tafuro, Martignetti, Maria Anna- Spiezia Nicola Herald Qyqja, Lofi, Andrea Marta Proietti Gaffi Ivan Muscolino, Biancon, Lionella Antonino Floramo, Amore Sebastiano- Di Martino Manuel- Raciti Antonio Tomohisa Tanaka Hernan Concha Emmrich Shogo Onodera Hideomi Takenaka, Katsuya, Kanese Tasuku Nakatani Take Matsuda Ilia Tsachev, Teraoka, Yoshihiko Hiroki Ogawa Tomohiko Tashiro, Housawa, Ryuhi- Hata, Takahiro- Furuya, Takayuki Yosuke Tanaka, Kubota, Ai- Okuyama, Naofumi Matyas Gutai Maria Rita De Jesusu Dionisio, Gutai, Matyas Yabe Masato, Youhei, Kondo Tareq Abdallah Athamneh Abeer Manneh Jang Ook Rhee, Kim, Sang Hoo Hwang Bo Kang Bum Louise Eun Young, Soo-Yong Son, Mi-Ok Park Seok-Hee Park, Choi Song-Lim Mi Jin Lee, Eun-Leong, Nam JungSuk Seo, Kang, Hong-Sik Da-Sole Oh, Seo Bo-Young Kook Hwan Kim, Yu, Jin-Ju Young-Soo Kim So Jeong Yang, Yoon Seong Jae, Lee Sang Wook, Kim Ji In Choong-Mo Son, Kim Sung, Son Yean, Kang Young Sung Hyun Jun Min Jae Kim Lee Juhun, Jeongjun Song, Jaehwan Kim Hyung-Jin Choi, Lee, Jong-Won Kim, Seung Kim, Do-Yub Paek, Doo-San Soo Rim Sim Hye-Min Yi Eui-Han Lee June Hee Lee Jung Keun Kim Sujin Hyun Jihoon Ha Chan Young Yoon Jang Young Lee Jean-Hee Kim Sun Jun Kim Byung Tae Lee Min-Gi Kim Jin Ah Kim Kyngwon Kang Bum Seung Hwan Bang Soomyeong Jin Eun Mi Kim Jong-Im Park Geun Su Kim Viktorija Prilenska, Dozdeva, Natalja Hamzah Sarout, Ibrahim Rabih Nikola Stakinov, Naumovski Atanas Rebecca Spiteri, Chircop, Charlene- Darmanin, Manuel- Fenech, Daphne Irving Sanchez Zagal Jehovany Munoz Garcia Nancy Yolanda Rodriguez, Santana, Joana- Quintal, Emmanuel- Duran, Gabriela Katarzyna Horodynska Kuan-Ting Daniel Linta Ruwan Fernando Aimee Melissa Lucy Wiles Tor Olav Austigard Madeleine Johander, Bau, Nadine- Strömstad, Martin Lisa Westerdehl Ibar Rodriguez Ugarte Conrad Surowka, Joanna Zapala, Ewelina Szymakowicz Mateusz Szymlak, Sabina Wiecek Lech Babiarz, Jakub Chrobry, Urszula Ramus Katarzyna Niewiarowska, Majewska Anna Maciek Grelewicz Adam Radzimski Lukasz Marciniak, Sikora Wojciech, Makulik Rafal Michal Kulczynski, Ewelina Knapp, Ewa Kudaj, Michal Kulczynski Malgorzata Brzeska, Cavallo, Michele Michal Hajduk Jedrzej Adam Lewandowski, Markowicz, Dariusz Malgorzata Kowalczyk, Krezlik, Adrian Agata Wozniczka Katarszyna Stryjakiewicz, Klosek Magdalena Zuzanna Wojtasiak, Siemienowicz, Magdalena Lukasz Reszka Rubina Afonseca Nuno Dias Raquel Maquel Machado Marlene Viera Joana Santos Sandra Jesus Claudio Emanuel Pinheiro Neloson Correia Neuza Marina Silveira Barros Joana Barros Mariana Oliveira Ricardo Faia, Caetano, Joao- Carvalho, Andre- Pinto, Silvia Susana Maria David Campos Oliveira, Sousa, Marilia Goncalves- Pinto, Fernando Frias Pablo Rebelo, Rebelo, Pablo- Pereira, Luis Pedro- Oliveira, Ricardo Macedo Giusepper Giacoppo, Caruso, Sara Joao Henrique Lucio Julio Senra Jorge Graca Costa Paulo Vieira, Correia, Herberto Ana Filipa Aives Pereira Sauparo Bordos, Feudoro De Sousa Gmnoraes, Joao Paulo Joao Cravo Marta Moreira Ioana Stancu Bogdan Isopescu, Mathe Zsolt Sandor Agyagasi Silviu Medesan, Oprica Alice Maria- Pop Ioan Mircea Alexandra Coriu Alexandru Vlad Damian, Severin Vlad Aurelian Oyidiu Radu Cita Andrei, Alina Tubrea, Ruxandra Antal Nicolae Daniel Popescu Tudor Vlasceanu Stefan Alexandru Nedelcu Laura Chifiriuc, Birgaoanu Simona Cita Andrei, Alina Tubrea, Ruxandra Antal Dumitrescu AlexandruLiviu, Mircea Stroescu Elena Kropaneva, Tighe Charlies, Zlokazova Vladimir Marija Radisic, Zivkovic, Jelena- Gadjic, Dusan Ksenija Bunjak, Kirn, Aleksandra- Aleksic, Nikola Nenad Simic Marijana Bakovic, Ivana Markovic Irena Mirjevic Marija Ratkovic, Zivkovic Marina Jelena Pantic, Radojevic Nevena Nikola Zamurovic Marko Culibrk, Culibrk Marija, Iskrenov Zarko Milosevic Milojevic, Rasic Dragana, Masanovic Marija Igor Lazarevic, Milanovic, Adriano Olivera Milosavljevic Milena Markovic Vladimir Ivanovic, Antic Milan, Jovovic Miljana Veljko Bajic Tijana Cebic, Divljak Danica, Cokic Katarina, Vranes Dane Svetlana Mojic, Doric Marija, Vukic Olivera Ivana Miskeljin, Miskeljin Bojana Michaela Mitrovic Milica Lekovic, Macura, Marko- Stojsic Milica Eugene Tan Wei Ming Pamela Chew Wee Loon Lim Soon Heng, Michael Tan Alexandra Pokorna Radoslav Pavlovic Michal Tatransky Zoran Kenda Aleksandra Sekeres, Benko Andreja Esta Matkovic, Volf Branka Olga Bombac Nina Vidic Ivancic, Benjamin Zancic Vesna Lenart Ziga Rosker Marija Gramc Leigh Hanekom, Van Tonder, Lawrence Figueroa Mingarro Alberto Maria Jose Marcos Pilar Morilla Manresa Jose Maria Aguirre Martinez-Abarca Sergio Ramos Ruiz, Quintanar Camacho, Angel Beatriz Benito, Benito, Sara González, Tomás Marcos, David Serradilla, Fco. Javier Velasco , J. Igna Miguel Angel Ajuriaguerra Anna Manosa Tarruella Alberto Hernandez Munoz, Baeza Gallego, Sara- Barreda Teran, Javier Hilario- Cabrero Olmos, Raquel Jose Luis Lorenzo Alzola Pedro Dachs Ana Lerena, Sibils, Gabriel Sergio Mendez Rodriguez, Enric Dulsat Serra Paula Lopez-Barba Alexander Diaz Chyla Jaime Alberdi Saenz-Diez Jesus Munoz Gil Gonzalo Pardo Carlos Gor Gomez, Agustin Gor Gomez, Esteban De Backer Guitierrez Daniel Domingo Cuenca, Santiuste Cardano, Oihane Roberto Carlos Garcia Caballero Daniel Martinez Diaz Jose Ramos, Moron Ruiz, Elena Rafael Galan Gomez Jairo Rodriguez, Aparicio, Roberto Laura Del Pino Noriega, Vicente Benito, Mario Pablo Santiago Rodriquez Bravo Concepcion Perez Martin, Nieto Santamarina, Cesar- Tascon Lopez, Jabier- Fernandez Fonseca, Laura- A Arrieta Berdasco Valentin Sebastian Martin David, Inez Senghor Fayna Navarro Garcia Carmen Ferrando Ortelles, Ano Nadal, Pilar Marta Bonet Viana, Broseta Bronchu, Esther- Gomez Vives, Alejandro- Lopez Moreno, Joaquin Ramon Riera Cervera, De Navascues Y Lauzet, Lorenzo- Dominguez Pastor, Alvaro- Revert Solbes,Alba- V David Catala Minana Marco Casany Estrada, Antoni Joan Rosset, Jordi Pablo Vina Garcia-Inés, José Antonio Guerra Paz Petia Ratzov, Carl Hall-Karlstrom Arkadiusz Sarlej, Amrein, Christine Ksenia Yakunicheva, Fenwick, Anne-Marie- Cronin, Niamh Kim Bjarke Sara Vall, Ahlberg, Karin- Helmfridsson, Hohn Björn Förstberg, Ling, Mikael Edvin Bylander, Ruthblad, Jonas- Wolfe, Jonathan Omar Garcia, Prosch, Jurgen Carl-Johan Omert Johan Lönn, Weser, Niklas Cecilia Nilsson, Elin Algotsson Sofie Gyllving Karl Johan Kolmberg, Lundqvist, Magnus Daniel Persson, Appelbäck, Tobias Halil Ibrahim Can Burcu Arkut, Gursoy, Selen Noura Al-Baloushi Khasiba Obaid Cyrill Komarov Mykhaylo Karnaukhov, Besarab Nadiya- Gavrilyuk Iryna- Komarov Cyrill- Shykura Olena Liam Madden Craig Miller Gary Watkin Judy Cheung Chantelle Niblock Helene Fan Linjie Wang Vincent, Ming-Ching Young Ka Shing Tam Anastasia Karandinou Mohammed Amine Benoudjit Stephen Robertsson Eric Dauis, Katarina Joachym Helene Sorret Daniel Herzberg Mcfarland Sylas Villegas Carlos Moore Joseph Nguyen Cuc Kipperman Nathan Katie Duncan Nicholas Holbein David Pak Brandon Vielguth Frank Lara Jeremy Karas Michael Hernandez Yimon Aye Joseph Lyman Sergio Ramirez Yiling Deng Rodriguez Florencio Maravilla Francisco Jeff Wandersman, Sunwoo, John Reilly Hogan, Gull, David Sangwook Park Sarah Boles Matt Canterna Patricia Ng Jerome Haferd Joel Burke, Smith, Kevin Doug Stechschulte Robertu Blecker Sian A Kleindienst, Rice, Edward O. Onur Yuce Gun Janet Corzo Jieun (Kristen) Kim Erin Devries, Casey Megan Alejandro Bulaevsky, Hunt, Danielle Kylie Stoneham, Economidis, Niko Hua-Yu Tseng, Jesse Smith Pei-Chun Yang, Sandra Luna-Moreno Humphries Alyssa, Cherine Sarouam Jenny Ivansson, Christiansen, Stine Randon Krysman, Tibbits, Skylar - Proto, Jon Kyung Sic Kim, Ban, Yeoun Kyung Jasem Pirani Chika Nakazawa Vera Kalinkovitskaya Evan Champagne, Vanheusen Kate Jennifer Wong Kevin Sample Ernando Olvera Ricardo Santos Woo Sung Yoon Richard Lyew Brock Hinze, Kohler, Johannes Brent Sturlaugson Scott Bishop Sanghun Rim Christa Scott George Lam Jose Rodriguez-Colon Daniel Currea Sally Eyre Crystal Ellis, Ppetrie, Hillary- Survant Tyler- Beamer, Stephanie Manh Tuan Nguyen Viet Hung Pham, Le, Xuan Bach - Le, Trung Kien Luong Le Dinh, Nguyen Tan Cuong Bui Huu Duy Tan
Matias Miguel Gabrielloni, Mariana Mabel Maldonado, Justo Ezcurra Floren- Cia Eliseo, Alejandro Nervenga, Cecilia Vignolo Eduardo Merta, Matias Scaf- Fidi María Noelia Mattio, Martina Rosa Mediza Facundo Monteros, Monica Martinez, Julia Villa, Matias Blanch Carlos Alberto Beghetti Puebla Lionel Campos Mrina Lia Viñals, Marco Nicolãs Banco, Maria Paula Villarroel Romi- Na Daniela Chaveros, Gloria Virginia Montiel, Gabriela Yasmin Jirala, Gonzalo Dutto Jaime Castillo Rodolfo Luciano Martin David Zalazar Carlos Alberto Beghetti Puebla Jung Il Hyang Richard Samulis Isaac Mcnicol Ni Putu Giri Putri Setyawathi Alison Jean Mcfadyen, Luca Vezzosi Phil Page Robert Van Lin Vaishnavi Srinivasan Rajasekaran Pritha Ilangovan Shruti Shankar Monika Nowak Gabriella Marsh Hannes Haas Reinhold Weinberger Fatma Ayzit, Jasmin Hagleitner The- Odor Wender, Philipp Rauth Clemens Kubicek Albert Elmenreich Philipp Müller, Andreas Draxl Brigitte Margesin, Simone Ines Schwienbacher Verena Lernpeiss Stefanie Leopold Elisa Dolenc, Karoline Glockner Jasna Kuljuh Nejra Prasovic Matej Banozic, Nedzad Sabanovic Andreas Jaklin, Coric Maida, Albert Erjavec, Christian Reschreiter, Matthias Gumhalter, Katharina Volgger Harald Wolbang Martin Oberascher Andraz Lecnik, Luka Murovec Esteban Ochogavia, Michael Zaccaria, Anthony Fayt, Michel Parubaj Mickael Piazza Mickael Ameline Depover Susanne Kerndle Johann Zirngast Daniel Brecher Dusica Balta Paulo Neves Siqueira, Thiago Lopes De Menezes, Rafael Roque Garcia, Alex Fer- Reira Dos Santos Filho,Pedro Vasques Pedalino Pedro Varella Jiquiriçá, Bruno Pereira Cornelio, Amanda Clara Arcuri Favaro Thiago Lemos Shuk Ki Leung Sukie Sean Procyk Anna Lisa Meyboom Adriana Ross Jor- Dan Allen, Rayn Palibroda Jason Robbins Stephanie Au Daphnee Van Lierde Michael Kim Soonam Lee Cedric Yu Andrew Chung Daniela Andrea Kairies Alvarado Enrique Karim Estefania Navia, Constanza Gabriela Valenzuela Marco Antonio Muñoz Ortiz Emilio Jose Espinoza, Vi- Cente Donoso, Victor Valverde, Eduardo Aroca, Gabriela Mendez, Elizabeth Fer- Nandez, Frank Merino Isaac Peralta, Rodrigo Placencia, Jessica Chavéz, Teresa Morales, Paula Seguel, Jorge Muñoz Pamela Angelica Salas Valenzuela, Maria Angelica Guerra Saldias, Jaime Hurtado Carlos Coronado Coronado Plasen- Cio, Camila Aguirre, Francisco Fernández, Jorge Hernández Jorge Francisco Jimenez, Italo Rossi, Roberto Peña, Juan Jose Mautz, Gonzalez Erik, Lucy Parra Jorge Ignacio Contreras Claudio Santibáñez Wenlong Yan Xiaohui Lv, Li Jinchen, Li Yuehong, Yuan Shouying Weiping Zhang, Qiao Yo, Bai Zengming, Zhang Min Ggjun Zhang, Bai Jing, Chen Xu, Gao Yang Ci Wang, Iv Junchao, Gong Sining, Gu Fang Jie Shen Mingyang Chen Lei Feng Hang Zhou Liu Wei Zhang Shuang, Li Shu Zhengming Wang, Zhengming Wang, Yu Liu, Yujie Wang, Pengyuan Zhang Hu Yintao, Dong Wang, Zhang Lei, Zhihui Wang Banzhong Qiu Suwen Liu Jianhong Wu Haichao Feng, Guo Jiasheng, Huang Peng, Zhang Mingxin Wang Zhiyang Chen Wang Cun Gang Liu, Liu Zhao, Yang Guo Xin, Wu Qing Hui, Wang Hao Shaobin Huang Shiwei Lee, Sun Yu, Jiang Xiaomin Jiang Chang Ru Ting Lin Zeng Yiwu Qian Wu, Bogeng Chen Qian Lie Kai Tian, Jingyu Li Wei Zhu, Tian Yu, Wu Guanyu, Wang Zhuo Shaobin Huang, Yan Luo Yang Liu, Xu Zhai Liu Jian, Yu Zhou Xing Chen, Li Cong Zhang Yi, Huo Xudong Jian Tu Wei Jia Chang Ke Tiandong Ma Fan Yang, Xiaofei Niu Yuanyi Liu Weiwei Sun, Le Cheng, Lin Yu, Qiu Xiaohui Han Jing, Chao Jiang Tongliang Wu, Lv Ming, Liang Jiahao, Luo Bin Huafei Xing Weiwei Sun Xia Miao Le Yin, Yang Zhang, Zhenyu Dai Xinpeng Wang Ting Su Wanli Mo San Mok, He Zaoyi, Lee Rui Hao Zhu Ruoxuan Li, Hu Hui, Du Yongliang, Mi Shuyang, Zhang Jing, Tu Xiaoyang, Wang Shihui Wen Xia, Li Rui, He Shirui, Zhang Houqing Ling Yun Yang Mi Tian Li Yunhui, Weihao Zhao, Shi Cao, Weiye Huang Hao Ruan, Xing Xiong Di Ding Xu Yang, Sheng Bo, Bian Zhigang, Gong Yu Xiaoying Ma, Xi Chen, Hu Dachao, Xu Runsheng, Xu Chunsong, Jiang Jianfang Xiao Li, Li Huang Yuanjie Shen, Yanna Zhu Lou Xuhua, Laishun He, Xiaodan Tan Xin Lin Qiuyun Zeng Qingbo Zhou Jialong Sun Hua Ye, Tao Yang, Yi Ren, Xinyun Zhang, Jiao Yang, Suoqian Zhao Yu Yang, Ye Ni Ni Jiao Luo, Fang Huang Tan Chuan, Kan Lin Wang Fengtao, Wang Rui, Xie Yangliu, Gao Fei Rehemitula Batuer, Liu Xing, Li Jian, Bian Huayang Dan Zhu, Dang Yu, Wang Haixu, Zhang Yan Li Wan, Zhang Xiao, Yuan Jing, Zheng Fan Ping Yang Mu, Yue Li, Ti Zha Kai Wang, Rui Ouyang, Xuzhan Lin Xiaokai Huang Sinan Liu, Cui Kai, Wang Hao Yanming Zhou, Wang Yang Xiao Liu Xu Yang Yunqiao Yang Wenkai Zhu, Yang Yunlong, Min Mingzhe, Zheng Guoping Kunyue Zhao, Shan Huiting, Feng Enbo, Chen Songhua Yankai Liu He Qian, Li Tian, Chen Ting, Yue Kelin Jiao Chen Yichun Li Meng Wang Nanyang Wang, Zhang Weiwei, Ren Lanhong Guo Jizheng, Wu Hao, Liu Gang Jizheng Guo Gang Zhou, Wang Yi Xin Huang, Qin Ma, Zhou Wu, Ping Li, Chneg Zhang Yi Fei Fu, Wang Lei Zhilin Dong, Nan Jiang, Yiting Gao Boguan Wu, Zhong Meiying, Zhou Lubin, Wu Yingcheng Boxu Dong Jiayi Zhu Ting Zhang, Gong Chenxi, Li Qianyi, Wu Yifan Xia Su Chen Chi Jialiang Wang Xiaomu Zhang, Li Cheng Wu Boguan Ning Jiang, Rui Zeng, Rui Han Wei Hao Zeng, Cong Guo Yi Ren Kin Wai Leung Yi Wang, Ke Lin Yue Qichen Cao, Zhan Shi, Yushang Zhang Haonan Lu Xiaoxue Gao Yujia Xin Zhang Yuanhua Xusheng Huang, Lu Yu Lie Qian Vlatka Vidakovi, Višnja Vidakovi, Tihana Vu, Sanja Vran Karolina Zduni Iva Maria Juric, Ígor Sladoljev Ivana Zivicnjak, Fabio Furac Ivan Sucic, Hrvoje, Ivan Sucic, Marin Sapit Željko Hudoletnjak Vedrana Pocrnic, Nina Povsic, Barbara Jugovac, Marko Klaric Ana Kara, Marija Laginja Domagoj Juric Pero Vukovic, Danica Selem Katerina Kalinova Jiri Hejl, Srdjan Markovic Michal Krejcik Martin Náhlovský Tomas Jurak, Frantisek Brychta, Zuzana Uhrikova Vladimir Hrivnak, Iveta Kollarikova Tereza Stastna Michal Zahora, Martin Nahlovsky Jan Karasek, Ondrej Dusek, Ondrej Sikora, Jan Hrouda Nela Gottvaldová, Dagmar Stéeová Iva Zalesakova, Rom Kostrica, Zora Velkova Ástridur Birna Árnadóttir Steffen Impgaard Pedersen, Isak Birgersson, Paal Arne Bustad Elisabeth Malmsten Karin Björsmo Eva Haggrén Mourid- Sen Mouridsen, Bjarke Schoedt, Rasmus Brusgaard Hansen Claus Jørgensen Troels Steenholdt Heiredal, Henrik Kammer Ulsfort, Andrea Cuadros Ellitsgaard Pernille Maria Voss Maria Ljungsten Ulrik Fenger Mathiasson Ulla Rosen- Lund Knudsen, Kasper Mølby Larsen, Maika Moerner Jensen Mohamed Sameir Heikki Niilo Tapani Ruski Juho Niemi, Jussi Viinikka Tomasz Kujawksi Patrick Allan Arthur Boidin Bertrand Ottmer Loiseau Yannig Joan Valls Matheu, Marinha Banhos Martins, Iria Brandariz Otero, Cé- Line Parisse Anaïs Tourneux, Anthony Nicolini Pauline Popelier, Fanny Baillou Petar Kristiyanov Belev Yasmine Sfar Geoffrey Desplaces, Thomas Etesse Erik Lantz Edouard Robic, Mathieu Leu Natalia Obrijanu, Jiaodan Ren Yuan Jiang, Yang Xu Jun Noguchi Hung-Lin Tsai Laura Perez, Aline Cagny Samuel Rimbault, Thomas Vongpradith Joachim Engelhard, Matthieu Delan- Glet, Moad Zograh /Jessica Baranes, Christophe Beaugrand Alexandre Palmer, Elodie Huvenne, Marion Le Rouvillois Clément Durosella, Alexander Fripp, Hugo Blanc Antoine Pradeau, Emmanuel Quatrepoint Katja Manninen, Linn Sylvan Gerardo Francisco Ubeda Rueda Marie Prime, Emmanuel Metrard Baptiste Nicolosi, Bastien Canzi Sarah Philippe, Tony Bougaran Erjon Lena, Sébastien Lequeux, Nicolas Boythias Taoyu Wang Rossi Mikaëlla, Aurélie Thery, Ellie Lemaire Pierre Lapos Renéeclaude Langlois Alessandro Gess, Arthus Leiter Maud Brigot Xiyou Wong Alban Messager Akiko Koba, Dragomira Geor- Gieva, Souraya Bitar Jinshan Xia Philippon Etienne Alberto Bustamante Dominguez Kevin Bian, Brice Lannuzel, François Byrne, Claire Oiry, Valentine Baillot Ghazal Banan Antoine Dufilho, Antoine Dufilho, Benois Reiners Khad- Ir Sanaa Hamish Crockett Jesus Rodriguez Marion Gardette Yanxia Xu, Maxime Gauvin, Dieu Hien Vu, Ousaid Fellah Mathilde Boullie, Lucie Cheriaux Leslie De Gasquet, Rita Karchafi Morel Cocagne, Julia Morel, Olivia Cocagne Anna Babayan Jan Heinrich Cornelia Thiel Eva Freia Behringer Paula Longato Judith Scholz Michael Sven Haller Mi-Jin Chun Dimitri Geizenraeder Judy Haenel Maike Buttler Susanne Rang, Annette Bohr, Daniela Otter Gerold Schrack, Sebastian Bildstein Huy Nguyen Quang Bartholomäus Zieleniec Stephan Gratzer, Philip Schmitt, Daniel Gross, Benjamin Kinzinger, Katalin Schinkel, An- Dreas Grohmann Sophia Mytilineou, Maria Nodaraki, Athina Papadopoulou Efstratia Alexopou- Lou, Papatriantafyllou Xenia, Terezaki Angeliki, Vlachiotis Efstathios Eleni Pa- Pageorgiou, Georgia Papanastasiou Gourlis Georgos Theoharis Stavros Katalin Fazekas Janka Lengyel Viktor Vadász, Adrienn Urbán, Ákos Babecz, Péter Gyabronka,Béla Nagy Zsófi Andrejkó, Edina Vass, Szécsi Ákos Norbert Káplár, Gyöngyi Juhász , Ildikó Popovics Gabor Hajdu, Karsai Zsuzsa László Monori, András Fosztó, Éva Lebovics, Kata Boglárka Maczó Csaba Botond Brosz, Agnes Nemeth Nóra Nagy Ferenc Monoki, Lajos Dézsi, Péter Szabó Giap Thi Minh Trang Anett Szternak, Gyula Guzmics, Attila Nyari Vilmos Katona, Bogdan Funk Lilla Kántor, Anikó Hajdú Ghyczy Denes, Gergely SzacsVay, Lukacs Szederkenyi, Peter Boronkay Zsuzsanna Meszaros, Katalin Halacsi Emese Boltik, Tamás Csömöre Balázs Ory, Soma Pongor, Dávid Tarcali Forouhar Shakeri Mahyar Arab Boor Boor Daria Pietryka Paolo Augello Carlo Ottaviani Michele De Notaristefani, Nicola Petruolo, Chi- Ara Vaia Dario Maccheroni Sara Grandinetti, Valentina Massidda Elisabetta Anna Di Cesare, Donatella Carta Hosung Won, Michael Vincent Uy, Yulmi Lee, Miran Lee Marco Remorini Jelena Cop, Tvrtko Buric Matyas Gutai Wei Zhang, Yu Fanshi Chigusa Satou Rie Izumi, Arimura Yusuke, Kishimoto Tomoe, Nomura Masanori Ivan Fomichev, Yelena Khalevina Indre Re Bždaite, Eleonora Griganave Ona Januskeviciute Sabina Grincev- Iciute, Margarita Kaucikaite, Ruta Valiunaite, Sandra Slepikaite Egle Sakav- Iciute, Vika Pranaityte Milda Grabauskaite, Algimantas Grigas, Leva Zu- Kauskaite Egle Gecaite, Vilte Adomaviciute, Aurimas Syrusas, Julija Kocyte Victor Quirita Yeudiel Domiguez Perez, Diana Hilda Guzman Arcos, Fernando Allende Osorio, Anabel Perez Garcia David Valencia Loera Jorge Guadar- Rama Rios, Armando Monroy Ricardo Arturo Garcia Reyna, Magdalena López Armeaga Abigail Claudia Lira Grajales, Norberto González Piña, Johana Rosa- Rio Viveros Ortiz, Ana Victoria Del Valle Sánchez Aldo García Guadarrama Mark Van Westerlaak Mohamad Sedighi Ke Zou, Feng Han Susi Matt, Can Cahit Bicalki, Tomas Med, Dorotea Ottaviani Ren Horng Yee Jørgen Tycho Evers Solheim Siri Skorve Hopperstad Hanne Embretsen Fredrik Haukeland Jonas Adolfsen Atle Leira Sabrina Widen Jan Gunnar Skjeldsøy Anette Johansen Anders Espen Bærheim Ola Haug Hagen Hå- Vard Holm Endresen, Fernando Frias Pulido Hanne Marit Rimer Martin Glas Anne Karin Veddeng Jürgen Hagn Birgite Kahrs Bosheng Gan Johannes Beinhauer Elisa Grindland Øystein Olsen Lilly Margrethe Kvilhaug Jorge Armando Rojas Talledo Ofelia Giannina Vera Piazzini, Fiorella Silvana Arispe Sevilla Roger Aguilar Valle, Rafael Sevilla Parra, Marcelo Silingardi Za- Pater Kamil Wisniewski, Dorota Wierzchowska, Marcin Zawada Piotr Stasze- Wski Jan Pawlik Patrycja Kulakowska Przemyslaw Kolodziej Krzesimir Poplawski, Karol Pikiel Pawel Urbanowski Michal Hajduk, Ewa Wilkowska Agata Rogowska, Alicja Pustelnik, Mateusz Sikorski Dorota Kunicka Anna Marszalek, Lukasz Marjalski Ewa Adamczyk, Joanna Budzinska, Magdalena Klimczak Piotr Gniewek, Michalolszewski Bartlomiej Bielinski, Hanna Bialic, Marta Kwasek, Weronika Kaszub, Anita Jarzyna, Tomasz Bieluszewski, Zu- Zanna Paul Aneta Nosal, Pawel Warchulski Sebastian Bogusz Waclaw Os- Trowski, Michal Dudicz Marta Kaszuba Maciej Michal Plater-Zyberk, Bartosz Malinowski, Maciej Fischer Michal Cichy, Aleksandra Wojciechowska, Maciej Armanowski Zaklina Nowodworska,Michal Podgorczyk Magdalena Jagoda, Magdalena Jagoda, Michal Jurgielewicz, Piotr Kolek, Katarzyna Senczak Justyna Luczak Adrian Wyparlo João Torres, Diana Barbosa, Ana Amador, Mafalda Rosa Dean Macgregor Pedro Estrangeiro Joao Almeida, Sara Matias, Andreia Baltazar André Prata, João Gaspar, Ricardo Sousa, Marcos Maia, David Porcher, Mónica Silva, Samuel Gonçalves, Ismael Santos José Campos Moreira, Joana Miguel Teix- Eira Das Neves Moreira, Gil Sanches Souzela Brito Atanasoaie Adrian - Daniel Dumitru Bogdan Serban Miodrag Popov, Liviu Darela Alexandru Dan, Alexandra Damian Veronica Popescu, Dimitrie Ste- Fanescu Ioan-Mihai Baba, Simona Horvath Anca Marin Adina, Ana Maria Marin, Ion Neculai Monica Butnaru, Valentina Buz Mirela Spatar Maria Dlugoborskaya Tatyana Reshetnikova Natali Tinyaeva Anastasia Kravchenko, Alexander Trophimenko, Yana Sotnikova, Tatyana Marysheva, Olga Lemba, Irina Botova, Alekxey Kostenko Janko Kramaric Branislav Spasojevic, Marija Radojicic Luka Mladenovic Mateja Zivadinovic, Radmila Sojkovic Tamara Popovic, Veljko Markovic Nikola Stepkovic, Nikola Ivkovic, Aleksandra Ceranic, Vladimir Todorovic Hana Drask- Ovic, Stanislava Predojevic Shiuh Liang Lee Wheng Yen Ng Eva Kralova, Maria Lociova Lubomir Peracek Robert Loffler Liana Spodnia- Kova, Daniela Slizova Peter Chrien Matej Milek Sandro José Ferreira, Joana Alzina, David Bernardino Maša Cernovšek Logar Jeong-Ah Shin Raewon Noh Lee Miso Jonghyun Oh Kim Young-Soo, Shin Dong-Han Jin-Soo Sung Young-Woon Shin Yerang Lee Chung Yongche Shin Mancheol Han Kwonseok Dae Kyeom Kim Min Guk Wi Kyung Heon Heo Jung-A Park Kyung Mi Kong, Park Seong Won Ji-Seung Kim Jisun Kim Hwa-Rim Kim Eun Suk Shin Cho Ji Hyun Soo-Kyung Yim Su Eon Yoo Jin Ah Kim Kim Sung-Gyu Hyobong Ma Soon-Jae Hwang Miok Lee Jaeyoung Jeon Jae Hwan Jeong Mi Hwa Lee Son Sung Hee Oh Jonghwa Jeongyeap Shin Lee Jun Hee Hye-Rim An You Kyung Lee Jae Sik Choi Sang Yeon Cho Chi Heon Jin Kye-Houng Park An-Young Song Gi Tae Eom Yong Il Ahn Young Hwan Choi, Hyo Young Park Jeong Mee Heo Kwang Min Kim Jung Wan Jin Dong-Hwan Sohn Su Jeong Lee Gaaeun Park Choi Enyoung/Simsulim/Sunghwankim/Ohdaekyu/Youjinlee/Yeodong Bin Jang Sungchan Han Gisung Sunjung Kim Kiyoung Cha Lim Jin-Woo Yong-Gil Park Byungjoo Park Jin-Hee Choi Ji Young Yoon, Kawk Tae-Hyun, Park Dong-Sun Synn Yi Mu Hyoung Chon Kim Youn Hwa Myounggyun Oh, Jung Hyobin Choi Ju Won Lee Seok Cheol, Kim A Rum, Kim Joo Young Hyung Ju Seo, Gyeong Seon Min, Jin Sung Kim Lee Sun-Mi Byung-Hyun Lee, Geun-Chul Park Hong Sang Hyun Ham Seung-Woo Sung-Ki Lee Hyunbum Jung, Juhun Lee, Seohyeon Cho Kyung-Hee Chun Joonkyu Shin, Soonwoo Park Hyun-Yong Park, Bum-Jin Kim Hyunsook Ahn Joo Hyung Oh, Lee Suk Won, Huh Guen Il, Son Hyun Chang Joo Kim, Jung Soo Kim Young-Soo Ryu Jung Ji Hye, Myeng Jin Byeun Gi-Hong Yang Borin Jung Kyu Jeon Park Lluis Juan Liñan, Andrea Gimeno Sánchez, Gal·la Otero Tarazona Prócoro Del Real Baeza, Antoni Baile Jiménez Pablo Viña García-Inés Eduardo Lopez Morales Maria-Angeles Guillamon, Joan-Vicenc Pol, Enrique Garcia Javier Martin Elena Moron Ruiz Jesus Villalta Alfonsin, Aitor Vega Bonilla Bel- Mar Rodríguez Marcos Ursicino Endaman Nsé Mangué, Laura Dávila Ponce De León Baquero, Felipe Suárez Ballesteros, Marta Torres Párraga, Alejandra Ruiz Rubio So Byung-Sik Enric Torner I Mondragon, Anna Turull Martinez, David Steegmann Mangrané, Oriol Jané Abellan-García Gregorio Abad Acuña Garcia, Enrique Cantu Davila Benjamin Moreno Raquel Corney Rasclosa Gumersindo Freire Lopez, Nuria Balboa Rodriguez, Gumersindo Freire Lopez Arnau Sempere Albert Isaac Mayor Molina Josep Iglesias Reixach Carles Cabratosa Vidal Jordi Grau Carreras Roberto Lebrero Jaume Farrés I Ca- Ballol Pía Alejandra Galvez Lindegaard Annabel Mora Encinas Karin Sterner Marie Löwenherz Niall Ó Muiré Cheng Joey Maria Söder- Ström Anette Eriksson Ida Stavenow Lauren Field Gabriel Sorensen Megan Reilly Annette Beier Jun Wen Chau Jermaine Elin Adolfsson Jiayi Hong Wang Xinyu Suzanne Nicol, Pamela Padruno, Laura Cormos, Nata- Lie Bell Jonas Marculescu Flynn Lewer Tanja Kühberger Hoy Tvete Nina King Lim Chou Xavier Botet Campderros Sofia Olim Daniel Hernandez Canut Nirmit Jhaveri, Ilze Kundzina, Magali Mendez Anna Klockare, Julia Hansson, Johanna Brandt, Wilken Behrens, Orlando Marques Dorukalp Du- Rmus, Theofilou Aris Konstantinos, Simone Rembaudengo Kajsa Björklund Karina Rössner Luca Perna, Markus Abegg, Thomaso Triulzi, Darius Strasky Huibiao Wu, Wang Tao Isil Uysal, Cansu Tolunay Cihan Can Turker, Tolga Kunkul, Bugra Cimete Ayse Nil Sensu, Asli Deger Selin Oktan, Sila Ceyhan, Hatice Kolak, Melodi Pak Sinan Gunay Sura Kilic, Cagdas Batmaz Betul Karanfil, Ahmet Irfan Ertis, Gizem Atac Funda Tan, Sanem Ersine, Efsun Damar Marjana Mdzeluri Karol Drozynski, Aleksandra Mierzwa Nathanael En Sinn Kang Alexander Tochtermann Mikael Ling, Björn Förstberg Michael Smith-Masis, Maria Mena, Lucy Quelares, Ekachai Sophonudomporn Olga Vlagkouli Natalie Jane Hewitt Thanh Van Tran, Wing Sum Lee Andrew David Green Stacey Daves Dana Nielsen Jose Cuevas Dung Cao Andrew Dryden Matthew Kendall Sigita Saliklis Norio Kobayashi Jared Vandeusen Idolina Benavides Scott Jensen Dennis Goff Evan Jaeger Hochung Kim Jungeun Kim Adam Carrillo O-Chong Kwon Paul Ruppert Khaldoon Khaireddin Whitney Forward Fei Yang Richard Colwell, Chelsea Lipham Jun Pak, Erin Bartling, Jun Pak Jeffrey Klancer, Nanechka Pagan-Torres, Tamary Alvarez- Gutierrez Matthew Williams Soichiro Akiba Erin Ross Wei Gao, Jean Bap- Tiste Simon Kimberly Gareiss, Marisa Zambuto James Stoddart Bongkun Lee Christa Currea; Daniel Currea Maacaron Sandra, Merve Sila Karakaya Roxanna Viray Jacek Mantykiewicz Gerome E. Mcfarlane Gersain Calderon Michelle Devi Roberts Rosa Oro-Garay Gersain Calderon` Emiliya Yankova Seungteak Lee Victor Le Bourgeois, Foucault Tiberghien Ryan Reber, Lara Fling, Ryan Sarros Jintana Tantinirundr, Belle Tang Joshua Hemberger, Lau- Ren Lynn Juan Perez Lucas Chung, Ashley Murphy Reilly O’neil Hogan Chad Wleczyk Richard Hyun Soo Kim B. Star Davis, Travis Watson Ho Lee Zigurds Greivulis Soonyup Kwon Laura Wickesberg Samira Ahmadi Sergio Meneses Christopher Podes Yesenia Esmeralda Ospina Nicole Dodd Samuel Culpepper Teigan Ann Nguyen Manh Tuan
D&A SPRING SUMMER 2014 2014 ISSUE ISSUE 2121
Nathalie de Vries
Á varo S za V e ra
Architect, MVRDV (The Netherlands)
A ch ec Po uga
Architect, Snøhetta (USA)
Br g tte Sh m
Architect, Atelier Bow-Wow (Japan)
A ch ec Sh m Su c ffe A ch ec s Canada
Architect, heneghan peng architects (Ireland)
A ch ec Pe e S u chbu y A ch ec u e Aus a a
Architect, American University in Cairo (Egypt)
Juan M ró
Editor, Architectural Review (United Kingdom)
Architect, Will Bruder + Partners (USA)
Magda Mostafa Architect, American University in Cairo, appointed by UIA (Egypt)
Stefano Musso Architect, at the time president of EAAE (Italy)
A ch ec M ó R ve a A ch ec s USA
Per Arnold Andersen
Per Arno d Andersen
Architect, VELUX Group (Denmark)
A ch ec VELUX G oup Denma k
Jesper Salskov Jensen General Manager, VELUX Denmark (Denmark)
983 SUBMISSIONS 59 COUNTRIES
673 SUBMISSIONS 55 COUNTRIES Alejandro Paez Augusto Palazzo Carlos Emiliano Molina Franco Cristian Tedesco Damian Mallamaci Facundo Soto Nicolas Oettinger Fernando Vargas Regelmann Juan Manuel Segura De La Colina Julian Alejandro Quevedo Marcos Ruben Alejandro Popp Maria Agustina Del Rio Maria Botello Ricci Maria Emilia Richmond Maria Victoria Ferri Martin Gomez Soto Martin Sabbatini Natalia Rosatti Ramiro Rios Rivero Rodrigo Cola Sebastián Schuster Casey Bryant Chao Jung-Hsien Sarah Elizabeth Slattery Suheri Purnomo Yam San Ooi Yuditta Prawiro Darko Antic Milos Mikasinovic Thomas Hladky Alicya Wilczynska Ana Carolina Cuesta Parra Birger Wyffels Darlea Liviu Émilie Deby Francisco Javier Roman Martinez Fulya Selcuk Katarzyna Lipinska Laurent Temmerman Martijn Bayens Miodrag Popov Piotr Matuszek Samanta Mircea Ser- Dar Koroglu Carlos Selaya Santiago Plata Andrea Mirkovic Dalila Fejzagic Danka Latincic Milica Cvokic Tanja Radonjic Adriana Gazetta Bragotto Ana Paula Leite Anderson Pereira Dourado André Luiz Lira De Oliveira Andressa Teixeira De Moraes Angela Ishibashi Angelo Adriano Do Prado Anthony Ling Au- Gusto César Siqueira Brunna Wopereis Caio Vasconcellos Sabido Gomes Caique Gabriel Schatzmann Felipe Cemin Finger Rap- Haela Walger Da Fonseca Evelise Leite Didoné Gustavo Prado Fontes Camila Cavalcante Resende Camila De Almeida Vilar De Miranda Camila Marques Torres Carla Patrícia Santos Soares Cauê Costa Capillé Dafne Souza Tonini Daniel Albuquerque De Insfran David Sadowski Diego Baena Fronteira Dulcilei De Souza Cipriano Edilma Aparecida Mourão Emília Lapolli De Moraes Erico Actium Ramos De Morais Felipe Vitor Batista Dos Santos Fernanda De Andrade Povoação Gilberto Junior Tenorio Mariano Giulianno Caliman Camatta Henrique Julio Rizzi Herika Leao Gomes Marques Ilka Miyuki Saito Raquel Di Maio Engelsman Iraquitan José Oliveira Jade Mendes Benucci Italo Rafael Tiago Teixeira Jaqueline De Melo Barros Jessica Fernanda Mascaren- Has Machado Joao Paulo Valerio Santos Karla Cristina Baldasso Sarah Viliod Martins Guilherme Henrique Stroeder Martins Ká- Tia Yumi Ueda Mariana Kérolin Gomes Alves Daniel Rothschild Larissa Ferreira Batista Leonardo Cunha Garcia Luana Soledad Silva Cifuentes Lucimeire Brenzan Zampar De Souza Luiz Edu- Ardo Lupatini Marcelo Ribeiro De Souza Ribas Marcio Barbosa Fontao Marcio Guimaraes Mariana Andrade Cretton André Cruz Mariana Guarnieri De Campos Tebet Mariana Noguera Mariana Tassi Damião Marina Leme Merlin Matheus Silveira Gabriel Gi- Ambastiani Michelle Covacho Medeiros Natassia Ferro Combat Reis Orion Gorrão Moreira Campos Pablo Resende Paula Dias Pedro Lodi Rafael Campos Derderian Rafael Lorentz Rod- Rigo Abbade Rovy Pinheiro Pessoa Ferreira Talita Domingues Vespa Talita Paula Dos Santos Talitha Gelza Oliveira Nascimento Tamires Acacia Casalli Tatiana Carollo Peruch Tatiana Crema Tobara Thales Pimenta Thalita Reis De Mattos Thiago Leandro Almeida Thiago Peretto Vinicius Carvalho Philot Vinicius Lima Vitor Sadowski Konstantin Doganov A. Gabriel Guy Alexandre Guérin Alexandre Morin André St- Pierre Anne Preiss April David Caroline Guérard Chantal Galibois Claire Lubell Colleen Mckeracher Corey Devlin Brown Dai Zhongyuan Daniel Nedecki Émilie Dionne Emma Cochrane Eric Reid Estelle Grégoire Eugenio Villarreal Geneviève Béliveau Geneviève Gagnon Golnaz Karimi Hélène Giguère- Duval Hyeongjun Yoo Jacqueline Che Jessica Cullen Jordan Yerbury Justin Smith Kathleen Kelly Keith Evans Kevin Lisoy Kunaal Mohan Leon Lai Anne Ma Marie-Ève Pelletier May Makia Mousazadeh Somayeh Nicolas Fortier Nicolas Labrie Nicole Muzechka Pamela Cottrell Peixi Sun Peteris Lazovskis Pouwai Lei Ryan Yeung Safarzadeh Ghazaleh Shane Dalke Simon Lebedinsky Sophie Guilbault Stephanie Yeung Terry Carrière Tim Wat Vedrana Maric Vian Musa Victoria Pilles Virginia Fernandez Yifei Yuan Alvaro Lefian Angelo Fuentealba Axel Püscel Bernardo Álvarez Berty Vargas Carla García Carolina Venegas England Sabina Lin Felipe Fuentes Francisco Javier Lara Bastidas Franco Es- Cobar Gustavo Carrillo Jacqueline Barcia Jaime Muñoz Jorge Rivera Karla Gerter Luis Silva Marcela Carrasco Marcia Vasquez Marco Contreras María José Beluzan Max Ovalle Rocío Zuloaga Roxana Vargas Anpei Zeng Bai Bing Bao Hongyuan Bin Hao Bin Zhang Bo Zheng Bowen He Bowen Zhang Cai Chang Xin Cai Chunbin Cai Jianming Cao Peng Chao Gao Chao Lin Chen Fang Chen Hao Chen Wang Chenchen Hu Chenchen Hu Cheng Peng Chenyuan Qian Ching Zhang Chu Andong Chuan Wang Cui Rui Di Kong Dingkle Zhao Dong Yinan Fan Zhihua Fang Erqing Feng Liangchen Fengling Liu Funing Lian Gao Zheran Gongyingjia Guo Chunxiang Haifeng Xu Haitao Zhao Haitao Zhou Han Mo Han Youzong Han Yue Hang Wan Hao Tian Haode Sun He Wenjing Hongkai Li Housen Zhang Hu Yitao Hua Xue Huang He Huang Ying Huang Zheng Huang Zhong Huang Zhonghao Hui Li Jia Fan Jia Shiqing Jiaming Sun Jiayi Zhu Jie Shen Jing Wang Jingxiao Guo Jingyi Shao Juanyao Liu Jun Qiao Junchao Zhang Junfeng Shi Junyu Liu Kai Li Kai Sun Kaicong Wu Kang Xiaopei Lan Chen Lang Wang Le Qin Lei Dong Lei Zhangjundi Li Bo Li Haobin Li Jing Li Li Li Shung Yeung Li Tongyang Li Xiao Qiang Li Yang Li Zhen Li Zihuan Liang Tao Liang Zhanpeng Liang Ziyi Liao Wang Lin Bangqian Lin Hongjie Lin Lu Lin Lu Lin Weiping Lin Xiu Lingjiao Jiang Linqi Wen Liping Jiang Liu Junsong Liu Liping Liu Zihuan Longrui Peng Lu Lingjun Lu Yang Lv Shan Ma Yuxiang Ma Xin Meng Du Miao Yu Miaoli Su Min Yang Ming Jiang Ming Yang Minqing Ding Minyu Zheng Nianlai Zhong Ning Wang Niu Yu Qing Pengfei Zhang Qi Ji /Qiji/Qixu/Qiyang/Qianchenyuan/Qianqiancai/Qingqin Qing Wang Qiu Yuansheng Qiyuan Deng Qu Dagang Renjie Tang Renxiang Wang Rong Guo Rongzhang Zhu Rui Li Rui Li Ruixin Ju Ruizhi Cheng Ruoqi Zhong Sai Shu Sen Yang Sha Jin Shaoliang Hua Shen Li Sheng Li Sheng Xiaofei Shengzhi Xie Shi Jia Shi Ping Shilang Ye Shou Jiamin Siyuan Liu Songyuan Yu Su Xiaomeng Sun Qi Suwei Yang Tan Shujie /Taocao/Tianhao/Tingtingyu/Wangbin/Wangchuan/ Fei Wang Wang Hui Wang Liang Wang Mengjiao Wang Rui Wang Xiangsheng Wang Yang Wang Ying Wang Yiqun Wang Yu Wang Yunpeng Wang Zheqi Wangzhiya Wei Su Wei Wei Weibing Chen Weijia Pan Weitao Zhang Wenchao Liu Wenjing He Wenqing Zhen Wenxing Chen Wu Ji Wu Jing Wu Liangjie Wu Xin Hu Jinjian Xi Wang Xian Ming Li Xiangjun Huang Xiao Zhou Zhang Xiaobo Qin Xiaohan Wen Xiaoling Yu Xiaolong Li Xiaoxun Liu Xie Zhang Xiejie Xin Zhou Xipeng Chen Xiufang Zhao Xiwei Zhang Xu Jing Xu Ke /Xutong/Xuxiaoqing/Xuzhou/Xuefeng/Xuegao/Xuepeng Shi Xuexin Duan Xuhua Luo Yan Wenlong Yan Zhang Yang Chu Yang Du Yang Fan Yang Meng Yang Qingchuang Yang Wang Yang Wenjun Yang Xu Yang Zilin Yao Naiqi Yi Wang Yifan Zhang Yifei Fu Yiming Guan Yincheng Jiang Yinghao Lin Yiwei Huang Yiwei Wang Yixin Tian Yixing Zhou Yizhao Sun Yu Gong Yuan Fanghao Yuan Jialing Yuan Xinlong Yuan Zhang Yuanhao Wang Yue Han Zhong Huang Fang Yuan Yuejia Xu Yulong Tian Yunxiang Li Yutao Zhang Zeng Guang Zeyao Shi Zhang Jigang Zhang Lei Zhang Shizhao Zhang Xia- Osi Zhang Zhanglipeng Zhao Chen Zhao Chen Zhao Guang Qi /Zhaowenjia/Zhaoyue/Zhaoweiguo/Zhenhu/Zhensong/ Zheng Li Zhengda Hou Zhong Lin Zhong Manlin Zhong Qiuni Xv Jiaqi Chen Donghua Zhong Weida Zhongjie Li Zhongyi Li Zhuoxin Fang Zifu Yang Zijian Xu Zimei Shen Ziyin Zhou Zou Haoyang Alejandro Ospina Londoño Diana Patricia Garavito Almonacid Sebastian Monsalve Gomez Carlos Mata Rodriguez Marco Navarro Araya Anja Kostanjsak Branka Kipke Ivan Vuzem Katarina Matkovic Klara Niksic Košuta Saša Lea Ani Marin Berovi Mauro Milli Sara Jurincic Tihana Pecirko Keti Mastrovic Amanda Torres Acevedo David Labrador Guzman Liset Hernan- Dez Vazquez Silvia Fernandez De Alaiza Iracel Ulacia Torriente Anna Anderova Dalibor Dzurilla Jan Auerbach Jan Drska Jana Brankova Josef Musil Kamil Kolacek Ondrej Chybik Ondrej Dusek Patrik Uchal Petr Halicek Petr Kolacek Vit Vavra Alexander Ejsing Anders Wærum Rognerud André St-Pierre Anna Maria Svensson Birk Daugaard Filippo Pesavento Hum- Berto Salvador Maldonado Baeza Mai Bring Rasmussen Marius Costan Mathias Bæktoft Pernille Daugaard Ragnhild Jordtveit Kristiansen Rasmus Røgen Lars Meldgaard Kasper Hansen Shen Xie Simon Natanael Svensson Steven Leroy Olesen Søren Hykkelbjerg Thilde Bjørkskov Thorbjørn Eisenhardt Tina Car- Letti Jacobo Rafael Arismendy Cabrera Max Alonso Hernandez Ahmed Abd-Allah Ahmed Basyouni Ahmed Salah El-Deen Ab- Dul-Aziz Abo-Elsaad Amal Abdul Sattar Abdul Hamid Gad Amr Aly El Husseiny Amr Saad Aya Badawy Aya Mohamed Osama Ebraheem Imam Farah Shoukry Hany Refa`At Ibrahim El Hadidi Ibrahim Ismail Ibrahim Khalid Mohamed Hassan El-Mansy Mah- Moud Mohamed Abdelmonem Khalil Mazen Abouzeid Mohamed El-Sayed Mohamed Khaled Mohamed Mostafa Ibrahim El Hadidi Mostafa Amin Rania Joseph Sarah Khalil Zeyad Magdy Yehia Ahmed Eva Haggrén Aurelien Thibaudeau Baptiste Bernier Brice Lannuzel Jeremy Kumala Joachim Unternaehrer Johann Grellaud Marine Gouyec Philippe Bonan Rozenn Autret Simon Dupuy Wonjoon Lee Yulia Donetskaya Alexandra Cornelius André Nokonz Christian Schwarz Christine Kutscheid Dimitri Geizenraeder Florian Dachauer Helge Grüther Johannes Brixel Klaus Doemer Lars Petersen Lena Tasche Maria Guadalupe Espinoza Perez Marlen Hoenge Moritz Gerick Reni Raschke Rus Carnicero Moreno Sandra Carola Kaiser Sarah Bosen Susanne Hügel Svenja Kraus Thomas Wojtowicz Viviana Pupeza Dimitris Panagopoulos Giorgos Orfanopoulos Konstantinos Chatzikalimnios Margarita Koulikourdi Michail Karolos Keranis Vasilis Chlorokostas Ádám Kis-Kapin Ádám Straubinger Andras Balint András Bor- Bála Anett Palotai Anita Bozi Anna Vereb-Der Attila Tóth Anikó Nagy Balazs Biri Balint Timmer Tamas Ivacs Csaba Vazci Cselovszki Attila Emese Nagy Eniko Nagy Gyula Guz- Mics Gyula Toth Hedvig Halasi Henrietta Surman Ildikó Csiki Ildikó Tóth Johanna Forai Kata Nemes László Hóka Laszlo Toth Mária Mészáros Márk Csihi Miklós Günther Nicoletta Tsengwabeka Orsolya Gacsi Peter Krompáczki Renáta Halász Rita Nagy Tamas Kasik Tibor Csala Tibor Nagy Viktor Gáti Viola Georgina Zoltan Varga Robert Pilny Zsuzsanna Mucsi Zsuzsanna Németh Arjun Hosakere Ashish Tiwari Palak Desai Smita Lukose Azan Subhie Faraz Soleymani Ghazal Goodarznia Hamid Abhari Iman Shafiee Mahyar Arab Boor Boor Mahyar Mahgol Saba Barani Sultan Qurraie Bahar Una Breathnach Hifearnain Alessandro Bostica Alessandro Righi Alessia Bruno Andrea Pellizzari Camillo Frattari Filippo Nassetti Francesca Garzarelli Gianluigi Gabriele Di Nicolantonio Graziano Mattioli Luca Gi- Acobazzi Martina Busti Paolo Augello Sofia Rivadeneira Matyas Gutai Rita Topa Ayoung Jun Bin Youn Bong Gun Song Bongjai Shin Boram Lee Jung Byung Hwa Kim Byung Wook Jeon Byungmin Jeon Chan Hee Lee Choi Gwangeun Choi Jin Kyu Dong-A Park Dongjin Lee Eun Sung Choi Eunjoon Baek Geunyoung Kang Go Eun Seo Haejun Jeong Hee-Jin Park Hoju Chung Hong Kyu Kim Hoon Koo Lee Hyun Joong Yong In Ki Kim Jae Hyeon Yoo Jae Won Yoon Jae Yun Jeon Jang Han Kim Jang Ho Song Jang Sejin Jeong Tae Kim Ji Hyun Kim Ji-Eun Oh Ji-Hye Park Jin Kyu Park Jinmyoung Ji Jisoo Kim Jiyoung Kim Jong-Jin Kim Jonghyuk Lim Jun Hee Lee Junha Hwang Junyoung Park Jusin Park Ki Joo Kim Kim Dea Hyun Kim Won Ill Lee Hye Jeong Lee Mi Kyung Lee Seung Kyu Lim Sunghwan Man-Su Choi Miae Shin Min Jane Kim Min Jung Joo Min Wook Choi Min-Hoo Ahn Minki Lee Mirim Lee Moon Lee Moon-Jin Choi Myeinghyeon Ju Nam Si Ok Seon Youn Pak So Hui Park Chang Kwon Park Songok Park Sumin Rae Won Noh Sang Hyup Kim Sang Ryeol Kim Sangwoo Bae Se Hyun Kim Seo Dong Chan Seo Hae In Seong Hwan Kim Seung-Hee Sim Seungho Yi Son Euihwan Soo Ji Kim Sooyeon Kang Su Kyung Park Sun Tae Jeong Sung-Tae Shim Tae Shin Park Taemin Kang Uk Park Jeong Wee Sukwhan Wi Dae Han Yong Su Choung Yoon-Jung Rhim Youn Ah Noh Young-Gook Park Younghwan Lee Young- Won Kwon Yu Jin Kim Yun A Choi Yuri Kim Aiste Dzikaraite Antanas Lizdenis Donatas Pocesiunas Dubovskyte Indre Gaile Garnelyte Gediminas Kirdeikis Ieva Maknickaite Indre Rebzdaite Justina Valentinaviciute Laurynas Vizbaras Monika Mickute Petras Vestartas Stoskute Edita Asian Kianmeht Eng Kee Chong Antonio Lionel Garcia Arcelia Cornejo Casillas Cesar Edu- Ardo Cornejo Felipe Gonzales Christian Cardenas Gustavo Velasco Horacio Cinto José Arellano Gutérrez René Irving Marin Torres Pedro González Pérez Jose Carlos Pucheta Catemaxca José René Aguilera Valderrama Juan Salvador Covarrubias Mora M. Guadalupe Antonio Cabrera Manuel Estevez Mario Sila Nejib Puron Bitar Mauricio Sánchez Muñiz Nadia Ramirez Ramirez Nohemi Contreras Bautista Tiara Marie Aponte Ankhbayar Tojil Ariunzaya Chinbat Ekhjargal Khureljaw Saruul Ishdorj Shijirbold Sandagdorj Erdenebaatar Nokhoijaw Alexandru Belenyi Amar Sunil Freddy Sjauw En Wa Chung-Kai Yang Cho Tung Wu Geert Folmer Irina Niculescu Job Van Der Sande Juan Manuel Davila Delgado Marko Koops Niels Kramer Robert Wierenga Vincent Van Leeuwen Wai Wing Yun Yan Shi Bryce Neil Newsome Leah Jane Guilford Anders Eik Pilskog Eli Ramvik Hana Draskovic Jan Gunnar Skjeldsøy Gonzalo Jesus Ibarra Hernani Renzo Julian Cabrera Delgado Anna Malecka Dorota Kolanek Jacek Blusiewicz Joachim Surdy Katarzyna Myslinska Kitala Marcin Maciej Balcerowski Marcin Bialek Mateusz Kosiec Michal Pawlik Misiaszek Maciej Patryk Jacek Wozniczka Paulina Drag Pawel Sobanski Piotr Gierek Andreia José Dias Rodrigues Brimet Silva Joana Silva Lídia Albuquerque Luis Marques Luis Sáragga Leal Miguel Carvalho Joao Lourenco Iria Roriz Patricia Alejandra Correa Velazquez Rui Alberto Baptista Jorge Salomé Araújo Martins Silvia Land- Inez Gracia-Herreros Susana Santos Vasco Rocha Adelina Alexandra Marcu Adina Moldan Adrian Ionut Lascau Balc Adrian Musat Alexandra Antonescu Alexandra Cotofana Alexandra Eugenia Toda Alexandra-Silvia Evulet Alexandru Bujenita Alexandru Ghiorghita Alexandru Grisco Alexandru Solomonesc Anamaria Andreea Anghel Anamaria Scortan An- Amaria Spulber Anca Paduraru Andreea Cristina Toni Andrei Cristescu Aurel Vincent Babes Biborka Bartha Bogdan Ioan Mihaila Buliga Iulian Nicu Carmen Daniela Petrea Catalina-Co- Druta Dobra Ciprian Mateescu Ciprian Paleacu Cozma Alexan- Dru Cristina Maria Matei Cristina Pricop Dan Alexandru Dan Bodron Dan Cioclu Daniel Toader Delia Alexandra Prisecaru George Valentin Soare Eva Dumitrescu Filip Gavril Gabriel Ciosu Gabriel Ciosu George Munteanu George Razvan Margarit Ileana Raluca Greere Ioan-Mihai Baba Ioana Ciurea Ioana Zdralea Irina Bolboceanu Irina Trandafirescu Cassandra Pop Julia Lacramioara Russu Laurentiu Avram Lidia-Gabriela Ma- Teescu Lucian Sandu-Milea Manuela Lung Matei Cristescu Mihai Iulia Mihail Neagu Oana Dumitrache Oana Simionescu Olga Maria Posedaru Olivia Parvu Radu Alexandru Axinte Radu Asan Radu Soanca Ioan Stef Mihnea Rares Dragoiu Roxana Bara Ruxandra Iancu Bratosin Simona Bontea Stefan Corneliu Tatiana Cebotari Teodor Daniel Clepe TeodorStanciu Tiberiu Teodora Adriana Cirjan Vlad Hani Vlad Popa Yuliyan Mikov Andrew Popov Andrey Atadzhanov Ekaterina Reyzbikh Elena Zemlyanih Katya Denisova Marina Molodix Natalia Mikhailova Natalia Rybakova Nataliya Tinyaeva Nikolay Matveev Olganau- Mova Valentin Shewelev Dalia Dukanac Jelena Mancic Maja Zugic Nebojsa Blagojevic Olgica Jankovic Stefan Stanojevic Svetlana Vrecic Zarko Sta- Menic Ching Looi Pan Edmond Choon Keong Khoo Hui Min Poh Pei Yee Cheah Liana Spodniaková Janž Omerzu Mohor Kordež Abaígar Arrate Adrià Bofarull Solé Adrià Masó Bosch Adri- Ana Vazquez Ballo Alba Abad Carretero Albert Serrats Juanola Alberto Porras Barrios Álvaro De Toledo Pina Álvaro García Alia Alvaro García Mendive Ana Castillo Andreu Ana María Cabrero Ángel Ramos Angela Fernández-Liedo Oliva Anto- Nio Armesto Abelaira Anxel Vidal Sanchez Ariadna Rodriguez Casadevall Arnau Riera Rull Begoña Gassó Palop Begoña González Fernández Belén De La Cal García Blanca Pérez García José Ignacio Rejas Fernández Carlos Gonzalvo Salas Carmen Torrecillas Molina Cristina Güell Agut Daniel Fernández Daniel García López Daniel Lendoiro Fernandez Doleres Mulledy García Eduardo Aparisi Mozota Eduardo Manuel Landete Mata Elena Borque Sanz Elena Fernández Elena López-Brea Elena Rivas Ruzafa Estefania Rodero Federico Ortiz Sanchez Fernando Alonso Tuero Francesco Baró Sabé Francisco Perez Durban Gerard Fernandez Marmolejo Guillermo Fernandnez-Castaneda Colomer Herminia Ortega Horacio Fernández Del Castillo Ignacio Alfaro Tercero Imanol Calderon Elosegui Irina Carrillo Alvaro Isabel Sanchez Isabel Sanchez Feito Jesús Apari- Cio Alfaro Jesús García Guijarro Joaquín Sánchez Olleros Alejandra Ruiz Rubio Judith Barrera Caixàs Julia Molina Virués Luis Lope De Toledo Luis Sierra De Hita Maria Del Mar Cabarrocas I Salvador Marina Kindelán Calvo Mario Iglesias Calzado Marta Alonso Yebra Marta Torres Párraga Meritxell Ministral Rosa Miguel Sánchez Morales Lopéz Nuria Balboa Rodriguez Pablo Canga Pablo Martínez Pablo Vidiella Huguet Paula Bueso-Inchausti Toro Paula Lambán Belenguer Robertcomas Miralpeix Roberto Vidiella Huguet Sandra Benítez Zurita Sara Alvarellos Navarro Silvia Martin Delgado Silvia Pinzas Rouco Sofia Soláns Stella Pérez Lázaro Ursicino Endaman Nsé Veronica Correas Pedrosa Vicente Pérez Hernández Alexander Blomtvist Anastasia Skipetari Andika Pradana An- Nelie Sundin Chrisa Tsatsou Daniel Hodierne Dasyra Pinelopi Diana Gehder Efthymia Kakoulidou Filip Strebeyko Francisca Rodríguez Leonard Gustavo Vazquez Hannes Stigsson Haak Khajouei Saghi Kunal Shah Lalita Mungkornfa Luis Sacristan Murga Maja Bernvill Mia Erlandsson Orquidea Yareni Vara León P.k. Kaewka Salas Montes Mañas Tatiana Bibikova To- Bias Pålsson Wenqing Guo Alexander Athanas Andreas Meier Annika Geiger Anthony Ciherean Aurelie Caroline Sollberger Berte Daan Christian Portmann David Patrick Deschenaux Anthony Joss Pauline Andree Demoulin Davide Scordio Etienne Vincent Bard Fabio Tammaro Franziska Eggenberger Gabriel Pinto Gilles Stolz Amandine Marie Suzanne Pinede Gianna Leder- Mann Jeremy Benjamin Courvoisier Rodriguez Oscar Sampayo Nicolas Senjaric Johannes Magnus Nickl Konrad Brynda Las- Zlo Blaser Leo Paul Dadolle Loic Marguerat Lorenzo Donati Lukas Ingold Medina Imeri Melody Celine Gugelmann Micha Gamper Michael Mader Misel Bozic Mohamed Ahmed Morina Shkurte Musolino Samiel Ole Bühlmann Romain Delacretaz Rujun Jia Sebastian Bietenhader Simon Marius Zehnder Sokol Salihi Shahrooz Zarei Ludovic Maillefer Stefan Meyer Stephan Fluehler Theresa Behling Tobias Trachsler Verena Stecher Veronica Mendes De Carvalho Hosam Adden Fael Amévi Sarah Dzidzonou Arnaud Bado Manou Apélété Agbogbe Fleurice Ingoule Mounguet Bissi Fidèl-Léger Messie Djibril Ma- Reini Ayse Gizem Demir Bengi Yildiz Cakir Can Ozan Cansu Yalniz Cem Erman Gencay Cubuk Gizem Ertas Kerem Sadikoglu Mustafa Umur Özbir Nurgul Celik Ozlem Eren Rukiye Alkan Solmas Firat Tolga Karakayali Veysel Acikel Yildirim Yazgana- Rikan Yilmazkaya Serkan Alex Hobday Alkaios Michail Andrew Green Brion Basha Emi- Ly Davies Emma Lingard Ramsbottom Gabriel Sorenen Graham Hogg John Brown Katie Cheng Pol Gallagher Rachel Jane Bremner Rui Liu Sean Edwards Thomas Edward Powell Tina Tian Qiu Yakim Milev Abdulaziz Tawfeeqi Adam Wilson Alex W. Willis Alexander Chin Ali Karimi Amir Safvat Anahid Sargsyan Andrew Nelson Andrew Petty Andrew Steinweg Anna Chifala Anna Mate- Jczuk Ben Lee Benjamin Gillie Bo Mi Kim Bobby Barrett Brayton Orchard Brian Barnes Brian Giebink Bryce Na Carissa Smith Carla Landa Casey Mcgarry Chris Newell Christopher Crowe Chun Ting Tsai Colby Suter Colleen Mcginnis Daniel Beeker Daniel Fragakis Daniel Nguyen Daniel Nielsen David Cerny David Odom Davis Dang Demetria Nelson Do Yeon Kim Do Young Chung Duy Nguyen Eileen Gottemoeller Elizabeth Miraziz Emily Carr Emma Chinana Erika Rasmussen Frank D‘andrea Galina Zubatov Giovanni Grant Grace Vicuna Han- Nah Austenfeld Heather Roberts Hina Hameed Hugo Trevino Ignacio Martinez Igor Avelichev Ikuko Ihara Jack Gryczynski Jacob Peel Jae Hyun Park James Janke James Underwood Jamie Gay Jason Marshall Jennifer Kilpatrick Jialiang Wang Jimmy Miller Jodie Schiro Joe Carey John Nelson John Westell Jonathan Abplanalp Joo Hyung Oh Joseph Koon Josh Mings Jung Eun Lee Justine Ala Karen Miller Karyn Sealy Kate Renner Kendra Gaul Kristen Steinhoff Kwonsoo Kim Lance Hassani Lanthao Nguyen Liz Kivel Loretta Romero Magdalena Landmann Maggie Lee Manon Tardieu Maria Reamy Matice Iverson Matt Brown Matt Everett Matt Kuhn Keith Appleby Yeonghee Jung Matthew Moreno Melina Car- Neiro Brandao Pereira Michael Cook Minhduc Nguyen Mollie Matthews Molly Bell Nam Joo Kim Niaz Peyrovan Nick Allen Nick Buehrens Nima Nikroo Nini Ye Noel Aguilar Parsa Parsa Patrick Martinez Paula Davies Phil Prange Rebecca Shields Ripsime Hovsepian Rita Pljusznyin Roz Peyrovan Ryan Claus Ryan Nguyen Rygelle Elise Dowding Sam Faller Sane Shokat Moghaddam Sara Damiani Sehee Lee Seung Hwan Hwang Shane Dean Siliang Fu Soonyup Kwon Stephanie Yao Zhao Stephen Fenelon Stephen Kaye Steve Handy Taeyeon Kwon Thomas Adduci Tom Vo Tony Kim Tyler Stephens Valeria Vizcaino Victoria Huntsman Vinh Chau Kim Nguyen Will Kelley William Duncan Zak Wiatr
Gloria Kilanda Martin Javier Chirnicinero Florencia Valentini Salomón Escobar Matías Casci- Otta Maria Clara Alessi Sergio Luis Juan Angeles Arena Mariana Pagli- Arulo Ariel Gualtruzzi Delfina Prause Mauro Aparo Enrico Zanuso An- Tonela Lucía Mostacero Andreasdraxl Maja Brtan Alexandru Dan Rafael Hintersteiner Kristopher Hammerberg Elena Batueva Dawid Wolosiuk Milena Vucko- Vic Benjamin Dietmann Christian Szalay Paul Pritz Moritz Liska Tatsiana Mantsevich Julia Sitkevich Svetlana Artamonova Liliya Shutova Natallia Raksha Tatsiana Mantsevich Thomas Stroo- Bants Ruben Castro Brandon Stern Veronica Lalli Theodore Oyama Jean-Denis Thiry Thomas Maisin Xavier Durvaux Boris Lebrun Clément Kastelik Louise Claerbout Adam Kaptur Mathilde Marique Charlotte Cartier Maxime Verbist Aleksandra Beneva Justine Bonhomme Mélanie Hoogewijs Kenan Guzel Maxime Waroquier Ilenia Dimos Gallot Magali Karrel Koke-Miezi Luigi Marci Maxime Smet Antoine Dutat Ludovic Masullo Simon Wuilmart Margarita Lemoni Lefki-Laoura Dimitriou François-Xavier Van Damme Thibaud Leuow Michael Lequeu Martin Vandevoorde Florent Schoennagel Gunhi Boar Silva Baticam Jonathan Böttcher Vincent De Trazegnies D’ittres Boris Alzas Oana Grecea Alma- Dia Preda Oana Rupacici Olivia-Maria Joikits Bapam Baticam Bapam Baticam Alexandra Paltineanu Nicolas Tzimakas Nassim Zenati Lam- Bert Moiroux Dana Ardelean Alexandra Paltineanu Manu Simon Maïté Oldenhove Simon Verstraete Laura Schmitt Giulia Tossani Sophie Vico Caroline Papi Sebastionao Barbieri Christophe Snoeck Marie Hecq Emeline Borlon Donatienne Boulanger Arn Huyge Anne-Laure Cleere- Mans Simon Vander Borght André Chami Emilie Willain Colin Deconcin Francois Denis Amar Hromo Dženis Avdic Ena Kasumovic Armin Hodo Rafael Baldam Fernando Shigueo Nakandakare Isadora Magdalena Aranda Diogo Alves Gouveia César Tivelli Martini Willian Lima Deyverson Paranhos Antonio Brandão Murilo M. Gabriele Marcela Wandenkolk Antonio Brandão Gabriela Markl Carolina Costa Beatriz Kauark Rovy Pinheiro Pessoa Ferreira Weslley Guerra Karpor André Guerra Machado Jhonny Rezende Santana Silva Camila Andrade Vânia Tumba Bruna Bordin Pedro Oscar Pizzetti Mariano Juliana Vas- Concelos Cardoso Paulo Eduardo Scheuer André Luis Dos Santos Luiz Gustavo Sobral Fernandes Renan Bussi Machado Felipe Vieira Luis Ta- Boada Zacarias Pedrosa André Romitelli Joao Renato Aguiar Victor Am- Aral Pedro Coivo Larissa Werneck Natália Sampieri Mariana Feriance Adam Aguiar Myllena Azevedo Ariane Pita Leandro Ryuji Gushiken Mariana Bicalho Anneliese Fuchshuber Flavia Hengstles Mariana Lempe Milena Cintra Renata Fernandes Mariana Crego Mara Liz Ferrentini Joana Mattos Douglas Iasuki Angélica Kuroda Lucas Menezes Lucas Cavalcante Maria Cecília Nogueira Ana Cecília Marques Letícia Borém Camilla Maia Bruna Felix Alex Ninomia Luiza Itokazu Ramon Miranda Chaves Isadora Bahiense Lutterbach Riker Tiago Vigil Bruno Yassuda Daniel Ribeiro Douglas Figueira Francisco Giliarde Guilherme Oliveira José Carrari Ariane Serpeloni Aleixo Amanda Tiemi Niiyama Carla Va- Nessa Mendes Mariella Guedes Da Silva Luiz Gustavo Grochoski Singeski Isabela Maria Fiori Leonardo Cheang Carolina Rocha Mazurkevic Vin- Icius Fadel Isabela Veloso Chiquim Flávia Scussel Naomi Scheer Hen- Rique Cristiane Bruno Barbarini Fernando Cezar M. Cesar Luiz Santos Marcus Santos Isabel Mercadante Nathalya Perissinotto Luciana Suemi Siguemoto Juliana Yendo André De Paula Andreis Emmily Caroline Diego Gomes Iñigo Ruiz Arriet Joaquim Civit Sabaté Marta Maria Torres Ana María Martins Adriel Ushli Marcelo Oliveira Guilherme Sanches Stanislava Georgieva Stanislava Dardanova Arey Van Der Zalm Austin Hawk- Ins| Sonia Ramundi Kristina Strecker Chelsea Chan Seyed Mojtaba Ho- Seini Nadia Petkovic Shaun Coombes Frank Yao Catherine St-Pierre Sarah Sako Tony Shi Milyausha Gabdrakhmanova Inna Tarasova Shu Yin Wu Eric Simard Yousef Thompson Melody Taghi-Poor Tahereh Ghadiri Jack Lipson Sam Vickars François Bail-L’heureux Émilie Julien Grégory Taillon Hugo Duguay Olivier Schwarz Dionne Andréanne Du- Mont Kenneth Percy Shirley Liu Steph Bolduc Jeongwoo Song Stephen Baik Bernard-Felix Chénier Luca Fortin Nathaniel Proulx Joanisse Laura Fiset Christopher Carrasquilla Tim Fu Shahrooz Zayandehroodi Daniel Petrocelli Kavosh Maleki Anaïs-Charlotte Demars-Dumas Aaron Petruic Sebastien Malouin Jean-Raphaël Pigeon Patrick Maheux Mark Madera Siyuan Tan Alexander Lam Winsane Lim Edouard Capel Mi- Losz Jurkiewicz Sarah Mcmurtry Stephen Wolba Shao Lun (Gary) Lin Jack Bian Etienne Bourque-Viens Matías Ignacio Villanueva Abogasi Taller Saavedra Alumno G1 Bastian Mercado Maldonado Carolina Aravena Flores Rodrigo De La Barra Errera Nelson Herrera Alarcón Yige Liu Zhexu Du Chaoyi Wang Zhao Wen Zhao Wen Sisi Li Zhi Zheng Jianying Liu Jing Wang Yin Wengang Ji Xia Chao Qi Ruoyu Wei Nanjue Wang Yiting Shen Jiandong Hu Qing Song Han He Dong Peng Pei Shu Han Huifang Yang Meng Wang Shu Zhong Bo Xu Lin Sun Jesster Lin Weiyu Huang Fei Mo Boyuan Zhang Dun Liu Di Ai Xin Ge Lee Ann Xiaoxiao Zhao Xinting Liang Jianze Hao Xi Zhao Weijing Qiu Jing Yang Zhen Liu Wu Wen Hao Wenhao Wu Jie Ping Wang Shi Xin Chen Bo Zhao Zhaoqun Cui Rui Xing Le Yao Fruedan Yuan Qinjie Cao Fruedan Yuan Jiesi Wang Yadong Zhan Ming Ma Yan Guo Chenxue Wang Yingbi Yin Qin Wang Yi Yang Xiaoyu Zhang Xin Ji Lian Zhai Siqi Zhu Dian Wang Yan Dong Jie Huang Xu Zhang Zhiyuan Li Yiwen Ruan Haohui Xian Yingying Jin Jing Luo Xingyun Peng Zemin Li Rongbo Hu Zeyuan Liang |Jingli|Xiaoranliu|Nianliu|Ningshajia|Rungulin|Meizhang|Yuan Jin Xiaoyu Yuan Bo Zhang Xinyi Wang Nan Lei Min Choi Yexin Xiong Qi Zhen Zhongwen Chen Shaokang Lin Shuxu Chao Wang Hongyu Yin Dongyu An Tingting Feng Tan Ke Wenxiang Wu Jia Nan Sun Zhanou Zhang Jiangshun Sun Boboan Li Zhiqiang Yang Zhongming Shi Can Chen Menghao Li Guanda Li Kaiyu Peng Wenkui Wei Kaida Chen Xin Huang Zhenhuan Xu Bicen Yue Xueying Gao Yiting Shen Nanjue Wang Zhigang Huang Liman Wei Xiong Tian Bingbing Man Jie Dong Xin Li Siyuxiao Tao Zhe Feng Yujie Qian Huiling He Yutong Wang Yimei Lu Yongliang Zhu Han Yue Xiaoyu Gao Hanxing Zu Wei Wen Yina Dong Zhao Gao Tianchi Chen Dexiao Zeng Xinyang Li Chao Liu Haoyuan An Zhaohe Xing Si Teng Zhang Yuxuan Sun Shuran Lu Zhaoqian Wang Lu Fan Yixin Liu Yafei Zhu Hang Lv Ying Guo Ye Zhang Lin Zhang Rong- Wen Du Hao Zhang Cheng Chen Guang Ruey Tan Lingfeng Pu Rui Li Zinan Zou Yijun Wang Xiuyuan Wu Zhuoqi Liu Wente Pan Rui Jian Xu Han Dongbo Han Bing Shao Ming Guo Yang Liu Ping Lu Yaolong Wang Ling Wang Yayou Xi Lin Zhiqian Wu Yang Cheng Jiang Yuan Ding Tian Chi Jianning Wang Wei Wu Yanfang Tian Ming Cheng Tuo Shi Yuyan Wu Yang Wang Jing Cai Ding Yu Di Wu Yi Hui Xu Boxu Dong Ying Zhu Meng-Je He Xindong Cao Yujie Wang Feng Wang Wei Han Wei Han Yu Miao Mingtian Luo Yue Tian Ge Zhan Zhaowei Ning Yaqi Li Xiang Du Xiting Fu Phay Long Xinyi Dong Yuan Yue Kaiyi Ma Yingsheng Zheng Yijun Zhou Wenmo Yang Manchen Xiong Zhao Ma Siyu Zheng Chen- Guang Li Yang Tan Shuoyang Wang Xiaoan Li Zhenru Zhou Dagang Qu Wang Yu Peng Li Wentao Huang Qin Yang Haoran Li Yuda Zhang Daoguo Lin Yanfang Wang Chujun Fan Xiaoman Yi Fenian Wal Zhuang- Zhuang Song Ruiqing Li Pengfei Du Yun Wang Wenkai Wang Guangquan Wu Siyu Liao Yilin Sun Hengzhi Liu Xin Yang Xiang Liu Xiaoying Ding Yue Zhao Shuguang Dong Yiran Meng Ruichao Li Jian Xv Han Xv Yingchen Liu Yuefeng Xiao Renji Yuan Shaosheng Zhong Yichen Fang Lei Wang Dan Lin Wenrui Wang Guo Tian Wenguo Luo Xuefeng Chen Xiaohong Lin Junling Yang Yang Du Jingrui Lin Fei Li Jie Liu Shumin Luo Qi Xu Tao Cao Nanqi Ye Yongming Chen Ding Zhang Siyu Zhou Taiyu Chen Ke Xu Shutong Qu Lv Ningjue Li Xueyan Man Zhu Hanze Yu Xiangyu Jing Xin Min Weishi Wang Yan Jiao Chaoyi Wang Xin Li Hongjun Fang Ying Jiang Xiheng Liu Xuefeng Zhou Piaoyi Wang Bei- Yang Duan Jingjing Zhao Yan Zhang Xiaodong He Xiangyu Li Qing Feng Xin Qiao Siyuan Han Yidi Xu Jingyang Liu Yiwei Gao Zhiqiang Huang Jinlin Liu Peng Fan Mengying Wen Yuxin He Runzi Wang Fanglin Liang Yue Wu Zhe Qing Yan Wang Lin Lu Xiaodong Hu Jiayang Liu Hui Pan Minhui Li Jun Su Hani Shin Junqin Lian Dongbai Song Bo Zhuang Lifeng Lin Sun Li Qisi Jiang Yi Gu Xiaoxi Li Huanyu Wu Cehao Yu Wei Xu |Yi You Yubin Xu Liangshu Li Long Zuo Kun Li Ke Song Jie Liu Lu Weiying Lu Meiting Lu Shou Feng Yan Sun Rui Wang Yue Zhao Wenyu Liu Zemin Li Haoxi Zhang Jing He Ziqiao Zhou Shuling Lin Yue Ma Qi Chou Shiyu You Boyao Jiang Yujiao Wang Ziyi Wang Rongwen Du Hao Zhang Weiguang Yu Cheng Chen Yimang Guo Yankai Liu Baihe Cui Danhong Ma Jijie Lu Yuxin Zhang Peiyu Liu Fengming Ding Zhiwei Wu Yingchen Liu Aidi Ma Xiao Huang Bowen Zhu Hongchuan Zhao Wen- Yun Qian Xuyuan Yao Chunxiao Wang Mengxiao Song Zhengneng Chen Xingchen Lu Cheng Chen Weiguang Yu Rongwen Du Hengyang Jing Li Jin Hongmo Yuan Yan Xu Zirui Qiu Zhezhen Zhang Qiuying Sun Zihan Wang Zhuang Guo Hongyi Zhong Weitao Wang Jiayang Wu Xinghua Hu Sun Haochen Xuan Li Fan Gao Yuanyuan Ha Yumeng Huang Man Qing Lin Lu Ying Shuai Jia Qi Xu Xiu Ya Pan Qiran Zeng Mengze Xu Yijun Zhu Bingjie Zhang Mingyang Li Jianxiang Xu Xuesong Wang Lin Ma Yanxia Li Yongkang Liu Jiani Song Ji Qi Yayun Zhou Yannan Chen Xuesong Wang Xiao Shao Jianxiang Xu Guanxi Huang Chen Qian Renlong Cui Tianze Yu Ren Wang Li Lin Zeying Yang Youwen Xu Tianxun Yi Zhixin Zhang Linli Fu Deyu Zhang Yao Lu Qixiang Qin Jingyi Zhao Yiming Cai Bo Zeng Yang Sihang Li Yuqun Zeng Liang Zhuoxin Fang Yibo Fu Ziyue Zhang Zhengmeng Dong Lifu Yao Tianying Lu Yang Shen Yuwen Shen Cheng Wan Fei Su Chang Lv Ming Zhao Wen Tu Chao Zhu Zezhong Yu Lu Fan Yanyan Zhao Shunmin Peng Ziqi Fang Yuqian Li Shasha Sun Fan Liu Yanzhen Pan He Qiuping Yanzhen Pan Qiuping He Fan Liu Yu Chen Xiang Jianfu Xiao Zhang Jia Li Xuening Li Xun Yun Fei Lu Li Zhang Li Xia Yuan Yang Chunqi Fang Jiayu Wei Yawen Hui Baodan Xu Lulu Zhou Zhao Wang Bo Liu Dan Xu Ce Wang Yangdi Wei Fangdong Pan Dongwan Xie Bei Zhang Wei Zhu Xinyu Zheng Luxin Cao Huilin Luo Jing Xu Zifei Yang Han Gao Shilin Han Ma Shun Zhou He Qing Jiang Qinying Li Xiao Wang Linxi Luo Yilan Tao Jing Chen Tianchi Zhang Yuanyuan Guo Duan Fu Huan Hu Siliang Chen Haochen Qi Yu Meng Tengxiao Liu Ran Xiong Die Hu Kun Song Caiquan Li Miaoran Hu Luheng Xiao Yix- Iong He Han Ren Zhuohui Tang Yiwen Luo Hanshu Zhang Minhan Liu Ruojing Niu Zhu Jun Xiang Guan Wen Li Pan Pan Qin Zheyu Shen Da Xu Mengwei Liu Mei Hu Libo Pan Xiaolin Li Yaoguo Su Jun Chen Guo- Dong Ding Haizhou Luo Wang Jue Lu Qianyu Xu Zhiyao Anqi Yu Yijie Wang Xin Li Xiaoqiang Geng Ying Tang Yao Wang Xiaoqian Lu Die Chong Lulu Chen Jing Wei Liu Yongli Chen Qianxin Deng Shuaiyi Chen Bin Bin Ma Mu Yang Wang Dai Min Fei Peng Cheng Shi Fengdan Zhu Yanyi Zhang Bingyu Zhu Lanjun Xu Yulong Tian Shuaiqi Hua Pengpeng Wang Chuchu Feng Chuchu Feng Mengyi Cao Boji Hu Yang Zhao Jiajun Li Meng Zhu Shuang Wang Guang Yang Rongxin Sun Suyuan Zhang Jieyang Chen Yingchao Wang Cenhong Gao Yuyang Ding Qiu Ling Chen Junyu Li Song Wang Shuang Ji Yang Lu Jin Mei Wu Meilu Zhang Di Zhu Qun Zhou Meijuan Zhou Xiaoyang Xi Huilv Yan Xin Zhao Yingwei Wang Le Zhou Yue Yuan Huiting Yao Shuwei Cui Zhimin Yuan Yaqiong Zhuang Zhuoran Zhao Xinyu Bai Tingjie Xiang Yanqing Wang Chenyu Zhou Zhimin Yuan Lingci Cai Yinuo Zhao Zhen Jia Qiaoyan Xi Jiankun Sun Yuhua Wu Yan Zichang Huang Yun Chen Weibin Ying Zhang Yun Lu Bingtian Wang Rongling Liu Yuye Lian Shengnan Gong Yuhong Cheng Jian Song Boya Yu Hongqiao Lu Jie Yu Hao He Chen Liu Yide Ren Qingzhao Wang Tian Bao Xuexi Li Chong Zuo Xuefei Peng Mengqi Hu Li Liben Yue Wenkun Zhang Liang Zhi Yun Li Qianyun Xu Zhurong Qian Susu Chen Xiaoxiao Ma Muge Wang Lin Tong Yingya Liang Haochang Yu Hongran Xu Meng Cui Suyao Liu Ping Li Junyu Li Xixi Chen Yue Han Bo Liang Liu Pengfei Du Shaoyin Shu Yajun Wang Qin Sizhi Huang Haiyang Lei Ting Hao Tian Lishuai Dong Li Chen Wangshu Zhou Huijin Zheng Yan Chen Zhaoji Luo Bosen Li Anyi Zhang Fangfei Liu Zhenlong He Yiling Jiang Yanzhi Jiang Jiuhan Chu Lan Lan Qiushi Li Ding Lv Wang Shan Yi Juling Yu Jun Tao Wei Jiasi Zhong Xinzi Chen Tianle Yu Anni Pan Jiabao Chen Lulu Fang Di Dong Wei Deng Yidan Li Weiqi Yin Shu Xu Min Zhou Huiping Xiao Peijie Zhou Yixi Wang Wenlei Li Liai Zheng Yixuan Liu Tianyu Zheng Qiuping Tang Mengxiao Qi Qi- Uping Tang Liu Qian Duan Ni Jie Xie Shixiao Zhang Boyuan Zhang Manqi Hong Yueming Zhao Xiaoyu Xu Bin Li Tianhao Lou Xingyue Chen Xiaowen Zhao Hanshu Zhang Minhan Liu L Etian Yu Fengming Ding Peiyu Liu Shangfeng Li Xincong Xie Lian Wang Qiang Ling Chu- Han Qin Liang Xuecheng Zhang Chi Tian Yi Han Tian Yi Han Xi Jie Ma Jian Ping Luo Shao Xuan Zhou Shi Wen Su Rong Wu Xi Xi Sun Bo Zhu Wenhao Qiu Jun Xu Hongwei Zhao Ying Jiao Bao Jun Chi Gu Guan Ting Cao Mengyuan Liu Xuan Wei Zeyuan Zhou Qian Duan Ruiling Kang Zhu Fengchao Ranran Zhang Xiaoli Chen Qingsong Han Yiqing Bai Zi- Yuan Chu Naiji Tian Cheng Wan Fei Su Ming Zhao Wen Tu Chang Lv Yuhai Cheng Xiaoyang Liu Teng Xing Minyan Wu Renjie Wu Jie Zou Wee Tsang Fanyi Kong Shuai Liao Jie Huang Zhengjie Jiang Kaiyu Xi Wei Shi Quanfeng Li Teng Li Zhenyu Na Gejin Gao Chen Kai Hu Ziyan Sha Shiqing Liu Zhang Zhang Zihe Deng Qi Zhang Shuo Li Shan Wang Xinwei Xu Jian Song Xiaoya Liu Tongqing Zhao Liyan Wang Pingping Huang Yanping Chen Chao Liu Jun Yan Ruoxi Meng Xihe Tian Yifang Liu Tao Zhou Hou Congsi Huang Zijian Yang Xu Shuhua Chen Jieying Ruan Yinyin Yao Xiuyuan Zhang Yuanjie Lai Ben Sun Yonghui Chen Xin You Mengxing Cao Zhuangzhuang Song Mengxing Cao Yue Yang Naiyu Zhao Shangwen Chen Cai’er Huang Chen Hu Gang Liu Mengjie Liu Yuze Ao Quan Chen Weiqiao Wang Yiqing Jiang Jingze Liu Ao Li Rui Gao Sida Zhang Shengyao Li Ling Zhu Wenfeng Chen Zhibin Liao Chu- Run Lin Zanke Huang Shuyue Huang Tong Liu Weihong Dong Daying Xie Yue Wu Zuoda He Xinrun Li Yu Zhang Hongxia Zhang Chang Xue Huang Yuan Yi Yue Li Guanghui Luo Xingyu Xi Xiaodong He Jingjing Zhao Beiyang Duan Yan Zhang Xuechuan Geng Yi Ding Chengjun Zhu Suihao Zhen Chuyun Chen Bingwen Ye Jiawei Xian Di Huang Yu Huang Wei Tang Tianbo Liu Pengyu Pei Jingyi Lee Xinyi Xu Wenbin Wen Yao- Fei Zhu Meijie Ji Wenzhi Huangfu Heng Tang Tetsu Tsai Linshi Law Shen Xu Chenyang Lv Dong Liang Yuanzhi Lv Shen Xu Peng Jin YongMing Chen Zhiming Cui Zhen Wang Mingwei Sun Chong Wang Xincheng Zhuo Yilin Qiu Yao Xiao Haoyu Chao Xin Wen Ke Zhang Xuejiao Hu Shuo Zhou Junfeng Mao Jiaqian Liu Zhenyao Liu Peng Cao Guanjin Chen Suya Liu Meng Zhang Sheng Xu Yiyuan Li Liang Wang Rihong Chen Qianping Lao Xiahang Liu Xiao Ma Yuxuan Zhang Peixin Xu Yi- Qin Zhu Bin Jiang Tenghan Zhang Haiting Ye Heng Cao Hao Zhang Jing Zhang Huawei Yang Yongxu Zhang Yuze Liu Guangyue Cao Haoyi Chen |Linachen|Moliu|Linabian|Jieyin|Yujlaocui|Ruoyuchen|Yandeng Cong Xu Zhutai Gong Yingwei Fu Krešimir Romic Željko Hudoletnjak Lovre Šoda David Volarevic Barbara Vujevic Mario Pervic Danijel Uršic Vedran Hubicki Krešimir Damjanovic Petra Bolf Iva Vuckovic Marinko Murgic Goran Mraovic Renato Pajdek Matija Pajic Ivana Patricia Dilas Igorcˇ Eranic Marina Tolj Martina Sala- Varda Daria Chertkova Yana Vasilenko Dan- Iela Stolková Alena Manˇ Áková Milan Joja Eliška Pokorná Neveselá On- Drej Svancara Jaluvka Tomas Václav Kocián Petr Mares Petr Kundrat Nina Lickova Vit Moler Karolína Mikitová Petra Hudeckova Karolina Mikitova Katerˇina Frejlachová Martin Špicˇák Veronika Kommova Eva Zelezna Vilém Hrubý Šárka Kubínová Ada Žabcˇíková Radek Toman Hanakovácˇová|Jolanarežná|Katerˇina Cˇervinková|Vaclavkielar|Eva Verˇtátová Marie Vesela Lenka Dubska Damir Batyrgaliyev Martina Rehorˇová Petra Vu Simon Harker Darta Mutule Tamara Abi Nader Os- Kars Bulle Hannah Rosa Rasch Martin Winther Nielsen Kristian Nielsen Kjær Pit Herold Mads Johnsen Kasper Old Jensen Peter Drechsler Poulsen Alexander Ejsing Birk Daugaard Alexander Ejsing Lasse Ham- Borg Kasper Villumsen Pernille Berg Xuanyi Nie Kathrine Holm Sine Lindholm Brage Ulbrandt Paweł Panfiluk Pawel Panfiluk Karol Ter- Likowski Olga Pedryc Jonas Pærregaard Nicolas Tofting Kathrine Holm Noran Abdou Sayed Bekheet Kareem Abd El-Kader Ahmed El-Shafey Hussien Shahata Mahmoud Elshety Shady Salah Mohamed Zayan Hossam Badr Abd-Elrahman Magdy Ahmed Hesham Mohamed Mansour Amr Hamid Ahmed Nasr Ammar El-Erian Mahmoud Zaghloul Medhat Ogail Ats Raigla Veiko Vahtrik Indrek Palm Anna Temmo Triin Lehtmets Mihkel Raudsepp Andre Näkk Anne-Liis Riit- Salu Vladimir Georgiev Emilija Taseska Dejan Spirov Olgica Stefanova Mila Dimitrovska Gordan Vitevski Monika Novkovik Vlado Danailov Yuanyuan Li Kunlun Pang Davor Robitschko Mikko Tilus Kota Komatsu Joni Paaso Lauri Salo Rong Peng Candice Bonanni Sophie Hanart Léa Herval Lou-Salomé Bienvenu Chloé Geuens Alexiane Joly Solange Montigny Sylvain Van Rechem Christopher Barri Mathilde Rocher Gerald Hhcquet Anis Mehadji Ngoc Le Ngo Nada Nciri Camille Saucereau Julia Perwuelz Julia Capucine Per- Wuelz Cinthya Bouvier Florence Grillet Cyril Guerra Amélie Meleder Marion Jary Estelle Aïtcin Doniphane Lamotte Isabelle Plestan Audrey Aquaronne Morgane Guillemin Jung Ah Ahn Jimin Lee Lexa Hartig Stephanie Nosek Nadine Dumrese Natalie Weinz Rebecca Sommerfeld Lena Vosseberg Lisa Nirmaier Katharina Hildebrandt Anna Reeg Julia Schwall Katrin Hammann Peter Bugner Anna-Laura Schmitt Jassica Schneider Johannes Hauke Romina Ettl Dominik Stratmann Filiz Topal Asmir Arifovic Daniel Nieb Michael Zocher Milda Lazauskaite Mat- Thias Kraus Diana Holoch Mirko Zanaboni Franziska Militz Carina Steidele Wei-Shiang Hung Linlin Yang Afroditi Maria Konidrai Dimitra Koroni Maria Chiou Janka Juhasz Janka Juhasz Gergely Kenéz Gergo Jedlicska Balázs Némethi Ádám Persoczki Mónika Kovács Gábor Papp Ákos Tevely Anna Harmat Huba Ferenczi Barna Csikai Dániel Silló Nicole Szczembara Nikolett Dendel Zsuzsanna B. Tóth Bor- Bála Huszanyik Gábor Pribék Tamás Ábrahám Gabriella Öcsi Péter Nagy Viktor Ábel Marianna Nagy Marianna Nagy Máté Mészáros Márton Pintér Martina Farkas Tamás Nagy Barbara Deák Duc Minh Nguyen Balázs Schrammel Zoltán Milán Szabó Dávid Stánicz Zsófia Polgár Ágnes Bazsó Dóra Gebei Daniel Kiss László Mangliár István Farkas Bálint Póth Bálint Póth Martin Balogh Péter Sziráki Sarolta Orincsay Zita Sa- Franek Marietta Bödök Manyi Eszter Récsey Judit Plájer Laura Kiss Judit Plájer Laura Kiss Levente Lukács Botond Kovács Márk Sz O Ke Ágnes Vámossy Ágnes Vámossy Anita Siklódi Róbert Háhn Eideh Ramzi Zsuzsanna Fu Rész Sandor Gabor Jani Anita Krizsán Dorottya Répay Anita Krizsán Khanolkar Suyash Sharan Saboji Kushal Samant Mohammed Imran Uddin Iwan Kurnia Hamid Abhari Mahyar Arab Pur Nina Marzban Milad Salehi Vasegh Abbassi Mina Vali Shishebori Ahmad Mazaheri Shadbad Farhad Najarpour Kapourchal Hamid Hassanzadeh Farimah Ahdno Golshid Abdolahzade Moein Hemmati Mahboobeh Hemmati Mohsen Akbarzadeh Abolfazl Parsaei Ali Sadeghian Mehdi Ghalenoei Shahab Lashkari Mohammad Amin Moazzen Hojat Ghaedi Shadi Osmani Shaho Abbasian Kamyar Lotfi Mojtaba Rohanian Mahdi Karimi Saeed Rahmati Pouyan Bizet Delaram Zarnegar Mohammadmahdi Ghotbi Mohsen Khanmohammadi Alireza Hoobakht Moosa Ghahremani Abbas Bostani Asl Abbas Bostani Asl Behzad Sadegh Hesam Hezaveh Hadi Hasan Zadeh Michael Hendou Esrafil Hendou Mehrnoosh Arabzadeh Karbala M. Amin Mohammadi Ramtin Khalatbari Sara Akoochekian Hisam An- Daleeb Milad Farrokhi Kimia Shahriari Amir Hossein Hajizadeh Negar Fadai Monfared Ashkan Shirani Mahla Ebrahimpour Farzaneh Izadi Ar- Man Nasr Mohammad Soleimani Kamran Ghomi Meysam Amirsadat Sara Jafarpour Alireza Fazel Sharareh Babakhani T Mahan Mehrvarz Arian Shidfar Milad Rezazadeh Erfan Akhavan Rouzbeh Mahmoudi Masih Barin Mahdi Babaei Zadeh Roza Atarod Hesam Andalib Mohamad Mehdi Jafary Mohammad Soleimani Feijani Fateme Ziaie Mohammad Soleimani Nilofar Gharavi Amir Hosein Shamsi Shahrzad Zadmajid Kimia Saadat Babak Daneshfar Mahdi Azarnia Arash Shabahang Amir Hossein Hajizadeh Ala Farahani Setareh Sedghi Seyed Shahab Aldin Towliat Kashani Seyedeh Rojin Hashtroodi Meysam Akbari Paydar Yanwen Xiao Shan Jiang Federica Risoluti Xian Qiu Yimin Xu Guang Yang Shuang Li Quirino Spinelli Teodora Adriana Cirjan Tuan Triggiani Vito Quadrato Giuseppe Tupputi Vito Quadrato Carlo Farina Moreno Giaconi Andrea Gratteri Biagio Giurato Andrea Colangiuli Niccolò Dam- Brosio Michele Cice Francesca Morsiani Caterina Appignani Elisabetta Pradella Valeria Bassi Dan Vavassori Marco Invernici Alberto Paolo Si- Cuso Paolo Russo Maria Durante Michela Avato Alberto Sangiorgio Dzmitry Dashchynski Ivan Litvinenko Kei Taguchi Takuro Izumi Mikito Takada Risa Fukui Mizuki Kato Nobutake Sato Shoko Nakatsuka Ken Okura Shinya Tani Koyo Kajino Gennichi Umekawa Yi Ryo Xinpeng Wang Ling Huang Nobumichi Hosogane Kei Taguchi Shunnosuke Kato Ayako Inatani Shota Kano Yuta Masui Takanobu Kaneko Hiroki Taka- Hata Takahiko Minami Yuki Shimizu Kana Yamada Syogo Sakurai Kenta Watanabe Takuya Ochiai Natsuki Itabe Masahiro Takahashi Ka- Zuaki Sagara Ikue Tsunemitsu Hiromi Nakabayashi Hiromi Nakabayashi Nao Ookoshi Masayuki Tamae Yumi Itami Nao Inoue Tetsuya Okuno Koske Maeda Takuji Murakami Haruka Sumi Takao Hosoya Natsumi Takahashi Tomohito Naito Hiroki Sugino Kenta Aoki Eri Yamazaki Akira Watanabe Yuka Honda Chiaki Konishi Kensuke Ohtsuka Madara Villere Leonards Kalnins Ukas Vanagaitis Jonas Gudmonas Pavel Balbatunov Lina Ramanauskaite Aisan Kianmehr Sanjeeva Rao Ker Lin Tan Pouya Setoudehnia Pegah Farmanesh Shaw Hern Ang Clement Cheam Wei Yin Cheok Jea Imm Lim Siew Khim Cheah Yin Hon Lau Amanda James Boon Soon Teh Pearly, Pei Li Lim Boon Ping Lee Yonathan Aurelio Calderon Peraza Pedro Diaz Diego Rodríguez De Ita Sofia De La Cruz Marysol Enriquez José Efraín Cadena Ibarra Rodrigo Gómez Bravo David Díaz Sánchez Enrique Meneses González Bernardo Barquet Andrea Oliveros Mauricio Inurria Monica Arrieta Luis Ruenes Jaime Del Mazo Juan Carlos Solis Aaron Diaz Maria Ortega Hermes González Ammin Guevara Rogelio De La Garza Zara Trejo Ana Karen Segura Cabrera Daniel Van Kersbergen Ifigeneia Dilaveraki Elena Chochanova Yan Hang Lo Zhongqi Ren Lei Mao Chi Li Sai Shu Yasemin Cennet SümBül Mariane Klettenhofer Hyejun An Karen Choi Hiu Ting Pun Chao Wang Zhe Zhang Wen Tao Bi Duncan Teng-Chun Chang Sie-Syen-Syung Joe Platt Daniel Sullivan Qian Zi Chen Wei An Chen Anthea Du Xiao Xue Tang Zhi Jian (David) Wong Che Wei (Jacky) Lee Michelle Hall Electra Sinclair Micheal Mccabe Sam Aislabie Hoi Yee (Flora) Kwan Anna Teo Jacinda Shirley Elizabeth Milne Petra Dillon Anna Bulkeley | Yumian (Dino) Chai Joshua Curtis Callum Barnett Nicola Liew Richard Moore Scott Mckerrow Guoliang Wang Haoran Zhao Samuel Wood Yvonne Mak Yingcong Zeng Abdul Qayyum Zainul Christian Burgos Ga- Brielle Pfluke Yuqi Xue Slaiman Math Frances Chen Wenzuo Yi Fatai Osundiji Austin Okunrobo Ayomidipupo Aremu Min Zhang Munib Ahmad Shahzad Neha Fatima Ibrahim Saeed Tahwer Mohibullah Tahwer Mohibullah Mufaddal Nathadwarawala Mohammad Umair Ambereen Khan Hamza Gondal Zaeema Rehman Tayyab Sohail Nisar Ali Mirza Manal Saleem Zoya Luqman Qureshi Shaharyar Affan Ali Athar Mughees Khawaja Sohaib Khan Usman Saqib Mohsin Zeshan Talha Humayun Ahsan Ali Faizan Cheema Mehdi Raza Munaan Munir Akif Naveed Saad Bashir Ali Rehan Ahmed Syeda Xayneb Ali Ghufran Bajwa Junaid Aslam Arfa Jamil Syed Muhammad Ali Raza Imam Dr.syed Ali Saba Gul Shahid Khizer Hussain Laghari Zoreiz Safdar Emaan Shah Ahsam Saulat Pervaiz Abdul Majid Orakzai Umair Basit Mashal Chaudhry Naqash Aslam Tayyab Javaid Zain Qureshi Hassaan Sheikh Faiza Khan Zainab Rauf Moeed Hassan Montasir Imran Irfan Chaudary Fizza Hayat Asfandyar Khan Wahab Mehmood Hassaan Amjad Ali Asad Zaki Ansari Azmat Ullah Hira Hamid Afifa Mirza Hamid Ali Khan Syeda Sakina Batool Afnan Ahmed Mutahar Mehdi Chengezi Huzaifa Jilani Khan Zain Ali Sophia Tariq Irfan Ali Syed Mauricio Yosheph Téllez Guillén Emerson Avendaño Torres Ricardo Daniel Vivar Flores Christopher Enriquez Juan Ismael Vallejo Ahn Meg Adonis Fernando Cunanan Mary Angelie Cruz Semko Au- Gustyn Jakub Bazyluk Dagmara Danilczuk Marta Zatoka Judyta Cichocka Alicja Dragan Ania Berezowska Daria Dybciak Aleksandra Gorzała Wojciech Janowski Marta Łobacz Berenika Zimnoch Agnieszka Radziszewska Pawel Zmuda Katarzyna Jegorow Angelika Mazurkiewicz Kamil Dadon Łukasz Franka Sebastian Rozemberg Michał Filipczuk Justyna Janeczko Monika Kowalewska Borowska Kamila Joanna Rodak Agata Lisowska Emilia Cap Paulina Kuszneruk Kacper Radziszewski Jakub Grabowski Lukasz Orlowski Daniel Karcher |Maciej Kozłowski Anna Zagorec Aleksandra Czernia Dominik Pazdzior Paula Karpezo Justyna Porowska Piotr Leja Agnieszka Kaleta-Leja Karolina Leja Michał Mol Katarzyna Kunsdorff Klaudia Ke ̨Pka Iga Chwaluczyk To- Maszchajduga|Filipz Ółtowski|Emiliabrulin Ska|Karolinawisniewska| Tamara Gonzalez Perea Sara Wojciech Dorota Michna Michał Bartecki Maria Wawer Martyna Komorowska Agata Kowalczyk Martyna Ko- Morowska Katarzyna Piekarczyk Kamila Borucka Magdalena Osiniak Tomasz Geras Bartłomiej Markowski Łukasz Felus Karol Kozik Michał Załuski Anna S` Mierzchalska Grzegorz Balinski Kacper Pisan Ski Mariusz Zielin Ski Mateusz Skoczylas Agnieszka Łatak Tomasz Kisilewicz Katar- Zyna Gołuszka Michał Karol Maciej Wieczorkowski Kajetan Jasztal Na- Talia Olejnik Anna Wierzbicka Karolina Wierzbicka Zielin Ska Katarzyna Wojciech Cebula Dominik Małek Agnieszka Połaniecka Ewelina Borowiecka Justyna Breczko Artur Chyra Patryk Wozniczka Joanna Zielin Ska|Annawas Niowska|Remigiuszhetman Rita Costa Nascimento Katherine Both Miguel Brito Raul Coelho Hugo Branco Miguel Brito João Ferreira Pedro Azevedo Susana Rosmaninho Santos Mariana José Rui Pardal Pina Joana Leote Santos Lara Borges Liliana Teixeira Vânia Simões Regina Milheiro Lara Borges Teotónio Caires Zara Ferreira Pe- Dro Lages Catia Moreira Mark Silva Marcos André Ferreira De Meireles Veiga Natalia Bencheci Filipe Silva Ferreira Hugo Barros Da Costa Fer- Reira Mauro Rebelo Rui Agnelo Pedro Treno João Pedro De Figueiredo Lopes Pedrosa Paulo Alexandre Pereira Teixeira Carlos André Ribeiro Coutinho André Ribeiro Carreira Gomes Tereso João Vinhas Diogo Pereira Da Silva Susana Guerreiro Lurdes Chagas Elsa Barrelas | João Santos Francisco Ferreira Ji-Ho Kang Jooseok Oh Jae Man Bae Jong Mook Lim Su Jin Hur Seul Gi Yoo Jo Hyun Ok Jin Seo Hui Ryeon Lee Dong Hyun Lim Hyuck Rae Kown Ryu Keunyoung Jee Won Park Na Kyung Kim Ji Yoon Joung Gi Moon Park Won Gyu Yang Su Yong Choi Kang Rae Kim Hyeyong Wang Soomin Lee Kwanghyun Cho Kim Seong Hwan Dong Min Lee Hyuksoo Son Cheong Heo Ji Hyang Kim Yoonsoo Bae Young Kang Ki Beom Han Jeong Eun Yoon Dong Hyun Kim Yonghwan Kim Jong Gil Park Won Tae Jung Yoojin Lee Min-A Lee Jong Seok Lee Min Ji Chu Du Hee Han Mi Ji An Hyun Ook Ryu Ji Yeol Rue Da-Eun Cho Do Han Park Min Jung Lee Min-Jeong Kim Hye-Eun Sung Yoon Soo Kim Joon Sik Kim Jongchan La Won Tae Jung Su In Kim Seon Il Ahn Seunghee Sim Dong Hyun Kim Jonghun Son Ki-Rim Oh Min-A Lee Chang-Soo Jeon Sooin Jung Miji An Hanye Kim Su Young Ham Hyunji Kim Hyunjin Han Byoungsung Kim Ji Hun Shin Seon Bong Kim Dae Ho Choi Jisub Kim Jieun Jeong Miho Choi Kyung Hwan Lee Jangho Song Mijin Choi Hochoul Shin Inyoung Lee Hyunbeom Cho Jinkyu Pak Sunhee Yoon Hosung Kim Jeong Seok In Min-Cheol Lee Hoon Koo Lee Peter Ma Woo Tae Kim Sungyup Kim Minkyoung Youn Hyein Zhang Sungyeon Hwang Hyung-Seop Kim Dong Yewn Shin Kim Soo Kyung Ju A Shin Ji Youn Park Jung Wook Lee Yong Min Lee Seon Wook Park Seon In Choi In Hyuk Lim Youjin Bae Suyeon Park Seongwoon Lee Xuerui Wang Sangwon Jeong Jaechul Kim Jisun Moon Seung Il Kang Ji Hyun Park Ga Hee Lee Yeongbok Namkoong Yun Kyung Kim Sukyung Kang Hae-Ri Cho Sung Hyun Joe Anjin Si Kwang- Seok Lee Suolki Park Hyunsoo Kwon Hoesuk Yang Sangik Cho Mingoo Jo Junhyung Kim Jia Kim Minha Yoon Jungyeon Kim Jin Ho Lee Han Sol Kang Hyun Seung Lee Kyungjae Kwon Kyungho Kim Hyanghwan Kim Jinnyeong Hong Youngwan Kim Gyeonghwan Kim Joongha Park Changbum Park Chanu Kim Ji Sook Ko Hong Sik Kim Jun Sik Son Ji Hye Choi Deok-Jin Si Sang Il Shim Youngjae Kim Jung Kyu Park Yulee Choi Hakjae Kim Jonghyun Lim Stefan Corneliu Morait Cristian Comoras U Ervin Buzek Mihai Butean Marina Melenti Andrei Durloi Irina Vancea Agnes Szorcsey George Marinescu Raul Adrian Vasvari Szabolcs Egyed Zsolt Gondos Alexandra Garomfir Bogdan Adrian Rusu Andrei Patriche Ioana Turcanu Adela Pancencu Bianca Nenciu Gabriel Enache Ioana Alexandra Mititelu Bogdan Adrian Rusu Ruxandra Iancu Bratosin Benedek Vaszi László Sándor János Egyed Claudia Bârsan Adelina Cioata Adelina Cioata Adina Moldan Dan Andrei Ardeleanu Alexandru Paul Dragusin Radu Mihai Slach Andrei Puica Andrei Simonescu Radu Caradim Paul Morariu Monica Albulet Iulian Bindar Zsolt Iärger Zoltán Czáka Zsolt Iärger Ovidiu Mihutescu Andrei Lazar Radu Dorgo Adrian Mihai Andrei-Catalin Voica Razvan Delcea Dan - Alin Ursu Victor Traian Suciu Tudor Turcu Ovidiu Maier Anca Muresan Oana Tapalaga Alexandru Greceniuc Ovidiu Terchila Robert Dozsa
802 SUBMISSIONS 54 COUNTRIES
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
4000 BRIGHT IDEAS In almost 4,000 competition entries over the past ten years, the participants in the International VELUX Award have developed “more ideas than we can imagine” (Omar Rabie) about the use of daylight in architecture. While some students submitted rather straightforward building designs, others strove to achieve the impossible in their submissions, and bring daylight where it had never been before. Within this vast collection of ideas, some themes proved to be particularly inspiring to the participants, prompting them to be considered in the projects more often than others. The following pages display some of these themes, illustrated by selected prize-winning projects and Honourable Mentions from the International VELUX Award. A B C D
Daylight underground Daylight and materials Adaptive building envelopes Daylight and perception
E Domestic daylight F Urban daylight G Storing daylight.
Selected themes (further information on p. 13–15) 7
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
A3 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
4000 BRIGHT IDEAS
SELECTED PROJECTS 2004–2012
A1 Embodied Ephemerality: Light-Form Architecture Reilly Hogan, Cornell University (USA): 1st Prize 2008 This project converts an otherwise dull commuter space – the PATH railway station near Ground Zero in New York – into a visually stimulating and constantly changing environment. Daylight from above is refracted into the underground space by translucent glass surfaces that dematerialize the boundaries of the space and wrap the interior with embodied light. A2 Beauty in the UnDaylightable Yan Shi & Chung-Kai Yang, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands): Honourable Mention 2010 The ‘UnDaylightable’, as the two Delft-based students see it, consists of the windowless basements of typical Dutch canal houses. The scheme suggests to install ’energy farms’ in the Dutch countryside that capture sunlight by means of solar concentrators and feed it into optical fibres, which transmit the daylight to wherever it may be needed. Due to its flexibility, the system can create a multitude of light ambiences inside the underground spaces, while still keeping them connected to the natural rhythms of light and darkness. A3 Resonance, memory Bo Li, Ge Men, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland): 1st Prize 2012
The idea of this work is based on a hypothetical mudflow in the Swiss Alps that has buried a small village. To re-create the memory of this settlement, the two students propose to introduce over 700 acrylic rods into the earth. Above ground, their shape recalls typical houses from the Swiss rural area. The same shape appears once again in underground voids, as an image created by daylight that the PMMA rods introduce from above. A4 Light mineral Hyung-Jin Choi, Jong-Won Lee, Seung Kim, Do-Yub Kim & Doo-San Paek, Korea University (Republic of Korea): Honourable Mention 2006 “The more darkness gets darker, the more the vitality of light becomes stronger”, write the four Korean students about their project. ‘Light mineral’ is a proposal for bringing daylight into an abandoned mine on a hillside. Vertical light shafts are introduced into the ground. Their side walls, which consist of the different minerals to be found on site, reflect the daylight coming from above and colour it in different hues. A5 Light as the main element determining the spatial quality Sung Hyun Jun, Korea University (Republic of Korea): Honourable Mention 2006 In this proposal for an underground exhibition space beneath Maronnier Park in Seoul, Sung Hyun Jun creates a veritable ‘indoor landscape’ made of daylight that is transmitted underground via optical fibres. These can be flexibly rearranged,
either forming a continuous luminous field, or tied together to form suspended ‘light columns’ that structure the space.
DAYLIGHT AND MATERIALS B1 Light as Matter Claes Cho Heske Ekornås, Oslo School of Architecture (Norway): 1st Prize 2004 The first-ever winner of an International VELUX Award, Claes Cho Heske Ekornås designed a museum for the Korean video artist Nam June Paik, embedded in a hillside. This ‘underground landscape’ is delimited by undulating, translucent hollow walls made of polycarbonate, glassfibre textile and rubber, which capture the light coming in from above and scatter it into the adjacent spaces. B2 Cultivated shadows Petia Ratzov & Carl Hall-Karlstrom, University of Lund (Sweden): Honourable Mention 2006 Half shading device and half urban sculpture, ‘Cultivated shadows’ consists of a newly developed Germanium/Selenium (Ge/Se) glass that becomes soft when exposed to specific kinds of light, and turns back to solid under the absence of light. Each of the glass fins is equipped with a rubber suspension along the sides to hold it in an upright position.
Lusíada de Lisboa (Portugal): 3rd Prize 2008 In his project for an underground space underneath a city square, Dean MacGregor uses natural light transmitted by huge water tanks for illumination. He said, “I wanted to show that light can be seen as a physical dimension. The water […] stops the light for an instant, refracts it to the interior of the space – and creates a body of light.” B4 Redefinition of the skylight Bin Jiang, Haiting Ye, Peixin Xu, Yiqin Zhu & Tenghan Zhang, Tongji Zhejiang College (China): Honourable Mention 2012 Inspired by traditional Chinese paper-cuts, the four students designed a skylight that simultaneously acts as a rooftop terrace, filters daylight through a layer of sand. The ‘cutting’, in this case, is done by environmental forces such as wind and rain, or by people sitting or walking on the sand. B5 Instant Impressionism Wang Fei & Zheng Kaijing, Tsinghua University (China): Honourable Mention 2010 Inspired by Claude Monet’s paintings of Rouen Cathedral, Wang Fei and Zheng Kaijing conceived this reflective mural for a light rail station in Beijing. The photographs were taken from a physical model on site at the actual station in order to provide a realistic impression of what the intervention would look like.
B3 Light Has a Body Dean MacGregor, Universidade 13
ADAPTIVE BUILDING ENVELOPES C1 Desert Light Benjamin Saragoussi & Gregory Bismuth, École Nationale Supérieure d‘Architecture de ParisBelleville (France): Honourable Mention 2006 This underground museum located in the Israeli Negev Desert is entirely lit through its roof. Daylight provision is controlled by means of textile awnings attached to metal strips. The latter consist of a nickel/titanium shape-memory alloy that changes shape when exposed to light, closing the shading elements when the sun rises and opening them again when it gets dark. C2 Illuminated Music Marie Löwenhertz, University of Lund (Sweden): Honourable Mention 2008 Marie Löwenhertz designed a music space equipped with adjustable rooflights that open and close with the rhythm of the music. The openings – reflecting aluminium on one side and totally black on the other – are conducted like stage lighting. They also help to adjust the thermal behaviour of the building, with the aluminium turned outwards to reflect the sun’s heat in summer, and the black side being used to absorb it in winter. C3 Stroking the sunshine Qi Xu & Tao Cao, Tongji University (China): 3rd Prize 2012 This façade-integrated ‘bubble curtain’ invites users to physically interact with the building envelope in order to control indoor daylight levels. By ‘stroking’ the curtain, the people in the room can squeeze the air out of the bubbles, thus making them smaller and increasing the incidence of daylight. When left untouched for a while, the elevated air pressure inside the double-layer curtain will slowly let the air flow back into the bubbles and make the façade turn opaque again. C4 Light & wind Pit Herold, Mads Johnsen, Kasper Old Jensen & Peter Drechsler Poulsen, Arkitektskolen i Aarhus (Denmark): Honourable Mention 2012
Droplet-shaped, hollow glass vessels are embedded in a perforated façade with their thin ends pointed outwards. When air movements hit the façade, the effect will resemble a wheatfield moving in the wind: the droplets start to tilt and turn in their sockets. Due to a gradient in the glass, this rotation also affects the amount of daylight entering the room. C5 Evolutive glazing – shining light Michael Lequeu, Martin Vandevoorde & Florent Schoennagel, Université Catholique de Louvain U.C.L. (Belgium): Honourable Mention 2012 This device is made of two glass sheets with a mixture of alcohol and water in-between. Floating in this liquid are pieces of beeswax in various colours, which start to expand and move upwards as the façade heats up in sunlight. While this movement reminds building users of the thermal conditions outside, the irregular structure of the wax flakes ’materialize light‘ in a similar way as the stained glass windows in churches. C6 Water lily, the symphony of architecture and sunshine Bo Zeng, Yiming Cai & Jingyi Zhao, Tianjin University (China): Honourable Mention 2012 Time-lapse movies reveal that water lilies open and close their flowers depending on the time of day, and on the incidence of daylight. This design for a shading device seeks to achieve a similar effect: it opens and provides maximum shade when sunlight hits the façade orthogonally. When the light comes from an oblique angle, segments can be folded outward to provide shade or direct light into the building as desired.
DAYLIGHT AND PERCEPTION
D1 A museum of photography Louise Grønlund, School of Architecture at the Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Denmark): 1st Prize 2006 “To design a museum for photography is to create the optimal conditions for seeing“, writes Louise Grønlund about her project: “to see not only the photography, but also to make the spectator aware of that which he sees and the conditions within which he is see-
ing.“ A layered façade made of translucent and transparent glass allows light into the 40 exhibition spaces, which all have different shapes and sizes of openings to create a variety of ‘moods of light’ inside them. D2 Reading place in the forest Gonzalo Pardo, Escuela Technica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid (Spain): 2nd Prize 2006 Like a forest, this underground reading space allows those inside it to hide or expose themselves, and to see or not to see the others that are present. There is no furniture inside this halfburied library – just columns, as well as ramps and steps that the users can sit on. D3 Light as a tool to break structure Anna Zagorec & Maciej Kozlowski, Politechnika Krakowska (Poland): 3rd Prize 2012 A corridor is flanked by an array of vertical, three-dimensionally folded partition walls with narrow slits of light in-between. Seen from inside the building, this sequence of wall modules forms an ever-changing projection screen, the appearance of which is determined by the moving shadows of the passers-by behind the wall.
DOMESTIC DAYLIGHT E1 Interactive natural light source Ovidiu Mihutescu, Andrei Lazar, Radu Dorgo & Adrian Mihai, Universitatea Politehnica din Timisoara (Romania): Honourable Mention 2012 To bring daylight into the windowless staircases of former Socialist housing blocks, the four Romanian students developed a low-tech ‘light tube’ made from recycled plastic bottles. Sunlight is introduced into these devices by a similarly low-cost, rooftop-mounted tracking mirror made of aluminium-coated plastic that tracks the path of the sun. E2 The ‘Hole’ Issue Hrvoje Zuparic, Dean Niskota & Ivan Starcevic, University of Zagreb (Croatia): 2nd Prize 2004 What if the distribution of windows in a house was no longer determined by the architect, but if the residents D&A SPRING SUMMER 2014 2014 ISSUE ISSUE 2121
themselves could choose where they would like to have daylight and views? Inspired by this question, the team from Zagreb conceived an archetypal house with an envelope made entirely of electrochromic glass, in which the position and size of the window openings remains forever changeable. E3 Lightspace between gaps Joe Wu, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands): 3rd Prize 2010 “Windows with no view and facing walls are not rare in Hong Kong”, says Joe Wu about the city where he was raised. To improve the situation of people living along the narrow streets of the Chinese metropolis, he designed a system of reflective, three-dimensional façade claddings that capture sunlight and reflect it into the rooms of the opposite buildings in an everchanging pattern of light and shadows. E4 Window shutters Ieva Maknickaite, Antanas Lizdenis & Laurynas Vizbaras, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Lithuania): Honourable Mention 2010 In their project, the three Lithuanian students reflect on simple shutter techniques, which have been used by our ancestors for generations. According to their idea, new generations of shading elements could either be thermally insulated, or equipped with PV cells and solar thermal collectors on the outside, or broken into segments that can be individually adjusted to cope with varying sun angles and to fine-tune the amount of light entering the rooms. E5 Section of light Berte Daan, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (Switzerland): Honourable Mention 2010 “One of the problems with urban densification is the lack of light penetration inside houses“, Berte Daan says. To overcome this problem, she reconfigured the section of a multi-storey residential building so that the floor plates are no longer level, but bent in an U-shape with the apartments literally ‘stepping up’ towards the sun at either end, near the façades. Computer simulations showed that this approach does indeed increase the daylight penetration into the rooms.
URBAN DAYLIGHT F1 Repairing Interface Light Festival Ruan Hao & Xiong Xing; Tsinghua University (China): 2nd Prize 2008 In the narrow street canyons of densely built cities, many spaces are literally ‘left in the dark’ for most of the day. In their proposal for a one-day ‘sunlight festival’, Ruan Hao and Xiong Xing suggest to remediate this situation by applying reflective surfaces to the blank exterior walls of buildings. In the long run, what starts as a temporary intervention could also become a permanent installation to enlighten people’s lives. F2 Light invisible bridges Anastasia Karandinou, University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom): 3rd Prize 2006 With ‘Light invisible bridges’, Anastasia Karandinou seeks to reconnect the otherwise separated riverbanks along River Suzhou in Shanghai. Her proposal consists of three elements: an open-air cinema (with the film being projected across the river), an underground cinema as well as ‘phoneboxes’ inserted into the riverside walls that allow users to view the city without being viewed – and vice versa. F3 Constellation of light fields Park Young-Gook, Kim Dae Hyun, Choi Jin Kyu & Kim Won Ill, Hanyan University, Seoul (Republic of Korea): 1st Prize 2010 The team from Hanyang University designed an immaterial roof over an outdoor stage in the Marronnier Park in Seoul. Consisting of ‘Moebius strips’ of fabric that can be bent and twisted, this roof lets every type of light flow to the area below. This variety of daylighting situations corresponds to the wide variety of activities happening beneath the roof. The students explain: “Light is the immaterial architectural element that humans react directly to through the senses. By eliminating the material elements, light can create diversity within a given space.” F4 Condensation of Variational Sunlight Influences Ma Xin, Wang Rui and Yang Meng, Tianjin University (China): 2nd Prize 2010
This project considers the interaction between sunlight and people’s behaviour in urban life. It suggests the reorganization of an open-air market in Kashgar, Northwest China, by introducing a double-layered roof. Each of the layers has a number of square openings that produce a dramatic, ever-mobile interchange between illuminated spots and shadows. F5 Fleeting perpetuality – Fluxional light under urban scaffolds Sheng Xiaofei, Fang Erqing, Kang Xiaopei & Yan Wenlong , Tongji University (China): Honourable Mention 2010 With ‘Fleeting Perpetuality’, the three students from Shanghai propose to light up a type of oftenoverlooked public spaces within cities – sidewalks or streets that are temporarily built over by scaffolding. For their intervention, the students use a bamboo structure, nets and membranes to create a ‘stream ‘of light. When the scaffolding is removed, ‚Fluxional light’ leaves the site as well and will flow to the next place somewhere in the same city. F6 Light drama Dexiao Zeng, Zhao Gao & TianChi Chen, Hunan University (China): Honourable Mention 2012 Folded paper lanterns are a part of Chinese heritage. Here, an oversize ‘lantern’ serves to introduce daylight into the narrow alleyways of Chinese cities from above, rendering these interstitial spaces useable again for people’s everyday activities. The upper part can be bent to follow the track of the sun, and to control the brightness of the incident light. F7 Atmosphere evolutive surface Manu Simon, Maïté Oldenhove, Simon Verstraete & Laura Schmitt, Université Catholique de Louvain U.C.L. (Belgium): Honourable Mention 2012 To enliven the often dull, paved surfaces of urban spaces, the four Belgian students designed a three-dimensional system of large (100 × 100 cm) paving stones made of slightly porous concrete, on which rainwater can accumulate in rectangular puddles and reflect the light from the sky. As the surface slowly dries, the puddles gradually become smaller and eventually vanish again.
STORING DAYLIGHT G1 Buoyant Light Claire Lubell & Virginia Fernandez, University of Waterloo(Canada): Honourable Mention 2010 ’Buoyant Light‘ harnesses light in a context where the sun does not always rise and set. The location of the project is Igloolik, a Canadian Inuit community of 1600 inhabitants at 70 degrees north. By means of integrated photovoltaic cells, ‚solar balloons’ harvest the summer light and subsequently store the energy for the long winter season. The balloons are attached to (and provide electricity to) buoys that measure environmental changes such as the variations of ice thickness throughout the year.
In what is probably the most unusual application of ‘light storage’ suggested in the award so far, the two Spanish students conceive an aquarium lit by bioluminescent and phosphorescent jellyfish and other marine species. Some of these animals need to be regularly exposed to sunlight to restore their luminosity. This is achieved by letting them pass through a ‘load room’ where sunlight can enter through optical fibres.
G2 The Mongolian dandelion seed, impregnated with light Jeewon Park, Nakyong Kim, Jiyoon Jung, Kimoon Park & Wongyu Yang, Inje University (Republic of Korea): 2nd Prize 2012 Inspired by dandelion seeds that move with the wind, the team from Korea designed the ‘neo-ball’, a balloon-like luminaire intended to accompany contemporary nomads on their journeys. The helium-filled balloons, which consist of a bio-based polymer, capture solar energy during the day, store it in a battery and release it again as light during the night. G3 Memory of Light Qingsong Han, He Dong Peng & Peishu Han, Xi‘an University of Architecture and Technology (China): Honourable Mention 2012 With ‘Memory of Light’, the three Chinese students propose a new kind of brick to restore the derelict parts of the city walls of their hometown, Xi’an. Two thirds of the brick consist of traditional clay whilst the outermost part contains a luminescent additive that absorbs light during the day and gives it off again at night. At daytime, the new bricks are barely discernible within the masonry whilst at night they provide a clear indication of where the walls have been restored. G4 Luminous ecosystem Pablo Viña García-Inés & José Antonio Guerra Paz, Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio (Spain): Honourable Mention 2006 15
G1 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
G2 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
10 YEARS OF DAYLIGHT The International VELUX Award for students of architecture has experienced tremendous growth and success during its ten years of existence. Its anniversary this year is also a good opportunity to reflect: on the relevance of daylight in architectural education, as well as on the key themes and questions raised by the students over the years. The following article is based on the jury reports of the International VELUX Awards 2004 – 2012, as well as on essays by and interviews with the former jurors. Documentations of all previous International VELUX Awards can be downloaded from iva.velux.com. By Jakob Schoof 23
D2 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
“What the jury was looking for was not necessarily complete or buildable projects, but merely projects that celebrated the privilege of being a student – with the naivety intact, with curiosity, with the willingness to take a risk and with a mindset for experimental thinking ‘out of the box’.” From the jury report 2008
So far, no fewer than 3,959 projects have been submitted to the International VELUX Award. From modest beginnings in 2004, submissions for the 2014 event have risen to over 800 from more than 50 countries. And while these figures certainly do not tell the entire story of the award, they do reveal a growing interest among students of architecture in the theme of daylight. Two main reasons for this growth, among many others, can be identified: the relevance of daylight and its openness. Daylight influences our lives on all scales, from the urban realm to the metabolism of a single cell. And it lends itself to a wide array of potential approaches that seek to introduce daylight into buildings. The relevance of daylight “Light is the material that makes architecture”, wrote the jury of the International VELUX Award in 2004. Hani Rashid, chairman of the jury in 2008, added: “I think the great thing about this competition is that it hits the nail on the head: architects from everywhere have been interested in light. Light is a metaphysical instrument, it’s a tool of expression, it’s a way to understand form and time. By tapping the light, you tap a cultural DNA of a place...” The relevance of light, and of daylight in particular, has not always been the same in architecture, but it has without doubt grown in the last decades. According to Kengo Kuma, juror in 2006, “the shape and the form were the main themes of architecture in the middle of the 20th century. But now the main theme has moved from the form to the phenomena, and light can be the main theme of today.” This refers in particular to daylight, says Kuma: “Basically natural light is stronger than artificial light in a philosophical sense. The strongest idea is to focus mainly on natural light […]” The phenomenological and atmospheric qualities of daylight have been an
important theme in the award right from the start. In 2004, juror Ole Bouman said: “Light is not what it used to be. The manipulation of human emotion by means of architecture has become a conscious strategy [...]”. According to Bouman, authenticity in architecture often comes through the use of daylight. “Architects are often asked to go back to making ‘real’ architecture, to creating an authentic topology, a true manifestation, a manifesto against the artificial, ephemeral manipulations of electronic light sources […] Whatever we may think of this counteroffensive, the most interesting forms of resistance are to be found in concrete proposals for the application of daylight.” Another key aspect of daylight – its relevance for human health − was raised by juror Craig Dykers from Snohetta in 2004: “It is apparent that light and air share common paths toward health. In a very real way we cannot be without whatever it is that the sun gives us. However, it is also important to consider what it is that we give the sun in return.” In the last two or three award events in particular, the role of health and well-being in the students’ submissions has become ever more important, and there is good reason to assume that this trend will continue in the near future. Openness as a key to success Obviously, the relevance of daylight extends far beyond its atmospheric and health-related qualities. To think about daylight in the built environment literally opens an endless array of possibilities and potential approaches. This applies particularly to students, who are in a unique position to ‘think out of the box’. According to Eva Jiricna, juror in 2008, this openness is precisely what is needed in architectural education today: “When you are a student, it’s the last time in your life when you can work in completely unlimited conditions: without a
client, without concerns for cost or planning approvals...”. As Juan Miró, juror in 2012, remarked, “it is clear that the students have been inspired to think about the future and ask – what can we do?”. Overall, the juries agreed that asking the right questions in an intelligent way is more important for students than looking for straight answers and final solutions. “On the whole I am very satisfied that the students have had the courage to pose these difficult questions, even if they are not qualified to give the perfect answer,” said Omar Rabie, juror in 2006. According to Brigitte Shim, who headed the jury in 2012, the work of the students was all about a “promise for tomorrow, the boldness of the ideas; the kind of explorative dimension […] because, in a way, you are actually putting your faith in the promise of its future as opposed to necessarily figuring out every single aspect.” Nonetheless, as Natalie de Vries, juror in 2010, remarked, “we also found many practical solutions to practical problems.” A cursory glance at the projects submitted in recent years confirms the tendency to move beyond the purely hypothetical and explorative, dealing with given programmes and often with existing sites, as well as achieving an elevated level of complexity. This became particularly obvious in 2012, when the students displayed an unprecedented interest in straightforward, applicable solutions rather than merely hypothetical concepts devoid of ‘real-life’ context. A mirror of architectural education With its openness, its international scope and sheer number of submissions, the International VELUX Award provides a unique opportunity to take the pulse of architectural education at a given moment. “Seen as a whole, the projects represent 25
[…] a cross section of architectural education in Europe today,” the jury wrote in 2004. “In that respect all the submitted projects are valuable as examples of different aspects of one large research.” Eight years later, the jury felt that it was “literally listening to a global conversation about daylight, from innovative thinking of what might be the future and how we might experience light in a few years’ time [...]” Alongside the students, their teachers have also been actively involved in the International VELUX Award from the start. Their task is to guide the student teams, as well as to review and potentially preselect the submissions. In exchange for this, the teachers receive part of the prize sum and are often also present at the award ceremonies. According to Brigitte Shim, the quality of submissions crucially depends on “a back and forth dialogue” between students and teachers. “I think that the role of the faculty in all of these entries is essential, so important − the guidance, the support, but also the insight and the questioning and ensuring that the students really work at communicating extremely clearly.” To facilitate an adequate judgment of the entries, the vast majority of award jurors so far have themselves been university teachers. It is thus interesting to listen to their own opinions about what makes a good teacher. According to Eva Jiricna, teachers should encourage their students to “explore, experiment and maximise the level of imagination”. Hani Rashid adds: “I often believe that I’m teaching at my best when I teach students how to learn, instead of simply how to do things. If you can impart to someone how to ask the right question, you are teaching into the right direction. “ For Huat Lim, architectural education is all about experience. “The best way to learn is to walk around places, to sit in a building, to travel , to speak, to talk, to communicate.” 26
There appears to be room for improvement, however, regarding the architecture schools’ active involvement and the importance they assign to teaching daylighting in their curricula. Reilly Hogan, first-prize winner in 2008, remarked that “designing through light has been my personal interest, rather than one taught through the school’s curriculum”. He says that where daylight does play a role, it is often more of a technical, performancebased pursuit. And according to Ruan Hao and Xiong Xing, the second-prize winners in 2008, “looking back at how we were taught to utilise sunlight to make dramatic shadows and sculpting architecture spaces, we couldn’ t help but wonder, do we design a design, or do we design for better life?”. A world full of daylight The openness of the award is reflected in a huge variety of individual topics and approaches in the submissions. Quite literally, as Omar Rabie puts it, “the students have more ideas than we can imagine.” The scope of the projects ranges across all scales from the urban to the smallest building component, and literally across the entire globe. Some students have explored phenomena of perception in a rather abstract way, while others have submitted full-fledged designs for buildings or building components. While a number of submissions have expressed a keen interest in technology, the majority of them so far have focused on the interaction between light and space. Last but not least, the students have drawn from a wide range of sources of inspiration – including art (from the paintings of van Gogh to the works of James Turrell) and nature. As many of those involved in the International VELUX Award over the years have remarked, the average quality of submissions has increased. While in 2004, the jury still noted: “The jury was surprised by the lack of actual experimental think-
ing. One of the reasons might be that many of the projects were not tailored to the award”, it has now become commonplace for students to design their projects specifically for the award. In many cases, the level of detailing in the projects has also increased, as has their complexity. The best submissions are now truly multi-dimensional, tackling multiple issues (from how to embed the design in an urban setting, to questions of usability and construction) at a time. To an increasing extent, they are also targeted at ‘making things work’ in a technical sense and reveal a thorough understanding of technology that was not present in earlier award events. The international outreach of the award has also grown significantly since 2004 – and this again is reflected in the student projects. Not only has the award “become truly global and offers a chance for students to see their work in relation to peers across the world”, as Juan Miró remarks. There are also significant cultural differences in the attitude towards daylight from one continent to another, as Momoyo Kajima, juror in 2010, says: “I think there is a cultural element in light, and there are social aspects that relate to the area or latitude or season or time. In the competition, it became evident that a lot of projects from Japan or other Asian countries dealt with light in very different ways from the way that the Europeans did.” From about 2008 onwards, a remarkable geographical shift has taken place within the audience of the International VELUX Award, with 50% or more of the award-winning projects coming from Asian countries in the last two events. There is also another aspect to the ‘globalisation’ of the award, however. Not unlike their ‘grown-up’ peers, architecture students have become ‘frequent travellers’ with networks across the globe. Many of them – such as the first-prize winners
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
“Light of the future is not necessarily light and high-tech. Light should be about perception and exploitation. Light should indicate hope and the future should be about optimism. Light reveals and light has a social dimension.” From the jury report 2004
in 2012 – even study in universities far from their home countries. “There are no boundaries to student projects – as students and teachers meet and study across continents as well as they work with exotic places and cities – far from their actual location,” wrote the competition jury in 2012. This may, of course, present the danger of producing an unspecific kind of ‘globalised’ architecture: “It is a challenge to avoid a global uniformity with repetitive concepts, shapes and slogans and it seems that many students miss the specific relations to locations and orientation.” Yet there is reason to be optimistic in this respect – as the prize winners 2012 in particular proved with their poetic and sensitive intervention in the landscape of the Swiss Alps. Already in 2006, chairman Per Olaf Fjeld expressed a similar optimism: “The strength of the award is that there are participants from all over the world, and light itself has a map, it exists everywhere. But the architectural conditions related to light are also different from place to place, and one can very much see that within the variety of the projects this has, to some extent, been taken into consideration [...]“ Indeed, the submissions have become far more responsive to context over the years – even if they have not necessarily always been designed for a specific site. ‘Context’, in this respect, also implies social responsibility, a connectedness to real-life problems, and an increasing number of projects that dealt with existing cities and buildings. “I found a lot of my concerns about creating a better quality of life in cities being dealt with by the students,” said juror Will Bruder in 2010. “A lot of the work addressed social responsibility, which is a trend that I also see in architecture. Students are not just concerned about sustainability, but about building a better place in a social way.”
Issues of representation As in any other architectural competition, participants in the International VELUX Award are faced with the challenge of how to condense a huge number of ideas on just one or two competition boards, and how to express spatial ideas in a twodimensional format. According to Eva Jiricna, students should strive to make the presentation a “joy ride for the jury”. She adds: “The need of getting a clear message is more and more important in competitions: when a jury has to judge some 700 projects, it cannot spend a long time trying to interpret what a student wants to say.” Yet the award theme “Light of Tomorrow” also presents another, very specific difficulty, explains Brigitte Shim: “How to represent such an ephemeral and difficult thing as light. How do you show light, how do you describe light and make it understandable to other people?” Without doubt, the rendering skills among students have greatly increased over the last ten years, as has computing power to support photorealistic imagery. This development, however, was received in an ambiguous way by the juries. In 2004, “the jury raised the general question of whether the computer is now too powerfully integrated in the schools. And whether this fact limits the experimentation and thinking about the unknown: going to the edge, finding the essence”. Four years later, chairman of the jury Hani Rashid expressed optimism regarding these questions. In his opinion, the award showed that the computer “is no longer just a fascination in pushing buttons and creating nice forms, but is finally becoming a facility, a realistic and obvious tool in the work of research”. Furthermore, students have acquired an increasing ‘media competence’ also in that they know when to do without computers. In the field of daylighting, this applies particularly to the simulation of light 27
“Related to light I can only see optimism because it is a free material and it is there to be used. In the relationship between the body of mass and the body of light there will always be a spatial attitude, a spatial possibility.” Per Olaf Fjeld
interacting with materials. Reilly Hogan, first-prize winner in 2008, said: “Computer simulations proved to be highly cumbersome when dealing with caustic light (light reflected or refracted by a metallic or glass surface onto another surface), and rapid experimentation was difficult. So I worked almost entirely through physical models.” Likewise, Dean MacGregor, winner of the third prize in the same year, remarked that “from the beginning I knew that rendering wasn’t an option for this project. Therefore photography soon took over from the superficial attempt to represent light through the computer”. Da capo: Light of the future This year, the International VELUX Award will be awarded once again, for the sixth time running. At the time of writing this article, neither the eventual winners nor the approaches they chose were known. It is therefore a good opportunity to go back to the question of what represents the “light of the future” today? To quote Craig Dykers’ verdict from 2004 once again: “In a very real way we cannot be without whatever it is that the sun gives us.” This existential role of daylight to our health and well-being, while implicit in many projects already, is still waiting to be fully exploited by the students. This might imply taking a step back in the history of the award, going from the 28
urban to the private realm − and closer to the human body, but with increased knowledge and a refined toolbox that today’s students doubtless have at their disposal. The challenge posed by health and well-being also relates to recent findings from chronobiology about the non-visual perception of light, and about how light relates to diurnal cycles in our minds and bodies. Eventually, this gives rise to questions such as: What could a ‘circadian’ architecture look like? What qualities would it need to have? Answering this question is certainly tricky, and even scientists and experienced practitioners are struggling with it. It would, however, be most interesting to see the students’ ideas about this topic highlighted in the next editions of the award. As many of the simple questions have already been asked (and in many cases also answered) in the International VELUX Award, it is mainly the more complex questions that remain. The logical next step would therefore be to form interdisciplinary design teams to answer them. While this might be asking (too) much from the participants of a student competition, it would certainly reflect the trend towards integrated design in architecture, and the increasing number of interdisciplinary master studies in the field of sustainable building design. Furthermore, with computers having become “a realistic and obvious tool in the work of research” (Hani Rashid), one would also expect to see more quantitative evaluations being carried out on the projects in the future. The corresponding simulation tools have become ever easier to operate, and experience has shown that this kind of evaluation need not hinder architectural creativity. A good example is the VELUX Daylight Visualizer, which provides realistic estimates for both the
quantitative and qualitative effects of daylight in spaces, and is increasingly used by students and practitioners worldwide. Keep on trying After the jury sessions of the last few International VELUX Awards, the jurors were asked whether they had any recommendations to future participants. In his answer, Peter Stutchbury gave the following reasons to participate: “In order to learn about anything you must participate. There are very few international awards for students in the world, and this competition has a wonderful standard. I encourage students to participate in this sort of award in order to lift their own understanding of major architectural issues… When you do a competition like this you do something that has the potential to shift your world.” Looking ahead, there is no doubt that the participants will continue to find new questions to raise, and new approaches to daylight. As the jury wrote in 2012: “The projects investigate so many new aspects of light, thereby showing us that there is still a lot of work to be done, thinking about tomorrow, inventing the future and not taking light for granted”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D3 FURTHER INFORMATION ON P. 13–15
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
DISCOURSE LEARNING FOR THE UNKNOWN
“Aspiring architects have to develop their position with regard to society as a whole. An architect is not only responsible for maximising a client’s profit but is always involved in the development of entire cities, as well as of our building culture.” Hubert Klumpner
Architectural education, like any form of education, is all about the future. There is a dual challenge connected to this fact. Firstly, as the future is impossible to predict, education is always faced with uncertainty as to what might be the most useful knowledge to convey to students. Secondly, and despite this, schools of architecture have to be early adopters of change in the professional field: who, if not they, will prepare future generations of architects to “ be the change they want to see in the world”, to quote Mahatma Gandhi? By all that we know today, the future of architecture will be characterised by an unprecedented level of urbanisation, an increasingly circular economy and a much greater use of renewable resources, including daylight and solar energy. Apart from urbanisation, most of these concerns played only a marginal role in 20th century architecture. Yet the tide now seems to be turning, and the signs that a profound change to architectural practice and education is necessary – and that it would be beneficial for many – cannot be ignored any more. According to Rob Fleming, professor at Philadelphia University, the rise of sustainability has prompted the “foundations of design education to shackle free of decades, if not centuries, of inertia”. Mark Wigley, dean of the School of Architecture at Columbia University, calls for future architects to “jump into the unknown, trusting the formulations of the next generation that, by definition, defy the logic of the present”. He continues: “We have to give students the capacity to change the field itself, to completely redefine the state-of-the-art”. These are bold claims indeed. How do architecture schools live up to them in practice? And what do teachers and recent graduates think about the challenges that architectural education is facing? The statements and articles in this issue of Daylight/Architecture provide some answers to these questions. They depict the architect as a professional who has to bridge the gap between widely diverging, and sometimes contradictory, requirements. To name
but three of these, architects must retain the position as generalists that they have always had in history, but at the same time keep up with the increasing body of specialist knowledge in the field of building design. They have to fulfil the requirements of their clients who pay them, but at the same time, they are expected to work in the interest of the wider society. And lastly, they have to put human beings into the centre of all their endeavours despite being restricted by an increasing amount of regulation, and working in an increasingly technology-driven environment. Architecture as ‘frozen politics’ Essentially, every contemporary architect serves two clients: the one who pays him – and society in general. Peter Thule Kristensen, dean of the School of Architecture at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen (KADK), explains: “Nowadays architects can no longer afford to pursue a purely introverted artistic approach. They must respond to modern-day issues that impact on society – for example, the unavoidable challenge of sustainability”. Hubert Klumpner, dean of the Department of Architecture at ETH Zürich, compares architecture and urbanism to “frozen politics”, and adds: “We see studying as the starting point of a lifelong learning process that prepares architects to assume responsibility in a democratic society”. Many of the experts who contributed to this magazine, therefore, stress that it is not sufficient to train architecture students merely to be building designers. “As long as architectural education only aims at building design, it will fail,” claims Hyun Seo, head of the School of Architecture at Haiyang University in Seoul. According to Seo, students should be “trained to become leaders who can manage any kind of team or project regardless of the subject that it deals with”. This points to another quality that future architects will need: the ability to work in increasingly interdisciplinary teams. This, in turn, requires both “communicative intelligence” (Hubert Klumpner) and “a respect for
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
and knowledge of other disciplines and professions” (Karl Otto Ellefsen). Respect, in this context, does not imply subordination – on the contrary. Most of the teachers stress the importance of architects retaining their position as generalists, despite all the current trends towards specialisation. Maintaining a holistic view will, they argue, be both beneficial for the quality of our buildings and give architects back some of the influence they have lost to others over the last decades. This will, however, not come by itself, says Claes Cho Heske Ekornås, winner of the International VELUX Award in 2004: “We will have to make this happen ourselves by being more proactive [and] placing ourselves in the driver’s seat. As an architect, you are sometimes the only one with a full overview of the different stages of a project. We should use this position to our advantage if we want to avoid being reduced to the role of just another consultant.” The architect as conductor and translator It seems obvious that this role of architects as ‘conductors’ of project teams needs to be learned to a much greater extent in academia. Many architecture schools are reacting to this already, for example, by including more and more design/build projects in their curricula. Hubert Klumpner stresses that professors need to be skilled communicators in our days who can ‘translate’ between different domains of knowledge, as well as between the world of specialists and the general public. Increasingly, intercultural ‘translation’ and presentation skills are also in demand for architecture students as they prepare to enter a globalised labour market. Student competitions such as the International VELUX Award are a valuable opportunity to learn these skills. Peter Stutchbury, award juror in 2012, considers competitions an opportunity for students to “lift their own understanding of major architectural issues”. For Luka Piškorec, from the ETH Zürich, “competitions are like questions asked by society to which architects must respond. And only
the architect who has something to say, comment or ask is competent to work in the interest of society”. Intellectual freedom in a state of uncertainty Architecture schools nowadays need to navigate between two extremes: should they focus on preparing their students for the practicalities of everyday office work, or give them the freedom to pursue their own agenda and learn to “ask the right questions” (Hani Rashid)? Quite probably, universities are well advised to do the latter. The former winners of the International VELUX Award all reported that only after graduating from university did they learn “the ways of the building site” (Bo Li, Ge Men), become acquainted with “the complex process of following a project from start to finish” (Claes Cho Heske Ekornås), and learn to “work with a client, dealing with the fact that the client’s priorities and processes are often different from those of the architect” (Reilly Hogan). On the other hand, all former award winners hold in high esteem the freedom that they were offered at university and the fact that academic training taught them to work independently and find their own ways in life. A good teacher, says Claes Cho Heske Ekornås, “not only focuses on the end result, but just as much on the process of getting to the result, and on the development of the individual student”. Intellectual freedom and the capacity to think independently are all the more important as architectural education has to prepare students for a future that is inherently uncertain. As Karl Otto Ellefsen puts it, “we feel like we are educating young people to master knowledge that so far has never been produced and to qualify for jobs not yet existing”. While it has often been questioned whether architecture still qualifies as a form of art, artistic thinking can be extremely helpful in this state of uncertainty. Peter Thule Kristensen stresses that architectural education ought always to remember “the recognition inherent in art that there are no definitive
answers or unambiguous questions”. Louise Grønlund, winner of the International VELUXAward in 2006 and now herself a teacher, adds: “A school of architecture should be a place for developing your artistic talent, and for experimenting with projects, some of which might fail – but failures tend to be a valuable source of learning”. Education needs a value base Over and over again, the teachers and recent graduates alike stress the importance of the architect’s social responsibility. “Our dream is not only to design buildings but to improve people’s lives,” say Bo Li and Ge Men, winners of the International VELUX Award in 2012. Will Bruder, who sat on the award jury in 2010, observes a similar phenomenon: “Students are not just concerned about sustainability, but about building a better place in a social way”. Clearly, the human aspect inherent in architecture ought to be nurtured right from the start in architectural education. This also means that teaching cannot be limited to knowledge transfer − it also requires an underlying value base. Students need to be encouraged to develop trust, solidarity, and empathy – and they can only do so if they encounter these same qualities in their learning environment at university. As Rob Fleming writes, “the kinds of values and behaviours learned in design school set the stage for a lifetime of impact – both positive and negative”. If value-based teaching is taken seriously, however, it must also be reflected in new forms of teaching and new content in the academic curricula. It will be interesting to see in the coming years whether, and how, this change is really going to happen in architecture schools worldwide. There is little doubt, however, that it will be worthwhile. After all, as Hyun Seo says: “College education must prepare students for life rather than for a specific career”.
QUOTE BY ENRIQUE BROWNE PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BARNES
A WORLD OF OPPORTUNITIES Today’s young architects will play a key role in shaping the future world we live in. But what principles and ideals guide them in their daily work? What qualities that they have or have not learnt at university do they consider crucial? And what role should daylighting play in architectural education? On the following pages, former winners of the International VELUX Award, along with their former teachers and the heads of school where they studied, have given answers to these questions. The accompanying photographs were taken in some of the cities where the respondents live and work: New York and Ithaca (USA), Zurich (Switzerland) and Seoul (South Korea). Welcome to an intergenerational and intercultural dialogue on daylight, architectural education, and the individual responsibility that every architect has to take in our society.
Photography by Richard Barnes & Lucille Tenazas (p. 34 – 47) Stanley Wong (p. 50– 59) Ferit Kuyas (p. 61–71)
QUOTE BY OLE BOUMAN PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BARNES
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN (AHO), OSLO
CLAES CHO HESKE EKORNÅS Claes Cho Heske Ekornås won the 1st prize in the first ever International VELUX Award in 2004, when he had just graduated from the School of Architecture and Design (AHO) in Oslo. He has been employed at Jarmund Vigsnæs Arkitekter in Oslo, Norway, for the last nine years. His project portfolio ranges from design of singlefamily homes to competition projects and larger design and renovation projects.
“Looking back I can see that the most valuable thing I learnt at school was to work independently. The kind of teaching where you are allowed to find your own way, not being told what to do and how to do it, but listening, finding your own voice, being enlightened as you go along. As a practising architect, one is introduced to the complex process of following a project from start to finish. Society tends to come up with more and more demands and technical building restrictions that we have to implement in architecture. I think it is important that students don’t dwell too much on these practical and technical requirements. Rather, they should have a free mind to explore things. Students have a unique opportunity to study different aspects of architecture, something they should enjoy since it is probably the only time in their lives that they will be able to devote so much time and effort to their projects. A good teacher of architecture sets the scene for this kind of free and independent learning, guiding the student through probing questions and constructive feedback. A good teacher not only focuses on the end result, but just as much on the process of getting to the result, and on the development of the individual student. My project for the International VELUX Award was my final thesis project. Winning the Award at the gateway to my career gave me confidence that I could bring something to the table in the real world of architectural practice. Daylight plays a special role in Norway, as for half the year we have very little of it, and for the other half, we have light more or less around the clock. This importance of natural light is also reflected in our work at
Jarmund Vigsnæs Arkitekter, where we take advantage of it in order to minimise the use of artificial light and to save energy. What I have learnt about light since graduating is to look at this resource in a more nuanced way. After all, sometimes, and in some places, you don’t need a lot of light. Therefore I am not sure that general requirements for daylight levels or luxspecifications are necessarily the right way forward. Like any other architect, my dream is to create architecture that will stand the test of time and be a reference to others. It is obviously hard to predict what exactly is needed to achieve this goal, as the quality of buildings can often only be judged in hindsight. But I think it is at least important to have something to strive for. Overall, I would call for a better understanding and respect for our profession. But we will have to make this happen ourselves − by being more proactive, placing ourselves in the driver’s seat and seeing ourselves not merely as designers but playing a leading role in defining the fundamental terms of any building project. As an architect, you are sometimes the only one with a full overview of the different stages of a project, and you have to deal with all the other stakeholders: the builders, other technical consultants as well as financial experts. We should use this position to our advantage if we want to avoid being reduced to the role of just another consultant. The best project for me is always the next. Not necessarily the big projects; often the small projects are the most interesting. I hope to be able to continue building my experience, solidifying my platform, and contributing to the growing recognition of architecture in Norwegian society.”
D&A SPRING SUMMER 2014 2014 ISSUE ISSUE 2121
RELATED TO LIGHT, I CAN ONLY SEE OPTIMISM – BECAUSE IT IS A FREE MATERIAL AND IT IS THERE TO BE USED. Per Olaf Fjeld
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY HUBERT KLUMPNER PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BARNES
QUOTE BY HYON BO LI &SEO GE MEN PHOTOGRAPHY PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BY FERITBARNES KUYAS
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN (AHO), OSLO
KARL OTTO ELLEFSEN Karl Otto Ellefsen is Rector of the School of Architecture and Design (AHO) in Oslo, where he also teaches as a professor of architecture and urbanism. Having been educated at the AHO and the Architectural Association (AA) in London, he dedicated most of his professional career to urbanism. Karl Otto Ellefsen has published widely within the fields of urban history, urban planning and architectural critique. Currently the main focus of his research is on the history of urban planning in Norway.
“In addition to the skills that architects needed in previous times, other qualities are required to be a successful architect today. At the same time, architecture schools need to prepare students for a set of very different roles. I would rate the ability for teamwork, the respect for and knowledge of other disciplines and professions, the capacity for serious investigation and the skill to handle architecture in a discursive way as essential qualities that we need to reflect in our teaching. In Europe, there was the possibility that the Bologna system, with its focus on compatibility and the free-flow of competence across national boundaries, would wipe out school identities. But we are witnessing the opposite − a trend of different schools following different paths. Schools seem to be more eager to define their own specific roles. Some focus on research and an academic profile, some dedicate themselves to educating workforce for the future labour market, and some schools, like ours, still believe in architecture as one of the arts and stick to an artacademy tradition in architectural education. Historically speaking, the curriculum at the Oslo School of Architecture was very much about educating master architects. As a relatively small educational environment, we try to keep up the standard of teaching the students individually. Consequently, we also try to convey to them a set of values that deal with individual responsibility. As an architect, you can never run away from this individual responsibility, even if the topics that you are confronting, such as sustainability, seem impossible to handle as an individual – or if the consequence is that you have to say no to
a commission that might bring you wealth and glory but will likely be devastating to the environment and to society as a whole. In many ways, our school continues to pursue historic traditions of Nordic architecture. This is reflected, for example, by the particular role that daylight plays in our curriculum and in project work in design studios. The focus of Norwegian architecture has always centred around the relationship between building and landscape, earth and sky and light as the primary elements. At the same time, architectural education in Northern Europe has always had a very close relationship to the profession. Changes in the professional environment, therefore, immediately affect our school. To mention but one challenge arising from this, there is currently a tendency towards hybridisation in the planning and construction process of buildings, where different kinds of professions and fields of knowledge overlap and merge. We feel like we are educating young people to master knowledge that so far has never been produced and to qualify for jobs not yet existing. This means that the foundation and the general part of the education are even more important than before: the ability for spatial comprehension, the ability to draw, the ability to conceptualise. Our students have to master the basics of the craft and, at the same time, be able to both handle and defend this knowledge in a very complex professional setting.”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS, SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN AND CONSERVATION (KADK), COPENHAGEN
Louise Grønlund, winner of the 1st prize in the International VELUX Award 2006, is a Ph.D. student at the Aarhus School of Architecture in Denmark. Since graduating, she has been employed at several Danish architectural offices, taught at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture (KADK) in Copenhagen and worked as an independent architect and as architectural photographer. Her Ph.D. project explores daylight, light openings and the facade.
“I have been very privileged that there is a direct line from my thesis project to what I am doing now in my Ph.D. project. In the latter, I focus on the exploration of daylight, light openings connecting indoors and outdoors, and how light openings in different shapes and sizes can draw daylight into buildings. My research is a combination of theory and practical experimentation, where I draw on my knowledge of photography and my neverending curiosity about the phenomenon of daylight. My thesis supervisor at the KADK has been pivotal in my development so far. In our conversations, he gave me an understanding of my subject matter and inspired my fundamental engagement with the phenomenon of daylight. As a teacher myself, I bring this experience with me. Based on a strong belief that everyone has unique potential, I try to motivate students to find their particular focus, and to make them flourish, both personally and professionally. Winning the International VELUX Award spurred me on; the acknowledgement that other people could follow my ideas and thoughts has had tremendous impact on my career path. It brought me into close contact with the international community of architects, including many people who have remained in my network and continue to inspire my work. A school of architecture should be a place for developing your artistic talent, and for experimenting with projects, some of which might fail – but failures tend to be a valuable source of learning. We should take care that architectural education remains open and
experimental, rather than being too specifically targeted towards future applications. On the other hand, the interaction between studies and practice, for instance through internships during your studies, is highly valuable and formed a very important part of my formation as an architect. For the last couple of years, we have seen a preoccupation with speed and efficiency in our profession. Now I see the tide turning again, with an increased awareness of quality and innovation, as well as a concern for resources, the environment and people’s lives in the way we build new buildings or transform existing ones. I hope to be able to continue contributing to this development through my research on daylight, creating new knowledge and passing this on to the next generation of architects. Part of the research in my Ph.D. project has recently formed the basis of a semester course at the Aarhus School of Architecture, and together with two colleagues, we have extended this to a four-semester course on daylight. I think this kind of research-based teaching moves things forward as it provides students with qualified knowledge and useful tools to work with daylight in architecture.”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY HYUN SEO PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BARNES
QUOTE BY GE MEN PHOTOGRAPHY BY RICHARD BARNES
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS, SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN AND CONSERVATION (KADK), COPENHAGEN
PETER THULE KRISTENSEN Peter Thule Kristensen, Ph. D., is Head of the School of Architecture at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (KADK). He has worked as an architect since 1994, in his own architectural practice and elsewhere, and has been a professor at the Institute for History and Theory of Architecture of the KADK since 2004. Peter Thule Kristensen has published several books on various themes, including the works of the Danish 19th-century architect Gottlieb Bindesbøll and 20th-century architects such as Arne Jacobsen and Rudolf Schwarz.
Throughout history, a good architect has been characterised by his or her ability to combine many different contexts in a spatial, meaningful totality; a totality that both meets a number of practical requirements and also enables us to grasp the world that we are in. But in contrast to the Renaissance’s Uomo Universale, modern day architects can no longer be expected to have a thorough knowledge of all relevant contexts. The challenge for them is, therefore, to maintain the ability to think in a holistic manner, while at the same time sharpen their particular competences. At KADK’s School of Architecture we believe that the students become better at thinking in a holistic way if they have the opportunity to work in depth with a defined subject or artistic approach during their studies. Therefore, we work with a broad, holistically-oriented Bachelor education and more specialised Master programmes that strongly connect research and artistic development. The focused programmes also help our students attain a differentiated profile and thereby a competitive advantage in a labour market that has become increasingly global and requires ever more specialisation. A good example is our new master programme, Architectural Lighting Design, in which we will educate both industrial designers and architects, and thereby bring their specific design competences together. This is the first education of its kind in our world; previously it was left to engineers to calculate light exclusively on the basis of rational premises. In other words, we educate a new type of ‘lighting architect’ who is capable of combining an aesthetic approach with engineering ability.
The integration of art, science, and practice that we seek to achieve in our courses is also reflected by our teaching staff. The many practising architects and designers who teach at the KADK collaborate closely with researchers within a field of scientific and artistic development. In this relationship, it is important that their domains are not simply mixed, but rather that they enrich and inspire each other with their differences, and that their teaching is based on a considered combination of knowledge transfer, design studios and ‘hands-on’ workshop experience. KADK’s School of Architecture is based on a Beaux-Arts tradition, in which the concept of architecture as an art form that appeals to all of our senses is central. And, in my opinion, there is absolutely no reason for the artistic approach to be introverted. We must respond to modern-day issues that impact on society − for example, the unavoidable challenge of sustainability. This means that students must participate in social and cultural debates, read texts and make use of scientific methods in their research, without neglecting a recognition inherent in art – namely, that there are no definitive answers or unambiguous questions.
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
IN A VERY REAL WAY, WE CANNOT BE WITHOUT WHATEVER IT IS THAT THE SUN GIVES US. HOWEVER, IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER WHAT IT IS THAT WE GIVE THE SUN IN RETURN. Craig Dykers
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY HYUN SEO PHOTOGRAPHY BY ANOTHERMOUNTAINMAN
CORNELL UNIVERSITY, ITHACA
Reilly Hogan, 1st prize winner in the International VELUX Award 2008, is an Associate Principal at KPF, Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates in New York City, where he has been employed for the last five years. In his first year after graduation, he was a Teaching Associate in the Department of Architecture at Cornell University teaching design studio. As a senior designer at KPF, Reilly Hogan primarily works with commercial, residential and retail projects in the United States, Canada and China.
“While studying at Cornell University, I got the chance to take part in a design studio in New York City. Having grown up in San Francisco I love cities, I love New York City, and that is where I am now, working at one of the big architectural practices with projects around the world. I am where I always wanted to be, working on a variety of projects with many design opportunities and always learning more about the process and practice of architecture. Cornell design studios taught me a diverse way of thinking of design; the critics there encouraged constant creativity and exploration. I learned how to construct an argument, how to present and visualise, and how to marry the two together. What we didn’t learn so much about was working with a client, dealing with the fact that the client’s priorities and processes are often different from those of the architect. A basic understanding of budgets and of financing might have been useful. And then, on the other hand, the money focus tends to become more and more predominant in our society. I fear that the aesthetic appreciation of good design is endangered, with the arts and aesthetic programmes often being reduced in early education. It was always a great inspiration to me when my teachers were excited about design, encouraging me to explore new ideas and challenge the norms. Architectural studies have so many facets. The good teacher is able to weave all these facets into a whole; daylight being one of them. Daylight plays a large part in the design projects I do at KPF, from the major public spaces of retail concourses, office lobbies, and even the small entry foyers
of residential units. Through my work I have gained a much deeper understanding of how glass interacts with daylight, how the quality of light can be changed, using coatings and filters to achieve different light levels.. My greatest experiences of light, however, come from nature; like the sculpted slot canyons in Utah, where one ray of sunshine, just one, suddenly appears in otherwise complete darkness, beautifully illuminating and colouring the space. Experiences like this are great sources of inspiration for my work. Winning the International VELUX Award was a source of pride and gave me confidence in my design abilities. It was a great stepping stone in my aspirations to be a design leader. In my current role as Associate Principal, I am building my skills, leading projects and working in teams. I would love to do more cultural, public buildings − a museum, an art gallery, or a train station would be fantastic. Places where the programme is more open and where the function of the building interplays with the building design. I look forward to one day having more design autonomy and the ability to independently express my creativity through my work.”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY OLE BOUMAN PHOTOGRAPHY BY ANOTHERMOUNTAINMAN
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
HANYANG UNIVERSITY, SEOUL
YOUNG GOOK PARK, WON ILL KIM, DAE HYUN KIM, JIN KYU CHOI Young Gook Park and Won Ill Kim run their own design studio MiYongSil where they work with everything from architectural design to interior design and furniture design. Their projects are located in Seoul and typically deal with reusing old spaces. They recently published a book called Urban Living Room, in which they seek out leftover spaces in the city and explore how you can enjoy the urban environment like your own living room. Dae Hyun Kim is employed at Mass Studies, a leading Korean architecture firm in Seoul. Jin Kyu Choi was previously a partner in MiYongSil but is now working as an independent designer in furniture design. Together, Young Gook Park, Won Ill Kim, Dae Hyun Kim and Jin Kyu Choi won the first prize in the International VELUX Award 2010.
“The era of big scale of big scale development is over in Seoul. So we are interested in smallscale projects that focus on repairing and reforming old spaces and structures for new uses. We are keen on experimenting with materials, spaces and entire buildings, while at the same time appreciating that we still have a lot to learn and that we are still in the process of reaching our goals. The most useful things we learnt at school were to look at, interpret and understand space. As a student, it is very important that you establish your own point of view. This requires considerable discussion about the values and abilities of architecture. Through these discussions, and through sharing our thoughts with our professors and fellow students, we learnt a lot − not only about design but also about how to develop our own philosophy as architects and designers. Whilst studying, it is important that diverse aspects of architecture are pointed out to you, so that you and your fellow students can find your own approach to the subject. In this context, teachers should always be alert to new ideas and to trends in society that create the context for the students’ work. Taking part in competitions is also a good way of sharing your thoughts and comparing your skills with those of others. Winning the International VELUX Award gave us the confidence to believe in our ideas, to take the next step in our careers and even publish our thoughts. We are very interested in the concept of ‘social architecture’ and would like to create spaces for people where today there are only dead spaces. For example, building a small stor-
age shed or flower bed that could be shared among neighbours instead of a solid brick wall. By opening up and greening the dead spaces, we create better living environments and opportunities for human interaction. Renovation and remodelling is a big issue in Seoul due to issues of environmental sustainability and economic downturn. All this requires a new understanding of old structures, a new approach to design and a different set of design tools. Through our practice, we are part of this process of rethinking. Daylight plays a special role in all of this, especially when you live in a city with tall buildings all around that cast large shadows on their environment and rob people of much of that daylight. A good idea is crucial when it comes to design, but the idea really only gets you half way; discovering how to make your ideas reality is just as important. A lot of things need to be considered in the process − such as design, budget, timeline, details and production. Practising as an architect requires a great deal of know-how that we can only gain through experience. ”
QUOTE BY HYUN SEO PHOTOGRAPHY BY ANOTHERMOUNTAINMAN
QUOTE BY GLENN MURCOTT PHOTOGRAPHY BY ANOTHERMOUNTAINMAN
HANYANG UNIVERSITY, SEOUL
Hyun Seo is Head of the School of Architecture at Hanyang University in Seoul, where he teaches architectural design and theory. He received his Bachelor and Master degrees from Seoul National University and then went on to pursue his graduate studies at Columbia University in New York, USA. Hyun Seo is the author of various books such as Explaining Architecture (1998) and Creation and Evolution of Korean Traditional Architecture (2012; both in Korean language)
“Nowadays, architects have to be both designers and implementers of projects. The scope of their work ranges from programing computer software to dealing with legal requirements, and managing design teams to overseeing the actual construction of buildings. This wide range of tasks means that architects are often required to define problems and raise the right questions before they can look for solutions. In our school, we encourage students to embark on this exercise of defining problems. Unlike in mathematics, there isn’t usually a ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answer to architectural problems. We therefore teach our students to find satisfactory, rather than ‘correct’, solutions to the problems they find. This involves eternal compromise and a constant search for alternatives. Student competitions are an intriguing opportunity for students to see how other people think and work, and what answers they provide to a given problem. If a student is lucky enough to win an award for his project, and sees that others – including the competition jury – appreciate his way of working, this is obviously an additional benefit. We therefore encourage students to participate in competitions whenever possible. Most importantly, however, I think it is not sufficient to train architecture students merely to be building designers. As long as architectural education only aims at building design, it will fail. Architecture students should be trained to become leaders who can manage any kind of team or project regardless of the subject that it deals with. This is all the more important when only a limited
number of our students actually pursue a career in the field of architecture after graduating. Acknowledging that college education must prepare students for life rather than for a specific career, we encourage students to find their own way to be leaders in whatever profession they end up in. “
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY KARL OTTO ELLEFSEN PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (ETH), ZÜRICH
BO LI, GE MEN
Bo Li has just finished his Master thesis and is now working part time as teaching assistant at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ). He also writes articles for professional architectural magazines. Ge Men is founding partner of Fangan Architekten, a small architectural office in Switzerland. The company undertakes renovation projects, designs single-family homes and offers design assistance to projects in China. Together, Bo Li and Ge Men won the first prize in the International VELUX Award 2012.
“As we are just starting our careers, we are in the process of learning by doing. We are getting valuable experience with the realisation of projects now that we have completed school. We are learning the ways of the construction site and how to manage projects with many different stakeholders. If architecture stays on paper, it is only an idea. We are therefore eager to learn much more about the realisation of projects in the real world. In our education, this kind of practical knowledge did not play such a central role. On the other hand, our studies allowed us to be 100 percent idealistic, and idealism is the source of passion. The education system seems like a pyramid, where we spend most of the time on building design, a little less time on the urban context and just a little time on philosophical and conceptual thinking. Maybe more focus on philosophical and conceptual thinking could have brought us further allowing us to work with more abstract concepts, playing with light, aimlessly touching materials, piling objects – more like art school maybe. It is while you are at school you can do this, whereas in real life we are building for specific clients, specific programmes and specific budgets. The challenges for architecture are very different in developed and developing countries. We are both doing projects in Switzerland and in China, and can see the differences. In China, it is more about quantity and speed. In Switzerland, there is room for quality, and you can take your time to design and build. Learning from both worlds is highly valuable for us. Working in different locations also teaches us that light is not just light. In Swit-
zerland, the sun is celebrated, brought directly into people’s homes; in the south of China, people tend to avoid the sun, the buildings are more closed, shielding people from light and heat. Even within Europe we see great differences in the approach to sunlight from north to south. Daylight and sunlight carry a lot of cultural meaning. Our dream is not only to design buildings but to improve people’s lives. The world is moving in one direction, becoming more abstract and loaded with information. People are moving from reality into virtuality. The same goes for architecture. Looking into the future, people may be living their entire lives inside buildings without contact to the outdoors. As architects, we have to relate to this development. Our dreams for the future? Building is a keyword. Building our experience. Building our portfolio. Building for people. Right now Switzerland is a good place for us to be, but with contact to the rest of the world, not least China, our home country.”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
WHEN YOU DO A COMPETITION LIKE THIS, YOU DO SOMETHING THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO SHIFT YOUR WORLD. Peter Stutchbury
QUOTE BY HANI RASHID PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
QUOTE BY HUBERT KLUMPNER PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (ETH), ZÜRICH
Hubert Klumpner is head of the department of architecture at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich. He studied architecture and urban planning in Vienna and at Columbia University in New York. In 1998, he and Alfredo Brillembourg established the planning office UrbanThink-Tank in Caracas (Venezuela). Together with Brillembourg, Hubert Klumpner also heads the chair of architecture and urban design at ETH.
“The profession of the architect is becoming more and more complex and academic training in architecture needs to take this into account. In the case of ETH Zurich, this means that, on the one hand, we base our curriculum on the premise of educating architects as generalists and, on the other, that we orientate it towards the needs of society, the economy and politics. We offer a broad-based education that, within a pre-structured learning environment, leaves students the freedom to choose their subjects according to their personal inclinations and talents. In this way, we hope to educate them not only to be highly-skilled professionals but also members of a society that can take responsibility. As a technically- and scientificallyoriented university, we continue to place great value on teaching the art of constructive thinking and the fundamental principles of building. Today, this can no longer be taken for granted in institutes of higher education where architecture is taught. At the same time, aspiring architects have to develop their position with regard to society as a whole. An architect is not only responsible for maximising a client’s profit but is always involved in the development of entire cities, as well as of our building culture. Arthur Schopenhauer once said that architecture is frozen music. I would add that architecture and urban planning are also frozen politics. With their work, architects translate political and social objectives into physical space, thus giving them concrete form and making them comprehensible. In this respect, we architects are faced with an enormous challenge. Accepting it also means that we have to win back some of the
influence that, in the last few decades, has been lost to others. For all this, a course of study at a university can only serve as a basis. At ETH Zurich, we see studying as the starting point of a lifelong learning process that prepares architects to assume responsibility in a democratic society. To do so, apart from consolidated specialist knowledge, one needs communicative intelligence, the ability to work in a team and a certain amount of assertiveness. In order to prepare our students for this role, we regularly appoint professors who, in their own work, exemplify this “communicator function” to good effect. In addition, we actively offer students opportunities for interdisciplinary learning. An interdisciplinary approach is becoming more and more important in professional practice and we cannot leave it up to students to learn about it on their own during their studies. This also applies to the topic of daylighting. Working with this resource is written into the DNA of our profession. At ETH, especially in the individual design studios, it has been a central theme up to now. However, I felt that it would be useful to work with scientists and industry in order to develop formats with which we could anchor daylighting design in the curriculum even more visibly. This could assume many forms – for example, a visiting professor or special design seminars. In my opinion, this would be highly beneficial, above all in the more advanced semesters.”
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY BO LI, GE MEN PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY HYUN SEO PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
SWISS FEDERAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (ETH), ZÜRICH
Luka Piškorec is a Research Assistant at the Department of Architecture and Digital Fabrication of the ETH Zürich, and was tutor of Bo Li and Ge Men for their winning design in the International VELUX Award 2012. He studied architecture at the University of Zagreb and worked in architectural offices in Croatia and Switzerland prior to pursuing his Master studies at the ETH, which he finished in 2011.
“Architects today should try to maintain the role as generalists that they have always played in history. This requires them to acquaint themselves with a broad range of skills from all areas of human cultural endeavor, especially, but not only, the creation of architecture. Technology plays an important role here since it permeates all parts of our culture, as well as the construction industry. Taking a pro-active approach to technology puts the architect in a leading position and allows him to define the rules of the game. Unfortunately, architects are usually the last to adopt new technologies, which leaves them with only a subordinate role in comparison to other engineers. Changing this attitude will enable us to assert ourselves as a driving force in technological innovation, something we have to strive for from the earliest days of our architectural education. In my view, the role of architects in our society is rather schizophrenic. On the one hand, we try to please our clients and meet their needs. On the other, there is the expectation that architects should work in the interest of society as a whole. Negotiating between these two requirements is one of the most important tasks of any architect, and students ought to be prepared for it in academia. A third aspect of architectural education is the increasing international interconnection between both students and architects. It is hard to ‘sell’ just anything to students these days: they communicate more than ever, they are well-informed and react to the lack or ‘censoring’ of information. This puts a lot of pressure on the mentors and architects
involved in teaching, as they have to continuously keep up to date with things happening in the architectural world. But it will eventually drive the discipline forward, as the quality of education will have to live up to global standards, and even smaller schools can reach global standards in a short time. Student competitions play a vital role in architectural education, and I would encourage any student to participate in them. After all, at the beginning of an architect’s professional life, there are basically only two ways of obtaining work and distinguishing oneself – direct contracts and architectural competitions. Since the first are much less common, young architects are often left with no other choice but to participate in competitions. Furthermore, I see competitions as a sort of series of questions asked by society, to which architects must respond. And only the architect who has something to say, comment or ask is competent to fulfill the second role mentioned above – to work in the interest of society. This culture of assuming the role of a ‘commentator’ who answers questions arising from society through architectural competitions should be nurtured in education from the very beginning.”
D&A SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21
QUOTE BY HUAT LIM PHOTOGRAPHY BY FERIT KUYAS
DAYLIGHT & ARCHITECTURE MAGAZINE BY VELUX GROUP SUMMER 2014 ISSUE 21 Publisher: VELUX Group, Michael K. Rasmussen VELUX Editorial team: Per Arnold Andersen, Christine Bjørnager, Lone Feifer Editorial & creative advisor: Torben Thyregod Editor: Jakob Schoof/DETAIL Photo editor: Torben Eskerod Art direction & design: Stockholm Design Lab ® Per Carlsson, Christopher West, Björn Kusoffsky Translation: Sean McLaughlin Proof-reading: Tony Wedgwood
Print run: 25,000 copies ISSN 1901-0982 The views expressed in articles appearing in Daylight & Architecture are those of the authors and not necessarily shared by the publisher. © 2014 VELUX Group. ® VELUX and VELUX logo are registered trademarks used under licence by the VELUX Group. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org da.velux.com Ipad version available in App store
D&A SPRING 2014 ISSUE 21
THE DEBATE CONTINUES! Dear Reader of Daylight/Architecture, Schools of architecture worldwide educate competent candidates who can hopefully fulfil everyone’s hopes for a satisfying and sustainable future in their future careers. This makes architectural education the quintessential factor in shaping our built environment; it was in the past and it will continue to be so in the future. We would like to invite you to take up the baton of a debate that is being started in issue 21 of Daylight/Architecture. Feel free to join us under www.thedaylightsite.com/the-future-is-light and #futureislight. Here are some initial questions for your inspiration: What are your top priorities and key advice for future generations of architects and other ‘game-changers’ of the built environment? And how do you see the awareness of natural resources − including sunlight and daylight − in the architectural education and profession today? Yours sincerely, The VELUX Group.