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Manchester City Centre Map (1967) This report has been digitised by Joe Blakey and Martin Dodge from the Department of Geography, University of Manchester. The digitisation was supported by the Manchester Statistical Society’s Campion Fund.

Permission to digitise and release the report under Creative Commons license was kindly granted by Manchester Libraries, Information and Archives, Manchester City Council. (Email: archiveslocalstudies@manchester.gov.uk)

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. 20 July 2013.


City and County Borough of Manchester

City Centre Map 1967

J S Millar B Arch M-TPI ARIBA City Planning Officer Town Hall Manchester 2 061-CEN 3377


Contents

Foreword Introduction

1.Historical and Regional Context

5

2.City Centre Uses

13

3.Circulation and Communications

27

4.Environmental Standards and Objectives

39

5.Comprehensive Planning Proposals

55

6. Implementation

73

7.Summary

81

Appendices Maps Acknowledgements


Foreword

1 , T h e City C e n t r e Map, b r ~ n g ~ tnogg e t h e r Inany s e p a r a t e hut ~ n t e r - r e l a t e dpolicies and p r o p o s a l s , is t o f o r m the b a s ~ sfor f u r t h e r consultations with those interested In the plannlng of the C e n t r a l A r e a of M a n c h e s t e r .

2 . T h e principal contents of t h i s r e p o r t have a l r e a d y been t h e subject of consultation o v e r a long period with the v a r i o u s Chief Officers and D e p a r t m e n t s of the C o r p o r a t i o n , wit11 the City E n g i n e e r of Salford, and with a wide r a n g e of organisations, including the C h a m b e r s of T r a d e and C o m r n e r c e . Valuable advice and a s s i s t a n c e h a s a l s o been given by the regional r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Millistries c o n c e r n e d with land u s e a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems,

3 . If t h e r e i s one c e n t r a l t h e m e running through t h e s e p r o p o s a l s it i s the i m p o r t a n c e and value of civilised city life and the need f o r c a r e and attention t o be paid t o the quality of e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e fundamental relationship between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and land u s e planning h a s meant that t h e c l o s e s t collaboration h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y a t e v e r y s t a g e between t h e D e p a r t m e n t s of t h e City E n g i n e e r and t h e City Planning O f f i c e r . T h e c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d a s s i s t a n c e given by o t h e r Chief O f f i c e r s and C o r p o r a t i o n Departments, p a r t i c u l a r l y the City A r c h i t e c t and the City E s t a t e s Officer i s gratefully acknowledged. 4 . Finally, it i s encouraging that s o many intending d e v e l o p e r s and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i s e r s r e c o g n i s e the need f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h a n d the wisdom of taking a longer t e r m view of both t h e i r own and the C i t y ' s i n t e r e s t s . It i s s o much s i m p l e r and s p e e d i e r t o s u b m i t and d e a l with p r o j e c t s on a p i e c e m e a l b a s i s and the patience generally shown i n t h e infinitely m o r e difficult and c o n ~ p l e xt a s k of r e l a t i n g development p r o p o s a l s t o w i d e r planning c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i s a p p r e c i a t e d . Only by a combination of effort, with public and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s working t o g e t h e r a s a t e a m , c a n the objectives s e t out i n t h i s r e p o r t be r e a l i s e d .

(left) City centre looking south east


lntroduct ion

1. The context o r point of d e p a r t u r e in considerin) these draft proposals f o r the C e n t r a l Area i s the City Development Plan which was submitted t o the Ministry of Housing and Local Government in 195 1, and approved in 1961. As modified by the Minister, the Plan showed the C e n t r a l Area by a general notation f o r principal business and shopping u s e s t o s e r v e the town a s a whole with the exception of a n a r e a situated broadly between the Town Hall and the Courts of Justice which was shown f o r 'general civic, cultural o r other special u s e s ' . ( s e e Map No. 3). 2 . The Minister expected that in due c o u r s e m o r e comprehensive and detailed proposals f o r the City Centre would be p r e p a r e d , a f t e r t h e r e had been opportunity t o c a r r y out f u r t h e r study and r e s e a r c h . T h e s e views anticipated t o s o m e extent the advice contained in the Bulletin 'Town C e n t r e s , Approach t o Renewal', which was published jointly in 1962, by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government and the Ministry of T r a n s p o r t . T h i s recommended that a non-statutory 'Town Centre Map' should be p r e p a r e d by Planning Authorities, incorporating m o r e detailed proposals f o r c e n t r a l a r e a s than the Development Plan technique had made possible.

3 . The Town C e n t r e Map would be accompanied by a m o r e detailed written explanation setting out the m a j o r planning objectives in the C e n t r a l Area and the proposals would f i r s t be presented in draft form, t o encourage comments and maximum participation by i n t e r e s t e d bodies and the g e n e r a l public. After full consideration had been given and any amendments made to the d r a f t proposals, it would then be open t o the Authority toadopt the Town Centre Map by resolution. The Minister would then be able t o consider any m a t t e r s , f o r example, comprehensive development a r e a proposals, which c a m e t o him f o r decision, in the context of the overall proposals f o r the c e n t r e .

4 . The Town C e n t r e Map concept, in i t s turn h a s been very much a f o r e r u n n e r , o r a m i l e stone, along the c o u r s e of thinking which led up t o the proposals of the Planning Advisory Group 'The F u t u r e of Development Plans', which w e r e published in 1965. The G r o u p ' s basic c r i t i c i s m of the Development Plan s y s t e m , a s existing, was that it was too detailed f o r s o m e purposes, namely the setting out of the broad strategic planning objectives f o r the a r e a a s a whole - which w e r e the main concern of the Minister and yet not sufficiently detailed t o provide a positive guide t o the f o r m and quality of development a t the local planning level. It advocated, t h e r e f o r e , that a m o r e broadly based 'Urban S t r u c t u r e Map' should be p r e p a r e d on the strategic level,


whilst local o r d i s t r i c t plans, a t a l a r g e r s c a l e would be p r e p a r e d in r e s p e c t of the i n o r e detailed p r o p o s a l s including t h o s e f o r Action A r e a s w h e r e development w a s i m m i n e n t . Only the s t r u c t u r e plans would r e q u i r e the M i n i s t e r ' s approval, whilst the local plans would be adopted by t h e Authority a f t e r consultation with i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . 5 . T h e Government h a s now announced i t s intention t o p r e p a r e new planning legislation, taking into account the recommendations of the Planning Advisory Group, and t h e d r a f t City C e n t r e p r o p o s a l s have b e e n p r e p a r e d wit11 p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d t o both t h e Bulletin on Town C e n t r e s and t h e P . A . G . p r o p o s a l s . T h e City C e n t r e Map c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be r e g a r d e d as a l o c a l o r d i s t r i c t p l a n . It i s p r e p a r e d in the context of the approved Development Plan f o r t h e City, but a n t i c i p a t e s a s f a r a s is possible a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , the Urban S t r u c t u r e concept which w i l l r e c o g n i s e m o r e adequately, t h e C i t y ' s p l a c e i n the Region. In the w o r d s of t h e P . A . G . r e p o r t : 'The e m p h a s i s i s on t h e dynamics of urban gr0wt.h and r e n e w a l , on t h e relationship between land u s e s and t r a n s p o r t . . . . The p r i n c i p a l a i m , however, is t o provide a b a s i c planning document which i s capable of e x p r e s s i n g in a c l e a r and integrated way the policies and objectives that a r e t o s h a p e the town's future. '

6 . T h e C e n t r a l A r e a of M a n c h e s t e r s e r v e s a n a r e a much l a r g e r than t h e City i t s e l f . It i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e g i o n a l c e n t r e and t h e extent a n d c h a r a c t e r of its functions and a c t i v i t i e s is both growing a n d changing. T h e r e p o r t begins by c o n s i d e r i n g i t s position in the r e g i o n a l context and t h e n e e d t o provide m o r e a t t r a c t i v e a n d efficient shopping, c o m m e r c i a l , s o c i a l a n d higher education f a c i I i t i e s ; a c e n t r e of a t t r a c t i o n t o s e r v e south e a s t L a n c a s h i r e a n d north e a s t Cheshire. 7 . T h e n follows a n a n a l y s i s of t h e f o r m of t h e City C e n t r e i t s e l f and of t h e principal a c t i v i t i e s that o c c u r within it, how the land is used a n d t h e t r e n d s likely t o affect land use in the future.

8 . P r o b l e m s of congestion a r e common t o a l l m a j o r c i t i e s and i m p r o v e m e n t of a c c e s s i s a fundamental n e c e s s i t y if the economic wellbeing a n d p r o s p e r i t y of the City is t o be atded by physical planning. R e s e a r c h into t h e regional t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p i c t u r e i s by n o m e a n s c o m p l e t e , but t h e p r i n c i p l e s of c a r parking provision in r e l a t i o n t o highway capacity, t h e n e e d s and safety of the p e d e s t r i a n , and t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of public and p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t a s applied t o the planning of the conurbation c e n t r e , a r e d e a l t with in t h e section on Circulation a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n s .

9 . Not l e s s important i s the need t o m a k e t h e City C e n t r e a n a t t r a c t i v e a n d worthwhile p l a c e t o visit, whether it is t o work, t o shop o r t o live and although they cannot be quantified easily, human s c a l e and values and s t a n d a r d s of quality will have a g r e a t d e a l t o do with the s u c c e s s o r otherwise of any r e n e w a l s c h e m e s . T h e need t o c o n s e r v e what is good and of value a n d the questions of intensity, c h a r a c t e r and amenity provisions in a r e a s r e q u i r i n g redeveIopinent, a r e d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h e heading of Environmental Standards and O b j e c t i v e s . 1 0 . In o r d e r not to f r e e z e a s t r e e t s y s t e m i n h e r i t e d f r o m t h e days of t h e h o r s e and c a r t , t o enable r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d s of day lighting t o be obtained, t o c r e a t e open s p a c e and amenity a r e a s a t r e a s o n a b l e cost, and t o r a t i o n a l i s e pedestrian a n d v e h i c u l a r circulation, it i s e s s e n t i a l that many p a r t s of t h e c e n t r e , r i p e f o r redevelopment, should be dealt with on c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i n e s . Comprehensive p r o p o s a l s o r a d v i s o r y s c h e m e s have been put f o r w a r d and accepted in principle by t h e City Council a s a guide t o development o r a s a prelude t o the s u b m i s s i o n of f o r m a l a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e Development Plan. The r e p o r t identifies and d e s c r i b e s t h e s e p r o p o s a l s and d e s c r i b e s in broad t e r m s t h e u s e s which would be a p p r o p r i a t e in v a r i o u s p a r t s of the C i t y . Although t h e s e s c h e m e s t o g e t h e r c o v e r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e c o r e of the City C e n t r e , t h e r e s t i l l r e m a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the f r i n g e s , f o r which n o detailed p r o p o s a l s have yet been p r e p a r e d . 11. Finally, questions of timing, c o s t s and ways and m e a n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e section on Implementation and a digest of s o m e of the m o r e important r e s e a r c h information is included in the a p p e n d i c e s .

1 2 . T h i s r e p o r t a i m s t o s u m m a r i s e and b r i n g together the relevant r e s e a r c h and r e s u l t s of work c a r r i e d out in relatioA t o the City C e n t r e s i n c e the Development Plan w a s p r e p a r e d and it i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e d e c i s i o n s which have s o At a t i m e f a r been taken by t h e City Council. when technological and s o c i a l change is s o r a p i d , n o plan m a y be r e g a r d e d a s a ' o n c e and f o r a l l ' operation and the City C e n t r e Map, a s now put f o r w a r d , does not a t t e m p t t o do m o r e than d e m o n s t r a t e t h e principal p r o b l e m s that need t o be tackled a t the p r e s e n t t i m e and provides a f r a m e w o r k f o r f u t u r e development in r e s p o n s e t o conditions and needs a s they now e x i s t and a s they c a n be f o r e s e e n a t t h i s point in t i m e . It is a l s o hoped that it will provide guidance to prospective d e v e l o p e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , consultants and the g e n e r a l public on policies s o f a r adopted f o r the C e n t r a l A r e a and show how they fit into the wider p i c t u r e .


1.Historical and Regional Context

1 . T h e C e n t r a l A r e a of M a n c h e s t e r , once the h e a r t of a Medieval i n a r k e t town, today s e r v e s a metropolitan region of about 2.5 million people, whilst 10 million people live within a fifty m i l e r a d i u s . T h e c e n t r e provides a continually expanding r a n g e of s e r v i c e s f o r a n a r e a and population which extends f a r beyond the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boundaries of the City and which i s second only to G r e a t e r London in s i z e . T h e City Regions c e n t r e d on Liverpool and M a n c h e s t e r together s u p p o r t a population of o v e r 4 million, a n d growth and i n d u s t r i a l development h a s o c c u r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y along the lines of communication which link the two g r e a t c i t i e s . T h i s densely populated ' M e r s e y belt' of t h e North-West a l r e a d y h a s many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a virtually continuous metropolitan region o r ' s u p e r conurbation' within which t h e widest r a n g e of i n d u s t r i a l activity will be found together with a high d e g r e e of p e r s o n a l mobility and choice of e m p l o y m e n t . The growth of Manchester

2 . Manchester (and i t s i m m e d i a t e neighbour Salford) i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y situated a t the foot of t h e Pennines in t h e s o u t h - e a s t of L a n c a s h i r e . F r o i n e a r l i e s t t i m e s location and topography have been favourable t o i t s growth a s a c e n t r e of t r a d e and communications s e r v i n g a wide a r e a . T h e Medieval c e n t r e w a s situated n e a r w h e r e the C a t h e d r a l s t a n d s today, c l o s e t o the confluence of the Irk and the Irwell, and a t the c r o s s i n g of Deansgate a n d Market Street, r o a d s e s t a b l i s h e d in Roman t i m e s . By t h e 16th Century t h e City was a l r e a d y a thriving m a r k e t town and t r a d i n g c e n t r e of g r e a t importance. Long before the Industrial Revolution, industry w a s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d in t h e M a n c h e s t e r a r e a and with i t s a r r i v a l Manchester b e c a m e the c e n t r e of a p a t t e r n of i n d u s t r i a l s e t t l e m e n t s located on t h e foothills of the Pennines.

North West Region -major urban areas- existing and proposed motorways

3 . Without a revolution in t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods and l i n e s of communication however the phenomenal economic a n d population growth which took place in t h e 19th Century and which we know a s the Industrial Revolution, would have been i m p o s s i b l e . M a n c h e s t e r pioneered w a t e r t r a n s p o r t in the f o r m of t h e a r t i f i c i a l c a n a l a n d became one of t h e t e r m i n i of t h e f i r s t r e g u l a r r a i l passenger s e r v i c e . The f i r s t transport r o u t e s in the industrial e r a w e r e t h e c a n a l s , although the City g r e w a l o n g t h e l i n e s of communication a l r e a d y existing, Deansgate and Market S t r e e t ; a t the s a m e t i m e a n intensive network of railway S w a s developed throughout s o u t h - e a s t L a n c a s h i r e , following a l a r g e l y r a d i a l p a t t e r n with M a n c h e s t e r a t the c e n t r e . T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r m of the total t r a n s p o r t network, railways a s well a s


r o a d s , may only be a p p r e c i a t e d with r e f e r e n c e t o the s u r r o u n d i n g s e t t l e m e n t s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the a r c of cotton towns t o the north, but what is c l e a r i s that a c c e s s i b i l i t y , c e n t r a l i t y a n d convenience, t h e n a s now w e r e of s u p r e m e i m p o r t a n c e t o the life and growth of the c e n t r e . T h e r e s u l t w a s not a planned city but a concentration of interlinked a c t i v i t i e s in the c e n t r e . Railheads and m a r s h a l l i n g y a r d s w e r e brought through t h e industrial c o l l a r into the h e a r t of the City and the p a t t e r n which the City C e n t r e h a s today, was s e t . With t h e optimism a n d d r i v e s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Victorian England, t h e Ship Canal w a s completed t o w a r d s t h e c l o s e of the 19th Century a n d within a decade the g r e a t r e p o s i t o r i e s of Whitworth S t r e e t , w h e r e t h e Region's exportable wealth could conveniently be s t o r e d p r i o r t o dispatch, had been built.

4 . If the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e railway t e r m i n i a s s i s t e d the concentration of buildings, goods and people in a relatively s m a l l a n d compact a r e a , then the a p p e a r a n c e of t h e s t r e e t t r a m w a y in l877 followed by t h e electrification of the p a s s e n g e r l i n e s t o Bury in 19 15 a n d Altrincham in 1931, a c c e l e r a t e d the p r o c e s s of population d i s p e r s a l which with the help of t h e p r i v a t e c a r continues t o d a y .

5 . T h e v a s t economic change a n d physical expansion of M a n c h e s t e r in t h e 19th Century w e r e accompanied by equally g r e a t population c h a n g e s . By t h e middle of t h e 19th Century M a n c h e s t e r w a s the c e n t r e of a conurbation with a population of well o v e r a million; the n u m b e r doubled within the next fifty y e a r s although t h i s concealed the outward movement t o the s u b u r b s which began i n e a r n e s t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y d e c a d e s of t h i s c e n t u r y .

c Growth of city region

6

6 . T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a of t h e City did not r e a c h i t s population zenith until 1931 when the irihabitarlts n u m b e r e d just o v e r 7 7 0 , 0 0 0 . After that date, t h e movement outwards began increasingly t o affect land beyond the City and t h e n u m b e r s living within began t o f a l l . In t h e City C e n t r e , t h e f a l l in n u m b e r s began v e r y much e a r l i e r , t h e f i r s t s i g n s being r e c o r d e d in the M a r k e t S t r e e t


a r e a which had 2'/, 000 inhabitants in 185 l but only 17, 000 by 187 1 . T h i s tendency t o w a r d s the d i s p e r s a l of r e s i d e n t i a l population h a s continued t o affect t h e c e n t r e , a n d today it h a s virtually no r e s i d e n t i a l population . Population and Housing

7 . In mid 1965 t h e population of t h e City Region*( t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l i m i t s of which a r e shown on p a g e 8 ) w a s just over 2 . 6 million which w a s not significantly different f r o m t h a t in 193 1. A growing r a t e of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e following the w a r w a s balanced by s u b s t a n t i a l outward m i g r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g in a s t a t i c o v e r a l l situation. T o w a r d s t h e end of the fifties however, and p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e 1961 due t o a m a r k e d reduction i n outward m i g r a t i o n a n d a higher b i r t h r a t e , the population h a s begun t o i n c r e a s e . T h e e s t i m a t e d population f o r 1981 in the City Region based on n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e a n d n i l m i g r a t i o n would be in the o r d e r of 2 . 9 5 million ::':'. Planned l e v e l s of f u t u r e movement out t o new towns, and e s t i m a t e s of voluntary m i g r a t i o n , however, both suggest that the population in 1981 may be about 2 . 7 m i l l i o n . It would s e e m , t h e r e f o r e , that a t l e a s t a f u r t h e r 100, Cl00 people will need t o b e provided f o r within the City Region a r e a by 1981; m o r e o v e r , c h a n g e s in t h e population distribution within the a r e a will inthemselves be quite c o n s i d e r a b l e following c l o s e l y upon t h e s l u m c l e a r a n c e p r o g r a m m e s being undertaken by M a n c h e s t e r and o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s which will r e l i e v e congestion in the inner a r e a s . 8 . Within the City of M a n c h e s t e r itself, the population w a s about 660,000 in 1961. It h a s a l r e a d y fallen to about 600, 000, a s the r e s u l t of redevelopment and r e c e n t s t u d i e s suggest that i t m a y f a l l t o a m o r e stable level of about 5 5 0 , 0 0 0 in 1981, It is evident therefore, *See Appendix A for definitions of City Regiori and City. "* Estimates based on Registrar General's Statistics; a more detailed account of population trends will appear in a forthcoming report on the City Region.

that whilst the C i t y ' s population will continue t o f a l l f o r a t i m e , t h e t o t a l population of the City Region will move in a n upward d i r e c t i o n . The p a t t e r n of r e s i d e n c e in relation t o t h e C e n t r a l A r e a is becoming m o r e d i s p e r s e d than hitherto, s o that t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p e r s o n a l mobility a r e the m o s t important f a c t o r s in a s s e s s i n g the relationship between t h e c e n t r e and i t s r e s i d e n t i a l catchment a r e a . 9 . Population change i s r e f l e c t e d in housing n e e d s , one of the City Region's g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m s . Natural i n c r e a s e in households is however only one e l e m e n t of housing need, by f a r t h e biggest f a c t o r being the replacement of the Region's 200, 000 o r s o s u b s t a n d a r d dwellings. T h e City f a c e s e a s i l y the biggest p r o b l e m in t h i s r e s p e c t a n d a t the end of 1966 s t i l l had approximately 46, 000 s l u m s . A p a r t f r o m a few s c a t t e r e d pockets, t h e l a r g e proportion of t h i s p r o p e r t y s u r r o u n d s t h e City C e n t r e , a s shown on Map No. 1 although s i g n s of change a r e a l r e a d y v e r y evident. Whilst total population c h a n g e s in the City Region have a m o r e d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e f u t u r e of the c e n t r e , the population l e v e l s of the a r e a s immediately adjacent t o the c e n t r e will show a decline as redevelopment p r o g r e s s e s . At the s a m e t l m e the quality of l o c a l s e r v i c e s will i m p r o v e whilst d i s t r i c t c e n t r e s which will c a t e r f o r local shopping n e e d s a n d provide limited office accommodation, a r e t o be located i n s o m e of these a r e a s . T h i s emphasises the im.portance of improving a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the City C e n t r e w h e r e the s p e c i a l i s e d shopping and o t h e r s e r v i c e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y g e a r e d to the l a r g e r s c a l e Regional r e q u i r e m e n t s , r a t h e r than t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s that l i e in c l o s e proximity t o i t .

1 0 . Employment t r e n d s a r e a n important r e m i n d e r of t h e interdependence of the c e n t r e a n d i t s h i n t e r l a n d . Between 1959 and 1965 the e n ~ p l o y n l e n tp i c t u r e f o r the City Region fluctuated continuously; o v e r a l l change f o r t h e period w a s however, negli@ble, although t h i s w a s not t h e situation within s m a l l e r a r e a s o r


City Region -existing and proposed roads


even within tlie boundaries of Manchester County Borough. 1 1 . Two m a j o r f a c t o r s have influenced employment in recent y e a r s . F i r s t l y , the policy of the Board of T r a d e , which h a s placed the emphasis on locating new development in the manufacturing industries in d i s t r i c t s of high unemployment and has thus tended t o discourage industrial expansion in Manchester and i t s environs; and secondly the upheaval in the textile industry where over 40,000 jobs w e r e lost between 1959 and 1965. Despite this, the unemployment figures in both t h e City Region and the City have been consistently below the national average, whilst activity r a t e s have remained high, thus indicating a c e r t a i n resilience i n the economy of the a r e a . 1 2 . In 1965 t h e r e w e r e 385, 000 jobs within the boundaries of the City itself which represented a n overall decline in employment of 17,000 since 1959. The most marked decline in employment was the l o s s of 11,000 jobs in the distributive t r a d e s , half of which a r e a t present located in the Central Area, and this could be attributable to decline in textile warehouses, improved mechanical handling techniques and decentralisation to avoidcongestion. Today in fact, l e s s than 3% of the working population of Manchester a r e e m ~ l o y e din the textile industry. However, t h e r e h a s been considerable growth in other s e r v i c e industries during the ~ e r i o d ;10, 000 in professional s e r v i c e s alone, an i n c r e a s e of 28% which h a s been spaced widely throughout the City; 2, 100 in miscellaneous s e r v i c e s , a n i n c r e a s e of 6%, with other significant i n c r e a s e s in insurance, banking and finance and public administration. Whilst a l l these figures a r e f o r the Couilty Borough,preliminary a n a l y s i s suggests that the City Centre has s h a r e d in this growth, particularly of miscellaneous s e r v i c e s and public administration, 13. The C e n t r a l Area a s might be expected, provides the l a r g e s t concentration of

employment in the City Region with about 160,000 jobs, i n 1965, o r about 12T7of the total and about one third of the jobs in the City The wider a r e a within a two mile radius of the Town Hall- which includes the docks and part of the Trafford Park Industrial Estate, provides about one q u a r t e r o r m o r e than 280,000 jobs - of the City Region's employment, 14. T h e r e s e e m s little doubt that the Central Area of Manchester like most metropolitan c e n t r e s a p p e a r s t o be undergoing a qualitative change with a concentration of higher o r d e r functions, whilst a t the s a m e time maintaining stability in quantitative t e r m s . The t r e n d s s o f a r evident suggest that if ratiorialisation in the distributive t r a d e s is complete, then employment in the Central Area should show a steady, though s m a l l i n c r e a s e up to 1981, although m o r e significant growth could o c c u r , dependent on national policy on the location of office employment. 15. The experience of London, Paris and other cities suggests that the second o r third City, places like Manchester and Lyons, will t o some extent provide an overflow f o r the growing number of administrative, management and office jobs. This p r o c e s s can be seen in Manchester i n a limited way with the expansion in banking and government offices, the National Computing Centre, the Regional Headquarters f o r the B.B.C ., the new Business School and indee'd the expansion in higher education, r e s e a r c h and laboratory facilities. If t h e s e t r e n d s point t o the future c h a r a c t e r of the centre, then again the most important single factor a s it h a s been in the past, is undoubtedly the need f o r improved accessibility. Communications 16. At the beginning of the Century the Manchester a r e a was only s o m e five m i l e s in diameter but in a generation, the built -up c o r e ribboned twelve m i l e s along the radial t r a m r o u t e s . Although in the last twenty five y e a r s o r s o the total population has remained


virtually the s a m e , the route-free motor vehicle, at f i r s t the bus and now the private c a r , h a s helped to fill in the green wedges, extending the potential radius of the City to between ten and fifteen m i l e s and i t s potential a r e a of residence t o over 700 square m i l e s . 17. The dispersive effects of the motor vehicle on population a r e in marked contrast to the concentration of c e r t a i n major functions to be seen in the City Centre itself, and the delicate balance between these tendencies depends above a l l on freedom of movement to the c e n t r e . Efficient t r a n s p o r t , appropriate to differing functions, i s probably the only effective way in which the social advantages of residential d i s p e r s a l and the econonlic and other advantages of concentrating activities of a metropolitan c h a r a c t e r , dependent on a l a r g e catchment a r e a , may be reconciled. 18. The commuter s e r v i c e s by road o r r a i l the physical expressions of interdependence

-

a r e essential t o the City Centre, which grew and prospered a s a direct r e s u l t of the development of m a s s transportation facilities. Large scale residential expansion, particularly on the south side of Manchester, initiated by the railways and l a t e r consolidated by the motorcar, h a s been boosted successively by the introduction of improved diesel and l a t e r e l e c t r i c , train s e r v i c e s . The modernisation of Trails-Pennine r a i l facilities - routes which c a r r y the heaviest amount of freight traffic, has added a f u r t h e r dimension to regional communications and m o r e recently but of equal importance to the City has been the electrification of the main railway line to London; the possibility of i t s extension t o Scotland i s now being studied. The popularity and s u c c e s s of these recently introduced rapid inter-city r a i l s e r v i c e s point t o the increasing role of the c e n t r e a s a m a j o r regional transport interchange; a t the s a m e t i m e , the City's municipal a i r p o r t at Ringway which s e r v e s a population of around 15 million, h a s become a major irlternational a i r p o r t and t h e r e has been a rapid i n c r e a s e in a i r freight and passengers.

19. The development of the national motorway system i s a l s o beginning to make itself felt and cominunications between the regions have already been improved by the construction of the M . 6; by the e a r l y 1970's the City will be directly linked with the M. 6 along the line of Princess Road and Princess Parkway, whilst the Mancl~ester/PrestonMotorway ( M . 61) should be completed by 1970, together with the M . 62 T r a n s -Pennine Motorway, now under construction. All these proposals will a l s o have a n important impact on the pattern and extent of inter-city and inter -regional movement, and will make the s e r v i c e s of a metropolitan c e n t r e available t o an even l a r g e r population.

The future role of the Central Area 20. The d i s p e r s a l of population is in l a r g e m e a s u r e a response t o social and technological change; personal mobility and higher standards of living a r e tending t o enlarge the s p h e r e of influence of the c e n t r e and the overall population it s e r v e s will correspondingly i n c r e a s e . It may be expected that any future reorganisation of local government will be in the direction of the establishment of effective planning units and, together with the formulation of economic policies for the re@on, these will be additional f a c t o r s in determining the balance between concentrat ion and d i s p e r s a l . 2 1 . T h e r e a r e c l e a r economic advantages t o account f o r the continued growth and adaptability of the various city and metropolitan regions; the Manchester c e n t r e i s no exception, but if the c e n t r e , providing a s it does f o r a growing range of specialist s e r v i c e s in close proximity t o a l a r g e market of consumers, takes advantage of economies of s c a l e , t h e r e a r e a l s o disadvantages a r i s i n g f r o m various f o r m s of congestion, delay and cost of transporting raw m a t e r i a l s . At the s a m e t i m e i t s g r e a t strength and resilience encourages and a t t r a c t s growth and a n eillployed populaticn of hundreds of thousands c r e a t e s i t s own m a r k e t f o r s e r v i c e s .


2 2 . It must be accepted, that there i s a degree of competition between the Central Area of the City and other towns in the Region,. particularly in t e r m s of shopping and other specialised s e r v i c e s . The future role of the c e n t r e will r e s t t o some extent on the acceptance throughout the Region, of a hierarchy of ' c e n t r e s of attraction' and in this respect the independent tradition of some of the older surrounding towns and the growth of the new such a s Wilmslow, should not be overlooked. In the general sense however, the future of the Regional centre a p p e a r s a s s u r e d ; it is a n essential part of the European cultural tradition of 'living in cities' where the commercial, economic and political functions a r e inextricably bound up with the educational, A a r t i s t i c and social life of the community. concentrated, lively and civilised heart to the City and the Region i s therefore seen a s a basic policy objective.


-7

4

i f - : rar*(


2.City Centre Uses

1 . T h e City C e n t r e is about 1 . 5 s q u a r e m i l e s in extent, bounded generally by the v a l l e y s of the Irwell and t h e Medlock with the main line railway s t a t i o n s , Piccadilly, Exchange/Victoria and C e n t r a l f o r m i n g a t r i a n g l e within which m o s t Regional activities a r e l o c a t e d . 2 . G r e a t Ancoats S t r e e t m a r k s the broad l i m i t s of C e n t r a l Area u s e s on t h e n o r t h e a s t e r n s i d e ; Mancunian Way i s now the effective southern boundary and a p a r t f r o m John Dalton College and t h e buildings of t h e Institute of Science and Technology, i t s e p a r a t e s t h e c e n t r a l c o m m e r c i a l a r e a f r o m the m a i n p a r t of t h e Higher Education Precinct and t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s of Brunswick and Hulme.

3 . Although t h e R i v e r I r w e l l is the n a t u r a l boilndary on t h e w e s t e r n s i d e and f o r m s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boundary between the two a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e M a n c h e s t e r C e n t r a l A r e a and t h e adjoining a r e a s of Salford a r e in p r a c t i c e closely i n t e r - r e l a t e d . Exchange Station and Victoria Bus Station, both d i r e c t l y opposite Manchester C a t h e d r a l , a r e situated in Salford, whilst r e c e n t office development o c c u r s on both s i d e s of t h e boundary. F r o m a communications

City centre from t h e west

5-3 Land form


point of view. in p a r t ~ c ~ ~ l iat ris , e s s e ~ ~ t i that al t h e r e should be a C O orcllnated approach, and the p r i m a r y hig,hwa) network proposals put f o r w a r d In t h i s r e p o r t havc been worhcd out ~ o l n t l ywith tile Clty I71ig11lecrancl P l a ~ ~ n i nOfflccr g of Salfo L-c1 . Silnilarlu, a r e a s which it is evident s l i o ~ ~ be ld plaiinecl c o m p r e h e n s ~ v e l vextend on both s l d e s of t h e bouncialy, an exanlple being the a r e a surrounding M a n c h e s t e r Cathedral, and in t h e s e c a s e s the p r o p o s a l s concerned have been the subject of joint consultation and acceptance by A~lancliesterand Salford foint Planning C o l n n ~i t t e e .

4 . T h e City C e n t r e r e p r e s e n t s by f a r t h e l a r g e s t concentration of eiliployillent, containing those c o r n m e r c i a l , s e r v i c e and governmental a c t i v i t i e s , without which it would be difficult to identify t h e City Region a s a c o r p o r a t e whole. Some of i t s main f e a t u r e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s indicate that it i s a regional c e n t r e of wholesale and r e t a i l t r a d e , s e r v i n g a m a r k e t i n g a r e a second onIy to Londorl and d i s t i n g h s h e d by a g r e a t v a r i e t y of d e p a r t m e n t and chain s t o r e s , fashion, furnishing and speciality s h o p s . It is a c e n t r e of r e g i o n a l and local government, a principal banking c e n t r e , t h e m a j o r provincial c e n t r e of t h e newspaper publishing- industry and a m a j o r c e n t r e of television, radio and telephonic communication. It i s a l s o a hub of m c ~ s i c a land a r t i s t i c l i f e , o f f e r i n g a growing- variety of s o c i a l and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s and a c e n t r e of ' University and Higher E d u c a t i o ~ l -the development of which i s inextricably bound up with t h e l i f e of the c e n t r e . Finally it i s linked to one of the c o u n t r y ' s m o s t important p o r t s and is t h e c e n t r e of a complex national, regional and local network of road, r a i l and a i r communications. T h e growth of a i r t r a v e l , and l a t t e r l y t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e in a i r f r e i g h t t r a f f i c , underline the i m p o r t a n c e and f u t u r e potential of M a n c h e s t e r A i r p o r t to t h e p r o s p e r i t y of t h e City and the Region.

5. T h e City C e n t r e p r o p o s a l s c o v e r approximately 1 , 100 a c r e s , containing a l l the a r e a s allocated f o r C e n t r a l A r e a purposes in t h e Development Plan a s well a s a r e a s allocated f o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e s within the l i n e of Mancunian Way and t h e l i n e of t h e proposed l n n e r Ring Road ; t h i s a r e a of study i s shown on Map 2 and i s defined in Appendix A .

l ~ e t w e e npcdestrlan and vehicular- t r a f f i c , ~ n a d e q ~ r aftaec l l i t i c s f o r efflclent servicing and a s t r e e t s y s t e m unsulted to m o d e r n t r a n s p o r t rcqulrerllelits,

S. T h e Citv Centi-e h a s r e a c h e d a c r i t i c a l s t a g e in i t s developmeilt with a high proportion of obsolete buildings, whic11 p r e s e n t s t h e opportunity to renew and r e c r e a t e a m o r e efficient and convenient c e n t r e worthy of t h e region it s e r v e s . T h e object i s to h a r n e s s the f o r c e s of change s o a s to r e c o n c i l e iinproved a c c e s s i b i l i t y with higher environmental s t a n d a r d s and to obtain maxiinurn advantage f r o m limited r e s o u r c e s .

9 . T h e r e a r e a r e a s in m o s t m a j o r c i t i e s which m a y be r e a d i l y identified a s devoted to p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ancl u s e s ; t h i s p a t t e r n of activity i s v e r y m a r k e d in M a n c h e s t e r w h e r e t h e principal groupings a r e : (i)

r e t a i l shopping ;

(ii) offices, banking- and i n s c ~ r a n c e; (iii) civic functions ; (iv) warehousing ; (v) e n t e r t a i n m e n t 1 0 . h4ost of t h e s e u s e s o c c u r in traditional locations within t h e c o r e of t h e City C e n t r e a s defined in Appendix A and t h e distribution of u s e s i s r e f e r r e d to in T a b l e s 1 and 3 01 Appendix C . Shopping i s concentrated on M a r k e t S t r e e t , Oldham S t r e e t , Deansgate and t h e S t . A n n ' s S q u a r e and L o w e r King S t r e e t a r e a . Upper Icing S t r e e t i s t h e traditional bailking a r e a around which i n s u r a n c e and office u s e s have b e c o m e e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h e m a j o r g r o u p of civic buildings l i e s t o t h e s o u t h of t h i s a r e a and h a s a t t r a c t e d o t h e r office functions. Entertainment u s e s a r e l a r g e l y c o n c e n t r a ~ e don Oxford S t r e e t and P e t e r S t r e e t whilst warehousing occupies m o s t of t h e a r e a southe a s t of Mosley S t r e e t a s f a r a s t h e R l v e r Medlock and i s d e n s e l y concentrated along Whitworth S t r e e t .

11. h1 t h e following sectiorls t h e existing and proposed u s e s contained in tlie City C e n t r e a r e examined in m o r e d e t a i l .

6 . In g e n e r a l t e r m s , t h e t r e ~ i d saffecting the (i) Shopping C e n t r a l A r e a a r e common to many of t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s which w e r e o r i g n ~ a l l yi n d u s t r i a l , namely 12. T h e City C e n t r e s e r v e s a n extensive tlie growth of office and aclmillistrative f ~ m c t i o n s hinterland ancl a population f a r in e x c e s s of t h e accompanied bv an i n c r e a s e in s e r v i c e 600, 000 people who live within t h e City. It is employment, t h e concentration of r e t a i l t r a d e e s t i m a t e d that it p e r f o r m s a regional function outlets and the r e p l a c ~ n gof warehousing ancl f o r about 3 . 5 million peoplc a n d t h i s could well o t h e r declining activities by Inore iiltensive and i n c r e a s e to 4 inillion by 1981 ; f r o m f i g u r e s profitable u s e s . given iri t h e 1961 Census of Distribution it attraciecl about 14%)of the C i t y Region's t r a d e . T h c m a j o r p r o b l e m s OS t h e c e n t r e a r e i . f a m i l i a r ; growiilg congestion, tlie c o ~ l f l i c t

13. T h e regional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e c e n t r e a r e sliowl~I,y t h e high proportion of t h e c o r e


Market Street looking towards Piccadilly

devoted to d e p a r t m e n t ancl varlet\[ s t o r e s , with clurable goods accoc~ntingf o r al>proxiniately '77% of t h e total t u r n o v e r . T h e Study A r e a contalns al~ocrt7 million s q u a r e feet of shopplng accoinmodation with about 5 m i l l ~ o ns q u a r e feet contained within the c o r e . D e p a r t m e n t , v a r i e t y and chain s t o r e s account l o r about 40x of t h e total shopping a r e a in t h c c o r e , o r about a t h i r d of all the sliop7ing in t h e C e n t r a I A r e a , a s show^: in t a b l e 7 of Appendix C . 1 4 . T h e main shopping a r e a is c e n t r e d on Market S t r e e t , with a continuous f r o n t a g e of fashion and s h o e s h o p s , dominated by m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t and v a r i e t y s t o r e s a t e a c h e n d . T h e s t r e e t is the h e a r t and c e n t r e of the pop~11arr e t a i l fashion t r a d e ancl i s in effect a c o r r i d o r , o r connecting link, in a shopping pattern which i s ' Z ' s h a p e 011 plan and about 1 , 0 0 0 y a r d s in length.

1

lli. It i s not a v e r y c o m p a c t shopping c e n t r e and h a s tended to be polarised; t h e ' q u a l i t y ' shoppiilg h a s c o n c e n t r a t e d in t~hevicillity of King S t r e e t , S t . Ann's S q u a r e and t h e Kendal Milne D e p a r t m e n t S t o r e , w h i l s t t h e ' p o p u l a r ' shopping h a s c e n t r e d around L e w i s ' s and Paulden's s t o r e s a t t h e e a s t e r n end of M a r k e t S t r e e t and along Oldham S t r e e t w h e r e a n u m b e r of s t o r e s , including-C. and A . Modes and Affleck and Brown a r e to b e found ; Piccadilly G a r d e n s h a s d i s c o u r a g e d t h e expansion of shopping f u r t h e r e a s t w a r d s t o w a r d s Piccadilly Station. 1 6 . T h e r e m o v a l of M a r k s and S p e n c e r s to a new building in t h e M a r k e t Place a r e a , (the s i t e of the m e d i e v a l m a r k e t place and incidentally of the f i r s t 'penny b a z a a r ') which f o r m s a pivot b e tween M a r k e t S t r e e t itself and t h e S t . Arm's S q u a r e a r e a , h a s tended to c l o s e up the g a p left by w a r d a m a g e and t h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e ~ l t i a lof the Market S t r e e t and Market Place a r e a s f o r shopping is l i k e l y to contribute to a m o r e coinpact and continuous pattern in t h e f u t u r e . 1 7 . A s u b s l d i a r ) ~c l u s t e r of shopping i s to be found in t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t s a r e a on Oxford S t r e e t , which cxtcnds f r o m S t . P e t e r ' s S q u a r e to Cxford Road Station. Motor c a r s h o w r o o m s a r e located just beyond t h e m a i n shopping a r e a in Pet e r S t r e e t arid between Kendal Milnes and t h e r a i l w a y viaducts a t t h e southern end of D e a n s g a t e . T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e s h o p p ing r e f l e c t s t h e way in which t h e c e n t r e h a s g r o w n .

SHOPPING

1 s . A shopping study w a s unc1ertal;en in 1962 with the p r i m a r y objective of e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e location, c h a r a c t e r and extent of shopping e x l s t m g a t t h a t t i m e , b r o a d l y within the a r e a defined a s the c o r e in Appendix A ; a t that t i m e many m a j o r s c h e m e s to provide arnbitioc~sshopping developments w e r e being put f o r w a r d by d e v e l o p e r s . Although t h e r e is an l~ndoubtecldelnand f o r s o m e additional and well located shopping s p a c e , if all t h e i n a j o r s c h e m e s which h a v e been put I'orward tentatively


o v e r t h e past s i x o r seven y e a r s had been built, t h e p r e s e n t total shopping a r e a i11 t h e c o r e would have been i n c r e a s e d out of a l l p r o p o r t i o n . Some d e v e l o p e r s optimistically tend to a s s e s s t h e potential of t h e i r s c h e m e s a g a i n s t existing conditions on t h e b a s i s that they will be ' f i r s t off t h e g o - a n d ' . S c h e m e s c a r r i e d out 011 such a b a s i s would b e n ~ u t u a l l yself-defeating and p e r m i s s i o n s given could be virtually l i c e n c e s for failure.

1 9 . I n c r e a s e d shopping f a c i l i t i e s in o n e location m a y b e a t t h e e x p e n s e of f a c i l i t i e s e l s e w h e r e and t h i s would c l e a r l y h a v e s e r i o u s affects, r e s u l t i n g in dereliction a n d fragmentation of t h e shopping centre. 20; Although i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o predict with any d e g r e e of c e r t a i n t y o r a c c u r a c y , p r e c i s e l y how m u c h shopping; t h e City C e n t r e will eventually s u p p o r t , t h e view h a s been taken that new m a j o r shopping development should b e located to consolidate t h e shopping a r e a and phased to keep ill s t e p with evident d e m a n d . ":l:* T h e fact that llluch of the shopping c e n t r e i s o b s o l e t e and s u b s t a n d a r d s u g g e s t s that whatever t h e u l t i m a t e position, c o n s i d e r a b l e redevelopment and r e p l a c e m e n t i s e s s e n t i a l to maintain and i m p r o v e i t s position a s a c e n t r e of a t t r a c t i o n . T h e pattern of t h e shopping c e n t r e n e e d s r e s h a p i n g and advantage taken of t h e oppartuility to provide good c a r p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e m o t o r i s t s h o p p e r , m o r e convenient. a c c e s s to public t r a n s p o r t , and s a f e and inviting conditions f o r t h e p e d e s t r i a n .

of the p r e s e n t c e n t r e , taking advantage of i t s redevelopment potential. If r e n e w a l , not only of the shopping a r e a , but of o t h e r p a r t s of t h e C e n t r a l A r e a s t r e n g t h e n s t h e position of the regional c e n t r e and s t i m u l a t e s d e n ~ a n dbeyond t h i s c a p a c i t y , then consideration can b e given to the development of o t h e r potential shopping areas.

2 3 . T h i s policy, which of c o u r s e r e f e r s to m a j o r shopping development and not to s m a l l e r g r o u p s of s u b s i d i a r y and convenience shopping, is not new and h a s been in operatioil f o r a n u m b e r of y e a r s . T h e f i r s t C o m p r e h e n s i v e Developilleilt A r e a p r o p o s a l s which have been submitted to the Minister of Housing and Local Government a r e c e n t r e d on t h e Market S t r e e t a r e a , and underline t h e p r i m a r y objective of redeveloping the regional shopping c e n t r e in i t s existing traditional location. T h e y h a v e been put f o r w a r d a g a i n s t t h e background of a consistent policy of r e s i s t i n g l a r g e s c a l e shopping developments on unrelated o r f r i n g e s i t e s which would have militated a g a i n s t t h e consolidation and i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e C i t y ' s main shopping c e n t r e . 24. T o b e competitive, t h e r e i s no doubt that M a n c h e s t e r ' s shopping- c e n t r e w i l l r e q u i r e to be not only convenient and efficient, but a l s o outstandingly inviting and a t t r a c t i v e . D e t a i l s of t h e p r o p o s a l s f o r the development of t h e Market S t r e e t a r e a a r e r e f e r r e d to on Page 5 6 of t h i s R e p o r t .

( i i ) Offices 21, T h e redevelopment in depth of t h e mainly o b s o l e t e a r e a to t h e n o r t h of Market S t r e e t , t o g e t h e r with a s c h e m e f o r which outline planning consent h a s been g r a n t e d in t h e Market Place a r e a , would, if implemented o v e r t h e next decade, i n c r e a s e t h e total shopping f l o o r s p a c e in t h e study a r e a by 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o r 10% - on t h e assumption that t h e r e w a s no reduction in t h e a r e a of shopping e l s e w h e r e in the centre. 22. In t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and c e r t a i n l y until t h e point of balance can b e worked out m o r e a c c u r a t e l y in a regional context, it would a p p e a r unwise t o p e r m i t o r provide f o r extensive shopping development in o t h e r p a r t s of t h e City C e n t r e , which would b e l i a b l e to dilute and d i s r u p t t h e shopping pattern to t h e disadvantage of both t h e new and t h e old. T h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y m u s t b e t o i m p r o v e t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and quality

*

Shopping floor space statistics for the City Region area are not yet available. Ever] if t h e existing and proposed floor space was available for a l l the central areas of the County Boroughs, there would still be many other variables t o t a k e into account. It will be necessary to carry out more sophisticated studies into shoppin on a broader basis although it is hoped to derive Rrther useful information on t h e journey to shop and household expenditure patterns when the S. E . L. N. E . C . transportation study material bcconies available.

25. Offices and banks now a c c o u n t f o r about a q u a r t e r of t h e total g r o s s f l o o r s p a c e in t h e study a r e a ; t h e r e is an equal amount of w a r e h o u s e s p a c e but t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s end t h e r e . A q u a r t e r of the 14 million s q u a r e f e e t of office s p a c e h a s been built s i n c e 1948 ; o v e r 6 0 , 0 0 0 people o r 42 % 01t h e working population in t h e c e n t r e , a r e office e m p l o y e e s . In c o n t r a s t , t h e r e h a s been a s t e a d y decline in warehousing functions and e m p l o y m e n t and l e s s than 1 9 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s a r e employed in t h i s sector. 26. T h e a r e a immediately south of M a r k e t S t r e e t and bounded by C r o s s S t r e e t , P r i n c e s s S t r e e t and Mosley S t r e e t , contains m o s t of t h e m a j o r banks, the Stock Exchange, t h e G e n e r a l Post Office, i n s u r a n c e companies and a s s o c i a t e d professional offices ; t h i s i s t h e c o m m e r c i a l h e a r t of t h e City w h e r e t h e p r e s t i g e buildings are to b e found, such a s t h e MidlandBank and Ship Canal House on King S t r e e t . T h e tradition is being continued and buildings r e c e n t l y completed include t h e new Barclays and Williams Deacons Banks, and a new H e a d q u a r t e r s f o r t h e D i s t r i c t Bank is being constructed on King S t r e e t ,

2'7. S o m e of t h e e a r l y post-war office development w a s c a r r i e d out on s i t e s a c q u i r e d by


Iqlng

Street- the cornrnerclal t ~ e a r t

the City following w a r damage, and the g r e a t majosi-ty of the schemes wil-icil liave been,or a s e 11einq huilt,are for. owner occupation o r f o r a defiXite client. Where offices have been built to let, a s a commercial venture, t h e r e has s o far,in general been little r e a l djfficulty in letting them. 'The establishment of regional offices of various miiiistries, and the sleed to replace substandard accornmodation,l~asundoubtedly corltributed towards a steady dernand f o r s p a c e .

28. T h e office development in the Central Area i s highly concentrared ; t h e r e a r e over 8 million s q u a r e feet in the c o r e a r e a alone which contains all the banks, most of the insurancc offices and virtually all the professional offices. ( s e e table 8 of Appendix C). Two important exceptions however, a r e the fine developments of the Co-operative Wholesale Society Headquarters and the Co-operative Insurance Society Building, which a r e situated a t the junction of Corporation Street and MiIler Street, outside the commercial heart,and further developnlent i s likely to take place in this a r e a .

2 9 . T h e r e i s no doubt that t h e r e will be a continuing need f o r new office accommodation, if only to replace the least satisfactory element of the 10 million s q u a r e feet of p r e - w a r offices, which cannot be made economically capabie of meeting the minimum standards called f o r by the Offices, Shops and Railway I'reinises Act of 1963. T h e r e i s a considerabie volume of office space in f o r m e r warehouse buildings, particularly in the Whitworth Street a r e a , w h e r e s o m e of the buildings a r e v e r y substantial structurally and this emphasises t h e decline in warehouse functions and the reluctance to pay higher rental values f o r new accommodation. With one exception, t h e r e h a s been little evidence of office space in new buildings remaining empty f o r any length of time, although t h e r e has been a steady growth in the amount of old property becoming vacant. (See table 9 off Appendix C). Banking and insurance functions a r e growing and s o a l s o is the demand f o r m o r e s p a c e by Central and Local Government. 30. One of the difficulties which undoubtedly slows down the p r o c e s s of redeveIopment, i s that althougl-1 many office p r e m i s e s a r e substandard, firins a r e not attuned to the prospect of paying economic rentals f o r new accoinmodation, even although the corresponding figures in Central London might be t h r e e t i m e s a s g r e a t .

OFFICES

31. T h e ra-te of growth of comnlercial activity will depend on wider economic f a c t o r s and on the effect of riatiorial policies aimed a t r e s t r i c t i n g office growth in the Midlands and the South E a s t . LC the trends of the last ten y e a r s a r e projected, rnost office building i s likely to be replacement, and [he allocation in the City Centre Map will be m o r e than sufficient to take account of this and any additional net growth.


The Town Hall --centreof civic functions

(iii) Civic Functions

32. T h e C e n t r a l A r e a provides the location f o r both t h e c e r e m o n i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e functions of t h e City Council. T h e s e a r e a t p r e s e n t mainly accommodated in t h e Old Town Hall and t h e Town Hall Extension. T h e s e buildings f o r m t h e nucleus of the 'Civic A r e a ' allocated in t h e nevetopment Plan f o r g e n e r a l civic , cultural o r o t h e r s p e c i a l u s e s . Within t h i s a r e a , which extends w e s t w a r d s as f a r a s t h e River Irwell between Bridge S t r e e t and Quay S t r e e t , a r e situated t h e Police H e a d q u a r t e r s , t h e C o u r t s of J u s t i c e , the C i t y ' s Education Offices - now located in Crown S q u a r e , and a n u m b e r of o t h e r buildings completed in r e c e n t y e a r s .

33. A r e p o r t by t h e City Architect and t h e City Planning Officer on municipal accommodation (Appendix F , Report No. 18) r e c e n t l y analysed t h e growth in Local Government s e r v i c e s and employment. At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e about a third of t h e municipal offices a r e located outside the civic g r o u p and it w a s e s t i m a t e d that if t h e r a t e of expansion of s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e past fifteen y e a r s w e r e to b e projected, an additional 800,000 s q u a r e f e e t of s p a c e would b e likely to b e r e q u i r e d o v e r t h e next ten to fifteen y e a r s , t o a l l e v i a t e overcrowding, t o c a t e r f o r additional staff apd t h o s e a t p r e s e n t accommodated outside, t h e Town Hall, and f o r extensions to t h e C e n t r a l L l b r a r y a n d t h e Police H e a d q u a r t e r s . It i s proposed that s i t e s that can r e a d i l y be linked to t h e Town Hall should b e acquired f o r municipal p u r p o s e s to provide f o r p r e s e n t and f u t u r e n e e d s Plans have been approved f o r a new M a j g s t r a t e s ' C o u r t , to be built adjoiuing t h e C o u r t s of Justice m Crown Square a n d t h e r e is a l s o a proposal to e r e c t a new County C o u r t and extensions to the e x i s t i n g C o u r t s of J u s t i c e . (iv) Warehousing and Industry

34. T h e significant fact r e v e a l e d in t h e 1966 Land U s e Survey,is t h e extent of warehousing s p a c e distributed evenly throughout t h e study a r e a , while industry i s concentrated in t h e f r i n g e a r e a s . (As shown in T a b l e 10 of Appendix C ) . T h e City C e n t r e w a s traditionally

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the location f o r textile warehousing and distribution ; many of t h e s e uses a r e now housed in obsolete buildings o r in a r e a s made obsolete by inadequate servicing facilities. T h e canals and r i v e r s a t an e a r l i e r date provided a c c e s s and w a t e r r e s o u r c e s f o r warehousing and industry respectively ; a number of industries s t i l l remain in the Medlock Valley on the southern side of the Central A r e a , s o m e of which have not changed f o r a hundred y e a r s . Many of the older industrial u s e s a r e declining, especially those connected with cotton and textiles generally and even if Board of T r a d e policy on location of industry w e r e to change, Central A r e a locations would not b e suitable f o r the establishment of m a j o r new industries, At the present time, establishments dependent on a high level of s e r v i c e accessibility a r e tending to move outside the central c o r e to s i t e s better related to the p r i m a r y road system and f r o m a planning point of view it i s desirable that this trend should be encouraged to f r e e the central s t r e e t system f r o m a s much heavy goods traffic a s possible.

3.5. T h e s e various trends may b e seen now,with many s t o r e s taking deliveries to their p r e m i s e s d i r e c t f r o m the factory, whilst Lewis ' S and Kendal's have t h e i r warehouses well outside the C e n t r a l A r e a . T h e Manchester Guardian and Evening News a r e also planning to move f r o m their congested s i t e in C r o s s Street. T h e Abattoir, f o r m e r l y located in the Water Street a r e a , h a s already moved out to a modern complex of buildings a t Philip's Park andwithin a few y e a r s the Smithfield Wholesale F r u i t and Vegetable Market will close after a new m a r k e t , to b e built a t Gorton, i s completed.

depots r e p l a c e s d i r e c t r a i l a c c e s s a s a c r i t e r i o n .

37. T h e City Centre Map a s s u m e s that decentralisation of warehousing and industrial u s e s will continue to take place from the central c o r e a r e a of the City. T h e removal of warehousing f r o m the c o r e alone would r e l e a s e a l a r g e a r e a of land f o r commercial and other purposes. It is envisaged that the a r e a required f o r industrial u s e will i n c r e a s e by about a fifth, but in the future this will include provision f o r warehouse and s t o r a g e u s e s moving out f r o m s i t e s in the c o r e , with t h e i r high values and attendant problems of accessibility, servicing difficulties and congestion, 38, T h e industrial allocation (which will include s t o r a g e and warehouse functio'ns) amounts to 28'1 a c r e s and i s located largely on the southe a s t e r n and south western s i d e s of the Central A r e a . This should b e adequate to e n s u r e that light industrial o r warehousing concerns which have important linkages t o Central Area functions, can be relocated in close proximity and yet obtain good a c c e s s and servicing a r r a n g e m e n t s . ( v ) Entertainrnent

39. Manchester i s known f o r i t s high level of musical and a r t i s t i c activity but unfortunately this i s not altogether reflected in the extent and cluality of the facilities available. Apart f r o m the reconstruction of the F r e e T r a d e Hall following war damage, the recently opened University Theatre, and the new Renold Building of the Institute of Science and Technology which i s made available for musical and other activities, t h e r e has beenno modern o r post-war accommodation built for music, opera, ballet, sport o r recreation, in 36, T h e locational c r i t e r i a f o r industrial and the Central A r e a . s t o r a g e u s e s include good a c c e s s to the national Major Entertainment in the f o r m of cinemas, motorway s y s t e m by m e a n s of the p r i m a r y road t h e a t r e s , public halls, clubs and r e s t a u r a n t s , network, absence of congestion and the the Midland Hotel, Y . M . C . A . , and the C e n t r a l availability of land lending itself to economic Library a r e located mainly along Oxford Street development that will enable modern handling techniques td h e used. T h e linkage to the Central and Peter S t r e e t , on the southern side of the City C e n t r e . Area i s now essentially on the distributive side Apart f r o m the Opera House, situated on Quay and now that the 'liner t r a i n ' concept of railway Street, and the City Hall off Deansgate - which freight s e r v i c e s i s being developed, good road i s used f o r exhibitions, the Palace Theatre, the a c c e s s to the freight t e r m i n a l s and t r a n s f e r


Night life

L i b r a r y T h e a t r e , t h e F r e e T r a d e Idall, t h e A l b e r t Hall, as well a s m o s t of the C i t y ' s main c i n e m a s - including t h e Gaurnont and the Odeon, a r e a l l in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y . About 60% of t h e s e f a c i I i t i e s l i e within a q u a r t e r of a m i l e of the junction of Oxford S t r e e t and Portland S t r e e t . T h e City A r t G a l l e r y , the Portico L i b r a r y and the L i t e r a r y and Philosophical Society a r e a l l c l o s e a t hand.

4 0 . T h e City C e n t r e Map p r o p o s a l s provide f o r a n a r e a of 35 a c r e s on e i t h e r s i d e of Oxford S t r e e t t o be redeveloped predominantly f o r cultural, entertainment and leisure activities, including the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a m a j o r regional a r t s a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t c e n t r e within t h e a r e a bounded by Charlotte S t r e e t , Portland S t r e e t , Chepstow S t r e e t , G r e a t Bridgewater S t r e e t , Lower Mosley S t r e e t and Mosley S t r e e t . T h e City Council, in M a r c h 1965, a u t h o r i s e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of C o m p r e h e n s i v e Development A r e a p r o p o s a l s in r e s p e c t of the area proposed f o r t h e A r t s C e n t r e a n d c e r t a i n adjoining lands, a t p r e s e n t occupied in t h e m a i n by old warehousing a c c o m m o d a t i o n .

on Oxfor'd Street

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4 1 . T h e main i m p e t u s which led t o the p r o p o s a l s f o r an A r t s C e n t r e c a m e f r o m negotiations that took place and a r e continuing with the A r t s Council,witl~a view t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new O p e r a House with a r e s i d e n t company, that would enable f i r s t c l a s s o p e r a a n d ballet facilities to be e s t a b l i s h e d on a s e m i - p e r m a n e n t b a s i s f o r the f i r s t t i m e outside London. T h e support of t h e M i n i s t e r of A r t s f o r t h i s p r o p o s a l h a s been e x p r e s s e d and a suitable s i t e is available within the a r e a .

4 2 . Negotiations a r e a l s o proceeding with a view t o t h e establishment of a new live t h e a t r e p r o j e c t within the c e n t r e and d i s c u s s i o n s have been held with the National F i l m T h e a t r e f o r In the the inclusion of a cinema a l s o . m e a n t i m e , the National F i l m T h e a t r e plan to e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s in the a r e a and build up a n audience by utilising a n e x i s t i n g c i n e m a in Oxford S t r e e t . ENTERTAINMENT

4 3 . Another importa.nt e l e m e n t to be provided

\\\


in the proposed A r t s C e n t r e i s a n extension t o t h e m a i n City A r t Gallery in Mosley S t r e e t a n d r e s t a u r a n t S, offices, studios and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s would a l s o be included. C o m p r e h e n s i v e planning p r o p o s a l s have been p r e p a r e d f o r the whole of a wider a r e a indicating how t h e s e v a r i o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t a n d c u l t u r a l u s e s might be r e l a t e d and t h e s e a r e d e s c r i b e d l a t e r on in t h i s r e p o r t ; a working party i s a l s o investigating the provision of a Museum of Science a n d Technology within t h i s a r e a .

4 4 . P r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s have a l s o been put f o r w a r d f o r about 23 a c r e s of land a t p r e s e n t occupied by C e n t r a l Railway Station (the c l o s u r e of which h a s r e c e n t l y been approved by t h e M i n i s t e r of Transpol-t)and the Deansgate Goods Y a r d whlch h a s a l r e a d y c l o s e d . T h i s a r e a i s p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable f o r t h e provision of m a j o r c a r p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o s e r v e the C i t y C e n t r e a s a whole, but the s i t e could a l s o be exploited f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t p u r p o s e s . It h a s been s u g g e s t e d that the fine T r a i n Hall, l i s t e d a s a building of a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t , might be u s e d f o r exhibition p u r p o s e s , although no d e c i s i o n h a s yet been m a d e and a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h i s use, outside t h e City C e n t r e , a r e a l s o under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e e x i s t i n g City Exhibition Hall which is situated nearby,will be affected by a m a j o r highway p r o p o s a l a n d i s r e a c h i n g the end of i t s useful l i f e . The introduction of a v a r i e t y of u s e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and exhibition p u r p o s e s on t h i s s i t e , (which i s adjacent t o t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t a r e a of t h e City) would enable advantage t o be taken of a variety of s e r v i c e s including c a r parking and would undoubtedly a c t a s a s t i m u l u s t o o t h e r development in a n a r e a which is o t h e r w i s e just outside the main c e n t r e of a c t i v i t y . 4 5 . A r e g i o n a l c e n t r e of the s i z e and i m p o r t a n c e of M a n c h e s t e r should be able t o o f f e r a range of e n t e r t a i n m e n t and l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s second t o none, and the m o s t efficient u s e of costly f a c i l i t i e s f o r o p e r a , ballet o r s p o r t will c l e a r l y be achieved if they a r e located in the h e a r t of the conurbation w h e r e

they a r e m o s t readily a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e l a r g e s t population and c a n s e r v e the widest catcliment a r e a . M o r e o v e r , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p r i m a r y f a c i l i t i e s of t h i s n a t u r e will g e n e r a t e a demand f o r limited s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s such as r e s t a u r a n t s , coffee b a r s , night c l u b s and h o t e l s - a l l welcome f e a t u r e s of the life of a City which i s a l r e a d y m o r e lively ' a f t e r h o u r s ' than many of i t s counterparts.

(vi) Education 46. T h e c e n t r e h a s s t r o n g educational t r a d i t i o n s Originally C h e t h a m s School (which s t i l l r e m a i n s adjacent t o t h e Cathedral), t h e G r a m m a r School, Owens College a n d the Mechanics Institute-later. to b e c o m e t h e College and then the Institute of Science and Technology, w e r e a l l located in t h e

HIGHER EDUCATION


c e n t r e . A s t h e City grew s o m e moved out and today higher educational f a c i l i t i e s a r e now located in t h r e e m a i n a r e a s .

C e n t r e development

49. T h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e University, t h e Institute,the City Colleges and t h e United 47. Owens College developed into t h e University Manchester Hospitals a r e b e i n g co-ordinated complex w e know t o d a y , s o m e d i s t a n c e to the by m e a n s of the joint planning p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e south of the c e n t r e , and o t h e r City Colleges Higher Education Precinct, a n a r e a of 280 have a l s o been built in t h i s a r e a , with t h e new a c r e s , which h a v e been d r a w n up by M e s s r s . John Dalton Collzge of Technology within the Wilson and W o m e r s l e y and which a r e r e f e r r e d c e n t r e n o r t h of Mancunian Way. T h e Manchester t o in m o r e d e t a i l l a t e r in t h e r e p o r t . It is University Institute of Science and Technology possible that f u r t h e r a r e a s between t h e Higher h a s expanded, and t h e o r i g i n a l College Education Precinct and t h e h e a r t of t h e C i t y Building in Whitworth S t r e e t i s now only one of a C e n t r e a t p r e s e n t p r i m a r i l y occupied by complex of i t s buildings within the c e n t r e ; t h e warehousing and i n d u s t r i a l u s e s m a y eventually new College of C o m m e r c e , t h e Mather T r a i n i n g have to b e c o n s i d e r e d f o r educational p u r p o s e s College and the C e n t r a l G r a m m a r School f o r and t h e s e a r e a s will b e t h e s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r G i r l s a r e a l l located n e a r b y . In addition t h e r e study. a r e colleges f o r f u r t h e r education on t h e opposite s i d e of t h e c e n t r e , namely t h e new S t . Jolm's College and t h e College of Building in Hardman ( v i i ) Residential S t r e e t . All t h e s e institutions m e e t a regional demand and provide a s e r v i c e that only a l a r g e 5 0 . Until midway through t h e nineteeth c e n t r e of population can s u p p o r t . c e n t u r y a l a r g e proportion of t h e population actually lived in o r c l o s e t o t h e City C e n t r e . 4 8 . T h e original Development Plan allocated The growth of t h e railway s y s t e m and t h e 12 a c r e s within t h e study a r e a f o r educational i n c r e a s e in warehouse functions r e s u I t e d in p u r p o s e s . T h e expansion of higher education r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s being pushed f u r t h e r out f r o m f a c i l i t i e s m e a n t that t h i s allocation w a s the c e n t r e . insufficient and in 1956 and 1961 t h e City Council decided t o r e s e r v e a f u r t h e r 2 7 . 5 a c r e s 5 1 . In m o r e r e c e n t t i m e s development f o r commercial purposes has reduced still further p r i m a r i l y f o r extensions to t h e Institute of the provision of r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation Science and Technolagy. Subsequently, and although about 4, 000 p e r s o n s stilI a m e n d m e n t s to t h e Development Plan have been r e m a i n e d a t the l a s t c e n s u s i n t h e study a r e a , approved which r e c o g n i s e t h e s e and o t h e r only the Lower Byrom S t r e e t a r e a may be allocations totalling 31 a c r e s , a s f a r a s t h e identified a s r e m o t e l y r e s i d e n t i a l in c h a r a c t e r . study a r e a i s concerned. In addition two Even in t h i s a r e a , a p a r t f r o m t h e fine and well c o l l e g e s , t h e St. John 'S College of F u r t h e r c a r e d f o r Georgian town h o u s e s on John S t r e e t Education and t h e College of Building h a v e occupied in the main by m e d i c a l consultants been built on 9 a c r e s of land originally allocated and professional offices, m o s t of the f o r g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l o r o t h e r s p e c i a l u s e s and r e m a i n i n g accommodation is s u b - s t a n d a r d and t h e new College of C o m m e r c e and t h e M a t h e r much of it is subject t o c l e arance proposals. T r a i n i n g College occupy 6 a c r e s of land originally allocated f o r C e n t r a l A r e a p u r p o s e s . T h e additional land r e q u i r e d f o r education within 5 2 . F r o m a planning point of view t h e r e i s a strong 'prima facie' c a s e f o r reversing the t h e study a r e a h a s thus r e s u l t e d in t h e original h i s t o r i c a l t r e n d a n d encouraging the reDevelopment Plan allocation being i n c r e a s e d by e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l u s e in t h e C e n t r a l s o m e 46 a c r e s and t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d in t h e City A r e a of t h e C i t y . T h e r e a s o n s include : -. C e n t r e Map, which m a k e s provision f o r 58 a c r e s to be devoted to educational and allied T h e provision of accommodation f o r (i) p u r p o s e s , including the National Computing


people working in o r n e a r the City Centre and reduction of the 'journey to work' problem, c r i t i c a l f r o m an accessibility point of view. (ii)

Provision of dwellings in the City Centre of whatever kind, adds to the overall housing stock and i s likely to make a contribution,directly o r indirectly, to the housing p r o g r a m m e .

(iii)

People living in the c e n t r e would stimulate the growth and prosperity of the c e n t r e itself, enabling g r e a t e r use t o b e made of the facilities provided. They would help t o bring life to the City a t a l l hours and introduce the more human s c a l e and element. particularly recognisable in p a r t s of London and other capital c i t i e s .

53. Unlike shopping, offices and c o m m e r c i a l development, residential accommodation i s the one use where it i s possible to say that t h e r e i s virtually no limit t o the demand, provided it can be built at a cost which c a n be afforded and provided a l s o that it is c a r r i e d out on a scale that enables good environmental conditions t o be obtained. The greatest environmental obstacle was overcome when the City Centre became smokeless and it i s the economic hurdle that now has t o be surmounted.

5 4 . The r e s u l t s of surveys have confirmed what had previously been suspected, namely that the a r e a which was allocated in the Development Plan f o r business and shopping was m o r e than adequate t o meet foreseeable needs. T h e r e i s now a l s o considerable evidence that the r e a l demand f o r c o m m e r c i a l development on the periphery of the centre is by no means unlimited. The introduction of residential use would not only s e r v e to take up some of the 'slack' resulting from the replacement of declining warehousing u s e s by much m o r e compact and intensive office development, but it would in t u r n stimulate the provision of f u r t h e r shopping and other facilities that would otherwise not be viable, thus contributing t o the c o m m e r c i a l life of the c e n t r e a s well.

55. A way of helping t o off-set the land cost element, a reflection of the high values associated with the previous Central Area u s e s , i s to include a proportion of commercial development i n any scheme, the mixed u s e s providing a n opportunity to achieve a n interesting and t r u l y urban s c a l e . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l ways in which i t is proposed residential accommodation should be provided on redevelopment :(i)

Where t h e r e is the opportunity to c r e a t e an a r e a which is predominantly residential in c h a r a c t e r , although including a relatively s m a l l percentage of other c o m m e r c i a l uses, and where the a r e a i s sufficiently large to provide the ancillary facilities necessary f o r ordinary family living. It is


c o n s i d e r e d that the Smithfleld a r e a wlll be sultable f o r t h i s f o r m of development, once the Wholesale Market m o v e s to ~ t new s s i t e in Goston, a n d c o m p r e l ~ e n s l v eplanning p r o p o s a l s a r e a t p r e s e n t In c o u r s e of preparation. (ii)

(iii)

T h e next c a s e i s w h e r e the s i t e i s of sufficient s i z c f o r the redevelopmeilt to c r e a t e a new irnproved environment of i t s own, but not sufficiently l a r g e t o c o n s i d e r the provision, f o r example, of educational f a c i l i t i e s . Again a proportion of t h e land c o s t would be a b s o r b e d by t h e inclusion of a n e l e m e n t of c o n i m e r c i a l development. T h e Lower Byrom S t r e e t a r e a , a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d to, is suitable f o r t h i s f o r m of development, t h e Deansgate frontage f o r example, being devoted principally t o c o m m e r c i a l u s e s . Again detailed p r o p o s a l s a r e a t p r e s e n t in c o u r s e of preparation. Finally t h e r e is the opportunity t o include a n e l e m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation in predominantly c o m m e r c i a l development. An example is the p r o p o s a l a l r e a d y approved f o r t h e Corn Exchange a r e a in the vicinity of the C a t h e d r a l , w h e r e a block containing flat units i s incorporated above the podiurn l e v e l . Other a r e a s which would lend t h e m s e l v e s t o a proportion of housing a s p a r t of the c o m p r e h e n s i v e development,include the a r e a t o t h e e a s t of Lower Mosley S t r e e t , the C e n t r a l and Deansgate Goods Y a r d a r e a s and the Market S t r e e t redevelopment a r e a .

56. In relation t o the l a s t two c a t e g o r i e s , t h e r e i s no doubt that t h e r e is a latent demand f o r accommodation of a s p e c i a l i s e d n a t u r e c a t e r i n g in the m a i n f o r professional b u s i n e s s people, single people and s i n a l l households who would best he a b l e t o m a k e us'e of City C e n t r e f a c i l i t i e s and would not r e q u i r e the full r a n g e of community s e r v i c e s n o r m a l l y planned i n a s s o c i a t i o n with a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . T h i s i s , of c o u r s e , subject again t o the qualification that the c o s t s should be within r e a s o n a n d that the f l a t s t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r outlook should be reasonably a t t r a c t i v e . T h e r e i s no evidence,as yet,in M a n c h e s t e r of any g e n e r a l demand by f i r m s t o maintain accommodation f o r visiting executives, in the way that i s c o m m o n in London, but, if suitable accommodation w e r e available, i n t e r e s t might well develop. 57. About 100 a c r e s of the study a r e a a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have potential f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development and dependent on m o r e detailed

study, it is possible that a c c o m ~ n o d a t i o n could he provided f o r a p p r o s ~ i n a t e l y2, 000 dwellings .

5 8 . The City C e n t r e p e r f o r m s a n additional regional f l ~ n c ton i i n providing resident-ial llotels and a n c i l l a r y functions which c a t e r f o r b u s i n e s s v i s i t o r s , c o n f e r e n c e s a n d meetings, a s well a s complellientii~gtlie l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s of the City. T h e C e n t r a l A r e a contains t h r e e m a j o r hotels, one of which h a s been built in the l a s t five y e a r s , but t h e r e is s t i l l a s e r i o u s s h o r t a g e of hotel r o o m s of modern standard.

5 9 . D i s c u s s i o n s have a l r e a d y taken place with d e v e l o p e r s r e g a r d i n g the inclusion of hotel facilities in the Market Place development, t h e north M a r k e t S t r e e t A r e a and Lower Mosley S t r e e t . Another location that could appropriately include a n h o t e l within p r o p o s a l s would be t h e l3yrom S t r e e t a r e a of lower D e a n s g a t e . (viii) Transport 6 0 . When t h e r a i l w a y s and c a n a l s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d they did not in g e n e r a l p e n e t r a t e t o the c e n t r e of t h e City, but provided t e r m i n a l s on the f r i n g e with l a r g e a r e a s devoted t o goods t r a f f i c ; t h e s e u s e s today r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i n ~ a t e l ya n eighth of t h e land a r e a in tlie City C e n t r e . Many of t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s , in p a r t i c u l a r c e n t r a l goods depots, canal basins, and other ancillary warehouses, have become redundant and t h e land i s now non-operational and r i p e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . A s a r e s u l t , l a r g e a r e a s of land around Piccadilly Station, C e n t r a l Station a n d t h e Deansgate Goods Depot will become available f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; s i m i l a r l y , t h e Rochdale and Asliton c a n a l b a s i n s , c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with t h e land a t Piccadilly Station, a r e in a d e r e l i c t condition a n d offer c o n s i d e r a b l e opportunities f o r redevelopnlent . 6 1 . T h e r e i s adequate land within t h e c o r e of thc City t o c a t e r f o r shopping, office a n d g e n e r a l c o m m e r c i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s that a r e likely t o be r e q u i r e d in the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e a n d detailed c o n s i d e r a t i o n is being given t o the possible u s e s which could be located in t h e s e f o r l n e r t r a n s p o r t a r e a s . The City is s h o r t of land f o r both open s p a c e and r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s and in addition,many of the s i t e s r e f e r r e d t o a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y well located f o r m a s s c a r parking-. 6 2 . T h e Rochdale Canal, whilst s t i l l navigable in the City C e n t r e i s no longer used c o m m e r c i a l l y ; i t could however, provide a pleasant p e d e s t r i a n systein in t h e soutliern p a r t of the City C e n t r e , linking v a r i o u s open s p a c e s a n d a p p r o p r i a t e public u s e s between the canal basin and C e n t r a l Station. T h i s


would then provide a lil-ik t o the proposals now under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r that section of the Rochdale C a n a l t o t h e e a s t of the City Centre. L,.and Use Changes in Perspective

63. T o s u m m a r i s e , the p r o p o s a l s f o r future land u s e (Map 7) r e p r e s e n t significant changes in allocations, b a s e d on a m o r e detailed knowledge of e x i s t i n g u s e c a t e g o r i e s a n d t r e n d s than h a s been possible h i t h e r t o . The m o s t important i s a reduction of about 100 a c r e s in the a r e a allocated in the Development Plan f o r shopping, c o n i m e r c i a l and civic u s e s , which a r i s e s p r i m a r i l y f r o m the knowledge that t h e s e u s e s , even when g e n e r o u s allowance i s m a d e f o r anticipated growth, c a n be contained in a m o r e compact a r e a . The decline in warehouse and s t o r a g e u s e s and the r e a l i s a t i o n that t h e s e c a n no longer be c a r r i e d out efficiently in the h e a r t of a g r e a t c o m m e r c i a l c i t y , i s a fundamental f a c t o r in t h i s r e - a s s e s s m e n t .

6 4 . Instead of being grouped with office u s e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l changes which a r e taking place in the r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e textile, warehousing a n d distributive t r a d e s have been recognised by providing f o r warehousing in a n a r e a on the p e r i p h e r y of t h e C e n t r a l A r e a , with good a c c e s s , c o v e r e d broadly by a n i n d u s t r i a l notation. T h i s a r e a is l a r g e r than t h e o r i g i n a l Development Plan allocation f o r i n d u s t r y and a l r e a d y contains a high proportion of s t o r a g e a n d light i n d u s t r i a l functions. 6 5 . Within t h e r e d u c e d a r e a of about 390 a c r e s now p r o p o s e d f o r C e n t r a l A r e a u s e s , t h e r e a r e s i x a r e a s c o m p r i s i n g s o m e 140 a c r e s f o r which n o c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o p o s a l s have yet been p r e p a r e d and which r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s t u d y . T h e a r e a s north of Mancunian Way, between t h e Higher Education Precinct a n d c o m m e r c i a l c e n t r e p r o p e r , a r e not yet r i p e f o r redevelopment and the Whitworth S t r e e t a r e a in p a r t i c u l a r contains a n u m b e r of s u b s t a n t i a l buildings. On the e a s t e r n f r i n g e of t h e City C e n t r e in t h e Newton S t r e e t a r e a , the predominantly l a r g e old buildings s t i l l have a n u m b e r of y e a r s of useful life r e m a i n i n g whilst in the w e s t , a l a r g e p a r t of t h e l i n e a r a r e a south of C e n t r a l Station will be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e City C e n t r e Road. 6 6 . An additional 7 8 a c r e s a r e suggested f o r p r i m a r i l y r e s i d e n t i a l u s e , m o s t of which i s allocated f o r b u s i n e s s and shopping in the Development Plan; t h e r e h a s a l s o been a n i n c r e a s e d a r e a a l l o c a t e d by amendment t o t h e Development Plan f o r educational purposes.

6'/. About 30 a c r e s of railway land a r e likely t o become available in t h e s h o r t t e r m f o r o t h e r u s e , s o m e of which was used f o r warehousing p u r p o s e s and additional land may become available in the f u t u r e . 68. Although c a r p a r k i n g d o e s not a p p e a r a s a s e p a r a t e i t e m in the tables, it h a s been a s s u m e d that i n s o m e c a s e s t h i s will be provided a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of reclevelopinent including o t h e r u s e s . T h e amount of vacant land is not indicated in t h e t a b l e s s e p a r a t e l y a s m a n y sites a r e only t e m p o r a r i l y vacant p r i o r to rebuilding 'and a r e g e n e r a l l y used f o r t e m p o r a r y p a r k i n g p u r p o s e s . Few s i t e s have r e m a i n e d vacant f o r any length of t i m e in the City C e n t r e though t h e r e are o t h e r v a c a n t s i t e s on the p e r i p h e r y , t h e Rochdale Canal b a s i n and Strangeways a r e a s being t h e two m o s t important.

69. T h e p r o p o s a l s would allow f o r change a n d growth; t h e r e i s enough land t o m e e t a l l foreseeable needs, apart from commercial r e q u i r e m e n t s , including s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , educational a n d e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s - a l l t h e buildings and activities expected in a metropolitian c e n t r e . However, a p a r t f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of land u s e , t h e r e i s the a l l important question of environment; a communications and c i r c u l a t i o n f r a m e w o r k that will e n s u r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y without d e s t r o y i n g the quality of city life, that will allou7 f o r p e d e s t r i a n and vehicular circulation a n d the c r e a t i o n of new t r a f f i c f r e e a r e a s and p l e a s a n t s u r r o u n d i n g s .


3.Circulation and Communications

1. Any City C e n t r e Plan h a s to r e p r e ; eilt a r e a s o n a b l e balance between the t h r e e v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s of accessibility, envirorlment and econonly enunciated in the Buchanan R e p o r t . Indeed i t m a y b e s a i d that the whole f u t u r e of c i t i e s depends on being able to provide a sufficiently high d e g r e e of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to e n s u r e that they c a n function effic;iently and conveniently whilst c r e a t i n g a n environment of quality to m a k e thein c e n t r e s of a t t r a c t i o n . Tlie e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between land u s e and the planning of the whole t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m , public and private, i s now being increasingly r e a l i s e d and accepted, although the techniques a r e a s yet i m p e r f e c t l y worked out and the r e s e a r c h and s u r v e y information needed i s complex and demanding in t e r m s of t i m e and r e s o u r c e s . 2 . In the M a n c h e s t e r a r e a , work is proceeding on the conurbation trarisportation s u r v e y f o r the C i t y Region, the f i r s t a t t e m p t to s u r v e y and r a t i o n a l i s e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m a s a whole in r e l a t i o n to the existing and f u t u r e land u s e pattern, a s distinct f r o m a purely highway planning e x e r c i s e ; the r e s u l t s of this s u r v e y a r e not expected to be available until m i d -- 1969. Although they will c l e a r l y h e r e l e v a n t to the planning of the M a n c h e s t e r City C e n t r e , the h e a r t of the conurbation, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to m a k e p r o g r e s s in the m e a n t i m e and to r a t i o n a l i s e a s f a r a s possible the c i r c u l a t i o n and conirnunication s t r u c t u r e , in o r d e r not to delay the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r e a s that a r e overdue f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t .

3 . T h e c i r c u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e on which the p r e s e n t City C e n t r e Map is b a s e d r e l a t e s to t h r e e m a j o r r e p o r t s , n a m e l y the S , E . L . N . E . C . Highways Plan of 1962, the Joint Report on C a r Parking of 196'/ and the Joint Report on the City C e n t r e Road of 196'/, and i t will of c o u r s e b e r e v i s e d and amended if n e c e s s a r y when the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u r v e y information i s a v a i l a b l e . R e f e r e n c e should be m a d e to the t h r e e r e p o r t s r e f e r r e d to above f o r Inore detailed explanations of highway planning in r e l a t i o n to r o a d capacity and c a r parking policy and p r o p o s a l s , a s this document only a t t e m p t s to g i v e a b r o a d p i c t u r e in relation to the plailning of the City C e n t r e a s a whole.

4 . T h e p r i m a r y r o a d network proposed f o r the conurbation in the S. E . L . N.E. C . Highway Plan envisaged an expenditure of ÂŁ300 million in the twenty y e a r period to 1982. and the p r e s e n t and expected r a t e s of investrrient f o r the a r e a would show that i t a p p e a r s

*A Mancunian Way looking east

IIighway Plan 1962:

South East Lancashire and North East Cheshire area highway engineering committee; the other two reports are listed i n appendix F.


reasonable to r e g a r d the ÂŁ300 million a s being the upper limit f o r the period. Moreover, a s f a r a s tlle City C e n t r e is concerned, the availability of routes for p r i m a r y roads is s e v e r e l y limited by economic and environmental considerations. Vdhere c a r parking facilities a r e concerned, tile essence of the proposals put forward in the Joint Report on C a r Parking is the balancing of parking facilities with road capacity in peak and off peak times in s t e p with the improvement of the road s y s t e m . The s t r a t e g y of location i s influenced by the availability of potential s i t e s and a r e a s where a satisfactory relationship can be obtained either to the p r i m a r y o r secondary network, according to the purpose for which the c a r parks a r e intended.

5 . To this extent, it s e e m s reasonable to anticipate that the r e s u l t s of the transportation survey, when available, will be m o r e likely to lead to a refinement r a t h e r than a radical r e - a s s e s s m e n t of the circulation arrangements on which this f i r s t City C e n t r e Map i s based. With r e g a r d to public transport, studies a r e being undertaken at thc present time with particular relevance to making better u s e of existing r a i l facilities and their p o s s b l e extension, including the introduction of an entirely new Rapid T r a n s i t l i n e . Although these studies a r e by no means complete, they a r e being considered against the background of the Central Area land u s e and circulation pattern now put forward. The Primary Road Network

6 . The road s y s t e m in the City of Manchkster Development Plan was basically a r i n g and radial system, a ' s p i d e r ' s web', and the innermost ring was planned to follow the line of Portlaild Street, then to run behind Central Station and along Lower Byrom Street and Gartside Street until it reached the River I r ~ v e l la t filbert B1-idge. It w a s then to run along a s t r u c t u r a l deck over the Irwell itself, coming off tlle River to run along the City side of the Cathedral and completing the ring

Primary road proposals,which would supercede Development Plan alignrnents,shown in round dots


along Callnon S t r e e t , joining up with Portland S t r e e t again a t Piccadilly G a r d e n s . 'The o t h e r r o a d p r o p o s a l s c l o s e l y affecting the C e n t r a l A r e a w e r e a p a r t of the second ring, the Inner Ring Road, which passed in f r o n t of the p r e s e n t s i t e of the C . I . S , building and along G r e a t Ancoats S t r e e t . In addition a link r o a d , (then known a s Route 17/7) was planned on the south s i d e of the C e n t r a l A r e a between the City C e n t r e and Inner Ring Roads; the link r o a d i s now known a s 1Mancunian Way and i s in o p e r a t i o n . 'This s y s t e m , with an adjustment to the Inner Ring Road, involviilg i t s rclocation n o r t h of and p a r a l l e l to i t s original line along G r e a t Ancoats S t r e e t , was the network analysed and incorporated into the 1962 S . E . L . N . E . C . Highway Plan. 7 . It was the C i t y C e n t r e Road in i t s original f o r m that p r e s e n t e d s u c h s e r i o u s problems f r o m both the e n v i r o n ~ n e n t a lplanning and constructional points of v i e w . T h e s m a l l c i r c u m f e r e n c e of the ring, s o c l o s e to the c o r e , the f r e q u e n c y of the junctions and the location of v e r y substantial statutory undertakers' services, created considerable engineering d e s i g n p r o b l e m s .

8 . F r o m a planning point of view, the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of the r o a d , c o m p a r e d with the original single level conception, had Inany u n d e s i r a b l e effects, of which undoubtedly t h e m o s t s e r i o u s was the visual a n d actual physical separation. of the Cathedral and C h e t h a m ' s Hospital, the h i s t o r i c nucleus of the City, fro111 the r e ~ n a i n d e rof the C e n t r a l A r e a . With t h e exception of C e n t r a l Station, which i s now proposed f o r c l o s u r e , all the main railway s t a t i o n s w e r e outside the r i n g which a l s o tended to s e r i o u s l y impede local connections to and f r o m the adjoining a r e a s of S a l f o r d .

9 . In consequence, it was n e c e s s a r y to r e c o n s i d e r the i n n e r f r a m e w o r k in the light of n e w s t a n d a r d s and the r e v i s e d proposals, which w e r e r e a c h e d 111 consultation with Salford a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of study by both A u t h o r i t i e s , a r e d e s c r i b e d In detall in the Joint R e p o r t o n the City C e n t r e Road.

City Centre Road 1 0 . 'The P r i m a r y s y s t e m , a s now proposed, c o n s i s t s of two m a i n new links, tangential to the C e n t r a l A r e a . T h e f i r s t will r u n f r o m the end of Mancunian V\'ay and C h e s t e r Road n o r t h w a r d s , e n t e r i n g Sal ford a t Albert Bridge and running on the Salford s i d e , behind Exchange and Victoria Stations, to connect with the Inner Ring Road in the Strangeways a r e a . T h i s r e p l a c e s the old City C e n t r e Road along the Irwell and p a s t the Cathedral and avoids cutting off the Cathedral and the stations f r o m the City C e n t r e ; i t ~ n a l i e sit possible to provide much b e t t e r circulation between Salford and the M a n c h e s t e r City C e n t r e , whilst it a l s o r e d u c e s i t s impact on the a r e a to the west of Deansgate. 'The second main link i s on the n o r t h s i d e of the City C e n t r e w h e r e it is c o ~ n b i n e dwith t h e Inner Ring Road to provide d i s t r i b u t o r f a c i l i t i e s . T h e complex a n d s p a c e consunling r o a d w o r k s n e c e s s a r y between the two links a t Strangeways will be s i t e d in an a r e a which is g e n e r a l l y r i p e f o r redevelopment, thus avoiding the introduction of motorway s c a l e junctions into the C e n t r a l A r e a i t s e l f . 11. 'The third and s o u t h e r n s i d e of the primary road triangle has presented problems not s o amenable to solution. F r o m an environmental point of view, it would have been advantageous to plan on thc b a s i s of Mancunian Way f o r m i n g t h e inner - m o s t prillzary link; t h i s would h a v e uziade i t possible to e n c l o s e within the p r i m a r y s y s t e m both Piccadilly Station and the old and new c o m m e r c i a l development on the southern s i d e of Portland S t r e e t , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y p a r t of the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s h e a r t of the City . Mancunian \q7ay however, w a s designed with a l i m i t e d capacity, one of i t s main p u r p o s e s being to r e l i e v e the City C e n t r e of e a s t -west traffic proceeding f r o m the industrial a r e a of 'Trafford Park in the d i r e c t i o n of the Pennines. T r a f f i c generation s t u d i e s however, indicated that the a r e a enclosed by the p r i l n a r y road triangle - if Mancunian Way w e r e to b e r e g a r d e d a s the southern s i d e , would have been too g r e a t a n 3 investigations a l s o r e v e a l e d


Obsolete servicing cond~tions

that Whitworth Street was incapable of being developed a s a workable solution. 1 2 . It has therefore, been n e c e s s a r y to accept Portland S t r e e t a s a inail1 distributor and the link on this side of the Central Area will run f r o m the junction of the Inner Ring Road with a diversion of Oldham Road, along Newton Street, Portland Street, Chepstow Street and behind Central Station to join the new western link through Salford. It i s proposed however, that the length along Portland Street would ultimately be depressed, to allow adequate secondary c r o s s connections and minimise environmeiltal disruption. The junctions with the London Road radial and the secondary route along Cannon Street have been designed to avoid the damage to the space enclosing Piccadilly Gardens that would have resulted f r o m the original Development Plan proposals.

13. 'The p r i m a r y road network d e s c r ~ h e d above has been tested by the c a r r y i n g out of' prelinlinary traffic generation studies, details of which a r e included a s an appendix to the Joint Report on the City Centre Road.

The Secondary System 1 4 . Within the triangle formed by the p r i m a r y network, l a r g e s c a l e road improvemeilts have been discounted because of the cost,not only in financial but in environmental t e r m s . The secondary s y s t e m is being colisidered in conjunction with the strategy of c a r parking, aimed a t siphoning off a s much a s possible of the private c a r traffic directly from the p r i m a r y s y s t e m s , leaving the secondary s y s t e m to de'al in the main with public transport, servicing and s h o r t -stay traffic. It is based essentially on the existing main s t r e e t pattern, which has a r e s t r i c t e d capacity and the intention i s to enable the best u s e to be made of this network by planning f o r the separation of pedestrians and vehicles, by limitcd improvements to the main routes and by the use of tralfic management teclliliques where these can b e adopted witliout s e r i o u s


environmental e f f e c t s . In a r e a s w h e r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e v e l o p ~ n e n ti s planned, the opportunity will be taken to modify the network, p a r t i c u l a r l y in relation to the provision of improved s e r v i c i n g f a c i l i t i e s .

15. In the c o u r s e of study, consideration was given to the possibility of improving traffic flow by the u s e of an extensive one-way s y s t e m with i t s p a r t i c u l a r advantages of simplifying turning rnovernents a t c r i t i c a l junctions, but investigation r e v e a l e d that the layout of the C e n t r a l A r e a did not r e a d i l y lend itself to a solution on t h e s e l i n e s ; the likely r e s u l t would have b e e n complex, inconvenient and confusing. In the s h o r t t e r m , a one -way t r a f f i c management s c h e m e h a s been approved affecting M a r k e t S t r e e t and Cannon S t r e e t , but l h i s is intended only a s a n i n t e r i m m e a s u r e until Cannon S t r e e t c a n b e improved and the m a i n shopping a r e a of M a r k e t S t r e e t c a n b e devoted to p e d e s t r i a n u s e . Eventually, when it i s p o s s h l e to c a r r y out i m p r o v e m e n t s to the P r i n c e s s Street/John Dalton S t r e e t route,it i s intended that t h i s should r e v e r t to two -way working, which would enable Oxford Road (the c o r r e s p o n d i n g inward r o u t e in the p r e s e n t one-way s y s t e m ) to provide v e r y much m o r e convenient l o c a l connections between the City C e n t r e and the Higher Education P r e c i n c t . 1 6 . T h e main r o u t e s which will r e q u i r e to be r e t a i n e d for t r a f f i c and w h e r e c e r t a i n i m p r o v e m e n t s and widenings will be n e c e s s a r y , include C r o s s S t r e e t / C o r p o r a t i o n S t r e e t , in a north -south direction and John Dalton S t r e e t / P r i n c e s s S t r e e t , In a n e a s t -west d i r e c t i o n . T h e r e i s a d a n g e r that t h e s e s t r e e t s could a t t r a c t through-traffic a c r o s s the C i t y C e n t r e by providing m o r e d i r e c t r o u t e s than the p r i m a r y network, but it i s c o n s i d e r e d that t h e difference in design s t a n d a r d s and s p e e d s , the frequency of signal controlled junctions on the s t r e e t s y s t e m and i t s r e l a t i v e congestion, will r e s u l t in the p r i m a r y network being s e l e c t e d a t all but the q u i e t e s t t i r n e s .

Proposed primary and secondary road network

1'7. In many c a s e s , the m a i n s t r e e t s y s t e m conveniently s e p a r a t e s a r e a s of different


u s e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , but in s o m e c a s e s , a r e a s of comrnoil environmental c l l a r a c t e r o c c u r on both s i d e s of a s t r e e t which i t will be n e c e s s a r y to r e t a i n a s a m a i n s c c o ~ l d a r yr o u t e . In such c a s e s , c o n l p r e h e n s i v e r e d e v e l o p n ~ e i i t p r o p o s a l s a r e designed, a s far a s possible, to allow f o r g r a d e - s e p a r a t e d p e d e s t r i a n ancl s e r v i c i n g s y s t e m s that will e n a b l e the a r e a to function a s a whole, f r e e of i n t e r f e r e n c e f r o l n extraneous traffic.

Pedestrian Circulation 18. In c o n s i d e r i n g the c i r c u l a t i o n s y s t e m f o r the C e n t r a l A r e a , the needs of the p e d e s t r i a n have r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r atten'ciol~and f o r a ilumber of y e a r s the principle of s e p a r a t i n g pedestrian a n d vehicular traffic has been adopted in the design and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of redevelopment p r o p o s a l s . T h e C i t y C e n t r e Map indicates a s y s t e l n of connected p e d e s t r i a n r o u t e s . In s o m e p a r t s of t l ~ ea r e a , f o r exanlple between the Tourn H a l l and thc C o u r t s of J u s t i c e , t h i s t a k e s the f o r m of a 'ground l e v e l p r e c i n c t ' t r e a t m e n t . In o t h e r p a r t s , the topography i s exploited to p e r m i t an upper l e v e l c i r c u l a t i o n with c r o s s i n g s o v e r the mail1 t r a f f i c s t r e e t s , a n e x a m p l e being the M a r k e t S t r e e t A r e a w h e r e the fall of the ground towards C r o s s S t r e e t / C o r p o r a t i o n Street permits overhead pedestrian a c c e s s a c r o s s to the M a r k e t Place a n d S t . Ann's Square A r e a .

Proposed pedestrian system shown in fine dot

32

1 9 . P e d e s t r i a n ways, whether a t n a t u r a l ground level o r a t the upper l e v e l , c a n be t r e a t e d to provide incidental open s p a c e s and the whole s y s t e l n designed to provide s a f e and c i v i l i s e d conditions f o r s h o p p e r s and t h o s e going about t h e i r b u s i n e s s in town; a l s o , t r a f f i c flow and c o n d i t i o ~ l sl o r d r i v i n g on the s t r e e t s will benefit a s a r e s u l t . S t r e e t s a t p r e s e n t devoted to vehicles, w h e r e i t i s intended that the pedestrian should ultinlately have p r e c e d e n c e , include the C i t y ' s m a i n shopping s t r e e t , M a r k e t S t r e e t , which i s a t [ ' r e s e n t p a r t of the trunk r o a d systlem and S t . i \ n n l s S q u a r e ~vhiclicould cluickly be c o n v e r t e d into an elegant culd g r a c i o u s public s p a c e once traffic is e x c l u d e d . King S t r e e t ,


(bottom) L~braryWalk - -prlorlty for the jiedestr lan

which i s narrotv f o r traffic, but ideally proportioned a s a shopping way, tvould also J ~ e n e f i tv e r y g r e a t l y f r o m the exclusion of tl-affic, although due to the difficulty of a r r a n g i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c i n g , it i s likely that it will always have to r e m a i n open to vehicles f o r t h i s purpose a t c e r t a i n t i m e s of the d a y .

20. It i s r e c o g n i s e d that t h e s e ailns cannot b e achieved overnight; the coilversion of s t r e e t s into p e d e s t r i a n ways i s dependent on the provision of adequate a l t e r n a t i v e s e r v i c i n g arrangements \\rhich in s o m e cases will only be possible when redevelopinent takes p l a c e . It i s a l s o dependent on the provision of b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r traffic on the new p r i m a r y links and on the s t r e e t s that will continue to b e devoted to vehicular c i r c u l a t i o n . Similarly, the achievement of an ii~clependentp e d e s t r i a n s y s t e m i s dependent on tile c a r r y i n g out of redevelopment in accordailcc with the c o m p r e h e n s i v e planning p r o p o s a l s which a r e d e s c r i b e d in m o r e detaiI l a t e r on in this r e p o r t . P r o g r e s s i s a l r e a d y being m a d e and the new developn2ent fronting Crown Square is an example of a layout which contributes to the achievement of the ground level p a r t of the s y s t e m , whilst Gateway House a t Piccadilly Station and the p r o p o s a l s f o r the new Bank of England adjoining the Piccadilly Plaza, Portland S t r e e t , both i n c o r p o r a t e provision f o r upper level circulation within their design. Car Parking 2 1 . Two f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e the amount of traffic that p e n e t r a t e s the c e n t r a l A r e a a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , ~ l a i l l e l ythe capacity of t h e r o a d s y s t e m a t the c r i t i c a l peak h o u r s and the total arnount of parking available tllroughout the d a y . T h e c a r parking f a c i l i t i e s , permanent and t e n ~ p o r a r y ,a t p r e s e n t available, slight1y o u t s t r i l ~the p r e s e n t c a p a c i t y of the r o a d s a t peak t i m e s . S p a c e s r e m a i n available towards the end of the nloriling peak, s o that congestion is the m a j o r d e t e r r e n t f a c t o r a t the lnolnent to c o m m u t e r s bringing in t h e i r own c a r s . l_;itel- on h o ~ v e v c r , when t h e r e is a m p l e

-

33


Proposed car parking strategy

capacity on the roads, the shopper and business c a l l e r visiting the City will suffer the g r e a t e s t difficulty and inconvenience in finding a parking space in a reasonably convenient location, s o that the parking factor then becomes c r i t i c a l . 2 2 . T h e c a r parking strategy described m o r e fully in the Joint Report a i m s a t relating c a r parking provision to the p r e s e n t and future capacity of the road system, which in i t s turn is designed to m e e t the essential traffic needs of the Central Area and to make provision for a level of 'motorisation'acceptable in economic and environmental t e r m s .

23. T h e Buchanan Report 'Traffic in Towns' demonstrated that to provide f o r complete 'motorisation' in an a r e a of Central London would mean displacing two thirds of the accommbdation to make room for roads and c a r p a r k s . Another way of looking a t it,is that if each c a r w e r e on average to c a r r y the equivalent of one and a half persons, about twice a s much s p a c e would b e required to deal with the c a r s a s their occupants would r e q u i r e for their personal accommodation. In a survey c a r r i e d out in 1960, of the 144, 000 people who travelled into the Manchester City Centre to work each day, about 9% c a m e by c a r , 25% by train and 66% by b u s . If the 'journey to work' o r c o m m u t e r ' element were therefore to b e based entirely on private transport, the capacity of the approach road s y s t e m would have to be capable of dealing with eleven t i m e s the present traffic flow a t the peak hours with c a r parking in the Central A r e a to correspond - c l e a r l y an impossibility. 24. The s t a r t i n g point of the investigation into c a r parking strategy was the 1962 S. E . L.N.E . C . Highway Plan which was based on a traffic flow of two and a half tirnes the 1960 figure on the approach r o u t e s . On this b a s i s , after making allowance for public t r a n s p o r t , business and commercial vehicles, it was estimated that a maximum of 32, 000 private vehicles could be c a r r i e d by the fully improved road s y s t e m at.the critical peak

period. In addition , i t would have been possible to provide c a r parking f o r shoppers and business c a l l e r s who would b e using the roads outside the peak hours, such c a r parks being closed during the morning and evening peak periods. Altogether i t was estimated that up 47,000 c a r parking spaces would be required in 1982, assuming the full implementation of the S. E . L . N . E . C . road proposals. 25. T h e s e ultimate figures a r e of importance in a s s e s s i n g the s c a l e and location of the a r e a s that should be r e s e r v e d f o r c a r parking purposes, but they also s e r v e to show that even with the Highway Plan fully implemented, little m o r e than a q u a r t e r of all the w o r k e r s in the City will be able to travel to work by c a r . Between the present situation and the position f o r e c a s t in the S. E . L . N . E . C . Plan, the m o r e immediate problem i s to keep the c a r parking provision in s t e p with road capacity, bearing in mind that even now t h e r e i s s p a r e capacity available on the approach r o a d s a t off-peak t i m e s . The emphasis must b e placed on facilities for essential traffic and f o r the relatively s h o r t - t e r m parker, the shopper and business c a l l e r on whom the prosperity of the City depends .

26. The locational policy put forward in the


Congestion

Joint Report on C a r Parking, which i s reflected in the City C e n t r e Map, a i m s a t providing the g r e a t e s t possible a c c e s s h i 1 ity and convenience f o r the s h o r t - t e r m p a r k e r , whilst making it possible for the g r e a t e s t amount of traffic to gain a c c e s s to c a r parks f r o m the p r i m a r y road s y s t e m without traversing the limited capacity s t r e e t s y s t e m of the central c o r e . Potential land availability has of course, been a m a j o r factor in the selection of suitable locations, but i t is fortunate that a considerable amount of land likely to b e redundant f o r railway operational purposes and other land r i p e f o r redevelopment, is strategically located f o r this purpose. 27. Broadly, the locations fall into t h r e e categories a s shown on Map 8 . The f i r s t a r e the 'gateway' o r 'outer' parks on the radial approaches, outside the h e a r t of the City C e n t r e and e a s i l y accessible by walking o r local bus t r a n s p o r t ; these will be particularly suitable for long-stay parking. T h e second category a r e m a j o r 'terminal' parks r e l a t e d to the central c o r e and s e r v e d wherever possible by d i r e c t links f r o m the p r i m a r y system, independent of the central a r e a s t r e e t s y s t e m itself; dependfng on location, these a r e suitable f o r both s h o r t and long-stay parking. Finally, t h e r e i s scope f o r a limited amount of 'inner' parking on selected s i t e s served f r o m the Central A r e a s t r e e t s y s t e m itself; this will be entirely s h o r t -stay and would also provide operational parking for developments where i t has not been possible f o r it to be provided in the buildings themselves . 28. In new development, operational c a r parking (i. e . parking n e c e s s a r y f o r the actual running of the building itself) and adequate facilities f o r loading and unloading would of c o u r s e , be required, although general parking requirelnents would b e c a t e r e d for by the overall Central A r e a s y s t e m . A unified and flexible pricing and timing system-for c a r parking,capable of continuous adjustment to take account of changing circumstances, will be an essential element if the best u s e is to b e made of the facilities provided.

Public Transport

29. It is evident that an attractive and efficient public t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m i s an essential component of any plan f o r a metropolitan a r e a ; it will b e vital for the journey to w o r k , a n d , in the i n t e r e s t s of the economics of the syscem itself, it i s desirable that i t should be sufficiently attractive to compete with private transport f o r a proportion of the shopping, entertainment and other journeys to the c e n t r e . 30. About two -thirds of the people employed in the City C e n t r e travel by bus, the s e r v i c e s being provided not only by the City's own T r a n s p o r t Department, but by the undertakings of neighbouring authorities and private o p e r a t o r s . Bus terminal points a r e d i s t r b u t e d throughout the City Centre, the m a j o r ones being a t Piccadilly and Chorlton Street Bus Stations, Stevenson Square and Cannon Street, t h e r e a r e also important terminal points a t Lower Mosley Street Bus Station, a t Albert Square, Portland Street, Deansgate/Exchange and King Street West. In addition, the Salford Bus Station a t Victoria Bridge Street adjoins the Manchester boundary. Eventually it is hoped that i t may be possible to concentrate bus station and terminal facilities in four main locations shown on


Existing and proposed pub1~c transport termina Is

M a p S, s o a r r a n g e d that c r o s s - C i t y and terminating- r o u t e s will combine to give a b e t t e r s e r v i c e through the C e n t r a l A r e a itself, r e l a t e d to c a r parking and r a i l facilities as p a r t of an inlproved overall t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e n l ; the location and s t a n d a r d of stopping f a c i l i t i e s within the C e n t r a l A r e a - integrated \\?here possible with redevelopment, will t h e r e f o r e he of e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e . On environmental grounds it i s highly d e s i r a b l e that the bus station a t Picadilly G a r d e n s - the nlost extensively used, be r e s i t e d but t h i s i s dependent on redevelopment p r o g r e s s in the a r e a suitable f o r i t s relocation and a t t h i s s t a g e it can only b e r e g a r d e d a s a long t e r m possibility.

31. It is difficlllt to e s c a p e the conclusion that b u s e s will always s u f f e r due to the competition f o r r o a d s p a c e with o t h e r t r a n s p o r t . Congestion r e s u l t s in i n c r e a s e d c o s t s and d e t e r i o r a t i o n in s e r v i c e and they b e c o m e p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s able to offer the s p e e d and c o m f o r t n e c e s s a r y to a t t r a c t p a s s e n g e r s away f r o m the private c a r . Although traffic management m e a s u r e s may be designed to give p r i o r i t i e s to b u s e s , the provision of s e p a r a t e bus l a n e s o v e r extensive d i s t a n c e s , a s distinct f r o m s h o r t s t r a t e g i c lengths of s t r e e t s , poses a l m o s t i n s u p e r a b l e difficulties. 3 2 . T h e railway s y s t e m , with its s e p a r a t e r e s e r v e d t r a c k s , h a s many potential advantages and c a n offer s p e e d , c o m f o r t and s a f e t y to balance against the door to d o o r convenience of p r i v a t e t r a n s p o r t . 'Park and r i d e ' and bus interchange facilities a t s t a t i o n s in the o u t e r a r e a s c a n contribute toxvards overcoming the p r o b l e m of d i s t a n c e between home and station, but equally i m p o r t a n t is that t h e r e should b e penetration of good local bus connections f r o m the C e n t r a l A r e a s t a t i o n s to the b u s i n e s s and c o ~ n m e r c i a la r e a s . T h e r a i l s y s t e m i s responsible f o r c a r r y i n g about 35, 000 o r about 25!? of the w o r k e r s in ttle M ~ i n c h e s t e r C e n t r a l Area, mainly on t h r e e electrified r o u t e s to W i l n ~ s l o won the south, i l l t r i n c h a m to the southwest and Bury to the north ~ l n d

t h e r e a r e o t h e r l i n e s to Rochdale, I r l a m , Knutsford, Hazel G r o v e , Buxton and Glossop, which a r e a l s o u s e d f o r colnmuting p u r p o s e s .

33. Unfortur~atelywit11 the exception of C e n t r a l Station, (which i s the l e a s t s u i t a b l e f o r railway operational p u r p o s e s and i s due to c l o s e ) the o t h e r s t a t i o n s a t Piccadilly, Victoria and Exchange and Oxford Road a r e by no m e a n s ideally situated to s e r v e the c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t , being on the f r i n g e ; in p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e i s no e a s y connection between Victoria and Piccadilly. Tile l a t t e r , the main t e r m i n a l station f o r the r a p i d e l e c t r i f i e d main l i n e s e r v i c e s to London and the Midlands i s about fifteen minutes walking d i s t a n c e f r o m the principal office a r e a s of King S t r e e t and A l b e r t S q u a r e . When C e n t r a l Station is c l o s e d , jt i s the intention of British Rail to d i v e r t the s e r v i c e s a t p r e s e n t handled t h e r e to Oxford Road, which will b e c o m e of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e , and to Piccadilly.

3 4 . At the p r e s e n t t i m e s l u d i e s a r e being c a r r i e d out by a t e a m constituted of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Nlinistry of 'Transport, British Rail and o f f i c e r s of the C o r p o r a t i o n , widl the object of examining how the existing r ; ~ i l w ; ~lyi n e s cc111b e exploited to provide a g r e a t e r contribution t~ the o v e r a l l solution of


the transportation p r o b l e m . Also a detailed feasibility study i s being c a r r i e d out by M e s s r s . d e Leuw Cather and Partners, Co~lsultantEngineers, for a new rapid t r a n s i t route extending f r o m Manchester Airport and Wythenshawe in the south to Middleton (Langley) in the n o r t h . The new route would r u n right through the C e n t r a l Area and the Higher Education Precinct and both parallel studies a r e v e r y much concerned with the provision of better through and interchange connections to enable the whole of the Central Area to be s e r v e d f r o m the principal r a i l and rapid t r a n s i t r o u t e s extending throughout the City and the Region. T h e s e a r e the f i r s t s t e p s towards the design of an integrated public t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m , whilst the extension of rapid t r a n s i t facilities would lead to a r e -organisation 01the pattern of bus s e r v i c e s , the emphasis being on a wider coverage of feeder s e r v i c e s . A s in the c a s e of the City Region Land Use/Transportation Survey, the r e s u l t s of these studies will c l e a r l y be of relevance to the planning of the Central Area of Manchester and the p r e s e n t planning proposals m a y well need modification once decisions have been taken. 'There i s no doubt that new facilities could alleviate v e r y substantially the problems of accessibility and stimulate the f u r t h e r growth and dynamism of the h e a r t of the conurbation.

3 5 . 'The s t r u c t u r e of the City C e n t r e proposals, a s put forward would not be radically affected a s account has already been taken to s o m e extent of those t r e n d s . The eventual 'modal s p l i t ' a s between public and private t r a n s p o r t will no doubt be influenced by the quality of the public t r a n s p o r t s y s t e m and the r e a d i n e s s o r otherwise, a s yet untested, of the m o t o r i s t to pay economic c h a r g e s for C e n t r a l A r e a parking facilities.


4.Environmental Standards and Objectives

1 . ~t i s not sufficient just t o provide good a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the rigllt location f o r r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; p r o s p e r i t y i s relatecl t o the continuance and developlnent of the C e n t r a l A r e a a s a c e n t r e of a t t r a c t i o n a t a t i m e when higher s t a n d a r d s of surroundings f o r living and ~ v o r k i n ga r e not only a p p r e c i a t e d but a r e beginning- t o be taken f o r g r a n t e d . Landscaping a n d open s p a c e , good civic design and fine building-S, f r e e d o m t o walk about in safety, a l l that i s meant by the word 'amenity' a r e becoming increasingly recognised a s e s s e n t i a l ingredients t o the s u c c e s s a n d s u r v i v a l of a metropolitan c e n t r e and a r e Ily no m e a n s just ' f r i l l s ' t o he added t o t h e m o s t economical and functional s o l u t i o n s .

2 . A d e t e r m i n e d a t t a c k i s being m a d e on the i m a g e of g r i m e and obsolescence a s s o c i a t e d with the towns a n d c i t i e s of the f i r s t i n d u s t r i a l e r a and a l r e a d y in Manchester c l e a n a i r h a s m a d e a s t r i k i n g contribution t o the a t m o s p h e r e and a p p e a r a n c e of the City C e n t r e . The cleaning of t h e two pri;cipal civic buildings, t h e C a t h e d r a l and the Old Town Hall, i s symbolic and o t h e r buildings whlch have r e c e n t l y e m e r g e d f r o m the ' d a r k ages' include the Friends' Meeting House and the Portico L i b r a r y . Owners of c o m m e r c i a l buildings have responded and in s o m e c a s e s have taken the lead and t h e r e s u l t a n t a p p e a r a n c e i s often a r e m i n d e r of the quality of design and r o b u s t n e s s of constructioll of t h e Victorian e r a that h a s r e m a i n e d f o r s o long unappreciated.

3 . T h e r e a r e s t i l l many buildings however, that a r e physically and functionally obsolete, a n d e x t r a n e o u s traffic, congestion of people

St A n n ' s Passage -a traditional pedestrian route

Manchester Cathedral -heart of the medieval town

39


The Rochdale Canal north of Wh~tworthStreet West

(bottom) T h e R~verlrwell looking north froln Alberl B r ~ d g e

a n d vehicles, noise and pollution r e d u c e the environnlent t o s u h - s t a n d a r d conditions. At l e a s t one t h i r d of tlie c o r e of the City needs rebuilding-, in the s e n s c that buildings a r e obsolete and the lay out unsatisfactory and whilst p r e s s u r e s f o r redevelopment in t h e s e a r e a s a r e m a n i f e s t , t h e opportunity e x i s t s t o change much of t h e obsolete f a b r i c of the c e n t r e and a fundamental objective of t h e planning p r o p o s a l s which have been drawn up, i s t h e attainment of a n environment of quality in the a r e a s ~ v h i c hr e q u i r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t . In a very r e a l s e n s e they r e p r e s e n t a vision of a r e s u r g e n t c e n t r e that could be built t o m e e t known r e q u i r e m e n t s within a reasonably s h o r t t i m e . 4 . T h e r e a r e many existing s t r e e t s and buildings however, with a c h a r a c t e r that i s worth r e t a i n i n g and h e r e the challenge l i e s in t h e i r integration into the new f a b r i c . The a i m i s t o h a r n e s s t h e f o r c e s of change t o produce a C e n t r a l A r e a that i s efficient in h u m a n and functional t e r m s but which a l s o 'has v a r i e t y a n d c h a r a c t e r . In s o m e p a r t s t h e e m p h a s i s will be on c a l m and dignity, in o t h e r s on gaiety a n d liveliness, whilst the s c a l e will v a r y f r o m the spacious a n d m o n u n ~ e n t a lt o t h e p e r s o n a l a n d i n t i m a t e . C h a r a c t e r i s a m o r e elusive quality; physical c h a r a c t e r c a n be c r e a t e d i n p a r t by c a r e f u l a n d sensitive pIanning and design but it is a l s o built up through t i m e and is a 'reflection of human e x p e r i e n c e , i d e a s and a s p i r a t i o n s o v e r the y e a r s . M a n c h e s t e r h a s a v e r y r e c o g n i s a b l e c h a r a c t e r and t h e r e a r e p r e c i o u s t r a d i t i o n s which should be c a r r i e d through and developed a s a fine new City grows.

Townscape Quality and Character

5 . Within the e x i s t i n g townscape t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r of dominant e l e m e n t s a s slio\vn on Map N o . 5, which contribute t o w a r d s the c r e a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r f o r the City C e n t r e ; the b a s i c topography r e m a i n s evident but the m a i n r i v e r , the 11-well, i s g e n e r a l l y hidden f r o m sight and enclosed hy high development, whilst tlie h4edlocli is now


The Old Wellir~gton Inn and The Oyster Bar -unique listed b u ~ l d ~ n gin s The Shambles (bottom3 Lower K i n g Street --a delightful shopping area in danger of environmental erosion

l a r g e l y c u l v e r t e d . The Rochdale Canal r u n s through the C e n t r a l A r e a linking the Ashton Canal s y s t e m i n t h e e a s t t o the Bridgewater s y s t e m i n t h e w e s t . A r e m i n d e r of the C i t y ' s e a r l y days, i t f o r m s a quiet backwater that c a l l s out f o r imaginative landscape t r e a t m e n t .

6 . The railway viaducts, which r u n on two s i d e s of the c e n t r a l c o r e , c r e a t e boundaries not unlike fortifications and in the past have tended abruptly t o s e p a r a t e the c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a s on e i t h e r side of t h e m . One of t h e s e viaducts divides Manchester and Salford f a r m o r e significantly than any a d m i n i s t r a t i v e boundary, whilst the other h a s p r e s e n t e d a n obstacle t o the Institute of Science and Technology in unifying t h e i r old buildings on the i n n e r s i d e with the new c a m p u s on t h e o t h e r . The r e c e n t addition of Mancunian Way now gives f u r t h e r definition t o the southern boundary of the C e n t r a l A r e a . 7 . Within the C e n t r a l A r e a itself, p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s given by buildings of quality inherited f r o m the 19th Century. Individual buildings, which have been 'listed' by the Minister of Housing and Local Government a s being of s p e c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c i n t e r e s t , a r e s e t out i n Appendix E and in t h e preparation of comprehensive planning p r o p o s a l s , p a r t i c u l a r c a r e i s taken t o r e s t o r e o r provide a m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e setting f o r t h e s e buildings w h e r e t h i s i s possible. The Old Town Hall and the John Rylands L i b r a r y i n the Civic A r e a a r e examples that have a l r e a d y been studied, whilst the settings of t h e fine Cook and Watts building i n Portland S t r e e t , t h e Portico L i b r a r y and t h e City A r t G a l l e r y i n Mosley S t r e e t have received c a r e f u l consideration in t h e design of adjoining new developments. The old Wellington Inn, in the a r e a of the Shambles and the old Market Place, (which i s scheduled a s a n ancient monument a s well a s being ' l i s t e d ' , along with the adjoining O y s t e r Bar) h a s p r e s e n t e d a special problem a s i t i s s o s m a l l in s c a l e i n relation t o the development that would naturally occupy the important and valuable surrounding a r e a .

I

-

,p a h,

F

-a.->.-

-

-T--

. &X--

-


St John Street

-an

a r e a of important architectural character

8. The ' l i s t ' of buildings i s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d , being r e s t r i c t e d t o t h o s e of the highest value, ~ ~ h i cw he r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y worthy of recognition a t the t i m e the l i s t w a s p r e p a r e d . 'ille b e s t work of the Victorian e r a i s now coming t o be inc reasingly appl-ec iated, and although the l i s t i s extended f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , the o m i s s i o n of buildings f r o m it does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t~hatthey Live not worthy of consideration o r al-e automatically candidates f o r d e m o l i t i o ~ l .T h e problem of preseving- a w o r t l ~ w h i l eIhuilding i s always th2t ol' f i n d i n g a n a p p r o p r i a t e and e c o n o n ~ i cu s e f o r it; I~uilclings cannot be kept e m r t y o r owners persuaded t o r e t a i n accommodation that i s s e r i o u s l y s u b s t a n d a r d 01- no longer suita hle f o r i t s p u r p o s e . It ! S s o m c t i n i c s possible t o find a s p e c i a l c s e f o r t h e s e 1,uildings such a s a museum o r l i h r a r y , but the c o m m e r c ial building of a~:chitectural and h i s t o r i c value that I ~ a s outlivecl i t s p r a c t i c a l usefulness c o n s t i t ~ ~ t ae s l i a l ~ i l i t ythat the owners a r e naturally reluctant to a c c e y t . 9 . Of just as much importailce a s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of individual good buildings, is the retention of' g r o u p s of buildings o r of a r e a s of distinctive s c a l e a n d c h a r a c t e r in the City C e n t r e . St. John S t r e e t , St. Ann's Scluase,

the lower p a r t of King S t r e e t a n d the g r o u p f o r m e d by the C a t h e d r a l and C h e t h a m ' s Hospital a r e e x a m p l e s . In s u c h a r e a s , t h e e m p h a s l s should be on l i m i t e d rebuilding and the c a r e f u l integration of t h e new with the old, t o g e t h e r with t h e exclusion of through t r a f f i c and environmental inlprovement by lanclscaping; the Civic Amenities Act of 1967 which f o r the f i r s t t i m e m a k e s p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a r e a s of c h a r a c t e r , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s type of a r e a .

Density of Development 1 0 . In t h e 19th Century and indeed d u r i n g the f i r s t half of t h i s Century, the whole of a developlllent s i t e tended t o h e c o v e r e d by building-S; t h i s was clue t o t h e liillitations of s t r u c t u r a l techniques available and except in the c a s e of c e r t a i n l a r g e e s t a t e s , the effective a b s e n c e of any o v e r a l l c o n t r o l . A m a z e of n a r r o w s t r e e t s u s u a l l ~meant t h a t lighting conditions w e r e poor, s e r v i c i n g and loading f a c i l i t i e s w e r e 1ninima.1and t h e r e u7as little attention paid t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p with adjoining buildings o r to 'good n e i g l ~ l ~ o u r l i l ~ e. s sMost ' detriinental of all 147;~sthe congesion c a u s e d hy the i-ntensity of developluent in the c o n t e s t of a s t r e e t s y s t e n l that xvas inadequate, congested a.nd tlang;crous, even i l l The clays of


t h e t r a m c a r and h o r s e , before m o t o r t r a n s p o r t c a m e on t o t h e s c e n e . 11. The m e a s u r e usually adopted today f o r the c o n t r o l of density i s the 'plot , r a t i o f ; t h i s is defined in Appendix D and r e p r e s e n t s the relationship of t h e total f l o o r s p a c e i n a building t o t h e net a r e a of the s i t e t o be developed. In 1946, t h e then M i n i s t ~ yof Town and Country Planning published a handbook, ' T h e Redevelopment of C e n t r a l A r e a s ' which f i r s t put f o r w a r d the u s e of a density unit f o r r e p l a t i n g tourn c e n t r e clevelopment and the f l o o r s p a c e index w a s suggested a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d of m e a s u r e m e n t . Although s i m i l a r i n principle t o plot r a t i o , i t took into account a proportion of the width of the r o a d s o r s t r e e t s s u r r o u n d i n g the site. In p r a c t i c e , it p r o v e d suitable f o r u s e only o v e r wide c o m p r e h e n s i v e a r e a s ; in i t s application t o s m a l l e r s i t e s , it tended t o give d i s t o r t e d r e s u l t s w h e r e c o r n e r plots w e r e c o n c e r n e d .

1 2 . In M a n c h e s t e r , plot r a t i o s of about 5 . 0 a r e typical of t h e o l d e r and m o r e intensely developed a r e a s of t h e City C e n t r e which of c o u r s e , a r e t h o s e which s u f f e r v e r y s e r i o u s congestion. F o r new development a plot r a t i o of 3 . 5 is n o r m a l l y adopted a s t h e maximum, although m o r e r e c e n t l y a f i g u r e of 3 . 0 h a s b e e n u s e d in a r e a s t o be developed p r i m a r i l y f o r shopping, w h e r e the m a i n u s e s o c c u r a t b a s e m e n t , ground a s ~ df i r s t floor l e v e l s and w h e r e t h e r e is a high concentration and intensity of u s e . The plot r a t i o f i g u r e is e s s e n t i a l l y a m e a s u r e of congestion and the s t a n d a r d adopted r e p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of e x p e r i e n c e a n d is r e l a t e d broadly t o t h e c a p a c i t y of the s e c o n d a r y s t r e e t s y s t e m t o c a r r y the traffic g e n e r a t e d . F r o m a civic design point of view, i t h a s been found that in p r a c t i c e a s t a n d a r d of t h i s o r d e r produces d e v e l o l ~ m e n tthat c a n be r e l a t e d in s c a l e t o t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of the City C e n t r e .

13. TVhere a n e l e ~ ~ l e of n t r e s i d e n t i a l u s e is t o Ile included in a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h e m e , it i s not uncommon t o p e r m i t a density allowance e i t h e r rvholly o r p a r t l y a s a n ' e x t r a ' o v e r and above the amount tllat ~ v o u l d11e permittecl f o r

c o m n l e r c i a l development a l o n e ; this i s in recognitiion of the economic p r o b l e m s of providing r e s i d e n t i a l development, which have a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d t o , and a l s o b e c a u s e of t h e contribution that t h i s f o r m of development rnakes to the r e l i e f of the peak hour congestion p r o b l e m s of t h e journey t o w o r k . Proposals of t h i s n a t u r e c a n only r e a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d on t h e i r m e r i t s , having r e g a r d to the location of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e c o n c e r n e d and the d e g r e e of a c c e s s i b i l i t y that c a n be provided. 14, It i s frequent-ly contended that limitations on density inhibit redevelopment by not p e r m i t t i n g the economic potential of expensive s i t e s t o be exploited. If t h i s a r g u m e n t w a s t o he accepted and density c o n t r o l relaxed, i t could only m e a n that s i t e v a l u e s would r i s e even f u r t h e r in t h o s e v e r y l i m i t e d p a r t s of the C e n t r a l A r e a that a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e t o d e v e l o p e r s . T h e r e s u l t would be that u s e s would be even m o r e concentrated and adequate s e r v i c i n g could not be provided. S e r i o u s over-development of a s m a l l p a r t of the C e n t r a l A r e a , a p a r t f r o m p r e s e n t i n g insoluble design p r o b l e m s i n r e l a t i o n t o s c a l e and amenity, would a l s o tend t o deprive the r e m a i n d e r of t h e c e n t r e of i t s development potential; in the long r u n it would be s e l f defeating.

15. It should be e n ~ p h a s i s e dthat plot r a t i o is a convenient tool and a n a p p r o x i m a t e m e a s u r e of the intensity of development; it should not be s e e n as, n o r can i t e v e r be, a substitute f o r c r e a t i v e design and quality in a r c h i t e c t u r e . The l a r g e r the a r e a t o be redeveloped in one unified ownership, t h e m o r e flexibility is given t o the disposition of buildings and within a n o v e r a l l plot r a t i o f i g u r e i t is possible t o achieve many different solutions r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . It may a l s o be possible t o a r r a n g e the development in s u c h a way t o produce open s p a c e and amenity a r e a s that will not only be of benefit t o t h e development itself, hut udlich will make a favourable contribution t o the provision of open s p a c e f o r the enjoyment of t h e public. T h e s t a n d a r d s s e t a r e t h o s e which e x p e r i e n c e h a s shown to


be valid in t e r m s of civic design and circulation, but they cannot be applied rigidly t o each and every s i t e . 16. In c e r t a i n locations t h e r e may be a special c a s e f o r marginally exceeding the figure, f o r example, to keep a building in s c a l e where it overlooks a major existing o r proposed open s p a c e . On the other hand t h e r e a r e some s i t e s in a r e a s which a r e not r i p e f o r general redevelopment and where considerations of servicing and accessibility would r e q u i r e the u s e of a much lower figure. T h e r e a r e a l s o a r e a s , particularly those that a r e not right in the heart of the City Centre, where the existing development i s a t a much lower intensity and where it i s both economically feasible and desirable f r o m a planning point of view to redevelop on a m o r e intimate scale; in such c a s e s a lower plot r a t i o would be applicable. It should be s t r e s s e d that the figure of 3.5 i s the maximum proposed, and it is only in the most exceptional locations and circumstances that a higher figure could normally be justified. Open Space 17. An essential element of good civic design has always been the successful relationship between buildings and open spaces and the effect of architecture i s dependent on i t s sca.le and proportion in relation t o i t s setting. The p a r t s of towns and cities that a r e thought t o be pleasant a r e usually those where building elements and ,open a r e a s a r e well reconciled; t h e r e i s the dlose or.square, where the proportion of buildings surrounding it make it feel just the right size, o r the enclosed s t r e e t where the buildings on either side a r e dominant but c r e a t e a feeling of intimacy and give protection f r o m wind and weather. In contrast, t h e r e i s the'large open place, dominating in scale, which c a l l s f o r powerful and important building elements in relation to it o r the wide boulevard which may depend on landscaping f o r its enclosure and where the building elements a r e in a much l o o s e r relationship.

18. Open spaces of whatever kind, whether they a r e the predominantly h a r d surfaced a r e a s that form a n integral p a r t of the built environment, o r the open landscaped a r e a s that provide the contrast and setting f o r it, a r e a n essential p a r t of a civilised city. The pavement along a s t r e e t c a r r y i n g traffic r e p r e s e n t s the miniumum, most utilitarian solution t o the basic problem of enabling people t o walk from one p a r t of the c e n t r e t o another and t h e r e should be a n inter-locked system of a r e a s planned f o r m o r e freedom of movement, where it is possible t o stand and talk o r t o s i t amongst pleasant surroundings. Moreover, although urban man h a s adapted himself t o accept, and indeed t o enjoy, living in artificial surroundings of his own creation, he s t i l l feels a t h e a r t the need t o be linked t o the natural environment and to be reminded of the passing of the seasons; the provision of t r e e s and landscaping i s perhaps the most universally accepted interpretation of 'amenity', a s applied t o towns and c i t i e s .

19. Unlike London o r Paris, with t h e i r Royal Parks and Palaces, o r Edinburgh o r even Southport, where physical conditions have had the effect of providing open s p a c e s a l ~ n g s i d ethe main shopping s t r e e t s , Manchester h a s i t s major p a r k s situated on the outskirts where they cannot be enjoyed by those working o r visiting the Central Area; t h i s i s a common situation in many of the older industrial c i t i e s , which had already grown extensively before the need f o r open space was recognised and e s t a t e s could be acquired f o r the purpose. The only substantial landscaped open space in the c e n t r e of the City i s Piccadilly Gardens, the s i t e of the old Infirmary, demolished in 1910 and originally bought f o r public building purposes. Although a most valuable 'lung: the Gardens have the disadvantage of being surrounded on a l l four s i d e s by traffic, whilst the Bus Station s e p a r a t e s them f r o m the shopping a r e a of the Piccadilly Plaza. Albert Square and S t . Peter's Square a r e both substantial


PiccadiII y Gardens by traffic ----alarge open space surro~~rlded (bottom) St Ann,s Churchyard

public places of civic c h a r a c t e r , but the actual a r e a available f o r pedestrians i s s m a l l in each c a s e and both s e r v e a s traffic roundabouts. The War Memorial Garden in the c e n t r e of St. Peter's Square, in particular, i s crowded on fine s u m m e r days with office workers taking t h e i r lunch break, despite the noise and the fumes and dust from traffic. The open space with by f a r the g r e a t e s t c h a r a c t e r i s the s m a l l a r e a surrounding St . A m ' s Church, part paved and p a r t planted; this i s f r e e from traffic and i t s contribution to amenity i s out of a l l proportion to i t s 'pocket handkerchief' s i z e . The Parsonage Gardens a r e a l s o quiet and restful, but they a r e situated on the fringe of the main c e n t r e . 20. Except in redevelopment a r e a s beyond city c e n t r e s , such a s Hulme o r H a r ~ u r h e v in Manchester, o r Everton i n ~ i v e r i o o l 'or , where a large open a r e a such a s the Town Moor a t Newcastle has been p r e s e r v e d and can be developed f o r recreational use, economic limitations militate against the provision of l a r g e scale park a r e a s in the c e n t r e of cities despite the d e s i r e and a w a r e n e s s of the need f o r t h e m . It is unfortunately unrealistic to consider the creation of a St. James's Park right in the c e n t r e of Manchester, even although such a bold move might well benefit the whole c h a r a c t e r of the Central Area to such a n extent that it could be economically justified if the global long t e r m view were to be taken. To think in these t e r m s , methods of financing would have t o be m o r e sophisticated than at present, to enable the public c o s t s to be off-set by the benefits and i n c r e a s e d values that would r e s u l t over the c e n t r e a s a whole. The obstacle i s the high cost, r a t h e r than any evident shortage of land t o satisfy c o m m e r c i a l ancl other demands.

2 1 . Nevertheless, accepting that i t i s a t present impracticable to provide open space on such a n ambitious scale, t h e r e a r e s t i l l tremendous opportunities to improve the c h a r a c t e r and amenities of the Central Area


out of a l l recognition and t o link it with e x i s t i n g and proposed open a r e a s in the r e m a i n d e r of the City and beyond. Proposals have a l r e a d y been put f o r w a r d f o r r e c l a i m i n g a l a r g e a r e a of the Valley of the R i v e r I r k which r u n s right up t o the edge of the C e n t r a l A r e a , c l o s e to the new C . I . S . development. It i s a t p r e s e n t in a d i s t r e s s i n g and d e r e l i c t condition, a r e l i c of the activities of a past a g e , but when landscaped i t will become p a r t of a l i n e a r p a r b s y s t e m leading through and beyond Q u e e n ' s Park and Boggart Hole Clough t o t h e open country of Heaton Park. Other p r o p o s a l s have b e e n produced f o r t h e leng-th of t h e Rochdale Canal c l o s e d t o navigation, which again r u n s f r o m the edge of t h e City C e n t r e t o the City boundary and beyond. In t h i s c a s e however, the Canal continues right through t h e C e n t r a l A r e a and t h i s leng-th c a n be exploited a s a continuous p e d e s t r i a n way, landscaped and linking paved and planted a r e a s c r e a t e d a s a r e s u l t of redevelopment.

2 2 . Both in the c e n t r e and in o t h e r p a r t s of t h e city, development h a s tended t o ' t u r n i t s back' on the r i v e r s , but the Irwell o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e potential f o r landscaping t r e a t m e n t , including the provision of walkways along the b a n k s . Proposals f o r new development a r e taking into account t h e s e l o n g - t e r m possibilities including the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n s of the M a n c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l . At tfie p r e s e n t tirne t h e Irwell i s badly polluted, but if the next few y e a r s could b r i n g p r o g r e s s in cleaning the r i v e r s c o m p a r a b l e with that a l r e a d y achieved in ridding the a i r of pollution, then the t i m e may not be s o f a r distant when the Dean and Canons c a n once again e x e r c i s e t h e i r fishing r i g h t s . Much of the visual s q u a l o r in t h i s p a r t of the City a r i s e s f r o m the c l u t t e r of outworn buildings that line the banks of the R i v e r .

23. It i s on the p e r i m e t e r of the C e n t r a l A r e a that t h e r e i s scope t o provide the l n o r e substantial a r e a s of new open s p a c e . F o r example, the p r o p o s a l s f o r the redevelopment of the C e n t r a l Station a r e a could exploit the s u r f a c e of tlie c a r parking

Sketch of proposals for landscaping the Rochdale Canal north of the city c e n t r e

View looking towards the city centre of proposals for the I r k Valley


decks to produce a substantial a r e a of open space, whilst the Smithfield Market a r e a and the Rochdale Canal Basin lend themselves t o the inclusion of a r e a s of open space along with residential and other u s e s . In the heart of the City C e n t r e however, the g r e a t e s t opportunity l i e s in the creation of a network of inter-linked open a r e a s through which the pedestrian may move safely, a s a n integral p a r t of redevelopment, The traffic f r e e routes, some of which will be above ground level, a r e indicated diagrammatically on Maps 8 and 9 . The r e s u l t s of such a policy will become increasingly visible a s redevelopment p r o g r e s s e s . In the e a r l y stages, new open a r e a s , s m a l l and intimate in scale and designed to provide a setting f o r surrounding buildings, will be recognisble a s individual f e a t u r e s and then gradually the f o r m of the m o r e continuous system will become evident.

2 4 . Already, f o r example, the completion of the f i r s t stage of the development adjoining Crown Square h a s changed the c h a r a c t e r of this p a r t of the c e n t r e completely; minor s t r e e t s have disappeared and the new pedestrian and precinctual form i s becoming apparent on the ground. The adjoining developn~entsof the District Bank and the London Assurance C o n ~ p a n yin King Street, now under construction, r e p r e s e n t an example of a CO -0rdinated scheme for two s e p a r a t e developments by different Architects. The layout is designed to include paved open space, a sculpture and t r e e s , for the u s e and enjoyment of the public a s well a s providing a setting f o r the buildings themselves and an amenity for t h e i r occupallts . 2 5 . T h e principle of pedestrian and vehicular separation, although a prerequisite to the achievement of s a f e and pleasant conditions f o r pedestrians, will not in itself transform the quali'ty of environment unless the pedestrian routes themselves a r e designed to provide interest and v a r i e t y . These may range from open landscaped a r e a s to a i r -conditioned shopping malls, the modern s u c c e s s o r s of the a r c a d e s of yesterday.

2 6 . It is important that open a r e a s created a s a consequence of redeveloplnent should be a t the level of pedestrian circulation, where they can b e fully utilised and exploited. I11 this r e s p e c t the 'podium' type of treatment, which c o v e r s the whole s i t e with higher building elements above, is not by any means always a satisfactory solution, unless the surface of the podium can b e utilised a s p a r t of the circulation s y s t e m . Where the main circulation i s on the ground, a much better effect i s obtained when the major building elements a r e related directly to a landscaped setting at ground level. T h e Seagram building in New York is a good example of thig whilst in Manchester the setting of S t . Andrew's House in Portland Street has contributed greatly to the amenity of the surrounding a r e a , even although the planted setting is not itself accessible a s an open s p a c e . This a r e a and the recently planted a r e a s of the Institute of Science and 'Technology nearby, a r e proof, if proof i s needed, that t h e r e a r e no longer any insuperable ecological problems to be overcome in introducing g r a s s and t r e e s into the atmosphere of the Central A r e a . 2 7 . In addltion to new open spaces c r e a t e d within the context of comprehensive planning proposals, the rationalisation of the secondary s t r e e t pattern and the conversioll of certain s t r e e t s and carriageways to pedestrian u s e provides further opportunities for landscaping t r e a t m e n t . It i s proposed ultimately to close Market Street to vehicular traffic a t l e a s t between High Street and Corporation Street and possibly between Deansgate and Piccadilly Gardens and although it will probably be n e c e s s a r y to maintain limited a c c e s s f o r certain vehicles, there will be considerable scope f o r the introduction of planting and features such as fountains and water treatment, on a s c a l e appropriate to the importance of the location. In the m o r e immediate future and a s a f i r s t step, it is proposed to c l o s e the s h o r t length of Brown Street adjoining Market Street, which will become a public pedestrian mall linking up with the new development of the


M a r k e t C e n t r e and the General Post Office on e i t h e r s i d e .

2 8 . In C O -operation wirh the Civic T r u s t for the North West, joint studies a r e being undertaken with the object of improving the environment of a number of existing s q u a r e s and s t r e e t s in the City C e n t r e and giving g r e a t e r priority to the pedestrian. St. Am's Square and Crown Square in particular, lend themselves to improvement involving r e s t r i c t i o n of traffic, although i t may b e n e c e s s a r y in commercial a r e a s to think in t e r m s of partial c l o s u r e , to meet servicing r e q u i r e m e n ~ s . S t . Peter's Square and Albert Square a r e a l s o the subject of study but these a r e of g r e a t e r significance in the traffic pattern of the Central Area a s a whole and potential improvement is limited to re -arrangement so a s to provide b e t t e r a c c e s s and m o r e s p a c e f o r the pedestrian without seriously impeding traffic flow; redevelopment proposals may make a m o r e complete solution practicable.

between London Road and Brook S t r e e t .

30. Powers have recently been sought f r o m Parliament in the Manchester Corporation Bill, 1967, to extend the provisions of Road T r a f f i c and Highways Legislation, s o a s to p e r m i t the c l o s u r e of s t r e e t s o r p a r t s of s t r e e t s f o r environmental, a s distinct f r o m traffic r e a s o n s and to enable landscaping works to be c a r r i e d out when the layout of carriageways i s a l t e r e d o r when they a r e no longer required f o r traffic. These powers, will be v e r y valuable and provisions a r e included enabling experimental c l o s u r e s to take place,a speedy and effective way of testing feasibility in practice before final decisions have to be m a d e . Although t h e r e is scope f o r s o m e action in the s h o r t t e r m , the problems of reconciling the need f o r effective vehicular circulation with traffic f r e e a r e a s f o r the pedestrian a r e considerable and it is c l e a r that general improvement i s a function of redevelopment, as it gradually makes possible a m o r e rational overall circulation pattern.

2 9 . Probably the m o s t immediately effective

transformation of the City C e n t r e could b e obtained by the apparently simple and economical expedient of planting a few hundred t r e e s , and h e r e again in CO -operation with the Civic T r u s t a study i s being undertaken with a view to introducing a s many a s possible. Apart f r o m the inadequate width of pavements, by f a r the g r e a t e s t difficulty encountered is the intensive and intricate network of s e r v i c e s underlying the City's main s t r e e t s . Even accepting that s o m e d e g r e e of obstruction to movement might be considered worthwhile, possible locations a r e r e s t r i c t e d to a far g r e a t e r degree than casual observation would suggest. In a r e a s where substantial changes a r e taking place the problem i s , of c o u r s e much s i m p l e r and a s p a r t of the design of Mancunian Way the opportunity has been taken to c r e a t e urban landscaping in the a r e a s formed by the roundabouts and an overall landscaping s c h e m e i s a t present being implemented in CO -operation with the Institute of Science and Technology, f o r the length of this highway

Urban Form and Skyline

31. The skyline of cities has changed dramatically in r e c e n t t i m e s . The Cathedral tower o r s p i r e was once pre-eminent and l a t e r the emphasis afforded to religious buildings became reflected in expressions of civic p r i d e . In Manchester, the accent was f i r s t provided by.the relatively s m a l l Cathedral tower, overlooking the r i v e r and surrounded by buildings of domestic s c a l e . Then, l a t e r in the 19th Century, the Town Hall, Waterhouse's m a s t e r p i e c e with i t s g r e a t tower and s p i r e over 300 feet in height, dominated the skyline and with the new banks and g r e a t warehouses brought a new s c a l e and vigour to the City. 3 2 . E a r l i e r in this Century the Calico Printers Association and l a t e r Sunlight House and the Midland Bank, all buildings over 150 feet in height, w e r e built. All these buildings followed the monumental tradition and w e r e highly modelled, with strongly individual


E x i s t i n g skyline s e e n f r o m Princess Parkway (bottom) Whitworth's south west p r o s p e c t of Manchester 1729


s i l l ~ o u e t t e sthat g a v e v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t to the skyline. It w a s s e l d o m that u s a b l e o r c o m t n c r c i a l l y justifiable accoinniotiation exceeded s e v e n o r eight s t o r e y s , o r about a hundred f e e t in height and the skyline f e a t u r e s w e r e usually incorporated f o r s t y l i s t i c reasorzs, motivated by r e s p o n s e s n o t d i s s i m i l a r f r o m t h o s e o f the r e l i g i o u s buil.ders o f an e a r l i e r e r a

3 3 . Today the conditions a r e quite d i f f e r e n t . Advanced building ~eclinologym a k e s it possible to c o n s t r u c t buildings of twice the height of lbe p i n ~ l a c l e sof h e l a s t c e n t u r y , all c o ~ l s i s t i n gof functional accoirlrnodation and giving r i s e to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o w e r o r s l a b f o r m s . ISow tllat the quest f o r lnonumentality can be combined with d i r e c t c o i n m e r c i a l r e m r n , high buildings c a n be a r e s p o n s e both to econoinic a n d ' p r e s t i g e ' Ei~.ctorsand the \vish to build high i s txlore g e n e r a l than e v e r b e f o r e . Medieval o r d e r and r u l e s of p r e c e d e n t have given way to a f r e e r e x p r e s s i o n not without advantages, n o r without d a n g e r s . 3 4 . High buildings, well designed and planned in a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p to e a c h o t h e r and to t l ~ eC e n t r a l Area a s a whole, c a n b e e x t r e r i ~ e l yexciting and d r a m a t i c f e a t u r e s of the skyline, m a r k i n g the metropolitan c e n t r e . T h e y rnust however, be key e l e m e n t s , carefully s i t e d and r e s t r i c t e d in n u m b e r , b e c a u s e unlike the o r n a m e n t a l and comparatively d e l i c a t e skyline f e a t u r e s of e a r l i e r titnes, the m a s s O S m o d e r n s l a b s and toivcrs c a n e a s i l y a m a l g a m a t e to f o r m apparently continuous walls of buildings, destroying t h e i r owl1 s c a l e by s h e e r bulk and o v e r shaclowing everything e l s e in the c e n t r e . 'The p r e s e n t clay concept of c o ~ l t r o l l i n gthe overall intensity of u s e in the i n t e r e s r s of voiding congestion, m e a n s that the question o l high buildings c a n be taken out ol' ttle purely econonlic context of maximun.1 accornmodat-ion 011 ~ n i ~ i i l n u lsni l e , ;uld t l i i ~ for111 o i clevelopnient need b e arloptecl only when the location of a c c o m ~ n o d a ~ i o ~ ~ retluisements m a k e i t p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e .

3 5 . In M;lnchester, during idle l a s t d e c a d e , buildings bilvc coiitributcd to a new ~ l i y l i n e

Ilia-h ---a

visible o v e r a wide a r e a ; t h e s e include the 400 f t . C . I . S . ' s k y s c a p e r ' , which i n a r k s the n o r t h e r n gateway to the C e n t r a l A r e a , the l'iccadilly Plaza dcvcloprnent t h a t adjoins the subsl-antial open s p a c e of Piccadilly G a r d e n s and S t . A n d r e w ' s House on Portland S t r e e t , which i s a dominant e l e m e n t on the skyline if viewed f r o r ~ lt h e southern a p p r o a c h e s to the C i t y . In g e n e r a l , tliese buildings a r e well r e l a t e d to e a c h o t h e r and the r e s u l t a n t skyline undoubtedly e m p h a s i s e s d r a m a t i c a l l y in visual terms,tlze m e ~ r o p o l i t a ncjuality of the City a.s the c e n t r e of a g r e a t and d e n s e l y populated c o n u r b a t i o n , Nevertheless in a relatively sinall and c o m p a c t C e n t r a l A r e a , l i t t l e Inore that one inile s q u a r e , t h e r e i s c l e a r l y a lirnit to the n u m b e r of high buildings that can be accornmodated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .

3 6 . T h e co rnprehens ive a d v i s o r y planning s c h e n ~ e sa l r e a d y p r e p a r e d f o r v a r i o u s a r e a s

in the City C e n t r e , e a c h of which h a s i t s obv~vn c l i a s a c t e r , provide a context within which a n y proposals f o r high buildings may b e c o n s i d e r e d . These t h r e e dimensional proposal.^, which indicate the height, f o r m and s c a l e of development, s u g g e s t t h a t the g e n e r a l height of huildings should be f r o m t h r e e to eight s t o r e y s , in keeping with the s c a l e and c h a r a c t e r of t h e a r e a and w h e r e high eleineilts a r e included wirhin a schetlie they should g e n e r a l l y not e x c e e d l 5 s t o r e y s .

37 . E x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t s that the implelnentati.on of a rigidly preconceived policy f o r high buildings i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e ? even i f i t were thought to b e d e s i r a b l e . 'There a r e c e r t a i n a r e a s w h e r e high building e l e m e n t s a r e being actively d i s c o u r a g e d , f o r e x a m ~ ~ i.n l e the Ci.vic A r e a wilere they d e s t r o y tlze s c a l e aiid p r e -einin.cnce of t h e existing c i v i c buildings, anci in the i m m e d i a t e vicinity o f the C:ar:hedsal. Generally, in the inner c o r c , d l e introduction of a v e r y high building on alrllost any s i t e W-oillcis e r i o u s l y and overpo\vcr s u r r o u n d i n g overslli.~dos\~ d e v c l o p n l e : ~and ~ \vould sel-ioi.lsly i n j u r e the cllal-acteristic s c a l e of M a n c h e s t e r ' s City C e n t r e . In t h e approach a r e a however, tliere inay be s c o p e f o r the incrotiuction of


one o r two m o r e dominating e l e m e n t s , but it would be u n r e a l i s t i c to s u g g e s t p a r t i c u l a r locations in advance when the accolllmodation r e q u i r e m e n t s which a r e reflected in the building forrns cannot b e f o r e s e e n .

38. In g e n e r a l , the view i s taken that the introduction of dominating skyline f e a t u r e s should be r e g a r d e d a s the exception r a t h e r than the r u l e - a s a privilege r a t h e r than a r i g h t and that a s t r o n g c a s e m u s t b e made out in both functional and civic design t e r m s f o r this p a r t i c u l a r f o r m of development. It i s not s o much a question of 'allocating' s i t e s f o r high buildings, o r c c n s i d e r i n g proposals in t e r m s of t h r e e dimensional civic design o r l a r g e s c a l e a r c h i t e c t u r e a s applied to the C e n t r a l A r e a a s a whole. Ln p r a c t i c e , d i s c u s s i o n s with p r o s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p e r s and t h e i r a r c h i t e c t s take place a t the e a r l i e s t possible s t a g e and once accolnmodation r e q u i r e m e n t s c a n be e s t i m a t e d with s o m e d e g r e e of c e r t a i n t y i t then b e c o m e s possible to evaluate a l t e r n a t i v e p r o p o s a l s f o r the f o r m of development . Modelling techniques, making u s e of a working model of the e n t i r e C e n t r a l A r e a , h a v e proved invaluable f o r t h i s pur pos e .

3 9 . 'The introduction of r e l a t i v e l y high e l e m e n t s into the townscape m a k e s i t n e c e s s a r y to pay m u c h g r e a t e r attention to the a n c i l l a r y accorlllllodation that in the p a s t h a s tended to r e s u l t in clutter a t roof l e v e l . T h i s i s important n o t only f r o m the point of view of obtaining c l e a n silhouettes, but a l s o b e c a u s e the r o o f s of lower buildings a r e now extensively o v e r l o o k e d . Lift m o t o r and equipment r o o m s , penthouses, f l u e s and a e r i a l m a s t s , r e q u i r e to b e c o n s i d e r e d a s integral and i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s in the design of buildings and not a s ' a f t e r -thoughts1 to be accolnmodated haphazardly on the s k y l i n e . Recent buildings have shown v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement in t h i s direction, although the c r e a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n g and imaginative skyline t r e a t n l e n t s in nloderil t e r m s s t i l l r e m a i n a challenge to a r c h i t e c t s .

Quality and Design

4 0 . T h e planning f r a m e w o r k s u g g e s t s the context f o r development, giving information on u s e s , density and cir,culation, but t l ~ e r e r e m a i n s the c r u c i a l question of obtaining good design in building and quality of m a t e r i a l s and c o n s t r u c t i o n . Although the u s e of planning powers of control [nay avoid the w o r s t e x c e s s e s , it i s impossible to l e g i s l a t e f o r f i r s t c l a s s design and the r e a l problem i s m e d i o c r i t y . E x p e r i e n c e s u g g e s t s that the b e s t r e s u l t s a r e obtained only when a good a r c h i t e c t , willing to r e c o g n i s e his obligation not only to h i s c l i e n t but to the town o r City i n which h e i s to build, i s allowed f r e e d o m to work; in the long r u n it i s a m a t t e r of enlightened p a t r o n a g e . 41 . Where quality of m a t e r i a l s i s concerned, again t h e p r i m e responsibility r e s t s on the s h o u l d e r s of the a r c h i t e c t . Planning conditions c a n b e imposed to avoid the u s e of m a t e r i a l s that would be quite evidently unsuitable f r o m the point of view of good neighbourliness, but they will not e n s u r e , f o r example, good finishes and detailing to avoid unsightly s t r e a k i n g and s t a i n i n g . It is impossible f o r any Planning Authority, confronted with m a n y development applications and with limited r e s o u r c e s , to take c a r e of t h e f i n e s t detail and s u c c e s s will depend in the long r u n on the cluality, integrity and e x p e r i e n c e of t h e a r c h i t e c t c o n c e r n e d . 4 2 . In M a n c h e s t e r , the g e n e r a l approach i s to afford the a r c h i t e c t the maximum possible f r e e d o m f o r e x p r e s s i o n within the g e n e r a l planning f r a m e w o r k , which in itself allows f o r flexibility in the interpretation, a s s c h e m e s collie to b e worked out in m o r e d e t a i l . T h e b e s t r e s u l t s , without doubt, a r e obtained w h e r e t h e r e i s teamwork and willing co-operation r i g h t f r o m t h e inception of the scheme.

43. Older buildings in the C i t y a r e mostly of s t o n e o r b r i c k , s o m e t i m e s of t e r r a - c o t t a and t h e i r detailing f o r the m o s t p a r t r e f l e c t s the revivalis1 a r c h i t e c t u r a l s ~ y l e sof t h e i r t i m e .


Continuity of character -new buildings in Crown Square (bottom)

Quality in materials -The

Commercial Union building in Mosley Street

T h e r e a r e some v e r y straightforward and simple warehouse buildings of considerable strength and dignity together with a considerable amount of work that is of no architectural value whatsoever. T h e emphasis has been on individual buildings and the lack of any substantial a r e a s of continuous o r coherent architectural treatment r e m o v e s inhibitions in the design of new work and a t the s a m e time emphasises the need for a m o r e unified c h a r a c t e r when renewal takes place. 44. T h e City Architect who i s responsible f o r advising on the architectural t r e a t m e n t of buildings, in general h a s encouraged the u s e of mono -chromatic materials, self cleaning where possible and this is a l r e a d y leading to a m o r e recognisable relationship amongst the buildings most recently constructed. Where a continuity of architectural c h a r a c t e r and the u s e of s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s within an a r e a i s accepted a s a self -imposed objective by a r c h i t e c t s , the r e s u l t s tend to speak for themselves; successful exarnples of this approach may b e seen in the Civic A r e a and in the m o r e r e c e n t development of the Institute of Science and Technology. T h e r e a r e few r u l e s which c a n be e x p r e s s e d in sufficiently finite t e r m s to r e a l l y help the designer without imposing undue r e s t r i c t i o n s on his freedom, and sensitivity i s required in the selection of finishes which a r e in sympathy with neighbouring buildings and the c h a r a c t e r of the surrounding a r e a .

45. In the new situation where pedestrian r o u t e s will f o r m an integral p a r t of development, it is n e c e s s a r y to pay m o r e attention to paving treatments, the choice of s t r e e t furniture and artificial lighting s o that t h e r e will be a m o r e complete relationsl-tip between public and private w o r k s . It is also d e s i r a b l e that new development should b e CO -0rdinated wherever possible with general iuzprovements in environment, including the introduction of traffic f r e e a r e a s , s o that the rllaxirnuill benefit rnay be derived from new building in transfortrling the image of the City

46. Lighting, in particular, a s s u m e s


-

F', \ -

-4 .

pW:.....

.

. r .:--l ~

increasing importance with the creation of pedestrian ways, not only f o r reasons of safety but also because of i t s potential in enhancing the quality of s p a c e and architectural c h a r a c t e r . T h e City a t night takes on a special atmosphere and in the entertainment and shopping a r e a s a bright display of neon signs and advertisements is n e c e s s a r y to give light, warmth and vitality. Liveliness and perhaps even an element of b r a s h n e s s , have their place in certain parts, contrasting with m o r e r e s t r a i n e d effects in other a r e a s having a different c h a r a c t e r .

- ,

Quality emphasised by lighting -the C.I.S. bu'llding in Miller Street a.


5.Comprehensive Planning Proposals

1. Comprehensive planning proposals o r 'Advisory Schemes' have so f a r been prepared for five a r e a s amounting to about 200 a c r e s and representing most of the core of the Central Area. Together with that part of the IHigher Education Precinct which lies north of Mancunian Way and i s within the Central Area, they can be considered a s potential 'Action Areas' which a r e ripe for redevelopment and where clear p r e s s u r e s for rebuilding exist.

2. Itmustbeemphasisedthatthese proposals do not represent abstract conceptions; the three dimensional framework contained in them is based on uses and accommodation requirements that can be realistically anticipated and the proposals a r e intended to s e r v e a s a brief to developers and a s a basis for m o r e detailed design work. In some of the a r e a s , development has already been completed, o r is in course of construction in accordance with the proposals, whilst in others, planning approvals have been given for developments that have been worked out in consultation on the basis of the particular Advisory Scheme.

The accompanying diagrams and Map 3. No. 9 show these parts of the Central Area for which three-dimensional planning schemes have so f a r been prepared, whilst a breakdown of the uses proposed and other relevant information is given in Appendix C, Table No. 6. The a r e a s a r e a s follows :-

Civic Area proposals

COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING PROPOSALS

55


(i)

The Market Street Area, extending from Shude Hill in the north to King Street in the south, bounded by Corporation Street to the west and High Street/ Fountain Street to the e a s t .

(ii)

The Cathedral and Market Place Area, extending from Victoria Station, in the nortll to St. Mary's Gate in the south, bounded by Corporation Street to the east and the River Irwell 'and Exchange Station to the west.

(iii) The a r e a referred to as 'the Civic Area' extending from the 'Town Hall in Albert Square to the Courts of Justice in Crown Square, bounded by John Dalton Street and Bridge Street to the north, =and Peter Street and Quay Street to the south. (iv)

'fl~eMosley Street Area, between Piccadilly Plaza and Central Station, bounded by Mosley Street to the west, Portland Street to the e a s t .

(v)

The Central Station Area, between 'Deansgate and Lower Mosley Street, bounded by Peter s t r e e t to the north and Whitworth Street West to the south.

(vi)

That part of the Higher Education Precinct lying within the Central Area, between Upper Brook Street and London Road and bounded by Whitworth Street to the north and Mancunian Way to the south.

The Market Street Arsa

4. This most important a r e a , centred on Market Street, encompasses the heart of the regional shopping centre. Much of the property within i t has been ripe for redevelopment for lnany years and in consequence has been the subject of interest on the part of developers. It became evident at an early stage that proposals put forward for individual sites would have to be reconciled with a comprehensive design for f i e whole

a r e a . The opportunity to rebuild in a lnanncr worthy of the location would otl~erwisehave been lost and it: would have been inlpossible to deal with the existing pattern of circulation wherein Market Street is a t one and the sa.me time, the City's busiest pedestrian s t r e e t and a main trunk a r t e r y for through traffic. S. A t the outset, the strategic pre-eminence of M ~ r k e Street t in the shopping pattern was recognised. Investigation showed that the traditional location could be exploited to provide a really fine shopping centre, capable of absorbing the bulk of tlle shopping requirements anticipated in the future; this would necessitate the removal of througl~ trafEic and llhe development in depth of the obsolete property that lay behjnd the high value frontages.

The basis of the scheme i s that Market 6. Street should eventually become the pedestrian way in a system of covered and open pedestrian routes planned along the traditional lines o:f movement through the a r e a . The traffic displaced will be c a r r i e d in past by the primary road network and in p a r t by an improved Cannon Street which becomes an inlportant link in the secondary system. 7. Although proposals for the conirersion of Market Street to pedesa-ian u s e a r e not new, the obstacle has always been the provision of alternative servicing arrangements, particularly on the south side where the existence of the old General Post Office and the narrow depth of frontage created serious technical problem S . The denlolition of the General Post Office and its replacement by a n.ew building to form p a r t of the Market Centre Scheme, the second stage of ~vliicliis now under colzstruction, has enabled this problem to be overcome.

8. The north side of Market Street however, provides the opportunity for lliore cornprelieiisive treatment. It is proposed that the a r e a up to Ca.nnon Street should be developed in depth primarily f o r sh.opping (with servicing below ground level) ~vllilstthe


Mat-l<et Street of the l c ~ t ~ r r-free e of v e t ~ ~ c l e\with s a r c a d t : ~ .urban lalio'scapi~i<jarid the charactctr- c:~f a permanent exhi b ~ ion (bot toln Mar ltet Street proposals l o o k ~ n itowards j ttw Royal Exchange


Pedestrian shopping malls should be l i v e l y , w i t h a v a r i e t y of spaces 'and character

area between Cannon Street and Withy Grove will he used in the main for principal c a r parking to serve the shopping a r e a a s a whole (with space for approximately 2000 cars); i t will also contain a bus station and a new retail market, In addition a limited amount of shopping could appropriately be included in this part of the area to provide a continuity between the main shopping and the servicing facilities. The Withy Grove block would also be used for the relocation of a proportion of the warehousing and other uses of a similar nature a t present situated in the narrow lanes behind the Market Street frontage. The retail market, although it will serve to replace the limited retail facilities a t Smithfield which will be lost when the main wholesale market moves to Gorton, will provide a much needed new facility for the City.

9. The proposals take advantage of the change in level which occurs along Market Street to provide for two main levels of shopping, each accessible from the natural ground level a t different points along the Street. The adoption of a t w o level system enables independent pedestrian connections to be provided. These will link up not only with the Withy Grove part of the area, leading eventually to the new proposed residential development a t Smithfield, but also across Corporation Street into the area of the Market Place and Corn Exchange schemes. On the south side of Market Street the Market Centre development has been designed to permit an ultimate connection, when redevelopment takes place, through the site now occupied by the Manchester Guardian and Evening News and over Cross Street into the St. Ann's Square area. All these developments a r e important elements in the eventual realisation of an independent pedestrian circulation system. 10. Early action is clearly needed to deal with the evident conditions of bad layout and obsolete development existing in so much of the area, particularly to the north of Market Street and in order to ensure that comprehensive development is not impeded by


-.

lransport f a c i l i t i e s t h e developrncnt

integrated ~ n t o

practical limitations on the degree of accessibility that can be achieved, there a r e no future proposals for major c a r parking provision in the a r e a south of Market Street.

12. The eventual closure of Market Street and the introduction of the other new pedestrian routes through the a r e a will afford the opporhinity for air-conditioned malls and continuous arcades and also for extensive landsdaping, including sculpture, fountains and water treatment. There will be facilities for children and a r e a s for r e s t and relaxation, protected from the weather and from traffic dangers and noise. This scale of development and these types of facilities will be required to induce people into making special expeditions to the regional centre and m7il.lincreasingly be taken for granted a s other centres a r e redeve loped. the problem of fragmented ownership, the City Council has approved the preparation of lormal Comprehensive Development Area and Designation proposals. These have now been submitted and a r e a t present being considered by the Minister of Housing and Local Government.

11. Included within these proposals is the largely commercial and business a r e a lying between Market Street and King Street, where a considerable amount of redevelopment has already taken place and m o r e is under construction. The emplissis in this p a r t of the a r e a - which contains several important buildings and has considerable c h a r a c ~ e r ,is not placed on v e r y large scale comprehensive treatment but on rationalising an inadequate s t r e e t circulation system and eriabljng redevelopment to take place, where this is necessary, in related units of reasonable s i z e . Already i t has been possible in this a r e a to achieve development of satisfactory scale and layout by means of negotiation and i t would not be the intention t o invoke the powers available i f the designation proposals were to be approved, unless it became evident that reconstruction was being unduly delayed o r satisfactory units of development coul'd riot be achieved without their use. Owing to the

within the space of a decade, the City's central shopping a r e a could be transformed t o take on something of the quality of a well s e t out and continuously changing permanent exhibition, supplying the variety and interests that centres with a. smaller catchment a r e a a r e not able to provide. It should be lively and busy by day and brilliant and gay by nigllt . The Cathedral & Market Place Area

13. The Cathedral and Market place a r e a , bounded by Victoria and Exchange Stations, St. h4ary's Gate and Corporation Street comprises some 25 a c r e s . Part of the City of Salford, between the River Irwell and Exchange Station, is included within the proposals, being closely related from both the circulation and civic design points of view, and the scheme has been prepared in collaboration with the City Engineer and Planning Officer of Salford. 14. Manchester Cathedral and Chetham's Iiospital a r e situated in the heart of this a r e a and one of the main objectives i s to create a worthy setting for these historic buildings. A t the present time the Cathedral West Door looks out a c r o s s a noisy and heavily trafficked road, over the River Irwell which is hidden from view in a deep cutting,to a jumble of old buildings


and advertisements, surnlounted by the prominent and unprepossessing w a r damaged facade of Exchange Station. Chetham's Hospital is also surrounded and almost hidden from view, by obsolete and inappropriate development.

the Manchester and Salford Joint Committee and two major development applications for the Market Place and Corn Exchange a r e a s have received outline planning approval in accordance with the advisory plan.

16. War damage was responsible for the destruction of the old Market Place a.rea and also Victoria Buildings, the site of which has since been g r a s s e d and planted a s an open space. The old Welling-ton Inn, however, which is scheduled a s an Ancient Monument and also 'listed' a s a building of special architectural o r historic interest escaped damage, and survives a s one of the very few reminders of Manchester's Medieval past. The adjoining Sinclair's Oyster Bar which was restored a t a l a t e r period, is also 'listed', and one of the problems has been to reconcile and integrate these two small scale buildings in a sympathetic way with the renewal of the surrounding a r e a , ripe for redevelopment.

18. F r o m a circulation point of view the Market Place a r e a occupies a strategic position; it i s the 'hinge' between the Market Street shopping a r e a and the shopping a r e a s of St. A m ' s Square and King Street and i t also marks the transition between the two-tier pedestrian circulatioil of the former, and the mainly g ~ o u n dlevel precinct treatment of the latter. The proposals for both the Market Place and Corn Exchange a r e a s provide for pedestrian movement a t both ground and upper levels; the upper level movement will run from Victoria Station, through the Corn Exchange a r e a and a c r o s s Cateaton Street, allowing for connections a c r o s s Corporation Street into the Market Street scheme and its associated servicing a r e a which will include the bus station and market. The main pedestrian shopping square i s a t the lower level, virtually the existing level along St. Mary's Gate and facilities a r e provided for i.nter-change with the higher level of movement r e f e r r e d to above. There i s also to be a pedestrian bridge a c r o s s Deansgate connecting the development on the e a s t and west sides.

17. Preliminary advisory proposals were prepared in 1963, although a t that time the main framework of road propcsals envisaged the construction of the City Centre Road over the River Irwell and along the line of Cateaton Street between the Cathedral and the Market Place a r e a . The p r i m a r y road in this position, which rnight have been a high level s t r u c t u r e , presented almost insuperable environmental problems, cutting off the Cathedral Precinct from the r e s t of the City Centre, ~,vhilsl. there w e r e also s e r i o u s engi-rleering d i f i i c u ~ t i e s The alignment now proposed through Salford on the other side of Victoria and Exchange Stations, h a s enabled the planning of this axea to be reconsidered and the present proposals a r e t h e outcome; they have been appmved by

19, The implementation of these comprehensive proposals is dependent on the closing of Victoria Street, between St. M a ~ 'S y Gate and Cateaton Street and a number of other small s t r e e t s jn the Market Place a r e a . take into Serv4cinga r r a n g e r ~ ~ e n, t which s account the existing buildings of Longridge House and Michael House, trill be a t b a s ~ ~ ~ ~ c l i t level, i'_ccessf o r goods vehcles wll! bt: f r o i n Cateaton eet for the a r e a to the e a s t of Deans yaie and l rom Blackfriars Street and Deanr,gqte, for the a r e a to the west. The accor.~modationof tlle below -ground servicing will ir~volvethe loss of about eighty c a r spaci.s in the existing underground c a r park, the access to which will be re-arranged to run from Cateaton Street, but a new c a r park

15. The shortcomings of this setting have for long been recognised and an important proposal of the City of Manchester Plan, 1945, was the creation of a precinct to contain the Cathedral and Chetham's Hospital, to be achieved by the closure of the intervening Fennel Street. In an extended form, this remains a feature of the new planning proposals for the a r e a .

.


The pedestrian s q u a r e in the Market Place area from which radiate upper level links to other

development

on the west side of Deansgate is proposed, which will accommodate about 500 c a r s . It is also proposed to accommodate a new hotel on this site, overlooking the river. Eventually, a Eurtker length of Victoria Street, the length that passes in front of the Cathedral and Fennel Street will be closed, thus making possible a traffic free precinct which will contain both the Cathedral and Chetham's Hospital and extend right up to the river. The new proposals provide for improved connections with the Cathedral Precin.ct, and an a r e a of public open space, in substitution f o r the present Victoria Gardens site, is proposed in a location where it: would contribute more directly towards the setting of the Cathedral. The present Victoria Gardens, although a welcome oasis of green in an otherwise solidly built up area, a r e surrounded on all sides by traffic, and the r i s k of subsidence has meant that they could not be made available for public access and enjoyment. The new area, in contrasr, would be readily accessible and i t would connect with a pedestrian square in the heart of the new Market Place shopping a r e a which is planned in relation to the old Wellington liln and Oyster Bar. In order to facilitate pedestrian movement through t h e S cherne, the submitted development proposals envisage tliat these buildings will be raised a matter of six feet on their existing sites and the permission which has been granted is subject to the production of satisfactory engineering evidence that this operation can be carried out without risk of serious damage. 20.

The present advisory scheme and the 21. more detailed clevelopment proposals which have received p1 aiming approval, ha.ve been the subject of consultation with the Dcan and Canons, and with M e s s r s Wilson and Wornersley, who a c t a s planring advisors to the Cathedral, Consultations have also taken place with the Fine Arts Cornrnissioll and in respect of the Wellington Inn and the Oyster &r, with the Miniszry of Public Building and Works and with tlne h.linj.stry of Housing and

Local Government. A report;, dealing with the present conditions in the Cathedral a r e a and making suggestions for its improvement, has been prepared by M e s s r s Wilson and Womersley for the Cathedral Authorities and several of the suggestions made in this report a r e reflected in the present planning proposals, including the possibility of opening up a fronts-ge to the r i v e r in order that in the long run a riverside walkway may be created. Both the Market Place development scheme and other developments approved in the Parsonage a r e a make provision for t l ~ i sfeature. Tlie future character of railway 22. facilities a t Victoria and Exchange Stations is currently the subject of study by British Rail. 'The outcome is of the greatest importance in connection with the planning of the a r e a in the vicinity of the Cathedral and discussions have already taken place with representatives of the Cathedral, British Rail, the Civic T r u s t for the North West, and Salford and Manchester corporation.^ , with a view to CO-ordinatirlg activities. Ff the use of Exchange Station for passenger traffic were to be discontinued, i t would make possible the removal of the bridge approach a c r o s s the River Irwcll -- a co~lsistentpolicy in advisory proposals for this arca, wlnilst the release of certain railway land


Generous pedestrian at-ea south of Brazennose House, paved and landscapect

(bottom) Civic Area proposals, look~rlgto\h!ards the Town tiall

a t Exchange, Victoria and Hunts Balk would hasten the transformation of what i s a t present a generally depressing and grimy a r e a , into a Catlledral precinct worthy of the name. Until railway plans have become f i r m e r , i t is not possible to put forward Inore detailed proposals f o r this p a r t of the a r e a and when m o r e information is available it may well be possible to modify and improve certain aspects of the present scheme.

The Civic Area 23. The creation of a Civic Area between the Town Hall and the Courts of Justice was f i r s t proposed in the City of Manchester Plan, 1945 and an a r e a of 62 a c r e s was allocated in the Development Plan for Ceneral Civic, Cultural o r other Special Uses. It was considered that this a r e a was particularly well located for purposes connected with government and local government, although in practice i t proved difficult to correlate the p r o g r e s s of physical redcvelop~nentwith the forecasting and emergence of demands f o r these special u s e s . 24. In o r d e r to avoid stagnation and to encourage much needed redevelopment, approvals have been given for commercial office purposes. Certain Corporation departments a r e accomnlodated in the new buildings and together with the Courts of Justice and the Magistrates' Courts which a r e now being built, i%ese uses a r e a reflection of the original proposals. The changing circumstances in relation to the requirements of government departments have always made t h e i r needs difficult to forecast with any degree of accuracy and they have tended either to build on sites o r to occupy offices which happened to be available at the time they needed the s p a c e . F o r example, the Regional Offices which were s e t up comparatively recently, a r e situated in the Piccadilly Plaza.

25. A s f a r a s the Corporation is concerned, a study has been undertaken to ascertain the arnount of space llkely to be needed for future expansion, based on experience in recent

F r .7


y e a r s and a s a result, certain a r e a s in proximity to the Town Hall complex a r e considered to be particularly suitable f o r this purpose. Apart from the question a s to whether office accommodation provided is used for public o r private purposes, there has been a consistent effort to produce a special c h a r a c t e r in the development of the a r e a that would reflect i t s rehtionship to the important elements of the existing civic centre a t Albert Square and the new Courts of Justice at Crown.Square. Moreover, within the a r e a itself is the John Rylands Library, a n important building of special architectural ,and historic interest and the Roman Catholic Church of St. Mary's popularly known a s the 'Hidden Gem'. The way in which the area is to be 26. treated, however, has changed radically since the City of M ~ n c h e s t e rPlan proposa.1~and the proposals of the present advisory scheme a r e described in m o r e detail below. The e a r l i e r conception was on axial lines and envisaged a broad 'processional way' in the grand manner, connecting Albert Square and Crown Square, the Town Hall tower forming a terminal feafxre a t one end and the Courts of Justice closing the vista a t the other; the 'processional way' would have been a road open to vehicular traffic. The new proposals prepared jointly with the City Architect, in contrast, are precinctual in character, consisting of a s e r i e s of interlocking and landscaped pedestrian spaces of varying scale. The emphasis is essentially on a m o r e intimate human scale, different: in c h a r a c t e r f r o m the main commercial a r e a s of the City, with opportunities f o r continuously changing views. 27. Walking through the a r e a from Albert Square, where an increased s e n s e of enclosure will be provided by a. m o r e unified treatment of the frontage opposite the Town Hall, a large pedestrian 'place' will be entered, s m a l l e r than Albert Square bu.t still of substantial scale; this will be paved and landscaped, with cafes and restaurants and roonl f o r people to sit: and to s t r o l l at wil.1. J,ooking. back,views of the Towil Hall tower


will be contained by the comparatively restricted openings leading through into Albert square itself. The buildings in this p a r t of the scheme a r e in general planned to be of a n average height of about seven storeys, although a little more vertical emphasis could appropriately be obtained in the t r a n s v e r s e block planned parallel to Deansgate which would close off the 'place' on the Deansgate side; the scale is designed not to compete with the Town Hall since the facade and tower of this would still tend to dominate and provide a focus. Brazennose House on the north side, h a s already been constructed and pedestrian ways through the building a t ground level allow glimpses to be obtained of the 'Hidden G e m ' and communicate with the existing system of narrow pedestrian ways that lead through to St. James's Square, King Street and St. Aim's Church. Some old development opposite Brazennose House, between Brazennose Street and Queen Street, has now been demolished and although the s i t e is a t present being used f o r c a r parking, i t i s now becoming. possible to discern on the ground the ultimate proportions of the new open a r e a . 28. Passing out of the l a r g e r 'Brazennose Place' a s e r i e s of smaller open spaces is then reached. The f i r s t opens out on to Deansgate itself and then after moving below the road by means of an underpass, the waLker e m e r g e s into a further oblong shaped landscaped a r e a , designed primarily to provide a setting for Ryland's Library which occupies the north side. The long side elevation of Ryland's has always been almost hidden from view and the new proposals will enable the building to be properly appreciated not only a t close quarters, but also from some distance along Deansgate. From this a r e a , an enclosed quadrangle i s entered, surrounded by development of four and five storeys designed to create a collegiate atmosphere, reminiscent of a n Inn of Court; the accommodation in the quadrangle and its location close to the Courts would be particularly suitable for Chambers and professional offices of the smaller kind. F r o m this quadrangle a flight of steps leads

down into Crown Square from which it is intended to exclude through traffic. The layout of the Square will be modified, with m o r e refined and extensive landscaping treatment related not only to the existing Courts of Justice but to the new Magistrates Courts to be built on the adjacent s i t e . The f i r s t p a r t of this quadrangle, including the steps into Crown Square, has recently been completed and a substantial p a r t of the demolition required for the second phase has also taken place; planning permission has been given for the entire scheme between Deansgate and Crown Square. 2 9 . The change in levels between Albert Square and Deansgate and between Deansgate and Crown Square has not only been exploited for visual effect, but has been utilised to enable vehicular servicing and c a r parking to be provided beneath the new development and the ~ e d e s t r i a na r e a s . Complete pedestrian and vehicular separation is achieved, in this case on the 'ground level precinct' principle. All the development which is taking place in this a r e a i s in accordance with the advisory scheme, the general form of which can now be appreciated on the ground. With the exception o l the acquisition of the s i t e f o r the new Magistrates Courts (for which a Compulsory Purchase Order was confirmed) implementation has been by negotiation and agreement and it has not s o f a r k e n necessary to submit formal Comprehensive Development Area o r Designation proposals in o r d e r to achieve the planning objectives.

The Mosley Street Area

30. The advisory proposals for this a r e a cover 35 a c r e s extending from the Piccadilly Plaza, southwards to Lower Mosley Street and include an a r e a of about 18.5 a c r e s surrounding the City Art Gallery for which Comprehensive k v e l o p m e n t Area proposals a r e being prepared. Much of this area, which contains a high proportion of warehousing uses, is obsolete and ripe for redevelopment. lw The relationship to the Civic Centre and to t


The character of the proposed Arts Centre

A revital~scdOxford Street,the hub of the Citys night life (bottom,)

Mosley Street Area proposals,look~ngtowards P~ccadillyPlaza


traditional entertainments a r e a of the City led to i t s selection a s the s i t e f o r the projects comprised in the proposed A r t s Centre and the other u s e s which a r e considered to be appropriate in the future a r e discussed in m o r e detail below. 31. Several s t r e e t s which c r o s s the a r e a a r e to r e m a i n open to traffic, namely Charlotte Street, Princess Street, which i s a m a i n secondary route and Oxford Road, which will eventually l o s e i t s importance a s a through route but continue to c a r r y buses and a considerable amount of local and s e r v i c e traffic between the City Centre and the Higher Education Precinct. Moreover, in planning this a r e a i t i s n e c e s s a r y to take into account the need to provide good pedestrian connections to the existing and proposed new development (including the Chorlton Street bus station and c a r p a r k ) on the opposite s i d e of Portland Street. This route a s mentioned, is t c become p a r t of the p r i m a r y r o a d network. 3 2 . T h e s e considerations dictated the adoption of a n upper level s y s t e m of pedestrian circulation in this s e c t o r of the City and the underlying principle of the t h r e e dimensional proposals put forward i s the creation of an artificial ground level; this would be developed to provide f o r open spaces and s q u a r e s and it would also be pierced extensively to accommodate existing lsl~ildings and to provide inter-change with s p a c e s and activities related to the natural ground level. 33. Development in the a r e a between Piccadilly Plaza and Charlotte Street has already been completed o r has been approved in detail. The new Bank of England on which work is about to commence, on the s i t e fronting Portland Street, has been designed to accommodate the upper level circulation, with provision f o r bridge links a c r o s s York Street into the Piccadilly Plaza and a c r o s s Charlotte Street to the A r t s Centre, i n accordance with the advisory 'proposals. The recently completed St. J a m e s ' s House, although designed priimarily in relation to the natural ground level, i s a l s o capable of being linked into the upper level s y s t e m .

34. South of Charlotte Street and on both s i d e s of Princess Street i s the a r e a proposed f o r the new Arts Centre, which includes an extension to the City Art Gallery and the proposed Opera House, and associated accommodation including a small amount of shopping, restaurants, studios. and offices. A link a c r o s s Princess Street leads through to the s i t e s proposed for a new theatre, and then on into the entertainments a r e a on e i t h e r side of Oxford Street, which i s intimately related to the Arts Centre proposals. T h e general objectives with r e g a r d to entertainments u s e s and the creation of an A r t s Centre have already been discussed on page 2 0 .

35. The m a j o r pedestrian level continues a c r o s s Lower Mosley Street and connects with Central Station and the land in railway ownership extending through to Deansgate. Although entertainment u s e s a r e appropriate in all these a r e a s , the foreseeable demand i s unlikely to be sufficient to make comprehensive development on t h i s b a s i s alone a viable proposition. In view of the capacity of the established shopping a r e a s of Market Street and Market Place to a b s o r b the likely demand f o r the extension of the regional shopping centre, t h e r e is considered to be little scope f o r m a j o r shopping, although a limited amount related to the secondary shopping centre of Oxford Street and St. Peter's Square might b e appropriate. Office development combined with entertainment uses could be satisfactorily planned and s e r v i c e d and hotel and residential u s e s would be encouraged. 36. Because of the need to rationalise the basic circulation s y s t e m o v e r an extensive a r e a , this scheme is necessarily drawn up in much broader t e r m s than those previously d e s c r b e d and particularly in the a r e a to the south of Princess Street the building f o r m shown can only b e regarded a s tentative and of a preliminary nature. The scheme will be developed and modified a s accominodation requirements can be m o r e accuratcly foreseen and a t the present time i t m u s t only be regarded a s a general guide to development in the a r e a .


The Central Station Area 37. Of the a r e a s s o f a r considered, this is the one w l ~ c r ei t is inost difficult to foresee development in any degree o i detail at the present time and although preliminary proposals have been prepared, there still remain some open questions. When Ccntxal Station is closed, i t will mean That, including the adjacent goods yards, an a r e a of about 23 a c r e s betsveen Lower Mosley Street ancl Deansgate will become avai1,ahle Ior other u s e s . About 5 a c r e s will be required for the implementation of the primary road network, leaving 18 a c r e s for development.

The unique suitability of the s i t e 101: 38. c a r parking to s e r v e the Central Area a s a whole has already k e n r e f e r r e d to in the section on entertainments , on page 2 1 , but it is evident that such a prominent s i t e could and should be developed for otrtler purposes in addition to c a r parking, although a s f a r a s major shopping- is concerned the s a m e limitations apply as in the c a s e of the Mosley Street Area to which it i s closely related. The Train Hall itself, a fine example 39. of tlie bold engineering architecture of r.he railway age, is 'listed' a s a building of special architectural o r historic interest, and a s always, the problem of retention is to find a suitable use; uses considered have i~lcludedan Exhibition Hall, a Sports Hall and a Technological Museum. The Exl~ibitionHall would be to replace the inadequate esisting building nearby, the site of which i s in any event required for road purposes, whilst a Sports Hall and a Teclu~ologicalMuset.lm a r e both facilities which a r e needed. A central s i t e for any of these purposes 40. involved problems of economics, i.1~1:tllc Ext~ibitionHal.1 proposal appeared to oIfer the m o s t positive potentialities. Shorn of i t s 'temporary' wooden front, and given a setting appropriate to i t s scale, the Train Hall could undodxedly be converted into one of the fin.est : Ij;dlml i Jxtion IYalls Good acccssibilitqr and czr '

.

parking laclli ties could be provided, and above all t l ~ l si s a use which would provide a stirnu1.u~ to the development in the renlainder of the a r e a and to this part of the City Centre generally. No decision, however, has yet been made and alternative proposals Ior a City Exh~bltionHall, outside the Central Area alto gether, a r e also under consideration. Trie main plarulilzg problerns associated 41. with IAc Central Station area, apar.t fro111 the questj.on of the eventual use of t l ~ eTrain Hall itsell, a r e related to phasing ancl tinling =aid the availability and correlation of public and private resources to enable the full potential of the area to he reali.sed. Once railway activities have ceased, it will be virtually witllout an existing use and th.e availability of sncl? a large a r e a of new 'central a r e a ' land a t one time i s bound to r a i s e doubts as to whether the short t e r m potential for commercially viable ancl acccpQble uses i s sufficient to provide the impetus for development of the scale required. Limitations on public investment, moreover, tend to militate against the speedy provision of the facilities and aixenities that would p r i m e the development. The importance of this area to the City lies in its longer term potential and in its strategic relationship to the future system of communications. In these circ~tmstancesit i s virtually 42. impossible to be p r e c i s e a t the present time, and the preliminary proposals a r e designed to sl~otvthe scale rather than the detail of the opportunities that this area presents It is an a k a which quite clearly lends itself to imaginative trealment on comprehensive and CO -ordinatecl lincs arzd although present circum.stances make n e c e s s a r y a higli degree of f!exihility, i t will be essential to ensure that development o f a piecei~1ea.lnature does not col~ipromisetIic realisstion of its long term potcr~tial

.

.

43. The prelirninal-y proposals assume tllat the Train Hall woulcl rerrlain and ps-ohably be developed a.nd extended a s an Bshibi tion Hall. The surface of the uzr parking decks would he


An unr~vallcdopportun~tyt o p r o v ~ d ea large open space w ~ t t i ~the n c ~ t ycentre w ~ t hcornplcmeritary a c t ~ v ~ t ~ c s (bottom) Central Stat~onproposals l o o k ~ n gtowards the-Town Hall


landscaped, the first real opportunity to provide a m a j o r open space of a b u t 6 a c r e s j.n the centre of tllc City. Surrounding the open a r e a on the Windmill Street side would be restaurant facilities and entertainment uses such a s dance halls, an ice rink and cinemas, and tlie aim would be to achieve the character of a 'Tivoli Gardens' in Manchester. On the Deansgate side, the open a r e a would provide an inviting setting for inixcd office and residential development. A proportion of shopping and showroom use, both in connectj.on with the Exhibition and entertainment facilities and also for the motor and engineering trades wtiich a r e nlreadv establish& in the a r e a could appropriately be included. From a circulation and accessibility 44. point of view, the a r e a offers few problems. Car parking accommodatiorl for 4,000 c a r s can be served directly from the primaly road system, whilst the opportumty may occur to make use of the existing railway viaduct to provide an independent link fro111 the c a r park in the general direction of Sale and Altrincham. The basic pedestrian circulation level would approximate that of the Stat~onconcourse, which would enable the upper level system to be carried across from the Mosley Street scheme, continuing through to the land now occupied by the c a r park a t Watson Street and then ultimately extending acros S Ueansgate into the St. John Strect area.

Higher Education Precinct

The comprel~ensiveplan for the Higher 45. Education Precinct, which extends h o m the centre of the City a s far a s Wi.tworth Park, occupying in all an area. of a h u t 280 acres, has been drawn up by hqessrs. Wilson and Womessley, Planning Consultants, on behalf of the Joint Committee representing the City, tlle University, tile Institute of Science and Teclmology, and the Manchester United I-lospitals

.

Of this 280 a c r e s about 43 acres lie 46. within the City Centre itself north-east of Mancunian Way. In this a r e a a r e situated the original buildings of the Institute of Science and Technology and the new campus which i s being developed by the Institute between the Piccadilly/Oxford Road railway line and Mancunian Way. The development of this canlpus, which i s now well advanced, has completely transformed one of the 'fringe' a r e a s of the City Centre, previously occupied by a jumble of old warehouses and industrial premises, whilst a further a r e a between Saclcville Street and Princess Street' has now k e n largely cleared in preparation for the extension of the campus.

On either side of Oxford Road, also on 47. the City Centre side of Mancunian Way, a r e situated the Jolm Dalton College of Further Education and the first stage of the National Computing Centre which is soon to b e extended. In addition, on a site adjacent to the Computing Centre, planning approval has Seen given for a new Regional Head quarter S and Studios f o r the British. Broadcasting Corporation and a Compulsory Purcl~aseOrder for the accluisition of the land has been confirmed. A pedestrian route below Mancunian Way links all the above development with the main p a r t of the Precinct, which extends southwards on either side of Oxford Road, bounded by Upper Brook Street and Cambridge Street. The Plan envisages a total day 48. population of about 40,000, of which about 25,000 will be students, and an essential element is the provision of residential accom~nodationwithin the Precinct itself f o r about 8; 000. OxÂŁo r d Road will act a s a service ancl public transport route through the Precinct and its character will change from being a main radial road to that: of a local link between ~e City Centre and the Precinct; tl~sough-traffic will be carried by Uppel- Brook Strect and Cambridge Street and parking provisions both in the Precinct and the Cjty Centre a r e related to these routes. An upper level pedestrian system, on much the same principle a s that proposed for 'parts of the Central Area, will be provided along Oxford Road and provision for this is made in building projects that a r e


either under c o ~ ~ s t r u c l i oonr recently approved, including the Mathematics and Conlputer Science Buildings of the University and the new College of Music.

49. The Plcm is essentially for a 'City University' and the close relationship between the a r e a of the City Centre and the Precinct both physically and a s r e g a r d s activities i s recognised and exploited. The word 'precinct' i s perhaps a m i s n o m e r in that i t suggests something cloistered and withdrawn whereas the planning proposals f o r the a r e a and f o r the adjoining a r e a s of the City Centre a r e designed to p e r m i t the maxinlurn u s e of educational, recreational, cultural and entertainment facilities by both students and a wide section of the public. Future Areas of Study

50. The a r e a s f o r which comprehensive advisory proposals have s o f a r been drawn up a r e those w h e r e the need and p r e s s u r e s for redevelopment a r e evident and where changes of u s e a r e likely to o c c u r w i t h n the.more immediate future. Apart f r o m the Higher Education Precinct proposals, they a r e all concerned p r i m a r i l y with the business and c o n ~ m e r c i a la r e a in the h e a r t of the City. On the periphery t h e r e a r e other a r e a s occupied by declining uses and obsolete development which a r e in urgent need of renewal although the impetus f o r commercial redevelopment is not s o g r e a t . These a r e a s , which offer p a r t i c u l a r scope for the introduction of residential use, a r e in c o u r s e of being studied; they include :( i ) The Smithfield Market Area which will include the a r e a s to be affected b y the proposed h e r Ring Road, the Oldham Street and L e v e r Street Area and extend a s f a r south as Dale Street and Church Street.

(ii) The Rochdale Canal Area including land affected by t h e Inner Ring Road and land i n the vicinity of Piccadilly Station. (iii) T h e Byroln Street Area bounded by Quay Street and Deansgate and including land in the vicinity of Liverpool Road.

(far left) The northern section of the Higher Education Precinct


1. All cities a r e in process of constant renewal, and left to itself, this natural process would result in gradual rebuilding within individual ownerships, consolidation only occuring where i t was dictated by commercial considerations an3 where negotiatior?~between owners happened to be successful. Public investment for the most part would follow on, attempting to remedy the most glaring deficiencies in circulation and s e r v i c e s . The object of a planned approach is to secure a balance between different forms of investment, so that waste and overlapping a r e avoided and the best value obtained from the resources available, whilst emphasis is placed on the overall improvement of the City, which in the long t e r m must be the best security for all the investment involved. 2 . One of the most difficult problems to be faced in programming renewa1,is that the investment required, flows through independent channels, which a r e often unrelated. Although, for example, there is now a better understanding of the connection between land use and comn~unicationsplanning, the essential inter-relationshp between different forms of investment is stilI not fully recognised. Roads, c a r parks, and other public facilities that may not be profitable in a commercial sense, a r e p a r t of the fabric of a modem city without which growth will not occur and i t is essential that they should be capable of being realistically programmed in step with associated redevelopment.

3. Successful Central Area development usually depends on a partnership and close understanding between private developing interests and the planninz authority. The authority i s responsible for the planning context in which the development is to take place, a context which must be realistic a s regards phasing and economies, whilst i t also possesses the r e s e r v e powers necessary to ensure site assembly. The developer and his architect, for their part have to recognise an obligation and responsibility in the planning of the City a s well a s expecting a reasonable return on investment. Equally, they should be able to feel confident that their scheme will be protected in the future by the same policies that now seek to influence i t . Consultation from the e a r l y stages is an essential pre-requisite of good management; money wasted a s a result of delay o r misunderstanding often represents resources that could have made the difference between a barely acceptable development and one of high quality. Unification of Ownership Redevelopment in the Central Area, 4. within the context of an overall planning framework, will range from the individual


Prouosed Bank of Enqland Portlartd Street

(bottom) Mag~stratesCourts now ~lnderconstruction in Crown S ~ u a r e

building to integrated groups of building eIements and uses fonning- a r e a s of con~prehe~lsive development. There a r e now only very limited opportunities for individual buildmgs, usually on sites of an 'infilling' nature behveen long l& existing development. A s soon a s a development unit invol~ring perhaps a wllole block is considered, o r the more comprehensive treatment of a coinplete area, the problem of fragmented ownership i s encountered; it is this factor which so often tends to prevent,or certainly delay, much needed redevelopment, unless action i s taken.

5. Unlike several other cities, such a s Birmingham, Coventry and Liverpool, Manclicster owns relatively little of its own Central Area, but it is significant that where substantial sites were owned by the Corporation and could therefore be offered without the delays involved in assembling them together, development went ahead rapidly. Exainples a r e the Longridge and Michael House developments in the Market Place area, the Piccadilly Plaza, together with the St, Andrew's House and Chorlton Street bus station and c a r park development off Portland Street. More recently, the availability of land ill the City's ownership has played a decisive part in providing an urgently needed site for the National Computing Centre, and the Corporation was also able to offer a complete a r e a for the building of the new Bank of England. 6. In some cases, where there is unified private control of a substantial area of land, i t is possible to implement development of a comprehensive scale by agreement, and examples are the development a t present taking place in the Civic Area at: Crown Square, the development of the Co-operative Insurance Society a t Miller Street and the separate,yet related,schemes of the District Balk and the London Assurance Company in King Street. There a r e other areas, such a s Market Street, where fragmented ownerships make i t impossible to j~nplementdevelopment proposals on a sufficiently large scalc without the intervention of the Authority. There have


Distrlct B a n k now under constrc~ctionin King Street (bottom) Soc~alScience and Mathematics Building now under construction at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology

l'..

a l s o been c a s e s where although a developer h a s eventually succeeded in consolidating i n t e r e s t s , i t has resulted in undue delay. If excessive p r i c e s have to be paid f o r s o m e of the land this i s another factor which can prejudice the quality of the eventual redevelopment scheme and the contribution which the developer c a n afford to make towards the amenity of the City.

I

Powers of Acquisition and Agreements with Developers 7. Where t h e r e a r e a number of ownerships involved, the u s e of planning powers of acquisition will, in general, be n e c e s s a r y to s e c u r e satisfactory comprehensive development. As already stated, Comprehensive Development Area and Designation proposals f o r the Market Street Area w e r e submitted to the Minister of Housing and Local Government in September, 1966. C . D. A. proposals a r e also in the c o u r s e of preparation f o r p a r t of the Mosley Street Advisory Scheme, i n r e s p e c t of the a r e a covered by the Regional A r t s Centre and c e r t a i n adjoining a r e a s , but further p r o g r e s s i11 implenlenting these proposals i s dependent on financial considerations and they have not yet been submitted to the Minister, pending clarificatioil of the position. Authority has a l s o been g v e n for the preparation of C. D. A. proposals for the Cathedral and Market Place Area.

'P? k r-

8. Theuseofplanningpowers, bymeans of the C . D. A. procedure, tends to be a lengthy p r o c e s s and the Planning Advisory Group recommended that i t should be replaced by a speedier procedure, m o r e akin to the powers available for the acquisition of land f o r h o u s i n ~ and other statutory purposes. In the Manchester Corporation Act 1965, the City Council obtained powers f o r the benefit and improvement of the City; these powers (which w e r e granted f o r a limited period) w e r e designed to avoid the delays involved in the C . D. A . orocedure in c a s e s where a substantial p a r t of an a r e a had been successfully unified, but development was impeded by minority


interests not amenable to negotiation by agreement, This A c t also provides for voluntary 9. agreements to be reached between the Corporation and developing interests, with a view to ensuring,for instance, 'chat a development is carried through to completion in agreed phases and that satisfactory provision can be made for dealing with some of the new problems that a r e arising out of the form and more extensive scale of modern development. Examples, a r e the making of arrangements in connection with the provision of car parking and in connection with the support, maintenance and lighting of rights of ways and pedestrian ways, on o r above ground level which form an integral part of the development.

10. Although considerable progress has been possible by means of negotiations in certain areas, there is little doubt that the further use of planning powers either by means of the C. D , A., and Designation procedure (or its successor) o r the use of the powers contained in the Local Act of 1965, will be necessary to implement the planning objectives set out in this report. 11. In general, the City Council have not intervened where planning objectives could be obtained by negotiation and agreement, but they have taken the view that where satisfactory development will evidently be prejudiced o r held up because of acquisition difficulties o r by failure to reach agreement, they will not hesitate to make use of the powers available to them. The Land Commis sion, established- through the 19 67 Act, possesses additional means of acquisition and disposal of land. 12. Where planning powers of acquisition a r e used, the next steps in the process of implementation must depend on the circumstances. In certain cases, the selection of a developer, either by means of tenders o r a competition, would be appropriate. In others, where developing interests a r e already substantially established in an a r e a , it is reasonable to assume that they would receive special consideration, providing they a r e in the position and willing to fulfil the planninc objectives on satisfactory t e r m s . A 'partnership' agreement of this nature, will usually provide for the vesting of the freehold of the area in the authority, a guarantee that the land assembly problems a t the present time will not have to be faced by future generation S.

C.D.A. PROPOSALS

13. The Town and Country Planning Act, 1962 (Section 78(7))refers to the protection of interests affected by Comprehensive Development Area procedure and places a duty on the local authority to secure, a s far as is practicable, reasonable alternative accommodation on t e r m s which have regard to the price a t which the interest was acquired.


T h e r e is 110 doubt that the redevelopment of an a r e a can c a u s e inconvenience and even hardship to established i n t e r e s t s and in the planning and implementation of redevelopment proposals, e v e r y effort will be inade to ininimise t h i s . It will be appreciated that where redevelopment takes place on land that is entirely within private ownership without the u s e of C . D. A . procedure o r planning powers of acquisition and where the authority i s not itself a p a r t y to the development, then the question of re-accommodation will r e s t entirely between the i n t e r e s t s concerned, in the normal way. l

Phasiug and Programme 1 4 . The r a t e of implementation of the proposals contained in the City Centre Map will reflect the availability of public and private investment r e s o u r c e s , which in turn will depend on the national economic climate in the y e a r s ahead and the priorities afforded to the various physical needs of the Nation and the Region. It i s therefore, unrealistic to attempt to give a detailed programme for development o r to s a y when all the developments shown will be completed. Instead the method has been adopted of setting out a logical o r d e r of development which is related to p r o g r e s s that has already been made o r that can b e foreseen with reasonable accuracy, and to improvements which a r e contained in definite p r o g r a m m e s .

1 5 . In the s e c t o r of Public Works, the implementation of the p r i m a r y road framework is a basic e l e m e n t and two road proposals affecting the City Centre a r e already included in the Principal Road Programme announced by the Ministry of T r a n s p o r t for the period beginning around 1971. The f i r s t of these is the southern p a r t of the inner p r i m a r y route, which will provide a m o r e adequate distributory framework f r o m the Princess Road Extension (the main link to the national motorway s y s t e m to the south); the second is p a r t of the Inner Ring Road, running from Hyde Road to Pin Mill Brow and on to Great Ancoats Street which i s also scheduled to

commence around 1971, and it has been recommended by the S. E . L . N.E. C . Highways Engineering Committee that the section between Pin Mill Brow and G t . Ducie Street (and into Salford) should proceed in the period 1974-76; initially this will largely be constructed a s a ground level route. 1 6 . Construction of these new roads will directly affect considerable a r e a s of land and property and redevelopment in depth will not only be desirable, but virtually inevitable, if only to deal with severance problems and t c provide satisfactory a c c e s s . Provision of the new routes and the redevelopment of the a r e a s through which they pass a r e essentially inter -related, calling for a combined approach from the point of view of both traffic and townscape design. T h e i r construction will provide the opportunity to deal with conditions of dereliction in the fringe a r e a s through which they p a s s and although the frontage of new p r i m a r y roads can no longer be directly exploited in the commercial s e n s e , the g r e a t e r * degree of accessibility will undoubtedly provide a stimulus to the prosperity and improvement of the surrounding a r e a s . 17. In the c a s e of the secondary s t r e e t system, the r e v e r s e situation applies, in'that physical renewal provides the opportunity for the rationalisation and improvement of the secondary routes adjoining o r passing through the a r e a s concerned. Although these secondary improvements a r e not programmed in the s a m e way a s the p r i m a r y network, they a r e usually essential to the s u c c e s s of the redevelopment, which i s designed in relation to the degree of accessibility and the pattern of movement provided by t h e m . In most c a s e s , a combination of public and private investment wilI be involved and it is highly desirable that they should m a r c h in step, enabling such a r e a s to b e tackled a s a combined operation. 'The main opportunities for improvement to the secondary routes in the e a r l y stages of the programme will be in r e s p e c t of Cannon Street, the part of Deansgate contained within the Market Place redev.elopment, and Norfolk S t r e e t .


1 8 . As a l r e a d y explained, the m a j o r a r e a s of c a r parking a r e intended to be developed in s t e p with the iinproved a c c e s s i b i l i t y m a d e p o s s l b l e by the development of the .road n e t w o r k . Depending on the availability of Cinrtncial resources, the a r e a s a t Withy G r o v e and M a r k e t Place/Deansgate (both to s e r v e the ~ n in a shopping c e n t r e ) , together with C e n t r a l Station and G r e a t Bridgewater S t r e e ~ ,(to providc t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s f r o m the p r i m a r y r o a d s y s t e m to the south), should b e developed d u r i n g d ~ fei r s t p a r t of the plan. In t h e pub1 ic t r a n s p o r t field, the nev; bus S tation f a c i l i t i e s a t Cannon S t r e e t , to r e p l a c e tile p r e s e n t stopping places a t Victoria S t r e e t and Cannon S l r e e t i t s e l f . will h e recluired in the e a r l y s t a g e s . Unfortunately, the investigations into the provision of r a p i d t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , which might b e r e g a r d e d a s the p r i m a r y network as applied to public t r a n s p o r t , have not yet r e a c h e d the stage when a n y r e a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t on tinling c a n b e made.

1 9 . A p a r t f r o m the pro\;ision 01 s e ~ : v i c e s , public investment in p l ~ y s i c ~ development, l as d i s t i n c t f r o m land acquisition ancl s i t e assernbly, will be c o n c e r n e d with the Civic A r e a - additional C o u r t i a c i l i t i e s and extensions to T o m Hall accommodation; the proposed A r t s C e n t r e complex, (including the A r t G a l l e r y extension), and t l ~ enew r e t a i l m a r k e r in the M a r k e t S t r e e t a r e a . It will a l s o be c o n c e r n e d with the proposed r e -introduction of r e s i d e n t i a l accommodatiol-1 into ~e C e n t r a l A r e a and the possllnle provision of a n exliibition h a l l . With the exception of the new M a g i s t r a t e s C o u r t s in t h e . Civic A r e a , none of t h e s e proposals a r e a t p r e s e n t included in d ~ imtnediate e Capital Works P r o g r a m m e and the difficulty o f long r a n g e f o r e c a s t i n g , in r e l a t i o n to the implementation of public developments of this n a t u r e , is that they a r e s o dependent on changing national and local policy c o n s i d e r ~ i t i o n .s Once the n e c e s s a r y loan sanctions have been obtiiined and providing the planning a s p e c t s of locatiorl have a l r e a d y been settled, d ~ e yc a n move immediately into l:l.ie slrlort t e r m p r o g r a m n l e cal.egory; or! the

o t h e r hand, in a period of econonlic s t r i n g e n c y when r e s o u r c e s a r e being d i v e r t e d in o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s , lengthy postporleinents of r e q u i r e d Cacilities citn o c c u r .

20. Tn e s t i m a t i n g the lilccly o r d e r of development, e m p h a s i s has been placed on the stage r e a c h e d in negotiation; and in a s s e s s i n g delrailed r e q u i r e m e n t s , l a n d availability and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p r o j e c t c o n c e r n e d , t o a r e a s iri need of c o m p r e h e n s i v e developtnent. Similarly, w h e r e s c h e m e s which involve predominantly p r i v a t e investment a r e c o n c e r n e d , the likely p r o g r a m m e suggested is d e r i v e d f r o m examination of the potentiality f o r change in the a r e a s concerned, the s t a g e which h a s I ~ e e nr e a c h e d in relation to s i t e a s s e l l ~ b l yand the negotiations which h a v e taken place o r p e r t n i s s i o n s g r a n t e d in r e s p e c t of the a.ccommodation to be included and the f o r m of the development p r o p o s e d . 2 1 . M a p No. l 0 indicates t.he p o s s i b l e phasing of a r e a s r i p e o r becoming r i p e for redevelopment in the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . The f i r s t s t a g e shows proposals f o r which s o m e approval has a l r e a d y heen given, o r w h e r e land a s s e m b l y is l a r g e l y c o m p l e t e ; l o n g e r tern1 d e v e l o p ~ l l e n rt e p r e s e n t s s c l l c m e s a l r e a d y worked out in a p r e l i m i n a r y f o r m , o r w h e r e land i s due to become available in the f u t u r e . F r o m whar h a s been said, it w ~ l bl e a p p r e c i a t e d that the p r o g r a m m e indicated can be r e g a r d e d a s no m o r e than a guide b a s e d on conditions a s they e x i s t o r a s they c a n r e a s o n a b l y be foresee11 a t this point in t i m e ; i t m a y well be necessl-lry to advance o r r e t a r d developlnent of p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s to a c c o r d with changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

2 2 . Because of the i m p o r t a n c e of the investment e l e m e n t , t h e s t a g e s included have not been r e l a t e d to definite p e r i o d s of t i m e , alttlough [.he p r o p o s a l s c o m p r i s e d in the i i r s t s t a g e indicate development expected tc p r o c e e d ~ ~ i t h ithe l i next five y e a r s . The total c a p i t a l c o s t of all die proposa1.s included in t h i s f i r s t edition of t h e City C e n t r e M a p i s esti!nzi.ed a t about .E160 million, a t c u r r e n t


values . Of this amount about,E70 million i s accouilted f o r by public d e v e l o p ~ n e n tof a services nature (primary roads, c a r parks, e t c . ) and b e c a u s e t h e s e u s e s in the m a i n would involve the l o s s of land a t p r e s e n t used f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s , land c o s t s have been included in t h i s p a r t of the e s t i m a t e ; in p r a c t i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r example wliere c a r parking i s c o n c e r n e d , this will n o r m a l l y be coillbined with o t h e r u s e s and the land c o s t e l e m e n t reduced a c c o r d i n g l y . T h e r e m a i n d e r of the e s t i m a t e r e f l e c t s t h e c o s t of actual buildillg c o n s t r u c t i o n , public and private, together wit11 I-heprovision of illcidental s e r v i c i n g , and in this c a s e land c o s t s have been excluded. 2 3 . Capital expenditure in the C e n t r a l A r e a d u r i n g the l a s t s i x years h a s a v e r a g e d about ÂŁ3 million p e r y e a r . 'The e m p h a s i s h a s been 011 p r i v a t e developnlent f o r collllllercial p u r p o s e s and the expenditure on the s e r v i c e s a s p e c t h a s been c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d ; the m a j o r work underta1;en in this c a t e g o r y has b e e n Mancunian Way, the cosi: of which is excluded f r o m the a v e r a g e f i g u r e . In looking ahead, on the a s s u m p t i o n that s e r v i c e s expenditure will again b e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , a projection of the r e c e n t r a t e of development m e a n s that it will take t h i r t y y e a r s to achieve the c o m p l e t e r e a l i s a t i o n of a l l the proposals contained in the C i t y C e n t r e I\/Iap; if the r a t e of i n v e s t m e n t w e r e to be i n c r e a s e d o r d e c r e a s e d , t h e period will be s h o r t e n e d o r lengthened correspondingly; i t h a s been a s s u n l e d f o r the p u r p o s e s of land u s e cllanges, that the p r o p o s a l s could be c a r r i e d out by 1981.

24. In p r a c t i c e , the C i t y C e n t r e M a p p r o p o s a l s will b e r e v i s e d periodically, and a s c i r c u m s t a n c e s change and n l o r e useful information b e c o m e s available, modificatioils will no doubt be recluired to many of the longer t e r m p r o p o s a l s , before the t i m e actually c o m e s f o r t h e m to bc implemented; m o r e o v e r , a t e a c h r e v i e w the p r o p o s a l s would be extended to c o v e r a S ~ ~ r t h setra g e a h e a d . 'The importailce of the City C e n t r e M a p l i e s in providing a long t e r m context f o r the

development likely to take place in the y e a r s irnmediateljr aheacl; it should not be looked upon a s a rigid ' b l u e - p r i n t ' f o r the complete development of the City C e n t r e , to be undertaken within a specified period and to be acUlel-ed to r e g a r d l e s s of the p r o c e s s e s of evolution.

25. In the implelnelltation of c o m p r e h e n s i v e developmeilt proposals, p a r t i c u l a r c a r e will be taken to avoid disruption and to keep distul-bance to a 1lli1lilll~1111 . In a r e a s w h e r e t h e r e i s a need to d i s p l a c e existing u s e s , e v e r y effort will h e made to s e c u r e the availability of a l t e r n a t i v e land which could be developed f o r purposes of r e l o c a t i o n . In a r e a s where b a s i c changes of u s e a r e not proposed and i t i s a m a t t e r of making possible colnprehensive physical redevelopment, the detailed phasing of the proposals will, a s f a r a s possible, b e a r r a n g e d to avoid undue d i s l o c a t i o n .


7. Summary

The City Development Plan, a.pproved 1. by the Minister of Housi~lga n d 1,ocal Government in 1961, indicated most of the Central Area by means of a general notation. The Minister, in approving the Plan, requested that in due c o u r s e m o r e detailed proposals should be prepared and the City Centre Map follows the advice @ven in the Bulletin, ' Town Centres ... Approach to Renewal', published jointly by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government and the Ministry of Transport, in 1962.

2.

The emphasis i s on the regional scale of the City Centre, representing by f a r the l a r g e s t concentration 01employment in the region. It i s the c e n t r e of wholesale and r e t a i l t r a d e , a principal banking c e n t r e and the major provincial nucleus of the newspaper publishing industry and of television and radio communications. It i s a main c e n t r e of regional and local government, of higher education and of cultural and a r t i s t i c life, offering a growing variety of social and entertainment facilities. Linked to one of the country's m a j o r ports, it i s a hub of road and r a i l c o n ~ m ~ ~ n i c a t i o whilst ns, the growth of passenger and a i r freight traffic underlines the growing importance of i t s connection with the countl-y's main regional a i r p o r t , Sllithout the conlmercial s e r v i c e s and governmental activities that a r e c a r r i e d on in Manchester's City Centre , i t would be difficult to identify the City Region a s a corporate whole.

3. Activities in the City Centre a r e changing with increasing einphasis on higher o r d e r functions. Employment in the distributive t r a d e and warehousing is declining, but this is balanced by the growth of 13rofessional s e r v i c e s , insurance, banking, finance and public administration. The City Centre' accounts f o r about 1 2 % of all the er~lployrnenti n the City Region and about a third of the total ernployrnent in the City i t s e l f . Although p r e s e n t trends indicate a s m a l l , steady, i n c r e a s e in City Centre enlployment during the period up to 1-98l , the r a t e of i n c r e a s e coLllclbe v e r y lnucll i n o r e rapid a s a r e s u l t 01the effects of national policy on the location of offices.

4. The i n c r e a s e in persona.1 mobility and higher standards of living- a r e reflected in two ways. The relief of congestion in the irmer a r e a s means that the population supporting and s e r v e d by the Central Area is becoming i n o r e dispersed,whilst the growth of local c e n t r e s in neighbouring towns cannot be overlooked. 011 the other hand, the sallie mobility inaltes it possible f o r g r e a t e r advantage to be taken of those facilities that can only b e provided in a rlletropolitan centre, s e r v i n g a l a r g e population. Commercial, econonlic and political functions a r e intimately bound up w i t h


the educational, artistic and social life of the community. The City Centre Map proposals a r e 5. designed to reconcile the three variable factors of accessibility, environment and c?conomics. Inzproved accessibility is essential f o r the future prosperity of the Centre, whilst a constant theme running tl~roughthis Report is the importance and value of civilised city life and the need for more c a r e and attention to be paid to the q~ialityof environment. Circulation

6. 'The primary road network has been amended from that shown in the Development Plan, to avoid environmental disruption, of the Cathedral Area in particular, and to overcome engineering problems. Only limited development of the s t r e e t network of the City Centre itself i s proposed for environmental and economic reasons, the exception being the development of Portland Street, a s the only feasible route for the southern link in the primary netcvork. Car parking provision is designed to be developed in step with the improvement in road capacity, access to the main c a r parking a r e a s being derived from the primary routes to minimise traffic demands on the s t r e e t syteln of the central core. Full implementation of the highway network proposed will only result in road capacity at the critical peak hours sufficient to deal with a small proportion of the 'journey to work' traffic. The importance of public transport in the future is emphasised and proposals a r e put f o ~ w a r dfor improving bus facilities, altl~oughresearch into the development of rapid transit is proceeding l ~ u t I s not yct complete.

.

The principle of pedes t r i m ancl vehicular separation is accepted ancl a continuous system of pedestsian routes through the City Centre is proposed. Redevelopment on a comprehensi.ire scale is needed, in order to make possible improvement of the circulation pattern, and to create a new environment in those parts of the Central Area a t present occupied by obsolete development and in urgent need of renewal. Comprehensive Planning Proposals o r Advisory Schemes have so far been prepared f o r five areas, a m ~ n t i n galtogether to about 200 acres and covering the inner c o r e . 7

which have been subnlitted to the Minister. At present there is a h u t 7 million square feet of shopping space in the Central Area, 91 .ivllich about 4. S million is contained in the inner core. The emphasis is on consolidasing the traditional shopping a r e a and phasing developnlent to keep In step with demand. The implementation of the Market Street proposals, together with adjoining developrrlent i n the Market Place Area, would increase the total shopping floor space by about 11%and i t i s considered that this i s sufficient to cater for the foreseeable denland for major shopping facilities, a s distinct from smaller groups of subsidiary and convenience shopping. The a r e a between Cannon Street and 9. Withy Grove is planned a s an integral p a r t of tile proposals for the main shopping centre, providing c a r parking for a h u t 2,000 cars, a bus station and a new retail market. Market Street will be closed to vehicular traffic and become the main pedestrian way in a system of malls and arcades; planned on two levels, this will enable an independent pedestrian system to be carried out into the adjoining developments of the Market Place and Corn Exchange Areas. Within a decade, the Market Street Area is capable of being tralsformed. Covered a i r conditioned shopping facilities and landscaped areas, f r e e from the noise and danger of traffic, a r e proposed and a n environment can be created worthy of its location a s the shopping heart of the region.

li). Adjoining the Market Street Area is the site of the Old Market Place and Victoria Buildings, which suffered extensive w a r damage. At present, this a r e a forms a gap in the shopping pattern at a strategic point, marking the junction of the popular shopping district of Market Street with the high-class shopping of the St. Ann's Square and King Street a r e a s . The proposals for this a r e a , for which a development scheme has now been approved, have been designed to provide a worthy setting for the Cathedral and to preserve the Wellington Inn and the adjoining Oyster Bar,buildings of architectural and historic interest which survived war damage, and provide a link with Manchester's Medieval past. The proposals a r e also designed to exploit the location on the banks of the Irwell, on which development in the past has tended to turn its back, and there is provision for a walkway along the r i v e r enabling views of the Cathedral Tower to be obtained from the direction of Blackfriars Eridge

.

Shopping Civic & Office Uses

S.

One of the iliost important schemes is for the Market Street Area, which includes the heart of the regional shopping centre; this a r e a i s the subject of formal Comprehensive Development Area and Designation proposals

t proposals 11. Included in the M a r k ~ Street is p a r t of the main business and commercial a r e a to the north of King Street. The C. D. A. proposals have been put f o ~ w a r din r e m e c t of

I


this a r e a i n o r d e r to rationalise the c i r c u l a t i o ~ i systein and to pernlit development, wherc i t is n e c e s s a l y , t o take place in units of reasonable s i z e without undue delay being encountered in ullifying ownerships Considerable sedevelopment is already taking place in t h i s a r e a , including the related proposals f o r the District Bank and London Assurance Company i n King Street and the s c h e m e f o r the new Market Centre and Head Post Office, the f i r s t stage of which has already been completed. D e v e l o p ~ ~ l e nint the a r e a has s o f a r been undertaken by negotiation and agreement, but f r o m a s t r a t e g i c planning point of view, i t f o r m s a n essential element of the comprehensive t r e a t m e n t f o r the Market Street a r e a a s a whole.

.

12. Offices and banking accommodation now account f o r about 25% of the total g r o s s floor s p a c e in the Central A r e a . Although a q u a r t e r of the 1 4 million square feet of office space is contained i n post-war buildings, new accommodation is sfill needed f o r the replacement of sub-standard offices, whilst f u r t h e r growth will be influenced by national policies s u c h a s the p r e s e n t r e s t r i c t i o n on oflice building i n the London and Midlands a r e a s . With the exception of one development, t h e r e is no evidence of any r e a l difficulty in letting completed accoi~~rnodation, and supply and demand in recent y e a r s has been reasonably well balanced. There is s o m e evidence, however, that tenants a r e not yet attuned to accepting the overheads represented by the econoinic rentals of new accommodation even although the r e n t of new buildings in Manchester is l e s s than half that of their counterparts in London. In recent y e a r s the grosvtl~of Regional Government offices has absorbed a considerable amount of the new s p a c e becoming available. The question of timing is a l s o important a s a period e l a p s e s before the m a r k e t can fully absorb the impact of substantial new developments.

13. T h e Civic Area, between the Town Hall and the Courts of Justice, was shown in the Development Plan in a distinctive notation and was originally intended a s an administrative centre. The Courts of Justice building and the new Magistrates' Courts now under construction, a r e examples of civic use, but in o r d e r to stimulate much needed redevelopment in the a r e a , perrnis sions have been given f o r c o m m e r c i a l office accommodatioil. A propbrtion of t h i s has been occul3ied by Corporation Departments and a study of likely future needs suggests that m o r e s p a c e will b e needed f o r Local Government purposes in the future and s i t e s related to the Town Hall complex have been suggested. Tllc original proposal in the City of Manchester Plan for a ' processional way' f r o m Albert Square to Crown Square,

has been modified extensively and the a r e a i s now being developed a s a trafflc-free precinct, conslstlng o l a s e r i e s of landscaped pedestrian A considerable s q u a r e s and open s p a c e s . atllount of developillent h a s already taken place in accordance with the new proposals. Apart from the a r e a centred on King 14. Street and tlle 'Civic Area', r e f e r r e d to a h v e , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l other a r e a s which a r e r i p e f o r redevelopment and which a r e suitable f o r the provision of office accommodation, in m o s t c a s e s in association with other u s e s . Cultural and Entertainment

An Advisory Planning Scheme has been 15. prepared for the whole of the a r e a extending f r o m the Piccadilly Plaza to Central Station which amounts to 35 a c r e s . It is based on the principle of an upper-level pedestrian system connecting a c r o s s York Street, Charlotte Street, Princess Street and Oxford Road, and also extending into the existing and proposed development on the opposite side of Portland Street, including the Chorlton Street Bus T h e approved Station and c a r p a r k . proposals for the new Bank of England a t Portland Street a r e designed to incorporate upper level circulation, allowing for the systein to be connected into the Piccadilly Plaza .

16. Included with111 the scheme, south of C l ~ a r l o t t eStreet, is the s i t e of the proposed A r t s Centre. This ambitious p r o j e c t provides f o r a substantial extension to the City Art Gallery and for a new Opera House together with restaurants, shops, studios and ancillary accommodation; i t a l s ~ includes proposals for a new theatre and f o r a film theatre, on the opposite s i d e of Princess Street, which would form a natural extension of the traditional entertainulent centre of the Formal C . D. A. City based on Oxford Road. proposals have been p r e p a r e d for 18.5 a c r e s of this a r e a , including the s i t e of the A r t s Centre, but i t has not yet been possible to submit then? to the Minister, pending clarification of the programming of the scheme in relation to national and local financial p r i o r i t i e s . k y o n d Oxford Road i s an a r e a between 17. Lower Mosley Street and Great Bridgewater Street, which for the m o s t p a r t i s in urgent need of physical renewal and which i s suitable for entertainment purposes, combined with offices, bus station facilities and a n element The redevelopment of of residential use. this a r e a i s also closely related to the futurc of the considerable a r e a of land i n railway ownership comprising Central Station, which i s shortly to be closed and the adjacent goods yard extending up to Deansgate.


The high dc;gxcc of accessibility in 18. r e l a t i o r ~to thc p r i ~ n a r yroad network and i t s location on the edge of the business axxd c o ~ n m e r c i a la r c a makes the Central Station a r e a uniquely suitable f o r main c a r parking facilities to s e r v e the centre a s a wl~ole,and i t is proposed that 4 , 0 0 0 car s p a c e s should be providcd on this s i t e ; t h i s could b e corubined ~ v i t hother u s e s and tllc surPace of t l ~ ec a r parking decks could be t r e a t e d to provide a rrla jor open landscaped s p a c e . Entertainment uses combined with this could be designed to pl-oduce the character of a 'Tivoli', whilst offices and residential uses would a l s o be appropriate. Lirnitcd shopping ,md showroom accommodation could be provided particularly in connection with die motor and engineering t r a d e s already established in the a r e a , although i t is considered that tlle development of m a j o r sllopping facilities i n t h i s location would be bound to prejudice and clilute the potential 01 the City's main sl~opping centre. The Train Hall itself i s listed a s a 'building of special a r c l ~ i t e c t u r a lo r h i s t o r i c i n t e r c s t , ' and now that the station is to close, tlie probleln of preservation depends on finding: It i s considered a useIu1 purpose for i t . that: i t would make a fine eshibition hall f o r tlie City, a u s e that wou1.d tend to stimulate developmellt in the remainder of the a r e a and i n t h i s p a r t of the City Centre generally. Other possible u s e s considered have included a s p o r t s hall and a inuseurn of science and tecllnology . KO decision h a s yct been ixade and alternative proposals for the provision of exhibition facilities, outside the City Centre altogether, a r e a l s o a t p r e s e n t under consideration. T h e r e a r e about 18 a c r e s of land included i n the Central Station complex, a p a r t from la11d needecl for tnajor road works, and i t i s important that the long t e r m potential of the a r e a should not be prejudiced by picce -meal dcvclopment in the meantinle.

19.

Industry and Warehousing

The c h a n g n g c h a r a c t e r of the City 20. Centre i s c o n f i r ~ n c dby surveys that indicate the continuing decline of warehousing functions. The implementation of the comprehensive proposals already described, will displace s o m e of the remaining warcho~isingand storage uses that, with t h e i r heavy traffic generation., are in any event unsuited to the h e a r t of the City. Provision i s made for the relocation of displaced warehousing and industrial u s e s in a r e a s that have g r e a t e r accessibility and provide scope f o r the deveIoplilent of buildings designed to suit modern handlin:: techniques. Sites proposed for t h i s puq3osc include the Strangeways, Knot-t hlil1 ancl S t o w Strect a r e a s ..

Education

The regional signifj,cance of 2 1. Manchester's Central Area i s nowhere m o r e empliasised than by the provision of Higher The plan for the Education facilities. 'Higher Education Precinct', prepased by Wilson and Womersley, for a Joint: C o ~ n m i t t e e of the City, the University, the Institute of Science and Technology and the United Manchester Hospitals, r e l a t e s to the colnprehensive development of 280 a c r e s to a c c o n ~ m o d a t ea day-ti.me population of 40, 000 including 25,000 students. 43 a c r e s of this a r e a l i e within the City Centre itself, n o r t h of Mancunian Way, and include the m a i n campus of the Institute and the John Dalton This area a l s o College of Technology. includes f i e s i t e whicli is being developed f o r the Xational Coinputing Centre adjacent to the proposed new Regional Headquarters f o r the British Broadcasting Corporation. The Development Plan originally allocated 12 a c r e s f o r educatiolzal purposes i n the Central Area, whilst the p r e s e n t proposals show 58 a c r e s a s devoted to educational needs. T l ~ e only scope f o r f u r t h e r extensions to the Precinct l i e to the North i n the a r e a now largely occupied by warehousing and industrial u s e s between the precinct and the h e a r t of the City Centre. Residential

22 . One hundred y e a r s ago, s o m e 27,000 people lived in the Market Street a r e a alone and this has declined until today the City C e n t r e h a s virtually no resident population. 11e Centrcl A r e a , a s shown on the Development Plan, i s m o r e than l a r g e enough to accommodate the foreseeable demand for commercial purposes and t h e r e I s scope f o r the reintroduction of residential u s e s . Clean a i r now makes good enviromnental conditions possible, wliilst residential development would not only contribute t o the solution of the journey to work problem and the general housing needs of the City, but i t would a l s o benefit the prosperity and c h a r a c t e r of the City Centre j.tself, particularly i n relation to its social, entertainment and shopping functions. A r e a s considered suitable f o r substantial residential development; include the Smithfield a r e a , when the Wholesale M a r k e t moves to GozTon, the Rochdale Canal basin a t Dale Street, and the Eyrom Street a r e a of Lower Deansgate. T h e r e is a l s o the oppolTunity to i n c o q ~ o r a t ean element of residentizl u s e in predominantly commercial developments in other p a r t s of tlle City Centre. Financial considerations relatecl to land v a l u e s , r a t h e r than any shortage of land Cor c o ~ l i m e r c i a purposes, l a r e the mai.n obstacles to be sumlounted.


Conservation

Altllough about a third of the core a r e a 23. of the City Centre i s occupied by developnzent that is physically and functionally obsolete ancl r e quires comprellcns ivc redevelopment, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l individual buildings 'listed' a s being of special architectural o r historic i n t e r e s t , other good buildings of the Victorian and l a t e r e r a s and c e r t a i n a r e a s of cha.racter which a r e worthy of preservatioi? ; examples of such a r e a s a r e St. John Street, King Street and St. Ann's Square. In these c a s e s , the objective will be to integrate new work wit11 the old and to inzprove the general setting and environmental conditions. 24. An a r e a particularly in need of treatment i s that surrounding the Cathedral and Chetham's Hospital. The City of Manchester Plan proposed tile creatioli of a Precinct to include the Cathedral and Chethams, and this proposal i s retained and extended in the City Centre Map. At the moment, the Cathedral h a s a m o s t depressing outlook and although the Market Place developnlent proposals will improve the position considerably on the south side, and provide f o r an open space a s a setting for the Cathedral, f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s in the planning of the remainder of the a r e a is dependent on the outcome of consideration a t present being g v e n by British Rail to the future of Exchange and Victoria Stations. Tlie Cathedral Authorities, British Rail, the Civic T r u s t f o r the North West and Manchester and Salford Corporations a r e working together to s e c u r e a co-ordinated approach i n the planning of this a r e a . Open Space

Manchester is v e r y s h o r t of open space in the City Centre, the only substantial a r e a being that of Piccadilly Gardens. Although economic considerations a t p r e s e n t preclude the introduction of a very l a r g e scale pas!< into the centre itself, proposals have been approved f o r the landscaping of t h e Irk Valley and the closed section of the Rochdale Canal, to provide l i n e a r open s p a c e s o r 'green fingers', extending f r o m the edge of the Central Area to connect wit;h existing p a r k s and the open country beyond; land that will shortly become available f o r redevelopment a t Central Station, Rochdale Canal and Smithfield,will a l s o provide the opportunity for l a r g e r In landscaped a r e a s outside the c o r e . addition,the proposals f o r comprehensive development provide f o r a s e r i e s of landscaped a r e a s of open space along the pedestrian routes, w l ~ i c hwill be available f o r the u s e and e n j o y n ~ e n tof the public. Tl~e f i r s t of t h e s e a r e a s is now being formed in

25.

the course of the developnlent which i s a t p r e s e n t proceeding In King Street and Crown Square and the coinplcte s y s t e m will become increasingly vlslble a s rcdevelopinent proceeds.

26. The conversion of s t r e e t s , such a s Market Street, to pedestrian use will also provide tile opportunity f o r landscaping and amenity treahnent . Studies a r e k i n g undel-taken in conjunction with the Civic T r u s t to improve the c h a r a c t e r .of certain City s q u a r e s and s t r e e t s including St. Ann's Squa-re, King Street, St. P e t e r ' s Square and Significant environmelltal Alber t Square. irnprovenients a r e in general dependent on the exclusion of t h r o u g l ~traffic from either the whole o r par-t of the a r e a concerned, and although s o m e worthwhile improvements will be possible in the s h o r t t e r m , more complete solutions a r e dependent on the provision of 31e new p r i m a l y and secondary routes and on the rationalisation of the circulation system Also in of the City Centre a s a whole. coiljilnction with the Civic T r u s t , the possibilities a r e bei11.g investigated of extensive t r e e p1a:lting in the Central Area, al.tlhoug11 the inlricate network of existing underground s e r v i c e s m e a n s tllat t h e r e a r e m o r e liiilitations on the positioning of t r e e s chan appearances would suggest.

Form and Quality of Development In the design of new development, control of density is exercised in the i n t e r e s t s of preventing congestion and keeping develcpment i n s c a l e with the general The plot c h a r a c t e r of the City Centre. r a t i o is dependent on the circumstances of the a r e a concerned but a maximum figure of 3.5 is adopted i n a l l but the m o s t exceptional cases. An overall density standard m e a n s that proposals f o r high buildings can be divorced from considerations of maximum coinmercial exploitation of the s i t e and can be considered on t h e i r m e r i t s , having r e g a r d to the suitability of this f o r m of development f o r the location and the c h a r a c t e r of the A limited number of p r o j e c t concerned. high buildings can give i n t e r e s t t o the skyline and emphasise the metropolitan c h a r a c t e r of tlle City; too many, however, can appear to coalesce, overpower the s c a l e of the centre and overshadow other development. In x regarded a s genera1,high buildings should l the exception r a t h e r than tlle r u l e and looked upon a s a civic privilege r a t h e r than a s a right.

27.

3 8 . The selcction of suitablc s i t e s f o r high buildings can only be considered in relation to the civic design and skyline of tlle City Centre a s a whole; i t is not considered practicable o r desirable to attempt to


'a1local.c' s i t e s o r a r e a s in atlvance and ~ I I C S C c a n only seiisibly be sclcctc.d whcn sonic jndicat'ion of the lol-111 of thc clevelopr-rlcnt and i t s accommodation requirenlents a r e given. I11 t11e h e a r t o l the Central A r e a , a high building arlywliere would tend to dorninate a i ~ dovespoiver i t s surroundings, but on h e periphery t h c r c Inay be scope for the introduction of a v c ~ ylimited rzumber of carcfullg; clate ate cl high elenzents . Tlle comprel~ensiveplanning proposals so I a r put f o - ~ ~ i ' ae11visng.e rd general heights of l~uildingsof behveell t h r e e a.nd eight s t o r e y s with somc up to, but not esceediilg fifteen s t o r e y s , the l a t t e r , a s mentioned, requiring carelul positioning.

29. AI tho ugh p1 arming can h a v e influence on design- to avoid the w o r s t c a s e s of ' had neighbourliness, ' i t i s not possible to legislate f o r good desjg11 and mediocrity is die mail1 problem. F i r s t C l a s s , a s distinct f r o m barely acceptable, design and finishes m u s t depend on the quality and e s ~ e r i e n c cof the a r c h i t e c t , a.nd teamwork between a r c h i t e c t and authority, Enlightened patronage has an important p a r t to play. The a r c h i t e c t should have lnaximum freedom of expression within the overall planning framework, and the best r c s u l t s a r e obtai~ledwhere continuity of a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r and m a t e r i a l s i s acceptcd a s a self-imposed objective. I11 Mancliester , encouragelncnt i s given to the u s e of ~ n o n o c h r o ~ z ~ ama.terials tic that a r e selfcleaning ~ v h e r epossible. The integration of pedestrian ways in 30. m o d e m comprehensive developrrlellt e m p h a s i s e s the necessity for a ~ n u c hm o r e complete relationship k t c v e e n public and private w o r k s . Paving treatment, s t r e e t furnihlre and lighting, f o r exanzplc, contribute g r e a t l y to the character of the final r e s u l t and should be collsirlered a s an integral p a r t of the development L,ighting, in particular, will be gay and lively in s o m c a r e a s , restrainer1 and dignified in others and i t s design should he consiciered a t an e a r l y stage in the planning of the development. It i s important that new development sllould be c o -ordinatecl with the general i n ~ p r o v e m e n t of cnviromncrzt i n the a r e a conccrlied .

.

Implementation 31. The r e ~ l e w a lof CI-ie City Centre will be a parfxers11j.p behvecn public and private i n t e r e s t s . Investment flows tl~roughdifferent c l ~ a n n e l sand it is important that it should become possible to p r o g r a m m e the provisiorl of essential public facilities in step with associated redeve topment, enabling the ernpliasis to be placed on the overall improvement of t l ~ eCity. A parfnersl-lip a r r a n g e m e n t r c c ~ u i r e s .that t h e r e should be

L? closc understanding, tile r? ~t1101-iq7 bcilig responsible for the productioll of a pia-nning contest that is realistic in t e r m s of p1.1asi1zg and ecorlo~nicsand resolving questiolls of s i t e assen~lnly, wllilst tllc dcvelopc:. has to recognise his obligation and responsibility to tbe planning o.C the City,. a s well as cxpccting reasonable r e t u r n on invcshneiiI:, Co~zsultatj.ol~s f r o m ;lie earliesi: stage are esscntial, as 111oneg7 wa-sted on delays o r r~~isunrlerstandings r e p r e s e n t s r e s o u r c e s that could often make tlle dilference behveen a barely acceptcable scllenle and one of high quality.

3 2. The fragnlentation o f ownerships can hold up lnuclz needed redevelopmelzt and can be a s e r i o u s obscaacle to tlle a c l ~ i e v e m e n of t s a t i s f a c t o l y planning objectives. In Manchester, tbe ownership 01c e r t a i n a r e a s by the Co.rporat:ion has resulted in t h e i r speedy redevelopment and only recently 113s made i t possible for major projects t o proceed without delay. In certain a r e a s , private i n t e r e s t s have e i t h e r been successful ill consolidating s i t e s o r adjoining owners have worked together -io produce related proposals, although dclay h a s sometimes o c c u r r e d . F o r tile achievement of the lal-ger s c a l e comprehensive development, action will usualljr be n e c e s s a l y t o unify owncrships e i t h e r by m e a n s of C. D . A . o r Designation proccdrlre under t h e Planning Acts, o r by means of the provisions included in the Mnncliester Corporation Act, 1945, where t h e s e a r e appropriate.

33. The City Council h a s not souglit to intervene w l ~ c r eplcmning objectives could be obtained by negotiations o r agreement, but has taken action to bring planning powers of acquisition into f o r c e where t h i s h a s proved to be n e c e s s a r y . Wllere planning powers are used, t h e r e is provision i n the Planning Acts f o r the p r o t e c t i o ~ of l displaced i n t e r e s t s and every effort will be made to minimise hardship and inconvenience. Where redevelopment takes place without the intervention of the Corporation, the question of re- a ccomrnodation m u s t , 0:' c o u r s e , lie between the i n t e r e s t s concerned in the normal way. Phasing

34. The r a t e of implementation of the proposals contained in the City C e n t r e Map will reflcct tIze avai lability of r e s o u r c e s , public allcl private, in the y e a r s to come ancl f o r this r e a s o n it i s considered u n r e a l i s t i c to t r y and c s t i m a t e when all die development shown will be completed. In a s s e s s i n g the 1,Lkely o r d e r of development, factors t'aken into account include wlietlze~:a project i s included in a definite programme, the stage reached in negotiation, land availabil-ity, and thc relationship of thc projcct conce~medto a r e a s i n need of


coinprellensive development. 1 7 llhrely ~ stages a r e shown on Map No, 10, although it may well bc n e c e s s a r y to aclvance o r r e t a r d development to accord wit11 changing circ~uinstances. 35. The total capital cost of the development s l ~ o w i~si e s t i n ~ a t e da t about ÂŁ160 million, a t c u r r e n t values. Of this, about C70 ~ l l i l l i o ni s accounted for by public development of a s e r v i c e s nature, including lancl costs, whilst the remaining 290 million coizsists of actual building- coilstruction and associated servicing; in the l a t t e r c a s e , land c o s t s have been excluded. Capital expenditure on building clevelopment in the central a r e a during tbe l a s t six y e a r s h a s averaged a b u t ÂŁ3 ~ l l i l l i o np e r a i l i l u ~ ~and l a projection of this r a t e would mean that i t would take 30 y e a r s to achieve the realisation of the proposals shown. If the r a t e of investment w e r e to k increased o r d e c r e a s e d , the period would shorten o r lengthen correspondingly and i t h a s been a s s u m e d f o r the purpose of the r e p o r t that it could be c a r r i e d out by 1981.

36. A considerable p a r t of the fabric of the City Centre w a s built in the second p a r t of the 19th Century, and much of i t i s obsolete and unfitted f o r the needs of the p r e s e n t day. The p r o c e s s e s of natural regeneration would in any event r e s u l t in extensive redevelopment and the objective is to guide these f o r c e s s o a s to solve the vital functional problenls of accessibility and to s e c u r e a rebuilt environment of quality, reflecting the c l a s s i c a l role of the City a s a c e n t r e of civilisation. 3 7 . The e m p h a s i s in this City Centre Map i s on the need f o r comprehensive redevelopment of outworn a r e a s and the conservation and inlprovement of buildings and a r e a s of c h a r a c t e r worth p r e s e r v i n g . It s t r e s s e s the need f o r a framework that i s flexible, which will a c t a s a stimulus to r e d e v e l o p ~ n e n and t iinprovement and not a s a straight-jacket. I t s purpose i s to guide development, particularly developnlent that is l k e l y to take place in the y e a r s immediately ahead, and i t m a y well b e that s o m e of the longer t e r m proposals will r e q u i r e revision, in the light of changing circumstances, before the t i m e actually comes to implement them.

.

As lllore iilfornlation becomes available, 38 and a s growth and evolution occurs, re-a.ssessment will be n e c e s s a r y . T h e r e can be no conclusion, and the p r e s e n t City Centre Map proposals c a n be considered only a s a milestone in the continuous p r o c e s s of achieving m o r e efficient and m o r e human surroundings in the rebuildiilg of the City.


Appendices

Appendix A Definition of Central Area and City Region

91

Appendix B Survey Sources

92

Appendix C Tabulated Information Table 1 Overall accommodation and employment 1966

93

Table 2 Anticipated land u s e changes 1966-81 Table 3 Distribution of accommodation 1966 Table 4 Anticipated distribution of accommodation 1981 Table 5 Land u s e allocations Comparison of Development Plan and City Centre Map proposals

-

96 97

Table 6 Comprehensive planning a r e a s Anticipated u s e s Table 7 Shopping

-

floor space 1966

Table 8 Offices -. floor s p a c e 1966

Table 9 Offices - Analysis of con~pletionsand vacancies

102

Table 10 Warehousing and Industry

103

- floor

s p a c e 1966

Appendix D Planning Standards Appendix E Buildings of special architectural o r historic interest. ~-

Appendix F Relevant policy r e p o r t s .

105


Area Area

(3f

(3f

study surve!

, ,. CP~Q I I

South E

l

m Iles

.


Appendix A

Definition of Central Area and City Region. Over the years various definitions of Manchester Central Area have been used both by the City and Central Government in connection with census information etc., and this has given r i s e to a complex situation with regard to survey data. Apart from the Registrar General's and Board of Trade definitions,two definitions have been used in this Report, the Area of Study and the Area of Survey shown on the diagram on the facing page. The Area of Study, bounded by Mancunian Way, River Invell and a line to the north of Great Ancoats Street, comprises scme 1100 a c r e s ; i t includes all the land allocated i n the Development Plan for Central Business and Shopping Uses and subsidiary Central Area hnctions,in addition to over 200 acres of land for industrial use. The Area of Survey, the a r e a for which detailed land use data is available a t the moment, is 170 a c r e s less in extent than the Area of Study and omits land to the north of Great Ancoats Street. In o r d e r to facilitate analysis, the Area of Survey has been subdivided into four segments consisting of the core area, and the areas to the south-east, south-west and north of it respectively. The a r e a adopted for the Board of Trade Census of Population figures for 1961 is indicated on the diagram a s a comparison. Within the report,the a r e a referred to a s the 'City Region', which is the main hinterland of the Central Area, corresponds to the survey a r e a for the S. E. L . N . E. C. (South East Lancashire and North East Cheshire) Land use/Transportation Study. The boundary of this a r e a is indicated on the diagram facing page 9, which also shotvs the boundary of the Manchester County Borough referred to a s the 'City' within the text.


Appendix B

Survey- Sources Apart f r o m censuses and other published s o u r c e s , t h e data used f o r this Report i s based on a s e r i e s of s u r v e y s c a r r i e d out by the planning section of the f o r m e r City Surveyor's Departnlent o r by the City Planning Department since 1964. The f i r s t overall land use s u r v e y was c a r r i e d out a s long ago a s 1944 in connection with the preparation of the City of Manchester Plan 1945, drawn up by M r . Rowland Nicholas, the f o r m e r City Surveyor; this information was updated f o r the purposes of the Development Plan i n 1950. F o r survey purposes the City C e n t r e was suMivided into a r e a s but d i r e c t comparisons between the surveys a r e difficult to make, a s a p a r t f r o m the long interval between them, the original survey did not differentiate between offices and warehouses, two of the m o s t critically variable u s e s . Lack of detailed information about the Central Area and the need f o r a quick appraisal of the situation on certain crucial i s s u e s resulted in t h r e e surveys in t h e e a r l y 1960's on shops, offices, and warehouses. The Shopping Survey c a r r i e d out in 1962 was of a visual nature, and was intended to a s s e s s the extent and c h a r a c t e r of shopping provision in Central Manchester. The a r e a covered i s roughly coinparable with the a r e a now r e f e r r e d to a s the c o r e of the City Centre. A Report of the survey was submitted to the Town Planning ancl Buildings Committee in April 1964. The Office Survey which has been c a r r i e d out annually since 1962 has a s s e s s e d the conlpletion r a t e s and vacancy situation in each y e a r . The r e s u l t s of these s u r v e y s a r e s u m m a r i s e d in Table 9 of Appendix C. The Warehousing Survey aimed to a s c e r t a i n the views of certain c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s in light of the decline in the textile t r a d e and proposals to u s e some of the warel~ousinga r e a s of the City Centre f o r other purposes. An analysis of the s u r v e y formed the b a s i s of a Policy Report s ~ l b m i t t e dto tlie Town Planning and Buildings Committee i n October 1964. In 1965 a Comprehensive Land Use Survey was c a r r i e d out f o r the whole City. Measurements of accolnmodation w e r e recorded by 12 main types of u s e and o v e r 150 sub-uses and updated to December 1966, f o r the a r e a of survey; this updated survey is the s o u r c e of land u s e information employed in Ta.bles 1 to 10 in Appendix C. In addition to c a r r y i n g out a b a s i c land u s e survey,employment and industrial s u r v e y s have been undertaken a s p a r t 01 the Developnlent Plan Review p r o c e s s f o r the City,which a r e in course of analysis. The Employment Survey i s based on Ministry of Labour r e t u r n s for June 1965, and i t established, inter alia, that s o m e 161, 000 people work in the Area of S u w e y . At the present t i m e the Land Use Survey has not been directly related to the e m p l o y n e n t information. However, a preliillinary e x e r c i s e has been undertaken distributing the majority of p e r s o n s enlployed in the Central Area (a), to one of t l ~ e nine land uses a s s e t out i n Table 1, of Appendix C .

(a) Class 1 nationally insured p e r s o n s total only 142, 000. T h e remaining employment, included in C l a s s e s 2 and 3, which a r e nationally insured persons comprising s e l f einployed and establishinents employing under five persons, is excluded from t h i s e x e r c i s e because they a r e not recorded separately in the Standard Industrial Classification f o r the Central Area.


Appendix C

Table 1 Overall accommodation and employment 1966.

Floor space 1966 '000 sq.ft. (a) Shopping

Employment 1965 No. of workers (b)

6, 995

19,000

Offices

14,817

60,000

Warehousing

14,840

19,000

Indus t r y

6, 924

25,000

Enf ertainlnent

1,838

2,000

Education

2, 537

3,000

Residential (c)

1,462

2,000

Transport (d)

6,733

5,000

Other uses (e)

7,858

7,000

Total (a)

Where possible,uses ancillary to the predominant land use have been excluded.

(b)

Based on Ministry of Lebour Returns June 1965 and includes only Class I Nationally Insured Persons.

(c)

This total includes hotels and hostels a s well a s private residences.

(d)

This category includes c a r parks, railway land, canal uses, bus terminals and petrol filling S tations

(e)

Public open space which covers just over 9 acres is included within this category.

.


Table 2 Anticipated Land Use Changes 1.966.,81..

Core '000. Sq. f t . Existing Net Change Possible (a)

8, 558

+ 1,130 + 1, 671

10,229

3,272

-. 1,479

1,793

Shopping

4,835

Offices Warehousing

Total (including C o r e ) '000 Sq. ft. Existing Net Change Possllsle (a)

5,965

-

370

300

1,121

+

711

1, 832

1, 838

81

.-

33

48

2, 531

Residential

576

-

116

4 60

1, 462

T r a n s p o r t (c)

837

-

24

8 13

6,733

Other Uses (c)

2, 096

-

966

1,130

22,046

+

524

22, 570

Industry Entertainment Education

Total

670

'7, 858

+ + + -

64,004

-

1, 929 (c)

1,513

3, 351

656

3,193

2 , 3 0 5 (d)

3,767

1,797

4, 936

1,461

6,397 62,075

(a)

This i s an estimate of the possible City Centre accoininodation by use in 1981 based on the advisory schemes, existin?; and in course of preparation, approved planning applications and road proposals. In a11 c a s e s , i t has been a s s ~ m tha.t d where no proposals exist f o r the s i t e no change will o c c u r .

(b)

T h ~ si s a minilnum estimate only. T h e i n c r e a s e could be l a r g e r when d e t a i l s of accommodatioil have been finalised in a r e a s allocated for residential use i n the City Centre.

(c)

C a r parking proposals and open space have been excluded from the land u s e chCmges. The number of c a r parking spaces to be provided in the City Centre up to 1982 totals 40,000.

(d)

This change i s based on an assumed plot r a t i o of 1 for all a r e a s to be utilised f o r residence i n the City Centre within the next 15 y e a r s .


Table 3 Distribution of Accommodation 1966 Exi Sting Total Core

North

South East

South West

Shopping

1,097

514

54 9

Offices

2,315

2, 673

1,271

Warehousing

2,979

4,928

3,66 1

Indus t r y

1,701

1,990

2,563

Entertainment

127

247

343

Education

174

1,953

32 9

Residential

303

397

186

Transport

624

1, 980

3,293

1,303

2,475

1,984

10, 623

17,157

14,179

Other Uses Total

64,004

22,046

'000 s q . ft


Table 4 Anticipated Distribution of Accomrnoda tion 1981.

'000 sq.&.

Uses

Total

Core

North

Shopping

7,757

5,965

93 8

17,296

10,229

2,144

Warehousing

9,961

1,793

2,143

Industry

5,417

300

1,359

Entertainment

3,351

1,832

2 14

Education

3,193

48

151

Residential

3,767

460

808

Transport

4,936

8 13

588

Other Uses

6,397

1,130

1,060

62, 075

22, 570

9,405

Offices

Total

South East

South West

17,359

12,741


Table 5

Land Use Allocations

-

Comparison of .Development Plan and City Centre Map Proposals. Development Plan Land Use Allocations in Study Area

Land Use (a)

City Centre Map, Land Use Allocations in Study Area

acreages

acreages

Area for Central business, shopping.

Civic and cultural uses

Increase o r Decrease acreages

167 offices 48 shops 34 entertainment 140 a r e a of further study 65

Sub Total

484

389

-9503)

Industrial

239

287

+WC)

Education B.B.C. T . V .

Area primarily for residence

43 (d)

58

+l5

4(d)

14

+l0

28

106

+78

144

122

-22

11

11

-

1100

1100

-

Railway and Water transport Municipal traffic roads Public Open Space Total (a)

Land for c a r parking has not been measured separately because in most cases it i s an integral part of another land use.

(b)

A net decrease occurs because of re-allocation of land allocated in the Development Plan for central business and shopping,to industry and svarehousing, education and residential in the City Centre Map.

(c)

In theCDevelopmentPlan, warehousing was part of the allocation for central business and shopping as no land use survey had distinguished warehousing as a separate category. The City Centre Map allocates land for warehousing in association with industry. Therefore, a slightly larger area is anticipated for industrial use but would include land for the relocation of warehouses.

(d)

Recent amendment to the Development Plan included in this total.

(e)

In fact ,more land than indicated may be released f o r other purposes in the future.


Table 6 Comprehensive Planning Areas.

Advisory Schemes

Market Street

N. Market Street Remainder Total Cathedral Area Market Place Corn Exchange Remainder of Cathedral a r e a within Manchester Total Civic Area Total Mosley Street Lower Mosley Street Remainder

Total Central Station Railway Land Remainder Total Total o f a l l ~ d v i ~ Schemes o r ~


Anticipated uses (19 81) Acreage

17

Shops '000 s q . f t . Total

Net Change (a>

911

+47 6

10

148

25

189

23

100

7

46

+ 94 + 8

Offices '000 sq. ft Total

80

Net Change

-177

3 27

+ 35

1262

+60 1

Other Major Uses Use

Area

Market

75,000

Hotel

59,000

Hotel & FIats

110,000

Entertainment Hotel & Flats Cultural and Entertainment

132,000 333,000 750,000

6

300

+249

Residential

300,000

- 45

124

- 131

Recreational

500,000

-

(a) Uses comprising shopping a r e listed in a footnote to Table 7 .

99


Table 7 Shopping - Distribution of Gross Floor space (1966)(a)

'000 s q . f t . 'Total

Core

North

South East

South West

514

549

G r o c e r s and other food r e t a i l e r s Confectioners and other Non-food retailers Clothing Shops Household goods Department Stores and Variety S t o r e s Service T r a d e s Cafes and Restaurants Other Shops

Vacant shops Total

100% 6,995

(a) T h e figures include storage space e t c .

4,835

1,097


Table 8

Offices

- Distribution of

Floor Space (1966)

Office Types

%

Total

Central and local Government Offices

19

2,748

Banks and Insurance Offices

24

3,492

Professional Offices, Societies, Institutions etc.

14

2,117

Commercial Offices, and offices of firms

35

5,238

-

62

Licensed betting offices

sq. ft COr e

North

South East

SouthWest

34

Post Offices Stock and produce exchange

1

96

Vacant Offices

7

1,030

100%

14,817

Total

.ooo

8, 558

2,315

2,673

1,271


Table 9 Offices - Analysis of Completions & V a c a ~ ~ c i eins Recent Y e a r s (a)

Offices completed since 1948 Offices completed during y e a r Total Offices under constructio~l Total Offices Vacant New Offices Vacant P r e -war Offices Vacant

1,373

'000 s q . f t

2,181

2,566

3,197

3,473

808

385

63 1

276

l , 361

827

768

303

615

48 2

529

600

1,292

52

83

166

42 8

294

43 0

446

43 4

864

729(b)

-

1,023(b)

(a)

Summary of r e s u l t s of annual officesurveys f o r the l a s t five y e a r s .

(b)

These figures a r e derived f r o m the Land Use Survey of 1966 and have been substituted for those obtained in the annual office s u r v e y . Analysis of the distribution of vacant offices in the Central Area shows that when all the contributory factors a r e considered,the amount of 'reasonable lettable office s p a c e ' is probably half this figure. A much inflated vacancy r a t e o c c u r s in the a r e a s imminent for redevelopment and in certain c a s e s , due to special circumstances, offices, though vacant a r e not available for letting.


Table 10 Warehousing & Industry - Distribution of Floor Space (1966)

%

Total

'000 sq.&. Core

North

South East

SouthWest

Warehousing of all kinds Vacant warehouses Wholesale m a r k e t s and Abattoirs Miscellaneous Storage space Radio T. V. and fill11 studios

Light Industry (a)

4

9 16

344

2 84

159

129

General Industry

20

4,308

32 6

1,278

1,274

1,430

Special Industry

6

1,351

-

41

342

9 68

Vacant Indus t r i e s premises

2

349

-

98

215

36

~

-

Total ( l ) + (2) (a) Includes newspaper printing.


Appendix D

Planning Standards. For clarification, the following represents the standards in relation to density, c a r parking and daylighting, with which new development will normally be expected to comply. PLOT RATIO The density of development is expressed in terms of plot ratio which is defined a s the ratio between the total floor area, including external walls, contained within a building o r buildings and the net site area,! excluding roads and provision for road widening of the plot o r other land a r e a on which it stands. In calculating plot ratio the floor a r e a of a building is taken a s the sum of the roofed a r e a s a t each floor level excluding machinery, heating installations, internal service roads and c a r parking facilities. The maximum density a t present generally permitted is a plot ratio of 3.5 with a reduction to 3.0 in concentrated shopping areas such a s Market Street. Where residential development is provided in the form of flats, above a scheme, an additional allowance may be permissable depending on the location and tlie degree of accessibility of the area concerned. CAR PARKING AND SERVICING Until 1967 the parking policy of tlie City required one c a r space to be provided for every 2,000 o r 2,500 square feet of new development in offices and shops respectively. In the new Parking Policy emphasis will now generally be on the provision of operational parking only within commercial development, that is,space required for vehicles regularly and necessarily involved in the operation of the business of particular buildings. The number of operational spaces to be included in any development will be considered on its merits and will have to be justified. It is essential that all necessary unloading and loading space is provided within the curtilage of any development and should be met within the operational spaces available. DAYLIGHTING O F BUILDINGS The standards adopted for this purpose a r e described in Bulletin No. 5 produced by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Its basic function is to ensure that d.evelopments obtain good lighting and sunlighting, and that design of buildings take full account of the requirements of adjacent structures. With piecemeal development it is almost impossible to fulfil these standards but the comprehensive scale of new development should normally make it possible to meet them in full.


Appendix E

Buildings of Special Architectural o r Historical Interest. The following buildings, existing within the central area,were included by the Minister of Town and Country Planning on the l i s t of Buildings of Special Architectural o r Historical Interest compiled under section 30 of the Town and Country Planning Act, 1947. In 1963,an amendment was made lry the Minister of Housing and Local Government to the list under Section 32 of the Town and Country Planning Act, 1962, which incorporates the provision of the earlier Act in respect of Buildings of Special Architectural o r Historical Interest. Location VICTORIA STREET

Date

Cathedral Church of St. Mary

15th Century

LIVERPOOL ROAD Remains of the originaI terminus of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, Liverpool Street Station. ST. AhJN'S STREET St. Ann's Church FENNEL STREET Chetham' S Hospital ALBERT SQUARE Town Hall Albert Memorial MULBERRY STREET Roman Catholic Church of St. Mary PETER STREET F r e e Trade Hall WINDMILL STREET Central Station ST. JOHN'S STREET late 18th Century Iate 18th Century


ST. ANN'S STREET No. 2 5. Williams Deacon's Bank and Annexe.

1848

OLD SHAMBLES

* * Old Wellington Inn * Sinclairs' Oyster Bar

16th Century 17th o r 18th Century

PORTLAND STREET Warehouse occupied by S. & J. Watts Limited Nos. 3, 5 and 9 (3 warehouses west of Queen's Hotel).

1856 1850

KING STREET No, 35,District Bank Bank of England LONG MILLGATE Manchester Arms Hotel

18th Century

MOSLEY STREET City Art Gallery No. 38 Portico Library No. 57 Williams Deacon's Bank DEANSGATE Ryland's Library

1899

BYROM STREET

* NOS. 25-31 "Nos. 38-44

18th Century 18th Century

MOUNT STREET Friends Meeting House

1830

The following property i s not included on the statutory list of buildings of special architectural o r historical interest but is entitled to the same protection a s a listed building.


PRINCES S STREET No. 8 1.Athenaeum Crown Property

QUAY STREET County Court

18th Century

--

XTPPLEMENTARY LIST OF BUILDINGS OF ARCHITECTURAL OR HISTORICAL INTEREST GARTSIDE STREET *,Nos. 72 -78

18th Century

QUAYSTREET Nos. 66-74

18th Century

LOWER BYROM STREET No. 30

18th Century

PRINCESS STREET Municipal High School of Commerce

19th Century

CATEATON STREET ""Hanging Bridge COLLIER STREET ""Liverpool Road, Fragment of Roman Wall

"Buildings s o indicated f o r m part of an architectural entity o r group comprising m o r e than one property. ""These s t r u c t u r e s a r e also scheduled a s ancient monuments under Section 12 of the Ancient Monuments Act 1913 and Section 6 of the Ancient. Monuments Act 1931.

.


13. Outline Planning Proposals for Town Planning & Buildings Central Station Area.

September 1966

14. The Desirability of Town Planning & Buildings Re -introducing Residential Accommodation into the City Centre.

September 1966

15. Site f o r new Wholesale F r u i t Vegetable and F i s h MarketJoint Report of General Markets Department and City Planning Officer.

Town Planning & Buildings

F e b r u a r y 1964

16. Central Retail Food Market f o r Manchester. Joint Report of General Manager, Markets Department and City Planning Officer.

Town Planning & Buildings

June 1965

17. Rapid T r a n s i t . Joint Report of City Engineer and Surveyor, General Manager T r a n s p o r t Department, and City Planning Officer.

Town Planning & Buildings

January 1966

18. Municipal Accommodation within the Civic Area. Joint Report of City Architect and City and City Planning Officer.

Town Planning & Buildings

F e b r u a r y 196 6

19. Report on C a r Parking in Central Manchester. Joint Report of City Engineer & Surveyor, General Manager of T r a n s p o r t Department, Chief Constable and City Planning Officer.

Town Planning & Buildings

F e b r u a r y 1966 May 1967

20. City Centre Road Report. Town Planning & Buildings Joint Report of City E n g n e e r and Surveyor, General Manager T r a n s p o r t Department, Chief Constable and City Planning Officer.

Concurrent submission with City Centre Map.


Maps

1

Inner city map

2 Location Plan 3 Development Plan 4

Existing land use

5 Townscape : quality and character 6 Redevelopment appraisal 7 Future land use 8 Future Communications

9 Comprehensive planning proposals 10 Implementation 11 City

centre map


Inner city map

Open space strategy

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ Residential l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ;Study ~ ~ l ~Areas '~l~'~, .................. ................. ................. .............................. ................. Education precinct ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ................. ....... .. .. .. ............. .. .. ..: .

-

Future road pattern Uist rict cent re


Location Plan

+ .*.@*m

l a c

Boundary of Study Area

9

,

470

,

BP0

L

12,OO ,feet, -.


Development Plan

l ndustrial Use

;i:rzg@gq;; Public Open Space

~5!~;+>~f~:(i~~24~:ti g$i;>$;$$&@: .G.: &l?>><,>;t;J,:<

Civic &Cultural Use ................. ................. ................. ................. Railway Land ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................

.................

Central Business & Shopping Area Water iiansport

Post Office lJse

Higher Education Precinct

British Broadcasting Corporation Principal Roads

1 acre

0

400

800

1200 feet


Existing land use

S hopping

............. ........... ......A............... ........ .......

.....

Recreation & Cultural Industry & distribution

................. ................ ................. .............................. ................ Railway land .................

................ ................. ................ ................. ................ ................. ................ ................. ................ ................. ................ , ,

I

I

1

I

,,

I

I

Residential

~1

mParking area Open space p a s . Public Open Spacm

l acre

0

400

800 I

1

1

1200 feet 1

1

l

'r


I I I I I I / ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ' J : Road 1

!

.

l

r-;trur.:turf:>(~!levatnd}


Redevelopment appraisal

Areas of predominantly long life buildings or uses Areas ripe for redevelopment for which advisory schemes have been produced Other areas ripe for redevelopment

lllllllllllll

[7

lacre

Areas where redevelopment col-~ldtake place in the foreseeable future

0

400

800

1200feet


Future land use

Regional Shopping

Recreation & Cultural lndust ry & Distribution

................. ................. Railway land ................. ................. ................. ................. ...........-..... ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................

Residential & Mixed uses

lr ilF Il il l l ljl .

Education

m IDD'DDDm:

BBC centre

g

lrJurrrrr

Areas for further study

0

400

800

1200 feet


Future Communications

Primary Roads Secondary Roads

@

Outer Car Parks Inner Car Parks Terminal Car Parks Primary Road Access to Terminal Parks

8

Railway Station B u s Station

~

Principal Pedest r ~ a n ~ o u t e s

$ ? \ y .&.:.:.:.. -. .. .;.;.i.;.y:** .

t.;

..

'5t.Z.'

.$ #,*:.:Q.:* ....... ..,. + ::

;::t.s:<.;.:!..:.

'

$:.!fff.:'"4~:y.C ;q;<$.. .*$:,.:.<:;!,..: <.P;:::,. ..-,.:::, ,.:....

................. ................ ........ ............. t.................. '.'.'. "..........7 ........ .... .*:;>::'::,:g,.~:.:.:.:.:::..-.-' .... . . , : , : . . . ....... : ::.X?, .:A> . -. . . . .....:...:.:...>......... +:. :....F: .;'... I:. ... ................ .v.:;:.: *,:.:,:. ..-.c. -...r -1 -L&L---is -

---

=r i*:.:

.

U

1 I . .

:-

lacre

0

1200 feet

800

400 r

i

r

l

,

1

*I' - r -


Comprehensive planning proposals

9

m

Pedestrian areas

m m a m m a Pedestrian routes

i

f

a!'

'L. .-

'l,

,{

'i 'I]

b-

7

1 acre

7

, 4yO ,

8O :

, 12,OO ,fee;

+


Implementation

First phase development Longer term development

IllllllUUll

1

1

.'ll,l;by

1'1'1, t!.,..,

l,,l,d~i$/ ,

lacre

-

0

400

800

1200 feet


City centre map

Regional Shopping

-

Recreation & Cultural

l B

lndust ry & Distribution

................. ................. ................. ....................... .......... Railway land

................. .................................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. ................. .................................

l1-1I i l I l i l l i l 1 ~i

Residential & Mixed uses Education

BBC centre

Zmmmmmmmi Areas for

! further study

I I

lmrmmmrrm

l acre

0

400

800

1200 bet


Acknowledgements

Illustrations

.

The aerial photographs on the frontispiece and on pages 26 and 4.5 were supplied by Airviews (M/cr ) Limited, Manchester Airport, and that on page 12 by Aerofilms Limited.

.

Illustrations were also obtained from the following and a r e gratefully acknowledged:

-

Page 40 top

I k r e k Lovejoy and Associates.

52 top

Daniel, Watney, Eiloart, Inman & Nunn.

53

The Co-operative Insurance Society.

54

The City Architect S. G. Besant Roberts

66

Sketch of proposed Arts Centre based on studies by the City Architect.

70

Wilson and Womersley.

74 top

Fitzroy, Robinson and Partners.

74 bottom

Yorke, Rosenberg and Mardall.

75 top

Casson, Conder and Partners.

75 bottom

Cruickshank and Seward.

.

All Maps a r e based on the Ordnmce Survey with the sanction of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Crown Copyright Reserved. This publication was designed in the City Planning Department and produced by the Stationery Department, Town Hall, Manchester, 2

.

City Centre Map, 1967  

Manchester City Centre Map, 1967 This report was originally published in 1967 and authored by John Millar, chief Planner of Manchester City...