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From Football Player to Father: One Student’s Journey to Success


what’s INSIDE

O N T H E C OV E R Senior Economics and Sociology major Marcus Schimmelfennig was interviewed on his struggles and triumphs being a student-athlete and a father.

From Football Player to Father: One Student’s Journey to Success

Photo by Zahn Schultz Design by Krista Kok


LIFEHACKS 8 Surviving the Wilderness: How to be Prepared for an Emergency Situation 1 2 The Medical Marijuana Effect 1 4 Learning to Overcome Language Barriers 1 6 Out with Walking; In With Snowshoeing

FOOD & DRINK 2 0 Confronting Food Insecurity 2 2 Climate Change Reimagined: The Role of Veganism in the Environment

SPOTLIGHT 2 6 From Football Player to Father: One Student’s Journey to Success 3 2 Unleashing the Truth Behind Animal Testing 3 8 Breaking the Transgender Stigma

FASHION 4 4 Androgynous Style 4 6 Off the Chain A Glimpse into the Tradition of Passing on Family Heirlooms

MIND & BODY 5 0 Awarness & Acceptance: Living With Autism Spectrum Disorder

ARTS & ENTERTAINMENT 5 4 Behind the Crown: The Untold Realities, Struggles Photo by Zahn Schultz

and Successes of the Pageant World 5 6 In the Public Eye

AFTER DARK 5 8 Central Secrets: Roommate Edition 6 0 Bar Calendar 6 2 Concert Calendar


WINTER 2020 LEADERSHIP STAFF

Madeline Wilson editor-in-chief

Emily Messall associate editor

Rachel Retchless copy editor

Krista Kok art director

Zahn Schultz director of photography

Sara Roach associate art director

Kiersten Kimminau features editor

Angela Kyle promotions manager

Joanna Santana social media manager


PULSE STAFF Editorial

Photography

editor-in-chief Madeline Wilson

director of photography Zahn Schultz

associate editor Emily Messall

photographers Kassandra Eller Jack Royer

features editor Kiersten Kimminau copy editor Rachel Retchless

Writers Josh Carroll Spencer Clifton Holly Hunter Taylor Johnson Angela Kyle Amy Morris Ashley Murawski Mary Park Joseph Stanger Kyle Wilkinson

Design art director Krista Kok

Multimedia videographer Helen Nguyen social media manager Joanna Santana

Promotions promotions manager Angela Kyle website manager Joanna Santana

Advertising business manager Cait Dalton 509-963-1026 cait.dalton@cwu.edu

associate art director Sara Roach

Advising

designers Kayla Craig Shoshanah Davis

faculty adviser Jennifer Green 509-963-3216 jennifer.green@cwu.edu

for more exclusive content, visit us at

PULSE magazine is a student-run lifestyle magazine, both in print and online at www.cwupulsemagazine.com. PULSE produces two issues an academic quarter. Student editors make policy and content decisions for the magazine, which serves as a public forum for student expression. PULSE serves the Central Washington University community with informative, engaging and interactive content covering campus and community life, trends and issues, and providing practical magazine and multimedia training.


CALL FOR ABSTRACTS

SOURCE 2020

SUBMIT YOUR ABSTRACT FEBRUARY 24 - APRIL 3 SUBMIT HERE: WWW.CWU.EDU/UNDERGRADRESEARCH/ABSTRACT-SUBMISSION QUESTIONS: OUR@CWU.EDU 509.963.2646

Symposium of University Research and Creative Expression

SOURCE is CWU's annual on-campus event where students from all majors can present their research, scholarly endeavors, and creative works. Both undergrad and grad students welcome from ALL MAJORS.


EDITOR’S NOTE Winter is my favorite season of the year. I know many other students who experience extreme mood swings that follow the ebb and flow of winters in Washington, but I am just the opposite. From the layer of snow caked on buildings across campus, to the icicles that form along my porch, winter brings me a sense of peace. Amid the chaos and buzz of running a newsroom, it is beneficial to find one’s outlet for joy and I now have. Along with the snow-capped trees and icy roads, there are many other changes I have experienced this quarter, unrelated to the season. The PULSE staff has decided to add Arts & Entertainment to our repertoire of unique and creative sections within our publication. Arts & Entertainment is your source for all things popular media, celebrity lives, music, trends and scandal. Our staff strives to provide our audience with as much engaging content as possible and following this mission we make editorial decisions based on the interests of students and community members. In the spirit of changes, we are no longer going to be publishing our bar calendar and concert calendar in the second issue of the quarter. We will be featuring quarterly events and discounts in the first issue that will be relevant throughout the three-month period. On behalf of our staff, I hope you enjoy these new additions and changes to our publication. Follow us on social media to receive updates on future improvements and find more exclusive content. CWU is filled with students from diverse cultures and backgrounds, many of whom have overcome numerous obstacles to receive an education. These students travel from countries all across the world, only to face new challenges such as language barriers when they arrive. Flip to page 14 to read more about how students facing language barriers overcome cultural differences and struggles in higher education. Have you ever wondered why young women choose to compete in beauty pageants? Turn to page 54 to read about the mindset, glamor and struggles of those within the pageant world. Anywhere from student fees for tutoring to charges for gym memberships, there are many unforeseen costs when attending college. Although potentially beneficial to one’s success, these extra charges can force students to cut down on essentials such as utilities, gas and even food. If you are interested in learning more about the experiences and causes of college students facing food insecurity, jump to page 20. As you browse the aisles of Ulta you notice a gigantic sign displaying the newest Wet ‘n Wild highlighter to be released. In the corner of the advertisement you notice a small icon of a bunny with the words cruelty-free perched below. If you have ever wondered what cruelty-free practices mean in relation to the products you purchase, flip to page 32. If you are interested in seeing more PULSE content outside of the print magazine, check out our YouTube channel to watch exclusive videos related to your favorite stories from this issue. Also, to get a behind-the-scenes look into the process of reporting, designing and photographing our stories, tune-in to the CWU Student Media Podcast every Saturday to listen to PULSE staff members give their insights on current stories.


LIFEHACKS

Surviving the Wilderness: How to be Prepared for an Emergency Situation Story & Photos by Kyle Wilkinson | Design by Krista Kok

Have you ever been stuck in the backcountry with no way out? Junior Law and Justice major Bryant Ecklund knew exactly what it was like to be in that situation when his snowmobile broke down three miles from the nearest road. Luckily, he had all of the materials required to spend a night outdoors and the knowledge of what to do next. He was prepared and had a plan on how to get help and get back safely. According to the Kittitas County Sheriff’s Office website, the local Search and Rescue responds to over 60 incidents each year. “We get a lot of injuries in the backcountry,” says Deputy Sheriff and Search and Rescue Program Coordinator Ellis Nale. “Second to that would be lost people.” Don’t be a statistic this year. Follow along and learn how to plan, prepare and communicate for your next adventure outdoors.

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Planning One of the first steps you can take if you’re planning for an outdoor adventure is doing research. Outdoor Pursuits and Rentals (OPR) guide and gear shop employee and junior Nursing major, Jackson Bourne suggests doing research on the area and activity you plan to do. “You can avoid a lot of risk with proper planning and knowledge of the area.” Knowing what conditions to expect will usually tell you what to pack. “OPR has an updated board every day that gives not only the resort snow conditions, but we post the [NWAC] report,” says Bourne. This “is the Northwest Avalanche Center’s daily report on the likelihood and the type of avalanches.” Bourne also suggests looking at the forecast before leaving for your trip. This will tell you what clothing you should be wearing for the adventure ahead. Tami Walton, president of Mountain High Sports in downtown Ellensburg suggests layering clothing during the colder months. A base layer close to your skin like dry-fit clothing can help wick away moisture. An insulated layer will

keep you warm and an outer shell of windproof and waterproof material will protect you from a variety of elements, explains Walton and Bourne. One crucial tip that they both stress is to never wear cotton. “Avoid cotton, avoid cotton, avoid cotton,” says Bourne. “Once cotton’s wet, you’re wet. It’ll stay wet and it’ll be miserable.” People that require special medication should also plan to have their medications with them, says Walton. Plan to have these with you in case you won’t have immediate access to them. Preparation Walton tells people to prepare for the outdoors by packing the necessary materials for the situation. “I think anybody going anywhere should always have the 10 essentials,” says Walton. Those 10 essentials vary depending on the activity and the time of year. For most situations, those essentials will include, but are not limited to: a fire starter, sun-protectant, a lightsource, a compass and map, extra clothing, a whistle, extra water, extra

WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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food, a first-aid kit and a knife, according to REI Expert Advice. Ecklund packs his version of the 10 essentials every time he goes outdoors. He has pieced his together from various sporting goods stores and through ordering online. You can purchase gear from Mountain High Sports or rent materials straight from OPR. If you don’t think that you need to pack it, Ecklund believes you should reconsider. “I think it is very easy to overlook and minimize situations that present a reasonable risk,” says Ecklund. “It is better to be over prepared than be underprepared.” Once you have all the materials that you think you need, it’s time to pack them. “I like to lay [my materials] out on the floor,” says Bourne. “So I have a good visualization of everything that I have.” He also suggests making a list and checking off items as you pack them. Having a repair kit for any gear that you carry with you is crucial, according to Walton. When you are relying on your gear to get back to the vehicle or to stay overnight, it can’t fail you. Don’t pack what you don’t know how to use, explains Walton. “If you have a map and you don’t know how to read a map it does you no good whatsoever,” he adds. “If you have a compass and you don’t know about declination, you can get yourself in trouble.” OPR hosts programs that teach about outdoor safety and first aid. Bourne suggests that students and outdoor enthusiasts take these courses to prepare themselves for serious situations. “That gives you a really strong foundation for wilderness medicine and being in the backcountry,” says Bourne. Another route that you can take to learn about emergency situations includes doing research on the computer. “I always say the internet is your best friend,” says Bourne. Talking to others with experience is another way to gain this knowledge. That could be as simple as asking a family member, or even reaching out to trained professionals with Search and Rescue. “You can stop by the sheriff ’s office and you can ask to talk to somebody,” says Nale. “We can put you in touch with somebody from Search and Rescue that can give somebody some one-on-one advice for their specific outdoor activity.” “We encourage people to call and ask the sheriff ’s office,” says Nale. “Because we’re out everywhere in this county every day.”

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Communication Before leaving on your next outdoor adventure, Bourne suggests telling people where you’re going. “Have someone that’s not on the trip know so that in case something does happen they have an idea on where you are and can get ahold of you.” Even avid outdoor enthusiasts and professionals in the field let others know where they plan to be. “People that I know and trust know where I’m going and when I’ll be back,” says Nale. “Even though I do this stuff for a living and I’m outdoors all the time, my bones break just as easy as anybody else’s.” Nale also suggests that you need a way to find help while out in the field. “You [have to] be able to communicate to people,” says Nale. “That’s why I always recommend a whistle. A whistle is a great device that anybody can carry. It doesn’t weigh anything.” Emergency beacons and satellite phones are also good tools according to Nale. These provide contact with others while in the outdoors. If you ever find yourself or someone close to you in a serious outdoor emergency, Nale has one straightforward answer. To get ahold of Search and Rescue. “Call 911,” says Nale. “The dispatchers will put you in touch with the sheriff ’s office.” Practicing these strategies can make you more confident and secure the next time you find yourself reaching for the skis or loading up your kayak. Should you ever find yourself in an emergency situation, you’ll know what to do and others will know where to find you.


Are you prepared to survive a night in the wilderness? Take this quiz to find out!

You open your closet and pick through your clothes before going on the hike. Do you:

b Figure you will get reception when you gain some elevation and you will let someone know where you are later.

a Decide to layer with breathable and quick-drying c clothes. You throw in an extra wool sweatshirt and a rain jacket, even though rain isn’t in the forecast.

b Pack

one quick-drying base layer and a cotton sweatshirt. It’s not supposed to rain so you don’t think you need a rain jacket.

c Figure you will be constantly on the move. You pick

out a cotton t-shirt and sweatshirt. You are only going to be out for a few hours.

You’re packing food and water in your backpack for the day’s hike. Do you:

a Pack enough meals and bottled water to last an extra couple of days if you needed it.

b Throw in an extra granola bar. You might be walking out after dark.

Disregard the urge to call. It’s only a three mile hike.

You’ve been walking down the trail for an hour and feel a hotspot on your heel. You take off your boot and sock and realize you have the start of a blister. Do you:

a Immediately clean the area and apply some sort of bandage and protective material to the area to lessen the effects of the blister later.

b Put on an extra pair of socks on and keep walking

up the trail. You’ll tend to it on top of the mountain.

c

Completely ignore the pain and trudge on.

The views are gorgeous and you aren’t paying attention to the time of day. Darkness is setting and you find you’ve ventured off the trail. You turn around and realize that you don’t know how to get back. What do you do?

c Pack a single candy bar and a small bottle of water a Stay put and prepare for a long night, you can figure so that you will be carrying less weight. That way it out in the morning.

you can hike faster and get back earlier.

What are some of the ‘10 Essentials’ you should carry with you in preparation for an emergency situation?

a Extra water, a fire starter, a head lamp, extra food, emergency shelter. bA

single match, emergency shelter, a bandana, a piece of candy, a single extra sock.

c Spare keys, matches, a pencil, a laptop charger, an

Begin walking in the direction you think you

b should go. c

You trip on a tree root as you assess the situation and fall and break your ankle. This is the last thing you do before staying the night outside. Do you:

a Remain calm and begin assembling your emergency materials.

empty bottle of water.

You are driving to the trailhead where you will be hiking. Right before you leave cell phone service, you remember that you forgot to tell someone where you are going. Do you:

a Call your roommate and leave a message on their phone with the location you plan to be in.

PANIC! YOU ARE LOST!

b Lay there and do nothing. You will get out your materials later as you need them.

c

Pick yourself up and stumble around in the dark. You think you know where you are going. Flip to page 19 to find out if you survived the wilderness!

WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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LIFEHACKS

Story by Spencer Clifton | Photos & Design by Krista Kok

Smoke clouds billowed high above Seattle as Washington State’s Initiative 502 on marijuana legalization and regulation went into effect in November 2012. As the growing recreational cannabis industry continues to be a thriving, yet heavily debated market in Washington, it may be easy for everyone to forget where marijuana reform started — medical marijuana. Professional Opinions There were 42,997 patients registered in Washington State as medical marijuana users as of October 2019, according to the Washington State Department of Health. Each of these people turned to medical merijuana as a solution for varying health-related issues, whether it be mental or physical. It is well-known that medical marijuana is used to help people with common mental health issues such

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as anxiety or depression. Yet, Corey Gray, U.S. Army veteran and Washington resident, uses medical marijuana to help cope with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). “I’ve been using medical marijuana since about 2012,” says Gray. “I was anti-pot for 20 years until my psychiatrist [suggested] I try it for both the PTSD and the shaking that I was having, and it worked.” Gray isn’t the only military veteran to benefit from using cannabis to treat his PTSD. Healthline states that “People who have PTSD but do not medicate with cannabis are far more likely to suffer from severe depression and have suicidal thoughts than those who reported cannabis use over the past year.” While smoking marijuana to treat PTSD might be a long-term solution for some, others are seeking short-term solutions to their health issues. Mitchell Garrison, hematologist and oncologist at


Wenatchee Valley Clinic, has found that some of his cancer patients use cannabis, hoping to benefit from short-term use. “We know that up to a third of our patients use it routinely,” says Garrison. “Appetite [stimulants] and anti-anxiety medications in cancer patients are common. I have a lot of patients that use it, not from my prescription, but I don’t have any problems if they do.” Although Garrison sees cancer patients who use marijuana to help with their symptoms, he does not prescribe the medication in its traditional form. Instead, he prescribes a medication called Marinol which he says, in comparison to the marijuana plant, is “pharmaceutically made and not grown.” Marinol is prescribed by Garrison because of its reliability in measuring doses and controlling what the patient is putting into their body. It “binds to cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system and is a synthetic THC cannabinoid,” says Garrison. Despite this alternative, Garrison has found marijuana to be helpful for his patients when they have used it during his care. “The unfortunate side of this coin is people promote this as an anticancer medicine and they will forego cancer treatment with the substitute of marijuana therapy,” he says. Learning to use medical marijuana in capacities that do not interfere with outside medications or treatments may ensure better mental and physical safety. The Industry Today It’s no secret that the marijuana industry has been growing, changing and evolving since I-502 was passed in Washington. “When I started out, I was a medical patient and until Governor Inslee decided to [combine] recreational and medical together for the sake of profiteering, I was carded, I was licensed and I was growing for the medical community,” says Gray.

But once the initiative passed in Washington, laws and regulations quickly started to change. “The way it is done now there is no sense in getting a card unless you are under 21 and in a medical need,” says Gray. Since the change of legal status in Washington, the testing standards for pesticides, fertilizers and grow operations have changed, according to Gray. He believes these changes have altered the products in stores so that they no longer suit his needs. “I want something that was grown without chemical fertilizers,” explains Gray. “I had to know if it had been fertilized. I had to be able to know how it had been grown so … I can walk into a medical dispensary and I could say I have an issue with certain kinds of pesticides, or anything treated with those.” Cory Smith, manager at The Farmacy, a marijuana dispensary in Astoria, Oregon believes this can be changed. “At The Farmacy we carry a number of different products that suit different people’s medical needs. Some products carry no THC … [only] CBD to account for people seeking pain relief.” THC is short for tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD is short for cannabidiol, both of which are natural compounds of the marijuana plant, according to Healthline. Smith notes that about half of the customers who come to his dispensary are looking for something to suit their medical needs. “Part of our goal is to continue to have product that is suitable for our customers and meet their needs as patients,” Smith says. He explains that the medical needs of specific customers are important to the operation at his store. Although Smith chooses to advocate for the medical needs of his customers, other dispensaries may not be as knowledgeable, especially since recreational marijuana has become legal. Moving Forward Marijuana laws may continue to change in the years to come. Currently, some patients feel as if the direction of the industry is neither satisfactory nor favorable to the needs of medical patients. Addressing these changes, evaluating the stakeholders behind this industry and considering the perspectives of medical patients may allow people to better access the medicine that they desire.

*PULSE does not condone irresponsible or illegal marijuana use. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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LIFEHACKS

Learning to Overcome

Language

Barriers Story by Mary Park | Design & Illustration by Sara Roach

No hablo Español. 日本語を話せません. Je ne parle pas français. What do these sentences have in common? They illustrate language barriers; when two or more people are unable to communicate with each other. When you travel to a country where you don’t know the language, everyday tasks like ordering food or asking for directions can become tough. At least you’ll be back home after a short trip. But what if you had to live and study there for weeks or even years? Current international students and University English as a Second Language (UESL) professors were interviewed to learn about the individual struggles of a diverse population on the CWU campus.

Kotone Iwasaki When Kotone Iwasaki, sophomore Hospitality major, first arrived in September 2019 from Osaka, Japan, she found it difficult to understand any English. “First time when I was [asked] ‘how are you?’ I couldn’t respond, I just [said] yes or no,” Iwasaki says. “I didn’t have confidence to speak.” Iwasaki recalls that learning English in class and spending time with her new American friends helped her gain confidence in her language skills. “They speak slowly for me and especially my Campus Friend explains each word, each vocabulary I can’t understand,” Iwasaki explains. “She thinks it’s necessary to explain slang to foreigners so I appreciate her.” The most difficult part about learning English for Iwasaki is the pronunciation and trying to understand common slang words and expressions like ‘What’s up?’ Despite the language barrier, she says she felt a connection to American students over common interests like food, music and hobbies. “I think [the] most important thing is to communicate with people, to try to understand … to break language barriers,” Iwasaki explains. “If we can’t speak same language, we can share feelings, emotions with gestures [and] body language.” Kazuki Mizuno Kazuki Mizuno, a sophomore Sociology major from Japan, says he is learning English because he wants to

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learn more about same-sex marriage laws in the U.S. and other Western countries. “I think a lot of people can speak English so if I can speak English, I can get another perspective [from people] from many countries,” he says. Mizuno adds that he saw some cultural differences between Japanese and American education systems. “Here, when I take a class, I felt a lot of students said [their opinions] very easily,” he says. “For me, American classes are very free.” While at CWU, Mizuno says he feels challenged with expressing his own view and has had to change his essay writing style to be more direct. In Japan, Mizuno explains, students don’t share opinions with the teacher or with each other and when they do, they will only make indirect and abstract opinions.

“Native speakers do that too … especially when we’re trying to choose our words carefully, even some native speakers speak more slowly than others.” Something that ESL students and other language learners might also worry about is mispronouncing words. Thomas advises native speakers to think about why the person is having trouble with English before judging their pronunciation as odd or frustrating. “You can speak grammatically correctly and use all the right vocabulary, but if there’s even one pronunciation error, people start to look at you funny,” Thomas says. “Other dialects of English also use weird words, so to speak. For example, if you go to Appalachia or England or Australia, words are going to sound different.” Students are not the only people on college campuses to face language barriers; even some professors Azusa Imanishi have struggled with similar situations. Azusa Imanishi, sophomore English Literature maReka Britschgi, a UESL instructor from Hungary, jor, describes holding a conversation in English as says she faced language barriers when she first arrived having extra mental work. She would translate what in Ellensburg, Washington and says that it’s normal to is being said in English into Japanese and then transencounter them when first learning a language. late her response from Japanese into English. “In my experience, many [students] expect too “You know, [native speakers] speak pretty fast,” much of themselves when they get here,” she says. Imanishi says. “For me, it’s “So, I tell them just to take my second language and I’m back and relax.” “I think a lot of people a step not quite used to translating To improve your English, Japanese into English … can speak English so if I Britschgi recommends They go to the next topic watching movies TV can speak English, I can shows as well as and while I come up with idea [of reading get another perspec- books, preferably somewhat to say].” Imanishi says she went to tive [from people] from thing you have already seen club events like Alpha Kappa in your native language, many countries.” Psi’s RUSH, a business fraterand getting involved outnity social, to learn English side of the classroom. and interact with American students. “I always tell my students, ‘I don’t give you a lot of homework because you’re not here only to learn EnAdvice from UESL Instructors glish,’” Britschgi says. “‘You could have stayed at home Each student has individual pressures and struggles for that. You didn’t have to pay a lot of money to be that their instructors can see on a regular basis. here.’ I encourage them to go out and participate in According to Victoria Thomas, an instructor college activities, connect with the community, make in the UESL program, as ESL students move up to friends … because that’s why they’re really here.” higher level classes, they could go through a crisis of Language barriers are a normal situation that feeling ‘I’m not making progress anymore,’ or ‘I still many students and professors on the CWU campus make mistakes, what’s wrong with me?’ have faced. If you are experiencing issues related to Each instructor is ready to answer these questions pronunciation, understanding and connecting with based on past experiences with ESL students. “I’ll tell the culture, it may be a good first step to try and join them that they’re making good progress and even if clubs or programs where students embrace diversity they don’t see it … sometimes the learning is subconand practice inclusivity. scious and they’ll see progress later,” says Thomas. She adds that ESL students should not feel discouraged for making pauses during conversations. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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LIFEHACKS

WALKING;

IN WITH

OUT WITH

SNOW

SHOE

ING

Contributions by Kyle Wilkinson Photos by Zahn Schultz Design by Kayla Craig

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The snow has fallen and the temperatures have dropped. The fresh powder and weather shouldn’t prevent you from hitting your favorite trails. Snowshoeing provides people with the possibility to prolong their time outdoors without hitting the slopes.

Pay attention to the forecast before heading into the woods. Although fresh snow is fun to walk in, it can also make it difficult getting home on the return journey. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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LIFEHACKS

fur ’s st g do ’s be ier. e th Man eav u? to w. s h yo o d o gs lin of sn oun og t c d r p s e ile et wd p few w po g in t a l like n sh lli go el Fre er ro just t sm t f s d a n oe i frie D

e ar at en h , t wh m ts ke nce the s a la t e b ba ou ! ar ur ith ow e n l yo po g r. W e s he epin de to th t of ke ow in se for h p eet a f e b ity res al th ess n f ver t i A ec se a n king sink hi u’d yo Ready for more snow? Check out our snowshoeing video on cwupulsemagazine.com 18

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Surviving the Wilderness Quiz Answers (from page 11):

If you answered mostly As: You survived the night outdoors and someone in Search and Rescue found you the next day. The search party heard your whistle and saw your headlamp in the distance. You stayed warm overnight and suffered only minor dehydration. If you answered mostly Bs: You were found by Search and Rescue two or three days later. You were near the edge of hypothermia when they found you. People began looking for you at the trailhead, but you walked several miles to the east instead of staying where you told people you would be. You were severely dehydrated and very hungry. If you answered mostly Cs: A hiker stumbled across your remains a couple of months later. You hurt yourself worse trying to stumble out in the dark and tumbled down a ravine. You contracted hypothermia that night and ran out of food and water the next day.

cwuobserver@gmail.com

(509) 963-1073

WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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Confronting

FOOD & DRINK

FOOD INSECURITY Story by Amy Morris | Photos by Jack Royer | Design by Kayla Craig

Imagine not being able to concentrate in your classes because all you can think about is food. Yet, you don’t have the comfort that many other students have in knowing that they can go home and make a hot meal. Many college students may face food insecurity, whether they talk about it openly or not. College has been known to come with a lot of different expenses, and often times some of these costs are prioritized higher than the need for food. “There is a lot of pressure and expectation on college students. It is extremely hard to survive with what is expected of you and what is given to you,” says Kate Doughty, the sustainability and Wildcat Neighborhood Farm manager. “Oftentimes across the board decisions have to be made of ‘what am I buying today? Food or textbook… tuition and rent, or am I spending this money on food?’” The fear of not knowing where your next meal will come from can be a scary situation to find yourself faced with. With college tuition, living fees and other expenses it can be difficult for college students to have enough money left for food. While many college students are scared of gaining the ‘Freshman 15’, other students worry about where they are getting their next meal. According to a survey done by researchers at Temple University and the Wisconsin HOPE Lab in 2018, 36% of university college students say they are food insecure. 20

WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

Learning to Love PUSH

There are many resources on campus that are intended to assist students who deal with food insecurity. Presidents United to Solve Hunger (PUSH) has several pantries across campus for students to grab food from. Students can pick up items at any PUSH pantry location, which are open during building hours, according to PUSH’s website. The PUSH pantries are typically stocked with items such as dry goods that students can take home, according to Doughty. The pantries also sometimes carry items that students can make on campus in a microwave, if they need a hot meal. Doughty adds that if a student doesn’t have somewhere to cook, there are a number of resources provided in these pantries. Peyton Rondeau, junior Nutrition and Food Science major who has faced food insecurity, says that he is thankful for resources such as the PUSH pantries that help students in similar situations. Dining services also has a partnership with PUSH that allows individuals who are not located on campus or in Ellensburg to donate to the Connection Card

program. Students can request emergency funds if they are in a jam and don’t have the immediate funds to support themselves and just need something to eat, according to Doughty. “It is really hard to be a student,” Doughty says. “Students come here for an education and they come here to learn and grow and it is hard to do that if you aren’t able to feed yourself. Having [PUSH] on campus is important because it is the CWU community providing care for the students and that is really important.”

The Cycle of Financial Crisis

CWU has discovered over the years that there is a big group of students that don’t have a safety net, according to Health Sciences Department Chair, Ethan Bergman. Especially when it comes to the end of the quarter or academic year and students start running out of funding, he adds. “[If a student] got sick … and can’t go to their job, their budget falls apart,” Bergman says. “They have to make choices so if we provide some access to food on campus then maybe that alleviates some of their concerns and allows them to eat and do whatever else is necessary to support their lives.” Within many public schools,


There can also be a negative stigma attached to people who deal with food insecurity, which can make it hard for students to get the resources they need. Samantha Emch, a sophomore Cyber Security major, believes that many students deal with food

ResourceS IN KITTITAS COUNTY

FISH Community Food Bank 804 Elmview Rd., Ellensburg, WA 98926 509-925-5990 HopeSource 700 E. Mountain View Ave. #501, Ellensburg, WA 98926 509-925-1448

Pantry

The Insecurity Stigma

insecurity, but are embarrassed of people finding out that they don’t have enough money. “We are trying to go to school and most [of] our money goes towards school. We don’t think to put much of it towards food and that’s why we don’t eat the best,” Emch says. We buy “those simple, cheap meals that we can afford.” CWU believes that everyone should have access to healthy food, according to Bergman. Students being able to have access to healthy food is one of the reasons having discrete food pantries can be beneficial. When a student is food insecure it can also affect their academic performance. Bergman explains that students have to be well nourished and healthy to excel in school, and a part of that is being able to think clearly. “If they are malnourished, they are not going to learn very well, they are not going to do well [on] tests, they are not going to do well in class, and pretty soon they will no longer be able to continue their education,” Bergman adds. Plans are being made this

Push

students K-12 have access to a free and reduced lunch program. These types of programs typically don’t exist at universities, including CWU, “but the same students who graduate from high school and come to a university are in those same financial constraints,” says Bergman. A lot of students get good financial aid packages, which will hopefully cover their total cost of attendance including tuition, room and board and books, according to Bergman. However, this may not be the case for every student. What happens with the students who don’t receive as much financial help is one bout of bad luck and their budget falls apart. One of the things that isn’t guaranteed is having a food source available.

quarter to start getting grab-andgo foods from dining services which will be stored in two refrigerators; one will be located in Black Hall and the other in Purser Hall, explains Bergman. “I know I talk to people who are not even on the university campus and tell them about this program and [they] say college students don’t have a problem with food insecurity,” Bergman says. “Well we know that’s not the case. Just making people aware that [food insecurity] is a problem on the university campus so they can look for ways to help out.” If you are a student facing food insecurity, there are many resources available to you in the community. Whether you choose to confide in others or keep your struggles a secret, Rondeau explains that, “there is a stigma around food insecurity and needing help with basic needs; however, those that look down on it are not in your position. Don’t worry and get the help that you need.”

Locations

Source: CWU PUSH

Psychology Building Nicholson Pavilion Student Government Office Bouillon Hall Shaw-Smyser Hall Purser Hall Black Hall Hogue Hall Farrell Hall

Kittitas Neighborhood Pantry 319 N. Main St., Kittitas, WA 98934 APOYO Food Bank 1320 E. 18th Ave., Ellensburg, WA 98926 WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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Climate Change Reimagined: The Role of Veganism in the Environment

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Story by Rachel Retchless | Photo Illustration & Design by Krista Kok

Ozone depletion. Soil degradation. Loss of rainforests. Overuse of natural resources. These are just a few environmental issues occurring worldwide today. But what some may not know is how much of a contributor the food industry can be. There are many different ways people can shrink their carbon footprint, from adopting a vegan diet to simply reducing the food and product waste they create. If you ask vegans why they choose this lifestyle, you may find a variety of different answers. Lex Ford, senior Studio Art major and vegan of two years, says, “I knew that the [food] choices I was making weren’t very good and I had heard about how healthy a vegan lifestyle was, so that was my New Year’s resolution.” Emma Madland, senior Graphic Design major and vegan of almost three years, chose veganism for similar reasons. “I thought, ‘everyone eats animals; it’s just what you do.’ I thought it was healthy … so I started doing research and found out how much healthier it was to not eat those animal products.” People may also choose veganism for moral or ethical reasons. “It was definitely an ethical choice. Health never really entered the picture for me until when I was raising my son,” explains Arcelia Kent, creator of the Eburg Veg blog, activist for vegan option expansion in Ellensburg and vegan of 12 years. No two vegans are the same — some may have chosen veganism to benefit their health while others were more concerned about the environmental impact. The food people eat can be representative of not only one’s identity but also their personality.

According to CWU’s first ever Sustainability Coordinator, Kathleen Klaniecki, “Food is so personal, and it’s tied to your upbringing, your culture, to emotions … our diets are so complex that … we have to be aware of all of that.” The Environment One reason some have said that they made the switch to veganism, whether due to new research or personal ethics, is because of the environmental impact of the livestock industry. Of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions, 14.5% come from the livestock industry, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Klaniecki explains, “We have intensified our livestock production, increased the number of livestock and we have increased the demand … all of those are having incredible environmental impacts.” One of the big issues caused by the livestock industry when it comes to greenhouse gases is methane, which is what is produced by livestock, according to Klaniecki. She adds that although carbon dioxide is a much more prevalent greenhouse gas, methane is more potent. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it’s more than 25 times as potent, which means it’s more effective in trapping heat on earth and contributing to climate change. But what do methane emissions have to do with you and what you eat? The answer lies in what the livestock eat — literally. According to Klaniecki, the digestive process of animals creates methane as they release the methane into the atmosphere. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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She adds that if the demand and production of beef and other meat products decreases, that the emissions should too. That’s right, cow flatulence is harmful to the environment. While you can’t just tell a cow to stop releasing that methane, going vegan can help lessen the damage to the environment they’re involuntarily causing. Think about it; the less meat people are eating, the less of a demand there is for cows to be bred for use in the meat industry. In turn, this means less cows passing gas into the air, and therefore less methane. This is where a vegan lifestyle comes into play for those who choose it as a method to reduce their environmental impact. By choosing not to consume animals, vegans may be substantially decreasing their personal carbon footprint. Overuse of resources like land and water also connect the animal product industries with impacts on the climate. Kent explains that sustaining a vegan diet for a day takes only about 300 gallons of water while sustaining a meat-eating diet takes approximately 4,000 gallons a day. The volume of water for a meat-eating diet is much higher than a vegan diet because it takes a lot more resources to feed and keep livestock alive than it does to just grow plants to eat, explains Madland. “It takes so much to give these cows water, but also to water all the land so they have food to eat,” adds Ford. There can also be direct benefits for people’s lives if the amount of water used is reduced. Kent says, “All of the food supply and the water we’re funneling through the animals to get to us, rather than consuming it directly … the water and calories are wasted by giving it to animals and giving them the grain instead of eating it ourselves.” But why does water matter as a resource? According to the website for the Government of Saskatchewan, water conservation is important because it purifies and processes through the earth naturally, but isn’t recycling fast enough to sustain Earth’s growing populations. Also, deforestation has been said to be an environmentally impactful part of livestock production. Klaniecki explains that deforestation, in this case, replaces carbon sinks, which decrease greenhouse gases coming from livestock. “The crops we’re growing aren’t native, so it doesn’t have the same ecosystem as if you were growing native plants,” says Kent. According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information, changing ecosystems like this can potentially harm them. 24

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Making a Difference

Even if you aren’t interested in completely changing your eating habits anytime soon, there can still be many ways to positively impact the environment. Klaniecki says, “Veganism is an option for those who feel that [lifestyle] best meets their dietary needs and their preferences, but I don’t think we all need to go vegan … I think there is a range of opportunity for people to reduce the climate impact of their diet that is just being more mindful.” One way you can start is reducing your meat intake, even for just a day. Kent says, “I always recommend just picking a day, like meatless Mondays and just saying ‘I’m just going to do this once a week’, because that alone reduces your impact so much.” Ford adds, “If people can just eat less meat, then that will even make a difference.” There are ways you can help even if you don’t want to give up your morning sausage and egg breakfast sandwich. Madland suggests reducing your waste as much as possible by not using single-use items and using reusable bags at the store. “I try to just not get stuff unless I really need it, and then if I need it, I try to find the best option available,” she says. “It’s kind of a case-by-case basis and [I’m] just trying to do my best.” It’s not only those reusable grocery bags that can keep you from increasing your carbon footprint. Ford says that fast fashion is also contributing to the environment and how much clothing is in landfills as a result. She recommends not shopping at stores notorious for producing mass amounts of low-quality clothing and to try out thrifting instead. Madland also suggests having clothing swaps with friends to freshen your wardrobe. As a student, you may experience a buildup of uneaten food due to late night fast food runs or constant snacking. “Students should know that reducing food loss and food waste is a huge part of food climate impact,” Klaniecki explains. Some other methods Klaniecki suggests to reduce your carbon footprint are walking instead of driving, eating locally grown foods and cutting your showers down. “One person changing drastically is so minimal compared to a large body of people changing minimally,” explains Kent. There are so many ways you can make a positive impact on the environment anywhere from starting a vegan diet to just reducing your day-to-day waste.


Annual Number of Animals Slaughtered 1914 vs. 2014

141.62 Million

102.92 Million

62.01 Billion

444.17 Million

300.07 Million 172.96 Million

300.07 Million

6.58 Billion

545.08 Million 330.90 Million

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Our World in Data WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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SPOTLIGHT

From Football Player to Father:

One Student’s Journey to Success Story by Madeline Wilson | Photo by Zahn Schultz | Design by Krista Kok

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It’s mid-afternoon and Marcus Schimmelfennig, always maintained a strong connection. senior Economics and Sociology major, is running Despite the constant relocation, Marcus’ father, drills at football practice. He’s sweating and beginHerman Schimmelfennig, always made sure that his ning to feel the first signs of fatigue after a long day kids stayed together with their mother and that he that seems to keep dragging on. was always living within a few blocks of their home, As he looks out on the bleachers, he sees his according to Marcus. Herman acted as a role model 5-month-old son, Ikaika Namaka Uli’ Uli O’Kalani Kufor Marcus as a child, helping him follow in his famai Honu Honu Schimmelfennig, watching him from ther’s footsteps. the sidelines. A smile forms across Marcus’ face as he In one instance, Marcus recalls his dad watching remembers that when he finishes drills with his teamhim and his brothers from the sidelines while in mates, he can go home and spend time with his son. Little League Baseball and snapping them into focus. Most college students experience some form of “One thing he coached us was, ‘be comfortable being stress related to the hustle and bustle of balancing uncomfortable.’ Once you get comfortable with what academics with adult life. From studying for exams, you’re doing, you’re stuck.” doing homework and preparing for a presentation, to learning to budget, grocery shopping and doing Finding Success in Athletics taxes, young adults face many new challenges while This motto of reaching out of one’s comfort zone has going to college. resonated with Marcus and is a central force withHowever, can you imagine managing your schoolin his football career. Before college, he had fielded work, learning to beoffers from Division III schools come an adult, playing “He wants to be successful but “spent a year training endfootball and raising a without a direction,” he and does what is neces- lessly kid all at the same time? explains. “At the end of the year, For Marcus, this sary in order for that to some of my buddies were being never appeared to be a recruited here and they kept daunting task. From the happen. [He is] one of the putting my name in their conmoment he found out most determined hard versations with the coaches.” that his girlfriend was He adds that he ended up workers I know.” pregnant, all he could having a conversation with one do was look forward to of the coaches about his dedication to the program the future. He explains, “Initially there is that shock but and eventually made the team as a walk-on. after, [you say] ‘what now?’ There’s no second guessing This jump-started his athletic career and led him with your kids.” to be one of the most influential members of the From that moment on, he says that he decided that football team, according to many of his teammates. he was going to be a father and provide his son with Jeremiah Vasquez, senior Exercise Science major and every opportunity and piece of knowledge he had to teammate of Marcus, says, “He came as a walk-on and offer. “There are things that I want to tell him, things potentially became the most well-known person on that I want to show him. It started out with the choice our team … When you can see that type of work ethic to keep him,” says Marcus. in a person, you automatically draw yourself to it.” Since Ikaika’s birth, Marcus has achieved exactCWU alumni and former teammate, Chaz McKly what he set out to do — show his son the same enzie, adds, “He wants to be successful and does compassion and love that his parents showed him. what is necessary in order for that to happen. [He is] Marcus adds that he has seen what great parents act one of the most determined hard workers I know.” like and he strives to emulate the lessons his parents This type of motivation for one’s sport is what many taught him within his own parenting style. of his teammates say is the factor that sets him apart from other athletes. Revisiting Childhood However, being tasked with high standards for As a child, Marcus’ family moved multiple times performance from himself, his coaches and his teamacross Washington State, during which he was submates can be a difficult feat for any student-athlete. jected to a lot of change. He explains, “Growing up “There is a common misconception that it’s easy to we had to pick up friends and drop them fast because be a student-athlete because once you earn a scholwe were moving so much,” but him and his brothers arship, life is easy. This could not be further from the 28

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SPOTLIGHT

truth,” explains Benny Boyd, former Special Teams Coordinator, Defensive Backs Coach and Recruiting Coordinator for CWU. “In addition to the normal rigors [and] stresses a student deals with, the student-athlete must balance workouts, practices, film sessions, community service [and] the added pressure of competitive college athletics.” For Marcus there is additional pressure added to the mix. “Adding other responsibilities into that, such as raising a child, makes this task monumental [and] takes special individuals to succeed through these types of obstacles,” says Boyd. Not only have his fellow student-athletes and coaches noticed his determination and strength, but they have also seen firsthand the type of leader he is. Vasquez explains that the coaches, “gave him the number 44 which has a big meaning. You are supposed to be this … leader once you are given that number. The reason he got the number is because he is who he is.” “44 is significant to anyone who’s a true leader on our defense. Who embodies what it takes to be at a championship level,” explains Defensive Graduate Assistant and Cornerbacks Coach, AJ Cooper. “Caring for his teammates, hard working, passionate, intelligent, dedicated and accountable. It’s what we want our program [and] our defense to stand for and he’s perfect for that job.” Yet, according to Vasquez, Marcus did not initially embrace this role. “He kept trying to be somebody that he thought the coaches and the players wanted him to be, but he was already that guy.” Marcus says that, “I watched everyone else struggle through adversity, they still looked to me for energy, life lessons … [what] leaders are there for. But I was in no position to help them the way that I was supposed to.” This lack of self-confidence is what motivated Marcus to continue working harder to be who he wanted to be. “From then on, everything I did was for them. That feeling of not being able to help are at my identity and as a result … that was my mindset moving forward,” he explains. Now after many years, Marcus has begun to realize the qualities within himself that make him a leader on and off the field, as he assumed this new role.

Forming Lasting Bonds

From both his experiences growing up and those since starting college, Marcus has begun to realize who he can trust to follow his lead on the field and support his personal goals off the field as well. 30

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He explains that he trusts the guys within his position group because, “They’ve seen me battle. They know what I’ve been through. They know who I’ve struggled [with].” Marcus adds, “They give you that extra push. It’s not a handout; it’s support.” While his teammates have supported and trusted him on the field, Marcus adds that his father has been a huge support in his personal life. Herman explains that he is proud of his son’s accomplishments when he says, “In my gut, he has already proven that he has a work ethic like no other.” This strong work ethic and natural ability to lead a team are just a few of the factors that have helped Marcus become the athlete, student and father he is today. One of the ways he has managed to climb to the top is by never hiding who he truly is. “The thing that set me and him apart from everyone else was that we weren’t afraid to be ourselves … [and] not everyone likes that,” explains Vasquez on how their friendship began. “We know we can be as weird as we want and since that’s who we truly are, no one can really judge us about it.” Throughout major life transitions it can be natural for people to change their personality and fall into new routines, but this was not the case for Marcus when Ikaika was born. Although he says that he adjusted his daily schedule to fit daycare into the mix, many other aspects of his life stayed the same. “At first he obviously had to spend more time [with Ikaika] because he had a lot of other things including football and school. The baby has the freedom to leave the house now, so if he does want to hang out, he will just bring the baby over,” says Vasquez. Similarly, Marcus explains that when he wants to go hang out with friends and watch a basketball game, he brings Ikaika along for the ride because for him, nothing has changed, he simply now has a baby in his arms. From his father’s perspective, however, he has changed in many ways since assuming his role as a father. “Even our conversations are a little different. There’s a father speaking when we talk, and I can hear it in his conversation. Every decision has a little more consideration than before,” says Herman. “His relationship with his son is even more priceless … There’s a look in his son’s eyes when he looks at his father, that he himself has always given to me.”

A Father’s Perspective

This look in Ikaika’s eyes is not foreign to Marcus. He says that one of his favorite aspects about his son is that he can sit back, observe and think without

needing constant entertainment. Ikaika’s curiosity and desire to watch his surroundings also reminds Marcus of himself when he was younger. Although there are some changes to Marcus’ life since becoming a father, he strives to keep as much of his previous habits the same and never take the easy way out of situations. “I’ve taken two classes in my time here where parents have used their kids to try to get out of things. I’m not a big fan of using your kids to get out of stuff,” he says. “I like to find my own way through my problems. Find a way to get it done instead of complaining … do it hard now, that way it’s easier later.” From his experiences transitioning from being a student-athlete to a student-athlete and a father, Marcus has not let these roles trap him in a box. He still has dreams of working for his favorite brand, Adidas, and discovering new passions along the course of his life. In order to achieve such goals, Cooper advises Marcus to, “Continue being himself. Continue to provide for his son. Continue to look adversity in the eye.” Boyd adds, “Continue to be a man of distinction. Walk in your purpose, stay focused, pursue your passions, and keep that giant chip on your shoulder with respect to your work ethic.” From his experiences, both good and bad, Marcus has learned a lot of life lessons that have proven to be valuable in each distinctive situation he has faced. For students in similar situations, he explains, “Not everyone is going to stick around forever but you can always learn something from everybody.” He adds, “Just know, you’re never alone. Someone wants to help you, they just don’t know it and you don’t know who they are.” Marcus has faced many struggles to find his place but throughout the course of his life, the people who have supported him — his teammates, his family, his son — and his positivity have all impacted his outlook on life and his future successes. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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Unleashing the Truth Behind Animal Testing Story by Spencer Clifton & Emily Messall Photos by Zahn Schultz Design by Shoshanah Davis

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From 2016 to 2017, the number of animals used in medical and cosmetic research dropped from 820,812 to 792,168, according to the National Anti-Vivisection Society. Animal testing is a subject that can be difficult to address, but you might consider it necessary if you want to have a place in the debate on this topic. It’s hard to know where to begin with animal research, but a safe place to start is by understanding what animal testing even is. The subject is known to have a lot of contrasting opinions surrounding it, so you might find it tough to filter through those opinions and find the facts. Animal experimentation can be defined as “the use of animals in scientific research … [to] help scientists understand diseases that afflict animals and humans,” according to Centre of the Cell, a science education center in London focused on biomedical research. Not only is animal testing used for medicinal research, it is also used for testing the safety of “cosmetics, household cleaners, food additives, pharmaceuticals and industrial/ agro-chemicals” for humans, according to Humane Society International (HSI) website. Matt Bailey, President of the nationally-recognized organization, Foundation for Biomedical Research, even discusses how animal research can help the environment. “Animal research helps conservationists understand the origin of wildlife epidemics and prevent future occurrence of these epidemics with vaccinations.” Animal research has many uses, but one of the more common uses you might be familiar with is in personal care products.

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SPOTLIGHT

Animal Research in Personal Care Products Products such as makeup, body wash, toothpaste and shampoo are tested on animals for a variety of different reasons. One of the main reasons for using animals in cosmetic research is to test the safety of products for humans, according to HSI. There are a number of different tests done on animals that can help to determine the safety of products “includ[ing] skin and eye irritation tests,” repeated oral feeding studies that “look for signs of general illness or specific health hazards,” and tests in which animals ingest chemicals to determine how much can safely be consumed before death, according to HSI. Yet, there are some brands that offer products safe for use, without utilizing animal testing in the production process. A representative from the well-known cosmetics company, Wet ‘n Wild, released in a statement to PULSE Magazine that “In addition to not testing on animals, approximately 80% of products are vegan, and we will be 100% vegan in the near future.” Wet ‘n Wild adds that they work to provide customers with “high-quality, affordable products they can feel good about buying and wearing.” For some, buying cruelty-free products can become an influential part of their morals, while others look towards the medical benefits that animal research can bring. The website for The Foundation for Biomedical Research (FBR) mentions that there are guidelines for the care and use of lab animals in experimental research. Some of these guidelines include that living spaces must be designed to meet the needs of each animal, temperatures must be monitored, the air is

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clean and lab animals eat and drink well under the supervision of a nutritionist, says the FBR. However, not everyone agrees with the use of animal testing for these purposes. Vice President of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Alka Chanda says, “PETA operates under the credo that animals are not ours to experiment on, eat, wear, use for entertainment, or exploit in any other way … PETA’s position is one that is based in science and the recognition that there are no morally relevant biological or cognitive qualities that humans have, that animals do not.” There are two sides to how people view animal testing in personal care products. Now that you’ve learned a little bit more, you can decide for yourself whether to look for the cruelty-free label or not before you choose your next makeup product or new bottle of shampoo you’ve been needing. Research and Scientific Advancements Testing on animals goes far beyond safety procedures for consumer items. One aspect of animal testing that you may not see often is its contribution to medical advancements. Associate Biology Professor, April Binder, explains, “There are a number of mouse models for certain human diseases that are very beneficial to studying those diseases and developing medicines and treatments for humans.” According to the FBR, most of the advancements that are seen in medicine are due to the help of animal testing. “For example, cancer testing can be done on animal models and we can see certain cancer treatments reducing tumor sizes,” says Binder.


Bailey adds that, “Animal research has led to virtually every medical breakthrough.” Among these breakthroughs, Bailey notes the discovery of a smallpox vaccine, antimalarial drugs, treatments and medical devices for heart diseases, cataracts and pre-clinical research. Regulations As you think about where you stand on the use of animals in research, regulations are also an important aspect to keep in mind. Many may think that there are no regulations when it comes to animal research, but the FBR’s website states that “The Animal Welfare Act … sets high standards of care for lab animals with regard to their housing, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation and medical needs.” Jim Newman, Communications Director at Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) also mentions that, “The USDA is charged with enforcing the law. They have investigators who conduct surprise inspections of health research organizations.” Companies who violate any part of the regulations put into place could face serious repercussions. Newman discusses that, “If [the investigators] find anything … these items are written up in a report that is publicly available. If a research organization has a serious infraction, they can be fined and then in extreme cases, they can be shut down.” Federal regulations are enforced strongly in university campus settings as well. For example, CWU

has an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee that determines all requests for the use of animals in research. According to their website, their goals include, “reduc[ing] the number of animals used” as well as limiting any “discomfort they may experience.” While there are regulations to animal research, it’s still up to you to decide whether or not purchasing products that are tested on animals interferes with your own moral compass. Alternatives to Animals While animals are not always necessary to use, they have been said to be helpful in determining the safety of a product for humans. You may be hard-pressed to find a person willing to take a pill or use a shampoo without knowing how it might affect them. However, despite the fact that animal research has been around for many years, some companies, like Wet ‘n Wild, are starting to utilize cruelty-free alternatives that don’t involve any animals. Newman elaborates that animals don’t have to be the number one go-to when looking to research the safety of a new product. “The research funding process requires scientists to prove why they must study animals and explain the benefits. If there are non-animal alternatives, they must prove in detail why those options will not work.” Some of these alternatives to animal testing include: cell cultures, human tissues, computer models and volunteer studies, according to the Cruelty Free International website.

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SPOTLIGHT

Refusing to take part in animal testing, some companies utilize these alternatives and have taken a stand against this issue. Procter & Gamble, the parent company to houshold name brands such as Dawn Dish Soap and Charmin, released a statement to PULSE Magazine, stating that, “We believe that eliminating animal testing is the right thing to do, therefore we’ve invested more than $410 million in developing alternative, non-animal testing methods and then getting them accepted by regulators around the world.” If you’re thinking of going cruelty-free, you could take comfort in knowing that there are many alternatives to brands and products that use animal testing. On the other hand, if you decide going cruelty-free isn’t for you, keep in mind that not every test can be done using humans or alternatives yet. Organizations With Purpose Despite the possible benefits that animal testing has been said to provide to the medical world and other areas, various animal rights activists and nonprofit

organizations continue to fight the practice of animal testing in America. The Northwest Animal Rights Network (NARN) board member, Rachel Bjourk, states that, “As an animal rights organization, we advocate for the rights inherent to all sentient beings to live a full life, to be free, and not to be used and exploited.” Bjourk claims that NARN opposes animal testing through different campaigns in order to spread awareness. “We engage in campaigns and other educational actions to expose, challenge, and alleviate the suffering, use and abuse of non-human animals.” PETA’s efforts have also influenced significant changes to the way animal testing is regulated in America, according to Chanda. “Since its inception 40 years ago, PETA has carried out eyewitness, or undercover, investigations in which people who are employed by PETA take employment at facilities where animals are used and abused,” says Chanda. These investigations eventually made their way to the supreme court and “led to the landmark 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act.” NARN and PETA are just two of the many organizations against animal testing, but it can also be important to look into the organizations that oppose it. Bailey describes the FBR as “America’s most experienced, trusted and effective nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting public understanding and support for biomedical research.” As President of the FBR, Bailey highlights the role that animal research plays in “defeating illnesses that affect both people and animals.” In addition to the FBR, Newman discusses AMP and how it is “a nonprofit, health research advocacy group that supports the advancement of human and animal medicine through responsible and highly-regulated research in animals [that] … informs the public about animal-based research through outreach programs.” Newman also notes that the organization is, “supported by the nation’s top universities, private research facilities, research-related businesses, scientific and professional societies.” When it comes down to it, no one can make the decision to go cruelty-free or not except you. After gaining some insight on both sides of the same coin, and maybe doing some other outside research, hopefully you feel informed enough to make an educated decision on where you stand with the issue of animal testing.

*No animals were harmed in the reporting of this story. 36

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SPOTLIGHT

the

Breaking

Transgender Stigma Story by Kiersten Kimminau Photos by Kassandra Eller Design by Sara Roach

For years society has assigned one of two genders at birth. You are either male or female. However, some individuals come to realize that they don’t identify with the gender they were assigned. Some don’t even identify strongly with either of the two categories. Many may feel that society tends to be fearful of anyone who defies its ideals. Because of this, many people who identify as transgender or non-binary have said that they have experienced their identities being dismissed. Yet, like any other college student, people who identify as transgender or non-binary are just trying to navigate life, figure things out along the way and find happiness.

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Breaking the Binary

Self-Discovery at Your Own Rate

Some individuals don’t fall perfectly into the preconceived gender categories of man or woman. Identifying as non-binary is one way people describe themselves if they land somewhere outside of the gender spectrum, according to Healthline. Some transgender people are non-binary while some have a gender identity that is either male or female. “I’ll say I’m transgender, but it doesn’t mean that I am a man … Not every trans person is identifying as a man or a woman. They can be non-binary, they can be genderqueer,” explains Aubrey Edwards, a fifth-year Public Health for Pre-Nursing major. “When I identified as a woman, I didn’t think I was feminine enough. When I identified as a man, I didn’t think I was masculine enough.” says Gladys Lusitania Ante Meridian pictured (left) fifth-year Interdisciplinary Studies Social Sciences major. “Gender is not something that should be enough … People inside the binary have this limit on them and I just love breaking that.” Jonathan Rietveld, a senior Psychology and Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies major, explains that despite what some of society says, you can be more than just a man or a woman. “It’s one of those things where you don’t have to decide right away.” Many people say that the gender spectrum is very diverse and it can be limiting to try and fit into just one place on that spectrum. Transgender and non-binary individuals have desired acceptance and recognition for years and many of them still face struggles today. However, through mutual respect and an open mind, these barriers can eventually be overcome.

College has been known to be a time of growth and change for most students. But for students who identify as transgender or non-binary, it can often be the first time they are able to have a fresh start away from their unwelcoming hometowns or families. For Rietveld, his fresh start began only two years ago in a Psychology class on predjudice and discrimination. He explains that during this time he realized his true identity and reached a point where he felt confident enough to say that he did not identify with the gender he had been assigned at birth. “Honestly, I didn’t even consider being trans as an option,” he says. From a young age, he had been taught that assigned gender roles are non-negotiable. In an initial stage of confusion, Rietveld recalls thinking, “I can’t be trans, I can’t be trans, I would’ve known forever ago.” For many people it has been said that there is no definitive timeline for self-discovery. “After thinking it through, you may decide not to come out,” explains The Trevor Project website, an organization aimed at providing crisis prevention for LGBTQ+ youth. Some individuals become aware of a gender disconnect when they are very young, and others realize later in life, similar to Rietveld. There are also those who slowly reach this realization as they move through adolescence. “There’s no right way to do it and you are on the right path, however long that takes,” says Rietveld. At any stage in life, people can develop and explore their gender identity. But sometimes this exploration can be cut short due to


limiting societal restrictions and rules applied to gender. Regardless of when exploration and self-realization take place, for gender-nonconforming and transgender individuals the pressures and expectations of society are often said to be a factor in their decision to accept their identity.

The expectations that friends, family and society place upon people can feel limiting and disheartening. Although everyone’s experience is unique, feeling out of place and unaccepted in one’s own home might not be an uncommon struggle for transgender and non-binary individuals.

Pressures & Expectations

Finding Support and Acceptance

Edwards can attest to the pressures of society to conform. Growing up, they remember having to play the role of someone they were not, for risk of judgement and pushback. Recalling their road to self-discovery, Edwards says, “I think I’ve known my whole life … but it wasn’t exactly prevalent or recognized the entire time.” They also remember having to work hard at being a girl until they started questioning their gender. Edwards says, “It was society that kept me back,” and was the reason for their apprehension to come out as non-binary to friends and family. When talking about their home state of New Jersey, Edwards describes it as being less accepting of the transgender community. It wasn’t until Edwards came to CWU that they met people who made them feel comfortable enough to share who they really were. At CWU, “I can totally be myself without having to put on a facade to feel recognized and assured,” says Edwards. Fin Herman, pictured (right) junior Theater Arts: Design and Production major, also had to navigate an unwelcoming hometown growing up. At home and in high school, he says, “I never really felt comfortable with myself. I always felt like I was being watched and being judged.”

Having supportive and uplifting friends can make overcoming the acceptance barrier seem less impossible. Meeting approachable, open-minded and accepting people made coming out a less daunting task for Edwards. “Friends have been the biggest support,” they say. “Even just throwing the pronouns down” shows so much support and makes a huge difference. Having people in your life who you trust can make overcoming obstacles much easier. Herman also credits the people in his life for making him feel accepted and confident. At age 14, Herman explains that he realized he did not identify with the gender he had been assigned at birth. At age 16, he re-adopted a feminine facade to avoid bullying at school. He says, “I had always been scared to be myself because I was worried that I would just be disrespected all the time.” It was not until Herman met peers in college, who came out as transgender and were received with acceptance, that he finally felt comfortable to be his true self. In college, he says that he finally received the acceptance he had never been given before. After seeing others come out, he remembers being inspired by “seeing how everybody just immediately respected their pronouns and

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SPOTLIGHT

switched names and were super welcoming and encouraging.” Upsides and barriers can be encountered wherever you go, but most students report having found CWU to be an accepting space thanks to supportive peers and organizations on campus.

Central Community Despite being in what is commonly referred to as a more conservative area, some feel that Ellensburg has been an accepting place for people in the LGBTQ+ community. Tylene Carnell, CWU alumna and Regional Philanthropy Officer of the Seattle Pride Foundation, has remained an active member of the Ellensburg community since she graduated. “I feel like a welcomed part of this community … For the most part, I feel like I’ve found home,” explains Carnell. CWU prides itself for being among the nation’s top 50 LGBTQ+ friendly universities, according to their website. One of the aspects of the university that students can find a place in is within the different diversity-centered offices around campus. Meridian found their place on campus at the Diversity and Equity Center (DEC). “I gravitated towards the DEC because I knew there were good people there and I wanted to be part of that.” According to their website, the DEC’s mission is to cultivate community on campus and “encourage students to explore their identities, challenge barriers and empower themselves and their communities.” Things are not always this perfect though. Herman explains that he has still encountered pushback on campus, from peo42

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ple misusing his pronouns to professors refusing to call him by his correct name. One frustrating thing that Herman notes is when people “slip up, and they’ll make a big deal out of it like, ‘I’m so sorry … I can’t believe I just did that.’” He says that he would much rather people quickly apologize, “correct themselves and move on.” Meridian emphasizes, “It costs zero dollars to use the right pronouns.” For some, figuring out what their pronouns are can be an important first step in their journey to find themselves. In many ways, Edwards’ journey is only beginning as they have recently begun taking testosterone. Although choosing to take testosterone is not a part of every trans or non-binary person’s experience, for others this can be a huge step in being able to physically represent themselves. Edwards shares that they have chosen to take testosterone, “so I can look in the mirror and be like … that’s Aubrey.” Rietveld (pictured to the right) recalls that the first time he looked in the mirror and truly recognized himself was after cutting his hair short. Before this change, he says, the mirror reflected “this person who looked pretty similar to me, but didn’t look the same.” For Rietveld, cutting his hair was a symbolic act of letting go of the opinions of others and rigid family expectations. Upon viewing himself for the first time after the chop, Rietveld remembers getting the biggest smile and finally being able to say, “that’s me.” There are many ways for people to express themselves and trans-


form — from changing clothing style to getting a new haircut, the possibilities can be endless. Another thing that may be important to keep in mind is that you never have to stop changing and evolving who you are if you don’t want to. Meridian says, “I’m just coming into a new piece of my identity. My identity changes with the seasons.” By not limiting themselves to any one section of the store, they find expressive pieces from the men’s, women’s and sometimes even juniors’ sections. “I want to break down these stereotypes that women have to appear a certain way, that men have to appear a certain way. I don’t like that,” says Meridian. In a society that some say puts strict expectations and limitations upon gender and appearances, Meridian strives to break down these stereotypes.

are, using their correct name and not asking inappropriate questions, according to Healthline. You probably wouldn’t want a random person on the street asking about what surgeries you’ve had or to see personal childhood pictures, right? At the end of the day, everyone’s life experience is unique and valid. The Trevor Project urges people to remember that “You are valid and deserve support no matter who you do or do not share your identities with.”

Opening Up a Dialogue Coming out as transgender or non-binary can be nerve-racking for some. In order to be themselves, people have said that sometimes it requires going through a period of vulnerability. If you’re curious about someone’s experience, that’s okay, but Rietveld wants people to “realize that this is an individual going through a situation just like everything else.” When approached by someone who is genuinely curious and in good faith, Meridian says, “most trans people would be very open to answering those questions. It’s just a matter of asking and not being scared.” Some other things you can do if you’re looking to be more understanding and supportive are: not assuming a person’s gender, asking what someone’s pronouns WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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FASHION

Androgynous Style

Story by Josh Carroll | Photos by Kassandra Eller | Design by Krista Kok

Style can be an important part of who you are and can impact how others see you. Even if your response when someone asks you to define your style resembles something along the lines of whatever you threw on that morning, your style can still be very distinctive. The clothing that you wear, present, ooze, might just be exactly what determines who you are to the public. One style that’s recently emerged in popularity, according to Elle Magazine, is androgynous style.

Looking to learn more about androgynous style? Check out our behind the scenes video on cwupulsemagazine.com 44

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Andrea Eklund, professor and lead advisor for Apparel, Textiles and Merchandising, says that androgynous style is “clothing for anyone no matter your gender.” Androgynous style can be as simple as gender-neutral jeans and T-shirts, making it easily accessible to most people. Eklund explains that despite adrogynous style typically featuring simple techniques such as clean, straight cuts to the fabric, that doesn’t mean there aren’t intricate details — especially when accessorizing. Layers are a popular and distinctive staple, says Leena Summer, senior Theater Arts: Design and Production major. An example of this would be a T-shirt under a flannel and a denim jacket. Another staple of androgynous fashion, according to Summer, is jewelry. Pieces such as rings and earrings are common in androgynous outfits. Sporting a favorite nail polish color is another unique aspect of this style, says Parker Gliessman, a senior in the Theater Arts: Design and Production major. Although there can be a lot of different variations in androgynous style, it is becoming more accessible in regular shops and can be worn by any gender as long as you know where to find your signature pieces. A New York Times article on androgynous style explains that something people might not realize is how prevalent this style is among non-binary identifying people. Non-binary is a term used to describe people who identify outside of the gender binary, or somewhere between the two normalized gender identities, according to Healthline. Gliessman explains for as long as there have been department stores, non-binary identifying people have survived by picking and choosing items from both men’s and women’s sections. In recent years, both brands and outlets have started to include sections titled ‘unisex.’ In addition to in-store accessibility, the growth of online shopping has been known to make it easier to get articles of clothing that exactly fit your aesthetic — androgynous style included. According to Gliessman, androgynous style comes in varying degrees and is often subject to situational context. It might not be as obvious when a female-identifying person wears dress pants as when a male-identifying person wears high heels. “It also depends on how far somebody’s pushing their envelope … Let’s say I wore a women’s sweater … I think that that would be a lot more accepted and understood than if I were to wear a skirt,” says Gliessman.

There’s a certain stigma related to gender that goes along with androgynous fashion. Summer says that “the idea that someone dressing androgynously doesn’t know what they want, they need to make a decision, they’re confused … is really common with this.” As far as androgynous style in the media is concerned, it can be important to recognize the people who wore androgynous style openly in a time where it wasn’t the norm. David Bowie, George Michael and Prince were only a few of the people who expressed what some describe as gender-neutral clothing in media at the end of the last century. This may have paved the way for current celebrities such as Ezra Miller and Young Thug to express themselves androgynously in contemporary media. Another factor that people might find important is the prevalence of representation in the media and in the stores. Now that unisex clothing is becoming more accepted, it can make life easier for those who rely on it as a way of surviving. Eklund explains that “There are brands that are representing more androgyny, so it makes people think ‘I’m worthy, I’m a real person that people value and I see someone that I can relate to.’” For many people who identify outside of the gender binary, survival is already said to be difficult enough. Androgynous fashion provides the ability to dress in a manner that “leaves interpretation of a person’s gender ambiguous,” says Summer. For those who rely on androgynous fashion, this style might be less of an aesthetic and trendy fashion choice, but more of a way of life.

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FASHION

OFF THE

Contributions by Angela Kyle | Photos by Kassandra Eller | Design by Kayla Craig

CHAIN

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A Glimpse into the Tradition of Passing on Family Heirlooms

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Tears well up in her eyes as she carefully latches her greatgrandmother’s bracelet to her wrist. The weight of the bracelet is little to none, but the warmth and flood of memories are heavy. Heirlooms make people feel connected to those they have lost in their life.

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“There can be a story behind every piece of jewelry. A love story, a fond memory of a family member or a memento that gives you strength,” explains Joan Cawley Crane, senior lecturer of Art and Design.

“I remember as if it were yesterday, my mother standing before me wearing her pearls. Heirlooms are reminders of our loved ones, not just adornments that we wear,” explains Ellen Avitts, associate professor of Art History.

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“I saw my mother’s gold and pearl earrings as they dangled from her ears,” says Craig. She had asked her mother to borrow her earrings but instead was greeted with a new possession to pass on throughout her family.

“My grandmother collected high-end costume jewelry, mostly brooches and earrings. She handed these earrings and a matching brooch down to my mother, who then passed them down to me,” explains Avitts. “Having these pieces makes me think of them fondly. I wear them, but not both at the same time, it’s a little much wearing both.”

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MIND & BODY

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Awareness & Acceptance: Living with Austism Spectrum Disorder Story by Angela Kyle Design & Illustration by Shoshanah Davis

Imagine waking up everyday and knowing that most of the world doesn’t understand you. They don’t understand your struggles, your successes or your life. Everyday is a battle but you continue to work hard despite any obstacles you may face. This is what it feels like to live with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors and nonverbal communication are all common attributes of ASD, according to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Special Program Paraeducator with Vancouver, Washington Public Schools, Tiffany Turnquist describes autism as, “a developmental delay in social interactions and communications with others.” The Centers for Disease Control estimates that autism affects 1 in 59 children in the U.S. today. This is approximately 1.3 million children across the nation that present signs of ASD.

Understanding the Spectrum

“‘Spectrum’ was a term coined … to reflect [that] you can have an autism diagnosis and be at different levels of functioning,” explains Julianna Hedberg, a licensed mental health counselor and child mental health specialist in the state of Washington. One individual’s experience with autism can be different in many aspects from others, yet they can be placed on similar levels on the spectrum. “Autism differs from person to person in severity and combinations of symptoms and there is a great range of abilities and characteristics,” states the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

For some individuals, being placed on the spectrum can be a helpful guide no matter where they land on it. For others, it can be a label that doesn’t quite fit their skills and abilities. “[The spectrum] puts expectations on people that may not mesh with their abilities,” says Hedberg. For parents, this can be a challenge to help their children get the necessary resources they need if the expectations are too high or too low. Amanda Dollar, parent of a five-year-old son diagnosed with ASD, says, “It’s really hard to deal with, as Zaidyn is high functioning, and non-verbal.” Each individual with autism faces varying struggles based on where they are on the spectrum.

Stereotypes

Many times, individuals on the spectrum will deal with discrimination based on the stigma associated with their place on it. “Stigma is [a] negative stereotype … Individuals are faced with multiple, intersecting layers of discrimination as a result of [those stereotypes],” explains The Canadian Mental Health Association of Ontario website. If autism looks different for everyone living with the condition, how can there be just one stereotypical autistic individual that can be seen plastered across the media? “Some of the stereotypes associated with ASD are being extremely smart, socially

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MIND & BODY

awkward, nonverbal, rocking back and forth and headbanging,” Hedberg explains. These stigmas have been said to be the result of many influences from education and media. Hedberg wants people to keep in mind that “Autism looks different for everyone … More visibility of individuals with autism would help with ending these stereotypes.”

The Impact of Living With ASD

Learning Accommodations at CWU Accommodated Exams Notetaking and Lecture Recording Modified Attendance Early Registration

Source: CWU Disability Services

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Stigmas, discrimination, expectations and wanting acceptance are all components said to be assocaited with ASD. All of these factors can influence the day-to-day lives of these individuals. Cameron Mings, an indivdiual with autism and senior at Skagit Valley College majoring in Applied Sciences of Applied Management knows all too well the effects of these pressures. “It may sound cliché, but it affects every single interaction I have at class, work and with friends and family,” Mings says. “I don’t see social queues the way other people do, and that can be challenging in a field where human interaction is everything.” One of the resources provided to many college students across the nation is accommodations through their local disability office. At CWU, the Disabilities Services website lists Central Access Readers, SmartPens, accommodations for exams, notetaking and lecture recordings as resources for students. However, for some, using accommodations isn’t always the best route. “I don’t use accommodations at my school … I generally prefer to work with teachers myself and address the things they can do to help [me],” Mings explains. “I am still trying to understand myself … There are others with ASD who struggle more than I do, and I am just glad I have friends who help me get through it.”


Discussing the Disorder

Talking about a disorder you don’t know much about can be stressful, but can impact the lives of many of your peers. “The more awareness … erases those stigmas and brings more understanding to people with autism during stressful situations or ‘meltdowns’,” says Turnquist. Talking about ASD spreads awareness, but how can you find acceptance? “Challenge ableism [and] create a more accessible world,” exclaims Hedberg. Knowledge is power, and can lead to a more inclusive world. “We should talk about autism … because people need to be more educated about it,” Dollar reiterates. Communicating about ASD has the potential to not only offer support and answers, but also opportunities. “I wish I had answers, if only for myself. Until then, and probably after, I deal with a world that isn’t made for me,” says Mings. “There are [a] few nonprofits, some local, some national. The best one for [a] newly diagnosed family is TACA — Talk Autism Community in Action,” explains Chief of Pediatrics at Paradise Valley Hospital and Doctor at Sharp Mary Birch Hospital for women and infants, Zahra Ghorishi. “TACA has a blueprint with ideas, therapies, biomedical treatment, testing and physicians … They have support for families, how to get [your] school district to help, and where to find funding.” After discussing this disorder, you might be able to find it easier to accept autism for what it is. “I think we are all aware. The concept of acceptance is problematic. There is a section of high-functioning adults with autism who are outspoken and feel they are fine, and [therefore] should be accepted,” explains Ghorishi. “There are, on the other hand, thousands of parents of children with autism who are … fighting for awareness that their children … need medical help.” Sometimes you have to look through life in a different lens in order to gain a better understanding and help eliminate the stigmas. WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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the

Behind

Crown:

The Untold Realities, Struggles and Successes of the Pageant World Story by Holly Hunter & Taylor Johnson Photos by Angela Kyle | Design by Sara Roach

Picture this: It’s 2009 and you just got home from school. Mom is in the kitchen preparing an after school snack and you flip on the TV. It’s a Thursday afternoon so not much is on and you have already watched every rerun of your favorite cartoon in the DVR. You decide to do some channel surfing when you stumble across “Toddlers and Tiaras.” This once highly raved about show gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look into the glamorous world of child beauty pageants. However, the glitz and glamour pictured on TV screens across the nation has been said to only be a small portion of what it takes to actually succeed in the pageant world. When you think of pageants the first thing that may come to mind is that it’s focused mainly on looks and answering every question with “world peace.” But, according to Miss City of New York 2020 Taryn Smith, “The Miss America Organization … taught me that being pretty is by far the single most insignificant thing a woman contributes to this world.” If pageants aren’t all about beauty or fame, then why do some girls choose to compete in them? Abby Faulk, sophomore Apparel, Textiles and Merchandising major and Miss Sunfair 2018, says, “Scholarship pageants are helping me become debt-free by the time I graduate. I am truly blessed.” She also mentions that she has earned over $11 thousand in scholarships so far.

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According to the Miss America Organization, the scholarship program was created in order to provide an outlet that believed in women’s success during a time when many women weren’t able to go to college. Their website also notes, “Sponsoring scholarships changed the pageant dramatically, which, with time, helped the organization become the country’s leading provider of educational scholarships for women.” For some people like Faulk, pageants provide them with scholarships for future opportunities to go to college. While Smith explains that she, “just really came to have fun and wanted to serve [her] city,” which was her purpose for joining the pageant world. Understanding the Stressors Despite the differing motivations, pageants have been said to be challenging for a number of reasons. Smith says that one of the hardest parts of competing is the perception that people have of these events. “So much of your time is spent defending something that is entirely good,” she explains as her least favorite part of competing. As someone who has only watched a few competitions, Mikkalah Irish, senior Education major, adds, “I don’t know much about them but that it can take a toll on the people that are involved. They are always getting their hair or makeup done, being taught what to do.”


For Faulk, her “least favorite component about pageants is onstage question, because you never know what you’ll be asked, and you have to compose an answer in a very short amount of time.” Although there are some less desirable traits, pageants bring a lot of good to the lives of the competitors. “When you become a titleholder with the Miss America Organization, many people don’t realize you’re taking on a very serious job,” says Smith. “You choose community work that you want to spearhead… Work that you are passionate about because you have this incredible opportunity to make a difference and use your spotlight, no matter how big or small it may be, to talk about something that matters.” Pageants can also entail a lot of onstage speaking which according to Faulk, is an added benefit. “Doing pageants has taught me to have confidence in myself, [and my] public speaking skills,” she says. “It has brought me new friendships and connections to jobs.” Irish adds, “I feel like pageants teach contestants how to be very formal and proper. It also [gives] them the opportunity to gain other skills like talking in front of others [and] showing their talents.” Pageants aren’t all about being the prettiest, the most talented or the most concerned with world peace. They can also be a place where “women [are] being fiercely celebrated for their intellect, for their accomplishments, and for their lofty goals,” says Smith. “Suddenly, being pretty was the most ridiculous goal I realized I could ever want for myself.”

The Impact of Competition Being around other girls with the same passions and goals has been said to be a motivating and inspiring part of the competition. “I was surrounded by women that — to be frank — were far smarter than me,” Smith explains. “They made me go out and push myself harder. Learn more. Aspire for more … It has shaped so much of my life in the best way.” Competing in any pageant is bound to go beyond one alluring night under the lights. These competitors take the lessons learned, friendships made and titles won into their futures. “The competition is just one night and the world really focuses on that night. But the real job begins the next day,” says Smith. “The winner has a year to go out and work as an ambassador of her city or state. It’s incredibly hard at times, but always a rewarding experience. The young women that do it really love what they do. And most of us, we just want to make the world better.” Pageants not only provide rewarding opportunities but also create visibility for women across the nation. Whether you are a competitor or a viewer, many have said that these competitions give women their voice. Smith explains, “We want to be seen and heard and we want you to be seen and heard too.”

Miss America by the Numbers Source: Miss America Organization

98

years since the organization was founded winners to date

91

50

years on TV

$0

profited

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In the Public Eye

Story by Ashley Murawski & Joseph Stanger Design & Illustration by Shoshanah Davis Harvey Weinstein. Bill Cosby. Jeffrey Epstein. O.J. Simpson. Tekashi 6ix9ine. These are considered to be some of the most publicized and polarizing celebrity trials. But what aspect of these cases has caused people to become so invested in their favorite celebrities, even after commiting a crime? And does this fame and publicity cause bias during the proceedings? O.J.

Simpson & Jeffrey Epstein On Jan. 24, 1995, O.J. Simpson was tried for the murders of his ex-wife, Nicole Brown Simpson, and her friend Ron Goldman, according to The History Channel website. This has been said to be one of the most publicized events in American history. The website also notes that this case spanned a total of 252 days and Simpson was acquitted on both counts of murder. Due to the media frenzy surrounding the case, the public began to make their own judgements. Senior Law and Justice Lecturer, Robert Claridge, says, “Much criticism exists over the O.J. Simpson Trial …[specifically] the judge’s decision, which since has 56

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been viewed as a mistake, to allow television cameras to film the entirety of the trial.” While some trials such as Simpson’s had a following from the beginning, others gained momentum later in the proceedings. Media coverage lacked in the beginning stages of multimillionaire, investor and financier Jeffrey Epstein’s case. Epstein came to be charged with solicitation of prostitution, solicitation of prostitution with a minor under 18, sex trafficking of minors and sexually abusing underaged girls, according to BBC News. As a result, he was required to register as a sex offender. BBC News also states that while awaiting his trial, Epstein was found dead in his jail cell under circumstances that caused the public to question whether his death was a suicide or a murder and if there were more unknown victims.

The Role of Money and Power Due to Epstein’s large bank account, he was able to evade his original charges for 11 years, according to The New York Times. “Money is a huge factor in determining settlements — the more money you have, the better representation


and settlement you’ll have,” explains CWU alumna of the Law and Justice department and now Legal Assistant at the Office of Administrative Hearings in Seattle, Washington, Sarah Laasri. During the judicial process, money can have a variety of different roles, typically benefiting the defendant in the case of celebrity trials. CWU Law and Justice alumna, Breanna Wilson, explains, “Money buys a better defense team and in turn, is more likely to get favorable results for the defendant.” “I think that’s the hidden way in which the system is biased in favor of celebrities is because they can afford [all] sorts of criminal defense attorneys who are perceived as being very good ones, and [are] the ones who charge a lot of money to do that,” says Claridge. Money can allow celebrities to cover up their accusations and potentially result in a lighter sentence. On Jan. 6, 2020, Harvey Weinstein, a Hollywood film icon, was found guilty by Los Angeles prosecutors for sexually assaulting two women during Oscars week in 2013, according to AP News. The accusations and publicity gained during his proceedings projected the #MeToo movement into the public eye in 2017 and ignited many other victims of sexual assault to share their stories, as discussed in an article by the Chicago Tribune. Even though Weinstein was successfully charged and convicted of crimes, he still hasn’t served any jail time. “The government has to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt,” says Claridge. “[Sometimes] it feels like a celebrity is getting away with something. They might be, or it might just be that the prosecution convinced the jury that this person is probably guilty.”

Eliminating Bias in the Courtroom Celebrity cases are widely publicized, but how does the courtroom remain bias free? Strategically picking a jury can be vital in any trial, especially regarding celebrities. “When we have a jury trial, it begins with … Jury Selection,” says Claridge. “We call in dozens of jurors, or potential jurors, and then attorneys have the ability to ask questions to those jurors.” Claridge adds, “We hope that during that period, if there are any biases, those will come to the forefront. We give attorneys the ability to challenge and remove jurors who are displaying those biases.”

However, this is not the only method for eliminating possible biases. “The second way is through something called a motion for a change of venue. If an attorney can argue that [their] client … can’t get a fair trial in this particular location, then a judge can order that the trial be held somewhere else,” says Claridge. An example of this would be if a public figure from Ellensburg, Washington were to be tried in Seattle, in order to avoid possible bias from jurors living in Ellensburg. But what would happen if other public officials had possible biases against the defendant? “If a judge is biased, that judge should recuse herself. Attorneys can make a motion to recuse or ask the judge to recuse herself. If a judge fails to recuse herself and that judge does something improper during the jury trial … then the result of that trial can be appealed and potentially overturned later,” explains Claridge. Trying to create a bias-free courtroom can be a difficult task, yet the court and officials work to ensure that the system remains ethical. Yet, there are still ways to eliminate any doubt about who is involved in each case. “It begins with who is hired and allowed to be in the court. The hiring process and requirements should be held to strict and high standards,” says Laasri. “When there are serious charges being brought on or celebrity cases, there should be closed courtrooms — only families allowed of the alleged [and] victim.” It can be necessary for the judge and jury to determine if they have potential biases in a case, as well as reporters who may be biased towards a verdict. Nicole Klauss, former journalist for the Ellensburg Daily Record and current Content and Events Marketing Supervisor for the CWU Publicity Center, advises that, “If you have a bias you should probably not be covering it … I think if you go in with [an] open mind and try to talk to both sides or more than one person, [trying] to get different perspectives, then you’re doing the best that you can.” At the end of the day, everyone has a bias no matter what. Deciding on the verdict that coincides with the truth depends on the jury’s ability to be honest and fair towards the defendant.

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AFTER DARK

Central Secrets on i t i Ed e t a m

m o o R

Contributions by Joanna Santana Design & Illustration by Sara Roach Hair stuck on your shower walls, ungodly sounds coming from the room next to yours, coming home to every light in the house switched on with no one home. This is what it means to have roommates. PULSE rushed to social media to ask students about their most horrifying roommate scandals and experiences.

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AFTER DARK

$5 tasting menu Iron Horse Brewery $4 Moscow Mules The Palace $5 glasses of wine The Porch

$7 domestic pitchers The TAV

$2 Coronas, $3.50 Loaded Coronas, $5 Coronitas Wings Ladies Night – $1 wells 301

$2 beer specials, $3 well drinks The Mule

*PULSE does not condone underage or irresponsible drinking

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Design & Illustration by Kayla Craig Photo by Angela Kyle


AFTER DARK

Concert Calendar Photo by Zahn Schultz Design by Sara Roach

Blue Rock Open Mic Nights Wednesdays 7-11pm Blake Shelton Moda Center February 15 Rosetan Old Skool’s February 22 Live music with Garrett and David February 28 Whipsaw Brewing Billie Eilish Tacoma Dome April 10 62

WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE


B.S. in Safety near

& Health Management

100%

job placement post-graduation

$65,000 average entry-level salary in 2019

Typical job titles of our graduates include Safety Specialist, Safety Engineer, Safety Coordinator, Safety Manager, Safety Director, Safety Administrator & more!

Accredited by the Applied and Natural Science Accreditation Commission of ABET, a global accreditor of college and university programs.

For more information, contact: Dr. Sathy Rajendran, PhD, CSP, CRIS, ARM, SHM Program Director at rajendrans@cwu.edu or 509-963-1152

Sponsored by the Safety and Health Management Program.

Air Force ROTC Det 895 Building Tomorrow’s Leaders Today

Central Park

College Scholarships Available! · Covers: tuition, fees, and textbooks · Plus a monthly allowance · Rewarding Job upon Graduation

Choose a Challenging Career

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Offering more than 200 career paths, featuring:

· $60,000 starting pay/benefits · Life Insurance available · Pilot - manned and unmanned · Educational opportunities · Cyber intelligence - protect the nation’s security · 30 days paid vacation per year · Space Systems - launch and control satellites · Retirement after as little as 20 years · Combat weapons - fire a missile · Medical/Dental Care Air Force ROTC Det 895 Building Tomorrow’s Leaders

College Scholarships Available! •Covers:tuition, fees,textbooks

• Pilot - manned and unmanned • Cyber intelligence– protect the nation’ssecurity

•Plus a monthly allowance •Rewarding

Job upon Graduation

Air Force Benefits

Today

Choose a Challenging Career Offering more than 200 career paths,featuring:

• Space Systems– launch and control satellites • Combat weapons - fire a missile

For more information,pleasevisit us in Lind Hall, Room 202A, call 509-963-2314 e-mailafrotc@cwu.edu. or cwu.edu/airforce

• $60,000 starting pay/benefits • Life Insurance available • Educational opportunities

• 30please days paid vacation per year For more information, visit us in Lind Hall, Room 202A, • Retirement after as little as 20 years call 509-963-2314 e-mail afrotc@cwu.edu or cwu.edu/airforce • Medical/Dental Care

facebook.com/centralparkwa instagram.com/centralparkwa

1200 E. Helena Ave. Ellensburg, WA 98926

centralparkWA.com WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

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OUR TOWN

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WINTER 2020 | ISSUE ONE

Profile for Pulse Magazine

Winter 2020 Issue One  

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