Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 01-07 June 2009 Water quality evaluation of the groundwater resources in Amran basin, Yemen Rakad Ta’any and Abdallah Ahmed kasem said Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, As Salt 19117 (Jordan) Received on December 03, 2008 and accepted on January 15, 2009
ABSTRACT This study investigates the hydrological, hydrogeological and environmental conditions in Amran basin that covers approximately 1590 km². The importance of this study is to identify the different environmental conditions associated with the socio-economic development, increase of population of Amran basin, depletion of groundwater, production of large quantity of industrial and domestic wastewater and the increase in using the fertilizer and pesticides for agriculture purposes. The socio-economic development affects badly the quality of the groundwater resources to be used directly for domestic purposes. The collected of water samples of groundwater resources analyzed for their physical, chemical and biological characteristics. According to the obtained results, some of groundwater wells are contaminated biologically by faecal coliform and chemically by high contents of salinity (calcium, bicarbonate, sulfate and nitrate). The groundwater resources in part of the study area unsuitable for irrigation purposes whereas, the water is classified as high salinity hazard with low sodium hazard (C3-S1). Also thermodynamic analyses were performed using Phreeqci software to state the capability of water resources to precipitate or to dissolve the aquifer matrix. Seventy seven percent of the water samples are free of the fecal and total coliform respectively; these percentages are mainly limited to the deep wells. Therefore about 23% of the samples are contaminated with coliform bacteria thus need treatment of disinfection and coagulation before being used for drinking. Keywords : Wells, Groundwater, Pollution, Amran basin.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 09-13 June 2009
The effect of gypsiferous water on biological activities of atrazine, 2, 4-D and metolachlor L. Kanyomeka*, S.L. Masikeยน and C.F. Reinhardtยน *Department of Crop Science. University of Namibia, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag 5520, Oshakati (Namibia). ยนDepartment of Plant Production and Soil Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa). Received on January 06, 2009 and accepted on March 05, 2009
ABSTRACT Mine water effluents are a danger to the environment as they contain toxic materials such as heavy metals. In some cases though, efforts are made to neutralise the effluents so that the mine water is used for crop irrigation. However, suspected herbicide injury to crops has been reported in areas where gypsiferous water is used for irrigation, suggesting interaction between herbicides and gypsiferous water. Utilization of gypsiferous water for irrigation of crops is one major method promising to reduce the problem of effluent mine drainage disposal and also the shortage of irrigation water. Gypsiferous water is already used for irrigation of crops such as maize and wheat. The influence of gypsiferous water on key behavioural aspects of three important herbicides: atrazine, 2,4-D and metolachlor were assessed. Bioassay experiments were done to assess the bioactivity of the three herbicides in the presence or absence of gypsum in soil. The results showed that the activity of atrazine and 2,4-D was significantly increased in the presence of gypsum, while that of metolachlor was significantly reduced. These differential effects on herbicide activity would have important practical consequences for herbicide performance. Thus weed control efficacy, selectivity, and behaviour in the environment could be negatively affected. Keywords : Bioactivity, gypsiferous water, herbicide, irrigation, atrazine.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 15-18 June 2009
Changes in liver function markers in albino rats exposed to crude petroleum (Bonny light) N.M. IGBOH¹*, E.B. DEDE², O.E. AYALOGU³, I. ONYESOM4 and U.E. UZUEGBU College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Teaching Hospital (Aba). ²Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt (Nigeria). ³Department of Biochemistry, University of Port Harcourt, Choba, Port Harcourt (Nigeria). 4Department of Medical Biochemistry, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria). Received on December 12, 2008 and accepted on January 28, 2009
ABSTRACT The use of petroleum samples as medicaments either due to poverty or ignorance is becoming a source of worry. Unfortunately, the elderly and children are most vulnerable. Crude petroleum is usually given to some children when they convulse as anticonvulsant. Incidentally, the liver is the site where most drugs and other ingested substances are metabolized and detoxified. It was based on this, that some liver function enzymes such as the transaminases and alkaline phosphatase activities were employed to assess the state of the liver in albino rats after exposure to crude petroleum (Bonny light). The rats were placed in four groups and were intraperitoneally administered 6.0, 12.0 and 30.0gkg-1 of crude petroleum (Bonny light) respectively, for 2 phase periods of 1and 2 months. .At the end of each period, rats were withdrawn from each group for analysis. The control rats were similarly treated with normal saline. Blood samples were taken for serum enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results revealed significant increases in the activities of AST and ALP in rats exposed to crude petroleum in a dose-dependent manner, compared with control (P<0.05). Similarly, significant increase in bilirubin level was observed in the groups treated with crude petroleum (Bonny light). The second month values were proportionately higher than the first. Keywords : Bonny light, Serum enzymes, Transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase, Crude petroleum.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 19-32 June 2009
Sustainability in rangeland systems: Introduction of fuzzy multi objective decision making Hossein Azadi¹*, Jan van den Berg², HO. Peter¹ and Gholamhossein Hosseininia³ ¹Centre for Development Studies, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, (The Netherlands). ²Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Section of ICT, Delft University of Technology, (The Netherlands). ³Deputy of Research, Education and Extension, Ministry of Cooperative, Tehran (Iran). Received on April 06, 2009 and accepted on May 04, 2009
ABSTRACT It is widely recognized that approaching sustainability in rangeland management needs to take many criteria into consideration which unavoidably calls for the application of multi-criteria decision making approach. Bearing conflicting objectives in mind, which are mainly conservation and utilization, we have introduced fuzzy multi-objectives decision making as a suitable approach when sustainability in rangeland management is a goal. While some extensions of the approach are discussed, interactive fuzzy multi objective linear programming, and a framework including three stages are presented to make it more applicable. The proposed approach in this paper comprises three important advantages for decision makers to apply: first, it is a useful tool to involve trade-offs analysis between the conflicting objectives; second, it challenges to uncertainty of any decision in sustainable rangeland management; and third, it considers existing alternatives under given constraints by developing new alternatives for all possible situations. Keywords : Rangeland, fuzzy logic, MCDM, MODM, sustainability, conservation, utilization.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 33-38 June 2009
Concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment samples from ERO river in Southwestern, Nigeria S.S. Asaolu, O.S. Adefemi and O. Borode Chemistry Department, University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State (Nigeria) Received on February 04, 2009 and accepted on March 05, 2009
ABSTRACT The distribution of heavy metal concentration in water and sediment samples from Ero River in South western, Nigeria was carried out for a period of dry and wet season. For both seasons Ni, Cd, Co were not detected in the water samples, while all metal examined were detected in the sediment samples. The concentrations of heavy metals were higher in the sediments than water sample. On the average the concentration of most the heavy metals appears higher in the dry season than wet season. The result obtained fell within the maximum allowable limit set by United State Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization. Keywords : ERO River, heavy metals, concentration, water and sediment.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 39-47 June 2009
Effect of liming on soil properties, yield and nutrient uptake by wheat B.S. Sultana1, M.M.H. Mian2, M.R. Islam2, M.M. Rahman3, Bikash C. Sarker4 and M.S. Zoha4 1S.O., Soil Resource Development Institute, Nasipur (Bangladesh) 2Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Bangladesh) 3Department of Soil Science, 4Departemnt of Agricultural Chemistry and Biochemistry, Hajee Mohammad, Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur-5200 (Bangladesh) Received on January 02, 2009 and accepted on March 03, 2009
ABSTRACT A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of liming on chemical properties of wheat field soils and yield of wheat in Ranisankail soil series of Bangladesh. There were eight treatments of liming material applied from dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3). Yield and yield components of wheat were recorded at harvest and the grain and straw were analyzed for P, S, Ca and Mg contents. The post harvest soils were analyzed for pH, available P, Ca and Mg. The application of different rates of lime to soil progressively increased soil pH and increased availability of P, Ca and Mg in soils. The pH of the post harvest soils was positively correlated with available Ca and Mg status of soils. The grain yields of wheat were positively correlated with soil pH, available P, Ca and Mg contents of post harvest soils. Tiller number plant-1, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, grain and straw yields were significantly affected by liming. The treatment T5 (2.0 t lime ha-1) produced grain yield of 4659 kg ha-1 which was statistically identical to those found in T6, T7 and T8 treatments but higher to those in T1, T2, T3 & T4 treatments. Liming markedly increased S and Mg concentrations of wheat grain but the concentrations of P and Ca remained unaffected. Total uptake of P, S, Ca and Mg were increased due to application of lime which was mainly associated with increased wheat yields. The findings showed that liming is beneficial for wheat cultivation in the Ranishankail soil series of Dinajpur. The application of 2.0 t lime ha-1 appears to be optimum for desired soil pH for wheat (>pH 6.0), increased availability of nutrients and ultimately increased wheat yield. Keywords : Wheat, lime, grain, yield component.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 49-54 June 2009
Gasoline-induced haematological changes and the associated hepatotoxicity in albino rats N.M. IGBOH¹, D. ONWUBIKO¹, E.N. AGOMUO², B.A. AMADI², I. ONYESOM³ and U.E. UZUEGBU ¹College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Abia State University Uturu (Nigeria). ²Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences. Imo State University , Owerri (Nigeria). ³Department of Medical Biochemistry, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria). Received on December 12, 2008 and accepted on January 28, 2009
ABSTRACT Haematological and biochemical indices were used to monitor the toxicity of gasoline in albino rats.The rats were placed in four groups and were intraperitoneally administered 0.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 10.0g/kg of gasoline, respectively, for 2 phase periods of 1 and 2 months. At the end of each period, rats were withdrawn from each group for analysis. The control rats were similarly treated with normal saline. Blood samples were taken for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and white blood cell counts (WBC). Serum enzymes such as Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). Glutathione-S- transferase (GST) and Glutathione (GSH) were equally monitored. There was significant reduction in Hb and PCV, particularly in group four rats, which received. 10gkg-1gasoline compared with control and other (P < 0.05). A significant decrease in the number of white blood cells in the first month exposure to gasoline was recorded, especially in rats administered 10gkg-1gasoline. Substantial increase in the activities of liver enzymes - ALT, AST and ALP were observed in all the groups. However, GST increased marginally from first to second month in all the groups. Furthermore, there was consistent reduction in the level of GSH after the first dose in all the groups compared with control (P < 0.05). The study demonstrates that long term exposure of rats to gasoline could induce anaemia and liver damage. Keywords : Gasoline, Serum enzymes, glutathione, anaemia, liver damage.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 55-62 June 2009
Physico-chemical characteristics of certain water bodies of Bhopal, India S. Chouhan, G. Shukla, V. Mulchandani, V.K. Sharma* and N.N. Mehrotra Quality Assurance Laboratory, M.P. Council of Science and Technology, Vigyan Bhawan, Nehru Nagar, Bhopal - 462 003 (India). *Toxicology Division, Medicolegal Institute Home (Police) Department, Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal - 462 001 (India). Received on March 02, 2009 and accepted on April 29, 2009
ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to assess physico-chemical characteristics and coliform levels to assess status of six water bodies i.e., Upper Lake at Boat Club and at Kamla Park, Motia Talab, Lower Lake, Shahpura Lake and Kalia Saut dam of Bhopal, M.P. The present study was carried out during monsoon season, 2008. The range of water quality parameters were observed as pH from 7.08 to 7.5, electrical conductivity from 0.17 to 0.56, total dissolved solids from 116.00 to 172.0, total hardness from 67.0 to 22.0, chlorides from 27.32 to 69.65, free carbon dioxide from 2.0 to 6.66 and total alkalinity from 98.66 to 255.33. Except pH, all the parameters showed high range to values in Shahpura Lake. While, pH value was maximum recorded in Upper Lake at Kamla Park. Surplus growths of fecal colonies were recorded in all water bodies. After comparing the water quality parameters with BIS standards, it may be said that, the Shahpura Lake is highly polluted than others which may be due to high anthropogenic activities around the lake and allocthonous nutrients are added to the reservoir. Keywords : Water quality, Bhopal lakes, allocthonous, eutrophication, nutrients, coliform.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 63-70 June 2009
Physio-chemical analysis of industrial effluents in Thane region of Maharashtra, India S.R. Mirgane* and G.R. Bhagure *Department of Chemistry, J.E.S. College, Jalna - 431 203 (India). ยนDepartment of Chemistry, Dnyanasadhana College, Thane - 400 604 (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT Thane district is one of the most industrialized districts in the state. The heavy industrialization and the increasing urbanization are responsible for the rapidly increasing stress on the water environment of the area. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the physico chemical properties of effluents and to know the pollution load on the environment. Effluent Samples were obtained from various industries such as bulk drug chemicals, textile, and rubber chemicals, vitamin products, agrochemicals, dairy, dye manufacturing, textile processing, polymer, jewelry, construction chemicals, insecticides, paper products and fine chemicals. The effluent samples were analyzed and it is found that, electrical conductivity and T.D.S. varies from 0.43 to 46.5 millisimens cm-1and 280 to 30,225 mg/lit. High T.D.S., low D.O. content, high C.O.D. and conductivity values with high Cl-,SO4-2 , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ content indicates highly polluted condition of effluent .Heavy metal analyses were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICPE-9000) Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. It is found that AS, Cu, Cd, CO, Fe, Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr are within the limit prescribed limit prescribed by I.S.I., Hg is beyond the prescribed limit. Keywords : Effluents, industries, heavy metals, I.S.I., Thane region.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 71-77 June 2009
Assessment of Industrial effluent and underground water during monsoon season 2007 in Sitapura Industrial area, Jaipur Rajni Agrawal¹, S.K. Sharma¹* and U. Jha² ¹Department of Applied Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology, Jaipur Campus, Jaipur (India). ²Department of Applied Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology, MESRA, Ranchi (India). Received on April 20, 2009 and accepted on May 13, 2009
ABSTRACT Study of industrial effluents and underground water of Sitapura Industrial Area was carried out during monsoon season 2007. The main purpose of this study was to assess the quality of industrial effluents and its effects on the underground water. Waste water samples were collected from 4 textile, 4 pharmaceutical, 4 printing, 4 food products industries and 3 samples of mixed effluents. Underground water samples were collected at both sites of the nala and nearby different industries. These samples were analysed for the parameters of pH, Electrical Conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Total suspended solids, Total solids, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Nitrate, Hardness, Alkalinity, Sulphate, Phosphate, Fluoride, Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand. The pH value varied from 6.3 to 8.6 and EC value varied from 1.0 to 3.3 mmho/cm in the industrial effluent. The pH value varied from 7.16 to 9.52 and EC value varied from 1.08 to 3.3 mmhos/cm in the underground water samples. The COD value were found to be from 110 mg/L to 710 mg/L in the industrial effluents. Keywords : Industrial effluents, underground water, Sitapura industrial area.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 79-87 June 2009
Time series modeling and forecast of river flow Rashmi Nigam¹, Sohail Bux², Sudhir Nigam, K.R. Pardasani, S.K. Mittal and Ruhi Haque ¹Department of Mathematics, MANIT, bhopal - 462 003 (India). ²Department of Mechanical Engineeering, MANIT, bhopal - 462 003 (India). Received on March 10, 2009 and accepted on May 03, 2009
ABSTRACT Changing climate, human interventions to natural water flow pattern, haphazard urbanization etc., are the reasons for intense flood even after development of so many structural measures of overflow control. Kulfo River basin is situated in relatively dry southern area of the Ethiopia and is still under geographical modification with hilly topography and impervious soil texture. The concern of the present research is to simulate flood episode in order to develop flood management strategies to reduce disaster. The complexicity of natural hydrological phenomenon and dependent random variables can be better expressed considering it as stochastic process. Flood (maximum river flow) forecasting on the Kulfo River with monthly runoff data using stochastic ARIMA, Time Series model was developed for warning purposes. The analysis of seasonally varying time series of discharge data has revealed that a higher order ARIMA model may produce excellent results for three to six months forecast. Keywords : Stochastic, Flow pattern, ARIMA model, Flood, Perennial River
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 89-95 June 2009
Correlation study on physico-chemical parameters and quality assessment of ground water of Thane region, Maharashtra Mirgane Sunil Ramarao¹ and Bhagure Ganesh Ramdas² ¹Department of Chemistry, J.E.S.College Jalna, Maharashtra (India). ²Department of Chemistry, Dnyanasadhana College, Thane - 400 604 (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT Thane is the third most industrialized district in the Maharashtra state. The area is characterized by hard water and high salinity hazard due to it’s proximity and hydraulic connection with the sea. Therefore an Attempt has been made to assess the physico-chemical Parameters of ground waters of Thane Region, Maharashtra during Oct. Nov. 2008. Statistical studies have been carried out by calculating correlation coefficient between different pairs of parameters and t-test applied for checking significance. The observed values of physico-chemical parameters of ground water samples were compared with standard values recommended by WHO. It is found that an appreciable significant positive correlation holds for electrical conductivity with Na, Cl- and T.D.S. total hardness with Ca and Mg, pH with C.O.D. T.D.S. with Na, Cl-. Negative correlation was found between electrical conductivity and nitrate, with SO42- and nitrate,Total hardness with C.O.D. All the physicochemical parameters of ground water of Thane region are within the highest desirable limit or maximum permissible limit set by WHO, except chemical oxygen demand, total hardness and alkalinity values for most the ground water samples. Keywords : Ground water pollution, correlation coefficient, ttest, potability.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 97-102 June 2009
Investigation in activity time budget and Social Organization of Indian Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra) Linn. (Mammalia Artodactyla) at M.C. Zoological Park, Chhatbir (Pb.) (India) R. Vatsยน and C.S. Bhardwaj Academic Counsellor IGNOU and Assistant Project Coordinator, SSA, Ambala (India). Department of Zoology, Dayal Singh College, Karnal (India). Received on March 15, 2009 and accepted on May 03, 2009
ABSTRACT Indian Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra) Linn. is a state animal of Haryana and Punjab. The present study has been conducted at M.C Zoological park, Chhatbir (Pb). The present study revealed that black buck is early riser and temperature and sunlight affects in activities and social organisation. Females found in herds and herds of males never seen. Keywords : Antilope cervicapra, activity time budget, social organisation.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 103-106 June 2009
Analysis of water quality of bore-wells of Kolar road area of Bhopal (M.P.) India H.C. Kataria¹, Jeena Harjeet², Y.K. Sharma³ and Seema Singh4 ¹Department of Chemistry, Government Geetanjali Girls P.G. College, Bhopal - 462 038 (India). ²Department, Truba Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Bhopal - 462 038 (India). ³Department of Chemistry, Government P.G. Autonomous College, Chhindwara (India). 4Department of Chemistry, Truba Institute of Engineering and Information Technology, Bhopal - 462 038 (India). Received on February 28, 2009 and accepted on April 12, 2009
ABSTRACT Rapid and reliable monitoring and surveillance methods are essential for keeping a close watch on the water quality, human health and environment. Hence it becomes important to monitor and analyse water of bore-wells used for drinking and irrigational purposes. In the present study water quality of bore-wells of Kolar road area has been done seasonally during the year of 2008-09 for different parameters i.e., temperature, pH, EC, free CO2, chloride, total alkalinity, T-H, Ca-H, Mg-H, D.O., B.O.D., C.O.D., Nitrate, Sulphate and bacteriological analyses has been done by multiple tube technique by Mac’ Conkey Broth Soln, reported n Index/100mL, are found beyond the permissible limit of 10/100mL at some sampling station. Keywords : Monitoring, analysis, bore-wells, bacteriological, permissible, water quality.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 107-112 June 2009
Statistical analysis of solar-wind hybrid system using SYSTAT software Prashant Baredar¹*, Bhupendra Gupta³, Mukesh Pandey² and Priyanka Sharma¹ ¹Laxmi Narain College of Technology, Bhopal - 462 021 (India). ²University Institute of Technology, Rajeev Gandhi Technological University, Bhopal - 462 026 (India). ³Government Engineering College, Jabalpur (India). Received on March 02, 2009 and accepted on April 20, 2009
ABSTRACT Energy plays an indispensable role in modern society. We all depend on a constant and reliable supply of energy - for our homes, businesses and for transport. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted. It can be expected that possible applications of hybrid systems could be considered for the efficient utilization of these resources round the year together with possibilities of obtaining Carbon credits in the Carbon Trading. In this research paper, experimental data consisting of hourly records over a specified period were recorded in the Energy Park of UIT-RGPV Bhopal for a 1.6.kW SPV- Wind Hybrid System and Feasibility analysis is done using SYSTAT software. Keywords : Solar energy, Wind energy, Solar -Wind hybrid systems, SYSTAT software.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 113-115 June 2009
A study of effectiveness of an inorganic heterocycle (S6N4)2+ Cl2- in reclamation of acidic soil of Andaman and Nicobar islands h.k. sharma Department of Chemistry, J.N.R. Mahjavidhyalaya, Port Blair 744 104 (India). Received on December 10, 2008 and accepted on January 21, 2009
ABSTRACT Cyclohexa thiazenium chloride (S6N4)2+Cl2- has been tested against varying pH 3 â€“ 4.5 of acidic soil of Andaman and Nicobar islands. It has been observed that there were remarkable increase in pH 7.4 in normal time. Keywords : Cyclohexa thiazenium chloride, acidic soil, PM
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 117-120 June 2009
Assesment of heavy metal pollution in Upper and Lower lakes of Bhopal (India) Vandana Magarde, S.A. Iqbal and Nilofar Iqbal Department of Chemistry, Rajeev Gandhi College, Bhopal - 462 039 (India). Department of Chemistry, Saifia College of Science and Education, Bhopal - 462 001 (India). Received on March 03, 2009 and accepted on June 10, 2009
ABSTRACT In order to assess the water quality of Upper Lake and Lower Lake of Bhopal. With reference to toxic metal contamination, water samples were collected and studied by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry from above ten sampling stations. The results were compared with the tolerance limits as laid down by ISI and USPH. It was concluded that the metals (Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu) are present in water. The cause of this contamination is supposed to be the Immersion of Taziyas and Idols, which are painted with cheap quality dyes. Water in the present form is unpotable. Keywords : Upper Lake, Lower Lake, AAS, Metals, Taziyas and Idols.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 121-125 June 2009
A Study of Reproductive Behaviour of Indian Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra) Linn. with Reference to Courtship, Breeding, Fawning and Colouration R. Vatsยน and C.S. Bhardwaj ยนAcademic Counsellor IGNOU & Assistant Project Coordinator, SSA, Ambala (India). Department of Zoology, Dayal Singh College, Karnal (India). Received on March 03, 2009 and accepted on April 25, 2009
ABSTRACT These species exhibits a high degree of sexual dimorphism; the male is larger than the female, is strikingly coloured in black and white, and sports a magnificent pair of spiralling horns. The black of the male is replaced by an inconspicuous brown in the female. The aggressive behaviour is commonly seen throughout the year. The reproductive behaviour of black buck was recorded during the present study. The mating was primarily observed in the months of March and October. The young ones yellowish fawn in colour. After about three years it begins to turn black. A buck has a brown black coat. The colour usually fades a little during summer but after the rains the velvety texture acquires sheen. Keywords : Reproductive Behaviour, Antilope cervicapra, Courtship, Colouration.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 127-132 June 2009
Studies on fecundity of snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii (Gray) from the lotic bodies of Rajouri district (J&K). Roopma Gandotra, Ravi Shanker and Dalvinder Singh Department of Zoology,University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT The present work embodies studies on the reproductive capacity of Snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii collected from various streams of Rajouri district (J&K). About 50 fishes, ranging from 21.0 to 32.9 cm of total length, were put to the study of fecundity in relation to Fish length, Fish weight, Ovary length, Ovary weight and Ova diameter. The other aspects studied include relationship between Fish length and Ovary length, Ovary weight and Ova diameter. All the parameters were put to regression analysis. The higher values of correlation coefficient (reâ€?0.9) in all the studied parameters indicated a strong correlation between them. However, the relationship between Fecundity and Fish length came out to be the highest indicating the dependence of Fecundity more on the length of fish body than other parameters. Keywords : Fecundity, Schizothorax richardsonii, lotic bodies.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 133-136 June 2009
Polarographic reduction of pralidoxime and obidoxime at hanging mercury drop electrode C. NARASIMHA RAO¹, K. BALAJI¹, C. NARASIMHA RAO² and P. VENKATESWARLU¹* ¹Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502 (India). ²Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502 (India). Received on February 10, 2009 and accepted on April 13, 2009
ABSTRACT The polarographic reduction behavior of Pralidoxime (PRL) and Obidoxime (OBD) at a Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE) was exploited for their determination in different samples. Based on the obtained differential pulse polarograms, standard addition method was used to determine these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluid samples. Linearity in the peak currents was achieved in the concentration ranges of 5.4 x 10-8 to 4.0 x 10-5 M and 2.8×10-8 to1.4×10-5 M for OBD and PRL respectively.The detection Limit was found to be 2.5 x 10-8 M (PRL) and 1.8×10-8 M (OBD) with correlation coefficients of 0.9980 (PRL) and 0.9965 (OBD). The repeatability and reproducibility of the method were checked by recovery studies. Keywords : Polarography, Pralidoxime, Obidoxime, Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode and Biological fluid samples.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 137-142 June 2009
Bioremediation of thermal wastewater by Pithophora sp S. Murugesan¹ and R. Dhamotharan² ¹PG and Research Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Unit of Environmental Sciences and Nano Technology, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai - 600 030 (India). ²PG and Research Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Presidency College, Chennai - 600 005 (India). Received on January 20, 2009 and accepted on February 27, 2009
ABSTRACT The interaction of microorganisms with pollutants has opened up new vistas to an exciting field of research for environmentalists. The unprecedented interest in bioremediation and its applications stems from the failure of aggressive and invasive treatment methods that disturb ecosystems by cleaning them with unnecessary quantities of chemicals. Therefore, the use of microorganisms represents a viable, cost-effective decontaminated alternative that is based on natural processes and can be adhered to for further industrial or other purposes. Keywords : Bioremediation thermal wastewater-micro alganutrient reduction.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 143-147 June 2009
The physico-chemical characteristics of water quality of Narayan Talab, Satna (M.P.) India K.B.L. Shrivastava¹ and S.K. Pandey² ¹Government Girls College, Satna (India). ²V.I.T.S. Engineering College Satna (India). Received on March 05, 2009 and accepted on April 12, 2009
ABSTRACT Due to sewage, agricultural and industrial wastes,abnoxious emissions and anthropogenic activities, the freshwater bodies around the world are becoming polluted The water body selected for this study is Narayan Talab of Satna, the District head quarter in Madhya Pradesh, India. The Narayan Talab is one of the important sources of potable water supply for the Satna city. The Talab receives a large amount of domestic wastes, sewage and industrial effluents. It has floating lotus flowers, which are very useful in improving the Talab’s water quality. The effluent of water treatment plant of P.H.E. is also connected through this talab bringing some trace metals and chlorides in it. Authors examined physicochemical parameters like pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand to ascertain the water quality of this talab.Chemistry of Sarpat plants as well as chemistry of other chemicals and their effect on water quality is also studied. Keywords : Pollution, Narayan talab, water quality parameters.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 149-154 June 2009
Studies on systematic enumeration of cucurbit germplasm of Bihar Manjulshree Department of Industrial Microbiology, L.S. College, Muzaffarpur, Bihar (India). Received on Febuary 28, 2009 and accepted on April 04, 2009
ABSTRACT In the present paper the systematic enumeration of Cucurbit germplasm of Bihar State has been described. The three genera recorded from field were Luffa, Momordica and Trichosanthes. Three species of Luffa, five species of Momordica and three species of Trichosanthes were collected and described in detail. Keywords : Cucurbit, germplasm, Bihar.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 155-159 June 2009
Effect of flyash on some physico-chemical parameters of soil and growth of Chickpea in Arpa irrigation project area of Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh Neeta GupTa¹ and N.K. Singh² ¹Department of Chemistry, Govt. E.R.R. Sc. P.G. College, Bilaspur (India). ²Department of Botany, Govt. E.R.R. Sc. P.G. College, Bilaspur (India). Received on January 03, 2009 and accepted on February 23, 2009
ABSTRACT A study on the effect of flyash on the physico-chemical characteristics viz. pH, electrical conductivity and trace element concentration, of soil of Arpa irrigation project area of Bilaspur District (C.G.) has been made during present investigation. Results obtained reveal that the increasing proportion of flyash in soil considerably increase the value of these characteristics. Effect of these changes on the growth parameters like root length, chlorophyll content, grain yield per plant and average seed weight of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum Linn.) were also made. All these were found to be favourably affected by flyash induced changes in soil characteristics. We put forth a base for recommendation of flyash application at least for cultivation of chickpea in acidic soil. Keywords : Electrical conductivity, flyash, Arpa irrigation project area and chickpea.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 161-164 June 2009
An assessment of groundwater quality of Chaksu town in Rajasthan, India Ranjana Agrawal¹, Rupali Argal² and Sharmila Pokharna² ¹Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology, MESRA RANCHI, Extension Centre, Jaipur (India). ²International College for Girls, Gurukul Marg, S.F.S., Mansarovar, Jaipur - 302 020 (India). Received on April 20, 2009 and accepted on June 07, 2009
ABSTRACT Assessment of underground water quality based on physicochemical parameters at Chaksu town of Rajasthan has been taken up to evaluate its suitability for domestic’s purpose. 32 ground water samples were collected from different places of Chaksu town of Jaipur district. The quality analysis has been made through the pH, EC, TDS, Dissolved Oxygen, BOD, COD, Total Hardness, Sodium, Pottassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Sulphate, Nitrate, Fluoride and Alkanity. A systematic calculation of the correlation coffecient has also been carried out between different analysed parameters. Comparative study of samples in different seasons was conducted and it was found that Electrical Conductivity and Total Dissoved Solids (TDS) were decreased. Alkanity and Total Hardness were increased after the rainfall. Keywords : Ground Water, parameters, comparative study, Chaksu town.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 165-169 June 2009
Population dynamics and community structure of zooplankton inhabiting in fish pond Jammu, India M.K. Jyoti, K.K.Sharma and Jyoti sharma P.G. Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu 180 006 (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT During the present period of investigation extending from March, 2004 to February, 2005, 15 species of zooplankton belonging to five different taxa viz., Protozoa, Rotifera, Copepoda, Ostracoda and Cladocera were collected. Three of these taxa, Protozoa, Copepoda and Ostracoda were represented by single species while Rotifera by eight species and Cladocera by four species besides one larval form, the Nauplius. The number of plankton belonging to these taxa exhibited both quantitative and qualitative changes concuss with seasons and thus resulted in community changes during different seasons. The probable reasons (environment) that stand responsible and result in changes in community structure and individual population of each plankton have been discussed at length. Keywords : Zooplanktons, Population dynamics, fish pond, Jammu.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 171-174 June 2009
Effectiveness of sewage sludge in composting process of municipal solid waste S.D. Narkhede*, V.D. Pawar, N.J. Patil and S.B. Attarde School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India). Received on March 20, 2009 and accepted on April 29, 2009
ABSTRACT Present study determines that 60 days degradation period used for composting of Municipal solid waste with sewage sludge was beneficial as rate of composting process has enhances due to optimum favorable conditions provided as well the catalyst used for the composting process as sewage sludge have shown tremendous progress in increasing the fertility of compost compared with the control samples. Reduction in heavy metal content like Cu, Fe, Ni, Mg, Mn, Zn etc has been observed after the composting process Keywords : Municipal solid waste, Sewage sludge, Compost, fertility.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 175-178 June 2009
Assessment of ground water quality in and around Industrial areas in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra SUMANTRAO B. BIKKAD and SUNIL R. MIRGANE* Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, J. E. S. College, Jalna - 431 203 (India). Received on March 10, 2009 and accepted on May 17, 2009
ABSTRACT The suitability of water for various domestics and potable uses was studied by analyzing samples from different bore well sampling sites, located in and around industrial areas in Aurangabad. The physico-chemical parameter of above sampling sites indicates that domestically used water is much more polluted. Maximum samples have high EC. TDS. TH. TA. Cl- . Ca++. COD. Values exceeding the permissible limits for drinking purpose. It is observed that the main sources of the pollution are due to industrial waste water, municipal sewage and lack of sanitation. Keywords : Bore well water, Physico-chemical parameters, water quality.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 179-182 June 2009
Adsorption studies of toxic heavy metals from waste water by Acacia arabica bark Dhananjay Dwivedi¹ and Vijay R. Chourey² ¹Department of Chemistry P.M.B. Gujarati Science College, Indore - 452 001 (India). ²Government Holkar Autonomous Science College, Indore - 452 001 (India). Received on March 15, 2009 and accepted on May 03, 2009
ABSTRACT The adsorption technique using chemically treated powder of bark of Acacia arabica was applied for the removal of toxic heavy metals from polluted waste water. The extent of adsorption found to be dependent on the pH and the time of contact. The adsorbent is effective for the quantitative removal of various toxic metals from the contaminated aqueous sample. The method is quite feasible, economic and time saving. The concentration of unadsorbed metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The applicability of bark of Acacia arbica was tested for the removal of Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions from aqueous sample. Keywords : Adsorption, Acacia arabica, heavy metals.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 183-185 June 2009
Global Warming: The causes and effects and Indian climate change and policies nitesh goswami Department of Engineering Chemistry, Gwalior Engineering College (India). Received on June 23, 2008 and accepted on August 30, 2008
ABSTRACT India as a developing country does not have any commitments or responsibilities at present for reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO2 that lead to global warming, pressure is increasing on India and other large, rapidly developing countries like China and Brazil to adopt a more protective role. The sources cited in this research paper are mainly taken from the internet. However as the main focus of this article is on policies and not on science, I hope that this research paper does not contain ambiguities concerning policies. Keywords : Global warming, causes of effects.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 187-190 June 2009
Variation in energy reserve in Rana tigrina and Bufo melanostictus during annual seasonal cycle Amjad Fatmi¹, S. Nazre Ahsan² and Durre Shahwar Ruby³ ¹Department of Zoology, Government P.G. College Dholpur (India). ²Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna (India). ³Department of Zoology, B.S. College Danpur, Patna (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT Blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen total serum protein and fat body are estimated during four phases of their annual. Liver glycogen was high during period of dormancy but low during breeding. Fat body weight was high during hibernation but low during post breeding season. Serum protein was high during hibernation and aestivation but low during breeding and post breeding seasons. Keywords : Energy reserve, Rana tigrina, Bufo melanostictus, seasonal cycle.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 191-193 June 2009
Chemical analysis of water from different ponds of Newara village of Bilaspur (C.G.) India Gayatri Neelam Shastri and N.K. Singh Department of Botany, Government E. Raghvendra Rao Science P.G. College, Bilaspur (India). Received on February 25, 2009 and accepted on April 29, 2009
ABSTRACT In present investigation samples of water from different ponds of Newara Village of Bilaspur District of Chhattisgarh have been collected and analysed for the presence of various ions, hardness and alkalinity. We report a considerable increase in their values and thereby provide a base for recommendation for no-use of pond water specially for cooking, drinking and bathing. Keywords : Pond water, Newara Village, Hardness, Health hazards, Chhattisgarh.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 195-198 June 2009
Statistical approach to monthly variations of physico-chemical factors at Lower lake of Bhopal in relation to insect fauna Ishart Mohi-ud-din, Madhulika Singh and K. Borana Sadhu Vaswani College, Bairagarh, Bhopal (India). Department of Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University, Bhopal - 462 016 (India). Received on April 20, 2009 and accepted on May 30, 2009
ABSTRACT A study on monthly variations of insects was made in Lower lake of Bhopal, during June 2002 to May 2004. Coleoptera, Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Odonata and Trichoptera dominated insects, The density of total population of insects ranged between 201 org/sqm to 450 org/sqm having higher percentage composition of Coleoptera during most of the study period. Physico-chemical factors (water temperature, conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen) were also estimated and their correlation with total insect density was established. Keywords : Lower lake, insect fauna, physico chemical factors.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 199-202 June 2009
Water quality assessment of Kalingarayan canal at Erode district, Tamilnadu (India) A.R.K. Kulandaivel¹, P.E. Kumar²* and P.N. Magudeswaran³ 1,2Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Erode Arts College (Autonomuous), Erode 638 009 (India). 3Department of Chemistry, V.L.B. Janakiammal College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 042 (India). Received on December 10, 2008 and accepted on January 21, 2009
ABSTRACT Kalingarayan canal is one of the historically important irrigation water sources in Erode District. Recently the water in the channel being polluted by letting out untreated tannery and textile effluents. It has been decided, therefore, to carryout a study on the quality of water and its pollutional load. The quality of water is determined by examining physicochemical and biological characteristics. In order to present a simple and comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) that could be understood by non-technical experts and common man, the standard NSF method has been adopted. An alternative WQI omitting Temperature, BOD and phosphates has been evaluated and the correlation between NSF index and this new index has been good. The study revealed that the channel water is highly polluted and could be used for irrigation only. Keywords : Water Quality Index (WQI), Physicochemical Characteristics, Pollution.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 203-206 June 2009
The water quality assessment at historical places, Ellora caves and Khultabad area of Aurangabad region Haridas B. Nagre¹ and Z.M. Zine² ¹Department of Chemistry, Vivekanand College, Aurangabad 431 001 (India). ²Department of Chemistry, Vinayakrao Patil College,Vaijapur, Dist-Aurangabad - 431 005 (India). Received on January 12, 2009 and accepted on February 25, 2009
ABSTRACT Assessment of drinking water quality which involves physicochemical parameters revealed that the sample characteristics are varied considerably. In all, nine water samples were selected, out of which four samples were from Ellora caves and five from Khultabad. The water samples were assessed for parameters such as Temperature, pH, BOD, COD, Hardness, SO42-, Nitrate and Fluoride. The period of assessment was from September to December 2008. Keywords : Physicochemical parameters, Well water, Bore-well water, Tank.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 207-210 June 2009
Seasonal variation in physico-chemical aspects of a fish pond, Jammu, India M.K. Jyoti, K.K. Sharma and Jyoti Sharma P.G. Department of Zoology, University of Jammu, Jammu 180 006 (India). Received on May 12, 2008 and accepted on August 17, 2008
ABSTRACT In the present investigation (from march 2004 â€“ February 2005), a fish pond was selected at University of Jammu, Jammu to study the physico-chemical properties of water for the assessment of its quality. The physico-chemical factors such as temperature, pH, free carbon dioxide, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Calcium (Ca++), Magnesium (Mg++), Carbonate (CO32-), Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and Chloride were investigated. Temperature fluctuated from 11oC to 28oC, pH from 7.7 to 9, DO from 7.2 mg/l to 14 mg/l, Cl- from 15.97 mg/l to 49.9 mg/l, CO3" from 30 mg/l to 597.7 mg/l, Ca++ from 12.03 to 28.06 mg/l, Mg++ from 6.86 mg/l to 19.37 mg/l and free carbon dioxide remained absent through out the study period. Keywords : Physico-chemical parameters, pond, physicochemical parameters.
Volume 4 No. 1 Page No. 211-213 June 2009
Effect of mass bathing on the water quality of Narmada river at district Hoshangabad, (M.P.) India Sanjay Telang¹, Yogendra Saxena² and Anoop Chaturvedi³ ¹Government science and commerce college, Benazir, Bhopal 462 001 (India) 2,3Central Pollution Control Board, Bhopal 462 003 (India). Received on April 25, 2009 and accepted on June 10, 2009
ABSTRACT In River Narmada, pollution load increases due to mass bathing, physico-chemical analysis of water clearly indicates that water quality deteriorates and it take longer time to recover the previous water quality through self purification process.The minimum and maximum pH was recorded in the range of 7.20 to 7.61 where the pH value of drinking water standard (6.5 to 8.5). The DO level was observed in the range of 8.20 to 10.2mg/L during study. The values of BOD were found in the range of <1 mg/L to 20 mg/L and COD were found in the range of 6 mg/l to 48 mg/L. Total Coliform were found above the standard limit during and after mass bathing . Keywords : Mass bathing. Water quality, Dissolved oxygen.(DO)