Page 1

VISION

---------------------------------------------——------------———---- Lent 2021

Cambridge University International Development

Lives and livelihoods in Asia’s largest slum: Dharavi’s post-COVID recovery p.6

Dancing out of the pandemic p. 12

Collateral Damage: COVID-19 and Education in Sub-Saharan Africa p. 16

THE PANDEMIC’S EFFECT ON DEVELOPMENT Also in this issue ...

THE HEALTH CRISIS HIDDEN BY THE PANDEMIC / COMBATTING FOOD INSECURITYFOR FORCIBLY DISPLACED PEOPLE / CUES MAKEATHON: CUID CHALLENGE WINNER


Contents...

10

MAYA BENEY

Combatting Food Insecurity for Forcibly Displaced People

08

ANNA FEEST

The Health Crisis Hidden by the Pandemic

16

ADITHYA MOHAN

Collateral Damage: Covid-19 and Education in Africa


04 18 Dear Readers...

CUES Makeathon:

NOISIV

CUiD Challenge Winner

Lives and Livelihoods in Asia’s Largest Slum: Dharavi's Post-COVID Recovery

06

JAI SHENDE

Dancing Out of the Pandemic

12

SEBASTIAN MITCHELL


Dear Readers... Dear readers,

Thank you for reading what is the final edition of Vision under my Presidency. I am incredibly proud of what we have produced in circumstances none of us could have predicted. I am hugely grateful to Beatrice and Ella, who have ensured that the magazine happened, and Lucy for her excellent design skills. I am also thankful to Ian and everyone at Afrinspire for their support of CUID. I hope you enjoy reading the magazine and encourage you to get involved with CUID if you can!

Anna Vassiliades President 2020-21

4


Dear Readers,

After what has been an immensely challenging year for everyone around the world, including the realm of international development, we are thrilled to publish Vision’s Lent edition.

We’ve chosen to focus on the future of international development after COVID-19 this term because we think the past year has provided

President: Anna Vassiliades

us with a lot to learn from. Not only have we seen inequalities exacerbated by this worldwide crisis, but we have also been able to see cases of remarkable resilience. As we look towards

Vice President: Pimmy Soongswang

emerging out of this crisis, it is an important time to reflect on what this past year has taught us, and to think about what our vision for the future of international development should be. We hope the collection of ideas in this volume will offer

Editors: Ella Jones and Beatrice Wong

some food for thought.

Artistic Director: Lucy It has been a delight editing this edition of Vision, and the publication of this magazine would not

Williams

have been possible without the amazing work of our artistic director, Lucy, and our team of subeditors — Alejandro, Anna, Rachel, Rob and Zannah.

Publicity Director: Archit Sharma

Finally, we thank you for reading this edition of Vision, and we hope you enjoy reading it as much as we have enjoyed working on it. As always, we welcome all feedback and suggestions, and we would encourage anyone who is interested to submit a pitch for our next edition!

Beatrice and Ella

Sub-editors: Alejandro Lemus-Gomez, Zannah Lindley, Rob MacLennan, Rachel McHale, and Anna Sayles

5


Lives Livesand and livelihoods livelihoods in in Asia’s Asia’slargest largest slum: slum: Dharavi’s post-COVID recovery by JAI SHENDE

For the people of Dharavi, working from home is no COVID-era

novelty.

settlement,

life

together:

In

and

hastily

structures

act

Mumbai’s work

biggest

have

constructed,

as

makeshift

informal

always

blurred

semi-permanent

garment

and

leather

factories and double up as workers’ homes. Home to over one million people packed into an area of just two

square

kilometres,

Dharavi

holds

the

dubious

honour of being Asia’s largest slum. Pre-COVID, over 20,000

workshops,

microenterprises

factory

operated

in

units

and

Dharavi’s

other myriad

streets, making up an informal economy estimated to generate upwards of one billion USD a year.

Unsurprisingly, when the coronavirus pandemic first struck

in

emerged

2020, as

informal

hotspots

challenges

of

management

for

poor

systems,

settlements

like

transmission. sanitation

cramped

Dharavi

Along

and

living

with

waste

spaces

and

narrow walkways made social distancing and home quarantine

measures

practically

impossible.

In

Dharavi’s streets, where population density is more than 600 times the national average, there is barely space for two people to walk side by side.

In response, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) launched an ambitious strategy in

57%

April 2020 of ‘chasing the virus’. Instead of relying on self-testing and quarantine, the project was based on door-to-door screening and robust surveillance measures

in

order

to

contain

the

spread

of

the

disease. The authority partnered with local NGOs for community engagement, private hospitals for critical care, and arranged for temporary quarantine centres in

nearby

palaces,

schools,

and

sports

community

complexes,

halls.

marriage

Communal

toilets,

depended upon by around 80% of inhabitants, were

of Dharavi's

disinfected every hour.

What is fittingly now known as the ‘Dharavi Model’

population

has antibodies 6

showed remarkable success in halting the spread of the

virus,

rapidly

flattening

the

curve

of

infected

people within two months and keeping the death toll relatively low. It has also attracted significant media


attention,

hailed

by

the

WHO

and

scientists

in

particular as ‘a lesson for policymakers globally’ for similarly

resource-strapped

and

population-dense

settings.

The

Dharavi

curbing

the

Model spread

was of

certainly

the

virus.

If

important we

look

in

more

closely, however, another reason for the low death toll

surfaces.

The

population

of

Dharavi

is

vendors

affected

by

COVID-19.

However,

many

street vendors in Dharavi and nationwide have yet received

any

credit

despite

having

filled

in

the

application.

overwhelmingly young, most infected people being between 21 and 50 years old. As we know, COVID-19

Moreover,

the

challenge

is a much more likely cause of death in those who

bureaucratic

are 75 or older. Moreover, according to a study by

work

without

the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR),

them

ineligible

57% of Dharavi’s population has antibodies, meaning

institutional protection, the informal sector has seen

that

procedures the

of

mean

requisite

for

navigating that

licenses

government

lengthy

many

people

which

makes

schemes.

Lacking

some

a severe crisis over these past few months, laying

point. This large number of asymptomatic or mild

bare the inadequacy of the Indian state in providing

cases were not reflected in the numbers recorded by

for urban communities.

this

proportion

had

been

infected

at

municipal authorities. Such evidence indicates that rather

than

simply

stopping

the

spread

of

Historically,

in

an

effort

to

challenge

the

coronavirus, the Dharavi Model relied to some extent

demonisation

on herd immunity.

government and policy discourse, academics have instead

Moreover, the dominant policy discourse acclaiming the Dharavi Model’s success draws a curtain over the long-term and equally pressing effects of the virus on

the

local

economy.

Faced

with

months

of

lockdown and depressed demand in an economic downturn, many migrant workers struggled to get by, burning through what little savings they had. Living off food packages from local NGOs or choosing to embark upon arduous journeys back to their home villages were their only options. When lockdown was lifted at the end of May 2020 despite soaring cases, workers were forced to make a choice to either stay at

home

and

starve

or

go

out

to

work

and

risk

contracting the virus themselves.

of

striven

informal

to

economic

emphasise

the

activity

creativity

in

and

improvisation behind the ability of informal workers to find ways to ‘get by’ (Ferguson, 2015 and Theme, 2018).

Dharavi’s

astonishing

residents

resilience

and

certainly

display

entrepreneurial

spirit

in

eking out their livelihoods, especially during COVID19, and the way in which we theorise about informal work has profound implications for policy. But what academics miss when they emphasise how informal workers do get by despite all the challenges facing them are the occasions in which they do not. Workers in Dharavi manage to scrape together a living, but at what cost? And what happens when this precarious equilibrium

is

unbalanced

by

disruptive

economic

forces like the fallout of COVID-19? Unregistered,

While the worst health effects of the virus may have been contained in Dharavi, residents have not been spared

the

economic

effects

of

the

pandemic.

Informal workers, lacking state protection, have been hit

particularly

reduced

hard.

footfall

on

Beggars

struggle

Mumbai

due

streets.

to

Leather

manufacturers

of

Dharavi

and

entrepreneurs

in

unprotected,

the

informal

workers

economy

and

lack

the

insurance and institutional support to weather the consequences of these unprecedented times.

the

Domestic

workers are no longer allowed into their employers’ homes.

unregulated

are

seeking protections from the Indian government in

The Dharavi Model may have reduced the loss of life, but

authorities

facing

cannot

policymakers

stop

here

is

there. to

The

provide

challenge short-term

support to informal workers and also design long-

the form of higher tariffs or even blanket bans on

term

universal

social

protection

measures

to

give

foreign imports but have been virtually ignored.

workers a basic level of security. Governments must actively engage with and support informal workers

In October 2020, PM Narendra Modi launched the

through

Pradhan Mantri Street Vendors’ Atmanirbhar Nidhi

achieve decent work for all.

Yojana,

which

aims

to provide

loans to

conscientious

policy

efforts

in

order

to

street

7


The health crisis hidden by the pandemic by ANNA FEEST

In some African languages it's known as the "big cough"... In some African languages it’s known as the ‘big

Tuberculosis is mostly treatable: once diagnosed, it

cough’, because of its most common symptom. It

requires a 6-month course of antimicrobial drugs,

was brought to Sub-Saharan Africa primarily by

ideally provided with information and support by

white Europeans who could afford to travel, before

health workers. Some forms are known as ‘multi-

passing

drug resistant’ (MDR), where the bacteria do not

it

to

domestic

workers.

Transmitted

through the air, it disproportionately affects people

respond

from low socio-economic backgrounds, who also

these are mostly curable using second-line drugs

to

some

of

the

drugs

used,

but

again

often lack access to basic sanitation and live in

(although these options are limited, expensive and

cramped, poorly ventilated houses.

time-consuming). MDR tuberculosis often develops when the 6-month course of drugs is disrupted, meaning the support from health workers is key to

You

could

be

forgiven

for

thinking

this

is

a

effective treatment.

description of COVID-19 - it has been, after all, the main news story for the last year. In fact, this is

Worldwide rates of tuberculosis had been slowly

tuberculosis, or TB, one of the deadliest infectious

declining since 2015, but the pandemic is set to

diseases in the world, and the biggest killer in the

wipe

last

million

extra 1.4 million TB-related deaths in the next five

people die from TB, a number that has been slowly

years as a direct consequence of the pandemic;

declining

expert

2000

years.

in

Sustainable

Every

recent

year,

years

Development

around

part

Goal

1.5

of

#3

the

UN’s

to

end

is

epidemics such as tuberculosis.

out

this

progress.

modelling

The

suggests

WHO

that

if

estimates

the

an

pandemic

leads to a global reduction of 25% in detecting TB for 3 months – a very realistic possibility given the levels of disruption already seen – we could expect

Unlike

coronavirus,

regarded

as

a

however,

disease

the

tuberculosis past

in

is

many

a 13% increase in deaths caused by TB. This doesn’t even

factor

in

indirect

of

Africa and South East Asia, where there is often

ventilation),

inadequate health infrastructure, desperately poor

health outcomes for TB patients who also become

populations,

infected with covid.

densely basic

populated sanitation.

areas It

is

1 with

treatment

transmission

the

people kept indoors in close quarters with poor

to

increased

effects

pandemic

and

as

other

bear the burden – over 80% of new cases are in

access

such

the

Western, developed states. Low-income countries

limited

interruptions

and

(with

poorer

also

particularly deadly in combination with HIV, which

Although there have been limited cases of patients

again

infected with both tuberculosis and COVID-19 so

is

more

commonly

regions such as these.

8

of

found

in

developing

far, most experts agree this combination worsens


The WHO estimates an extra

1.4 million treatment

outcomes,

especially

if

the

TB

in the next

treatment is interrupted. This in turn increases the risk of developing the more problematic TBMDR. Due to lockdowns, healthcare services are running

at

limited

capacity,

and

outreach

5

TB-related deaths

years as a direct

consequence of the pandemic

programs (often key for reaching remote, rural communities in low-income countries) have been scaled back or suspended, meaning that many

from

previous

pandemics,

and

with

generally

young populations and warmer climates – and

are

even though lack of testing means these figures

afraid to come to hospital for fear of infection

may be unreliable, death rates haven’t rocketed

from COVID-19 – as for those living on the edge

as

of poverty, this means a quarantine that they

were taken at first, but many of these have since

simply

cannot

been relaxed, with suggestions that lockdowns

where

budgets

cases

are

going

undiagnosed.

afford. are

In

Patients

developing

limited,

funds

countries

are

being

they

may

diverted away from normal services such as TB,

from

malaria

have

in

actually

Europe.

Drastic

inadvertently

poverty,

hunger

and

interventions

cause other

more

deaths

diseases

than

the

they prevent from COVID-19. Social distancing

additional costs of COVID-19 related care, so

and staying at home are also unlikely to be as

the

effective anyway - people often live in crowded

and

quality

maternal

of

health

healthcare

is

to

cover

decreasing,

and

patients are losing trust. This is all, of course

conditions

assuming that patients even have the funds to

such

cover their treatment in the first place - a bold

Additionally,

assumption

information

that

the

pandemic

has

only

weakened.

without

as

access

running

water,

without on

to

the

basic

soap

reliable situation

sanitation

and

masks.

communication, is

often

gained

through inaccurate social media or perceived as false information from already-distrusted, often

Bill Gates has described COVID-19 as a once-ina-century

pandemic,

epidemics

such

as

but

if

we’re

tuberculosis

not

are

going

to

become much larger problems for the rest of the century.

Yet

the

increasing

threat

of

these

epidemics – tuberculosis, malaria, and more – is only

symptomatic

looming

behind

of

the

the

larger

one

we

health

crisis

currently

find

ourselves in: that access to healthcare in general is

being

massively

impacted,

and

disproportionately so for the world’s poorest.

The direct effects of COVID-19 – and largely on Western, developed nations – have taken centre stage

on

countries, systems

world the

as

a

news,

indirect whole

but

in

effects need

low-income

on

serious

corrupt governments.

careful,

healthcare attention.

Compared to countries with stronger economic

The economic impact is hardest on those already vulnerable, and when half the population of SubSaharan

Africa

threatens family

to

already

push

member

tuberculosis,

lives

them

into

dying

or

any

in

poverty,

financial

from

the

other

virus,

disease

this

ruin.

A or

going

undetected and untreated due to the pandemic, means a lost source of income. Unemployment rates have risen, businesses have been forced to shut and consumers have lower spending power. Vaccination programs – not for COVID-19, that is a long way off for many of these countries have

been

(including

put

the

on

hold,

and

anti-malarials

some

touted

medicines by

Trump)

are in short and expensive supply.

infrastructure and healthcare systems, the social and economic consequences of the virus have been far more significant than its direct health effects for these younger, poorer populations.

Universal healthcare coverage is another part of the #3 SDG, but we’re still a long way off that being

a

reality;

healthcare

was

already

unaffordable to many, and rising costs and lower

When the pandemic started, there was serious

incomes

concern

affordable

about

how

it

would

affect

poorer

are

widening

healthcare,

the be

gap.

it

for

Access

to

tuberculosis,

countries without the same quality of healthcare

malaria, or any other disease, is a privilege many

that we enjoy for free in the UK. Cases have in

can

fact

money: healthcare is not a priority when it is a

remained

equipped with

fairly

low

in

Africa

the resources and

already

knowledge

only

dream

of.

People

are

struggling

for

fight to put food on the table.

9


Combatting Food Insecurity for Forcibly Displaced Peoples Using the Case Study of Ethiopian Refugees in Sudan In

by MAYA BENEY

November

2020,

the

Ethiopian

government

under Abiy Ahmed launched an invasion of Tigray, the northernmost region of the country. Ahmed’s deployment of federal troops in the region had a clear aim: to oust the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) from its position as the area’s most powerful party. This was intended to be a decisive incursion but has instead turned into a protracted military conflict leaving grave humanitarian abuses in

its

wake,

cleansing

including

and

accusations

genocide

against

of

the

ethnic

Tigrayan

peoples. As of January 2021, it is estimated that there

have

been

more

than

222,000

people

internally displaced in Ethiopia due to the conflict, in

addition

to

the

100,000

who

displaced. Three months later, this

were

already

figure

is likely

to have increased.

An estimated 60,000 refugees have fled the Tigray region and crossed the border into eastern Sudan. The

Um

Rakuba

and

the

newly

established

Tenetba camp are the two main resettlement sites where refugees will be expected to reside. Yet there are still significant logistical problems that must be addressed, including: proper water and sanitation (including

infrastructure COVID-19);

to

avert

overcrowding;

diseases transferring

refugees from border regions to distant camps, and delivering aid (including food packages). This article will focus on the current situation regarding food

insecurity

border

areas

for or

Ethiopian

camps,

refugees

placing

it

in

these

within

the

Sudanese context of wider food insecurity in the country.

It is important to note that contrary to popular opinion, the majority of countries hosting refugees are

not

wealthy,

geographical people

are

and

proximity

fleeing.

tend to

These

to

be

based

the

regions

host

countries

on

which face

problems of their own, including limited capacity [1]https://www.ft.com/content/8f18a8bf-0999-43e6-96363581a8a2c249 and https://apnews.com/article/race-and-ethnicitysudan-ethiopia-only-on-ap-49166602bcb2a0a112402e202a034f38 [2]https://www.unocha.org/story/daily-noon-briefing-highlights-

to provide aid to their refugee communities, and food insecurity (defined here as a lack of reliable access to sufficient and nutritious food). Sudan is

ethiopia-niger-yemen [3]https://www.rescue.org/press-release/thousands-more-fleeingconflict-ethiopia-arrive-eastern-sudan-irc-scales-emergency [4]https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/refugees-asylumseekers-and-migrants/global-refugee-crisis-statistics-and-facts/

10

such an example. It is estimated that between


February and September 2021, most regions will face minimal (IPC Phase 1) or stressed acute food insecurity (IPC Phase 2). However, some areas will be

in

Crisis

(IPC

contributing

to

Phase this

3).

Significant

insecurity

factors

include

the

government’s devaluation of the Sudanese Pound, at the same time as staple food prices increase in most

main

markets

because

of

extremely

high

production and transportation costs. In addition to this,

Sudan

also

hosts

refugees

from

other

countries such as South Sudan, and the overall number of IDPs is around 1.5 million, concentrated in Darfur, South Kordofan, and the Blue Nile.

The difficulties of ensuring stable food supply for refugees in Sudan are thus compounded by the broader food insecurity in Sudan. Extremely high transportation

costs

caused

by

the

Sudanese

government’s removal of fuel subsidies in October 2020 food

have

had

prices.

problems

of

It

the

effect

also

of

increasing

exacerbates

transporting

food

the

from

stable

logistical

agricultural

centres to transit centres or refugee camps, which are

often

in

remote

areas.

Furthermore,

pre-

existing food insecurity could also depreciate the government’s capacity (or willingness) to donate

settlement Tenetba

agents

must

therefore

be

considered in the mitigation of food insecurity for Ethiopian

refugees:

the

Sudanese

government,

NGOs and humanitarian organisations such as the WFP

(World

refugees

Food

Programme),

themselves.

Broader

and

crucially,

measures

such

as

reintegration of the Sudanese economy into the international economy and reassertion of control over fuel and food prices will have the knock-on effect of aiding food supply to refugees in border areas. food

Yet this insecurity

solution in

resolves the problem of

Sudan,

rather

than

transportation important

International organisations such as the WFP have already made considerable progress in providing food for refugees, organising monthly food rations including sorghum, lentils, oil and salt (particularly as

sorghum

and

millet

prices

have

particularly risen in Sudan). This has been achieved

and

food

centres

routes.

A

consideration

Um

delivery, and

final, is

Rakuba

creating

establishing

but

what

and

nonetheless

role

Ethiopian

refugees themselves can play in increasing their food security. This question is complex as it relies on several questions that are yet to be answered: how long will the conflict in the Tigray region last?

are

the

attitudes

of

the

Sudanese

government and locals towards Ethiopians farming on

their

have

land?

to

on

one

encouraging previously

Although

depend

questions,

solutions

future

possible

Ethiopian

farmers)

to

will

outcomes route

refugees

cultivate

ultimately to

these

could (many

land

be were

surrounding

established resettlement sites, which would benefit both the refugee and settler community. NGOs or external humanitarian agencies such as the WFP would be best placed to provide refugees with the appropriate tools and resources for farming.

To conclude, this article has highlighted the three

in

to

aided

at

different actors which will be the most significant

country.

thanks

as

directly

tackling the lack of food for refugees in the host

important

also

organised

What principal

has

better

such

When, or will it ever be safe for refugees to return?

food to non-citizens.

Three

sites

the

generosity

individuals.

The

of

international

transfer

of

donors

refugees

away

combatting

refugees safety

in

fleeing

food the

Sudan.

It

insecurity Tigray

for

region,

considers

Ethiopian

and

how

seeking

potential

measures for strengthening refugees’ food supply will differ from the strengthening of food security in one country alone, hopefully demonstrating how this case study can be extended as a model for increasing food security for displaced peoples in poorer host countries.

from remote transit camps to more established [5]https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SUDAN_Foo

[8] Ibid.

d_Security_Outlook_February%202021_Final.pdf

[9] https://www.wfp.org/news/wfp-sudan-calls-funding-support-

[6] Ibid

refugees-ethiopia-thanks-japan and

[7] Ibid.

https://reliefweb.int/report/sudan/sudan-food-security-outlookupdate-december-2020

11


Dancing out of the pandemic: The Zena Launchpad is changing charity, building community, and transforming lives. by SEBASTIAN MITCHELL

Seb Mitchell zooms over to Uganda to chat with Caragh Bennet, co-founder & CEO of Zena, about their new hybrid model of social enterprise. Caragh shares stories from the lives of Florence, Rehema, Sandra, and Betty - four entrepreneurs Zena have trained during the pandemic. Charity is changing, and despite the pandemic, Caragh highlights the power of community, the importance of financial independence, and her hopes for the future of international development.

internationally. Selling our jewellery internationally provides save

a

training portion

of

female

their

entrepreneurs

earnings

to

who

start

their

business dream. And the great thing about our short-term apprenticeship is it gives a platform for community

and

for

education.

So,

while

the

women are earning with us, they're also learning with us. Alongside making jewellery, there are daily classes,

" Zena is founded on the premise that female entrepreneurs are a catalyst for change in rural communities, but they face two main barriers: access to capital, and education.

for

leadership

ongoing

personal

development

to

mentoring, really

equip

and these

entrepreneurs.

After two years on our programme, our women have saved enough capital and have built the skills

We don't believe debt or handouts overcome these,

so

to

overcome

the

first

obstacle

the

women create our line of jewellery that we sell

12

and

confidence

business.

they

Normally

‘graduation’ party.”

we

need

to

start

celebrate

their

with

a

own huge


“The pandemic has really highlighted the power of community and the importance of financial independence for these women. From March until May in 2020 Uganda went into a strict

lockdown.

All

non-essential

workplaces

shut

down, travel across district lines was banned, and there was a very strict curfew from 7pm to 6:30am. While

many

of

our

graduates

had

to

shut

their

businesses temporarily, all have now reopened. Their savings have provided a buffer when they needed to stay lean.

The first thing we’ve really been reflecting on is the importance of community. Sandra, who started a hair salon last year, says “I look around, and I can see businesses on either side of me have had to shut down, but God has sustained me.” Sandra shares how

the

community

of

Zena

women

have

encouraged her and even come to her salon in show of support. Since then, she's been able to grow her business

and

employ

two

new

members

of

staff.

She’s been able to raise her own family above the poverty line, and now the families of the two other women she employs. For us, that's an example of where

you

can

really

start

seeing

long-term

sustainable grassroots change. And so the power of connection,

the

power

of

belonging

has

been

important in this time.

The pandemic showed us how much our team and graduates love working at our HQ and in their own business.

Rehema,

who

has

been

running

a

local

produce shop since last Autumn, says that returning to

work

she

was

“mostly

excited

about

the

friendships I had made at the HQ. The lockdown took that away from us, we were so happy to get back together.”

On the flipside, for some women, home situations are

really,

really

gender-based

difficult.

violence,

Lockdown

and

being

means

at

home

more with

maybe an abusive or alcoholic husband. We’re so glad that we can have all of our women back in the building now, albeit with social distancing and maskwearing. Financial independence has also been a necessity for our women, and particularly during the lockdown.

For

Betty,

who

founded

a

convenience

shop, it’s been the difference between having food on the table and not. There were lots of people who were

losing

jobs

or

not

able

to

work

as

much

because of the lockdowns, but our women were able to provide for and support their communities and families.

13 7


“Looking to the future, we’re excited about the potential for our model.

Development

I

said,

it’s

been

gratifying

to

see

that

our

And

from

our

experience,

female household income earners are in a prime position

As

Goals.

to

change

the

statistics

on

hunger,

wellbeing, and poverty.

model can weather the storm, and now I think the onus is on us to share the stories we have. For example, Florence, who graduated in February and

has

opened

her

own

boutique,

that

As I said, it’s been gratifying to see that our Rehema has started a catering business, and

“This

she has hopes for the future: “I am so excited

year I am hopeful because I've been able to start

because of the business I am in. I work in food

my business. I am now independent, I am earning my own money, I am my own boss, I am a big person.”

and work with schools and all kinds of people. I know things will only get better from here.” We hope with Rehema that we will be able to come out

Let's get the word out. Let's go. I think, for us, there's a real sense that this is an opportunity as we

emerge

from

the

pandemic,

to

share

of

this

pandemic

singing,

dancing,

and

celebrating, and most of all changing the story of rural poverty in Uganda.”

the

good news, to keep a positive approach, and to think about how we can expand our impact, how we can make this go further. We would love to see if our model has legs outside

Uganda.

empowerment

is

Right

now,

certainly

female an

international

priority. It fits multiple UN Sustainable

14

Let's get the word

economic

out. Let's go.


We hope with Rehema that we will be able to come out of this pandemic singing, dancing, and celebrating, and most of all changing the story of rural poverty in Uganda.

15


Collateral Damage: Covid-19 and Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

BY ADITHYA MOHAN

Covid-19

has

education

caused

in

the

recorded

largest

history

disruption

(United

to

Nations,

stimulate

2020). Whilst the crisis is a truly global issue, this

skills

generalisation

importance

that

have

glosses

led

inherent

support of

this

education

transformation. means

the

The

potential

modelling predicts that lifetime earnings could fall

nations have been able to mitigate the effects of

by as much as $500 billion. Previous experiences

losing in-person teaching by using e-learning, but

during

for 66% of children in Sub-Saharan Africa, school

significant proportion of children may never return

closures

completely

to school, causing persistent damage (Bandiera et

countries

al., 2020). Most countries have tried to introduce

vaccines

distanced

harmful

meant

struggling

to

stopped

Furthermore,

secure

prevent

the

with

quantities

of

epidemic

learning,

and

suggest

some

that

responses

a

have

students will need to wait longer for a return to

of radio programs to deliver interactive teaching

normality

or Malawi’s introduction of solar-powered offline

In

their

regions

outbreaks,

Ebola

been particularly innovative, such as Rwanda’s use

than

recurring

the

African

nations.

to

consequences.

learning

2020).

nations

that

losses from school closure are colossal; World Bank

(UNICEF,

developing

inequalities

industrialisation,

Wealthy

needed

to

over

and

suffering

particularly

counterparts where

in

developed

intensifying

climate

tablets.

Despite

these

efforts,

engagement

has

shocks and armed conflict already pose a threat

been low even amongst children who can access

to

the

education,

the

pandemic

will

have

tragic

consequences for the well-being of children.

internet,

due

to

a

fall

in

student-teacher

interaction. Limited access to electricity and the internet

16

digitalisation

schooling will play a crucial role in developing the

has

been

a

major

barrier

to

remote

Economists have long regarded education as a

learning efforts, with children from rural areas and

primary

poorer families being disproportionately affected.

driver

of

growth.

As

Africa

looks to


al.

2021).

Whilst

it

is

impossible to completely make up for lost school

of children in

time, active efforts before and after school reopening can minimise the effect of lost learning on

Sub-Saharan Africa,

children’s opportunities.

school closures meant learning

Although these interventions are necessary, short-

stopped completely

term

oriented

educational

policies

gap

alone

between

will

not

close

Sub-Saharan

the

Africa

and the rest of the world. Returning to the status The

pandemic’s

impact

on

education

goes

far

quo in a post-Covid world will fail to address pre-

beyond the direct effects of school closures. The

existing

financial

must be used as a catalyst to accelerate systemic

strain

imposed

on

families

has

inequities

education.

to feed their children, a problem amplified by the

irrelevant and overly complex material needs to be

loss of in-school meal provision and increases in

replaced to benefit both students and teachers.

the

More

rigorous

and

higher

neglected.

food,

education

Economic

is

likely

circumstance

to

may

be

force

in

the

pre-service standards

region.

pandemic

reform

of

education

The

compounded learning losses. As parents struggle

prices

of

in

training

Outdated,

for

enforced

teachers

by

regular

children to abandon their education to make ends

assessments of performance can help deal with

meet.

the problems of absenteeism and inefficiency that

For

girls

in

Africa,

continuing

education

during the pandemic has been especially difficult

hold

because

countries.

Familial

important

after

of

household

gender-specific chores

and

expectations

take

care

of

to

do

younger

relatives. Being out of school increases the risks of

worsens the future prospects of children, but also harms

development

by

increasing

population

perpetuate skills

cross-generational

leave

affected

inequality.

individuals

less

Lower

able

to

support their children in the future, trapping the disadvantaged in a vicious cycle of generational

support

children

will

in

developing

continue

return

to

to

school

be and

parental involvement programmes have proven to be effective and affordable (Barrera-Osorio et al. 2020). Combining informational campaigns with monetary

incentives

can

increase

inclusivity

by

removing the financial and social constraints that cause

low

Although

enrolment

they

may

in

marginalised

be

expensive,

groups. ‘bundled’

education interventions can have a transformative effect on learning outcomes in the world’s most deprived areas (Fazzio et al. 2020).

poverty.

minimise

damage,

policymakers

must

act

immediately. Re-opening schools as soon as health concerns permit should be a priority. Vaccination must

be

sped

up,

a

process

the

global

community can support through initiatives such as COVAX. Children who do not return to class must be identified and encouraged to re-engage with the

learning

process.

If

schools

have

to

remain

shut, policies must be implemented to make the technology universally

needed

for

accessible.

To

training

increase

teachers

in

learning

e-learning’s these

novel

crisis

reveal

the

deficiencies

of

institutions in society, and the pandemic has made the desperate need for education reform in SubSaharan

Africa

positions

of

glaringly many

obvious.

African

The

financial

countries

have

deteriorated in the past year, leaving policymakers with

a

people

monumental are

the

most

challenge. valuable

Nevertheless,

asset

a

country

possesses. Failure to invest in education not only limits the opportunities of the children affected by the

educational

crisis,

but

it

will

also

prevent

sustainable, inclusive growth in the future. Sub-

in

Saharan Africa needs systemic change to stop the

learning is also crucial in supporting children in

pandemic from becoming a generational tragedy

these

that constrains development for decades to come.

methods

is

hard

necessary.

times.

Parental

involvement

Cash transfers to parents can

. 0 4 0 8 2 w r e p a P g ni k r o W

effectiveness,

distanced

of

. 9 9 7 7 2 r e p a P g ni k r o W R E B N ” , u a s si B a e ni u G m o r f e c n e di v E l a t n e mi r e p x E

efforts

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To

a

17

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growth. These discriminatory effects are likely to

systems

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girls out of education permanently. This not only

educational

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child marriage and pregnancy, potentially driving

back

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et

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(Champeaux

” al o b E f o e mi T e h t ni e n o e L a r r ei S m o r f e c n e di v E

losses

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reading resources to families can mitigate learning

REFEERNCES: ” , y r e v o c e r o t d a o r e h t g ni t r a h C – e sl u P s’ a ci r f A‘ , ) 0 2 0 2 ( k n a B dl r o W

66%

ease financial burdens and providing high-quality

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for


CUES Makeathon: CUiD Challenge Winner This

term

CUiD

partnered

with

the

Cambridge

University Engineering Society (CUES) on the CUES Makeathon. The Makeathon was based on the theme of ‘Global Solutions’ and required teams to use their

can help the world.

CUiD challenged the engineers to develop solutions to societal

problems

created

by

the

COVID-19

pandemic. We had some incredible submissions with ideas ranging from robotic nurses to viral simulations to improve public awareness. However, there could only

be

one

winner

and

that

team

was

VacPac.

VacPac impressed all the judges with their solution to vaccine

delivery

vaccines

are

in

often

developing

spoiled

countries

before

they

where

reach

their

intended destinations due to the lack of cold chain infrastructure. VacPac has written more about their story and technology below:

“The idea for VacPac came about when one of our team members, Egle, attended a talk two years ago, by

an

NGO

where

they

presented

issues

with

vaccination in developing countries. Since then, she’d wanted to help solve some of these. In particular, one issue

that

countries,

stuck the

with

her

was

infrastructure

that

for

in

developing

transporting

cold

products is lacking, especially during the “last mile” of vaccine

delivery.

This

means

many

vaccines

unfortunately go to waste; according to WHO data, 2.8 million vaccines went to waste in five countries in 2011.

Right now, most vaccines are transported in cooler boxes, not dissimilar to a cooler you would use for your picnic, just better insulated. One issue with these coolers is that to retrieve a vaccine, you have to open the entire box, exposing all the vaccines to heat and potentially contaminating them.

18

vaccines went to waste

design prototypes of new ideas and innovations that

to WHO data,

2.8 million

technical knowledge and creativity to build, code and

according

in five countries in 2011.


To

solve

this,

we

designed

VacPac,

a

3D

printed

1.

device which lets you take out vaccines one by one, without having to open a lid. The design is entirely mechanical,

so

no

power

is

required,

and

is

really

quite simple and robust. It’s also very cheap, costing

£5

about

per device. We’re hoping that because the

device can be 3D printed, it could be quickly fitted into the existing vaccine coolers and allow them to keep vaccines cooler for longer, a goal which seems more urgent now with COVID-19 than ever before.

We’d love to see our device being used in the field, but first we need to make sure we’ve got the best design

possible,

participating

in

that’s the

why

Hercules

currently

we’re

Cambridge

Design

Tournament. We’re working with our mentors and using the judges, who are top industrial design experts, to get advice on how to improve our design the best we can. However, it’s proving challenging to find people in Cambridge who have experience working in this

Most

vaccines

carriers

look

something like this...

area in developing countries. We’d really love to get some advice on potential issues from people on the ground

(If

you

have

any

experience

working

in

medicine in developing countries please get in touch! Email

do340@cam.ac.uk)!

Hopefully

VacPac

will

be

out there soon, reducing vaccine waste.”

The VACPAC solution:

Do

visit

about

our how

website

to

VACPAC

read works

more at:

https://devpost.com/software/lastmile-vaccine-delivery

19


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