Pharmacy P E R S P E C T I V E S
THE RESILIENCE IS SU E
A 110-YEAR LEGACY A History of Growth
Every new semester is exciting, but this fall semester was even more so. We celebrated the start of our 110th year as a leading school of pharmacy. We celebrated again being ranked as a top-20 school of pharmacy by U.S. News & World Report. We celebrated that our students were back learning on campus, many for the very first time. And, we celebrated a robust season of achievement. Our school launched the new Center for Drug Discovery, which houses the only academic high-throughput robotics system of its kind in the Rocky Mountain region with the capability to dramatically accelerate drug discovery. Our researchers led studies on COVID-19 mutations, cannabis and heart health, kidney pharmacotherapy, and more. Our faculty were once again prominent authors in one of the most widely used pharmacy textbooks in the U.S. Our students won an outstanding number of national research, clinical, and service awards. Our alumni were publishing, precepting, and advocating for pharmacy across the nation. As diverse as these activities are, the one thing they all have in common is the quality of resilience. It has been our individual and collective resilience that has fueled our ability to remain committed to our mission of excellence and innovation. Join me in celebrating this commemorative year by reflecting on and being inspired by the stories of resilience in the pages to follow. Sincerely,
Ralph J. Altiere, PhD Dean, University of Colorado, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
The CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences started out as a department in the School of Medicine at the University of Colorado at Boulder in 1911 with only one faculty and just two students. By 1913, the department became an independent college and awarded its first degree. A little over thirty years later, in 1957, the college received the official designation as a School of Pharmacy. As the School grew, so did its need for expanded facilities leading to its move to the former Health Sciences Center campus in 1992. Ultimately, the Pharmacy School relocated to a shared building on the CU Anschutz Medical Campus in 2008. Thanks to a $10 million gift from the Skaggs family and The ALSAM Foundation, the school built a 165,000 square foot building to house faculty offices, student services and research laboratories allowing the school to grow its pharmaceutical biotechnology program and create a drug-development center to focus on new medications. Dedicated in 2011, the school was renamed the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences in recognition of the family’s longstanding support.
A History of Inclusion
1920 1920 A class comprised only of women graduates.
1914 First woman is awarded a degree.
2020 Incoming P1 class is more than 50% non-white.
2001 The School receives a multi-million-dollar grant to provide assistance to schools for health profession education for minority students.
1953 First AfricanAmerican student graduated. 1961 First international faculty member (from India) joins the faculty.
1980 1986 First scholarship program for underrepresented minority students is established. 1992 The Summer Enrichment Program designed to increase student diversity in pharmacy begins.
2015 Steinhauser Diversity Scholarship established for students who contribute to the diversity of the School. 2016 Diamond New American Scholarship for 1st or 2nd generation immigrant students established.
2021 Brunson Pharmacy Diversity Scholarship established to support diverse students.
A History of Giving Since 1911, the School and its students have enjoyed immense support from alumni, faculty, staff, students, and community donors. It seemed fully appropriate, therefore, to celebrate our 110th anniversary with a campaign to support our 1911 Scholarship Fund. The fund helps increase the diversity of our student body and offsets the significant debt incurred by many of our students as they pursue their academic and professional dreams. "Now in my fourth year of the program, I reflect on the many opportunities that enabled me to advance my career and complete my degree. Scholarships empowered me to focus on achieving an enriching graduate education and played a critical role in my success."
"As the owner of two independent pharmacies in rural Colorado, I can see how these scholarships helped fund my education and allowed me to be prepared for pharmacy ownership right out of school. I hope many more generations of pharmacists can benefit from scholarships as they pass through the doors of our alma mater."
Sara Azimi, P4
Lucas Smith, PharmD, '14
Be a part of our 110th anniversary by supporting students with your gift to the 1911 Scholarship Fund. pharmacy.cuanschutz.edu
With determination :
Meet the Class of 2025
he class of 2025 are the go-getters. The ones who did not let a pandemic derail their plans. The students who arrived this fall ready to jump in, be flexible, and learn. They came to CU Pharmacy from eight countries, sixteen states, and one U.S. territory. They came to thrive. “This was my path,” said Gina Hardgraves, a mom of three from Colorado. “I had been working toward being a pharmacist, and I was not slowing down.” Hardgraves is unique in that she does not have a bachelor’s degree. As an adult student, she contacted the PharmD program to know the path of least resistance to become a pharmacist. For the past three years, she had been taking prerequisites for the program. Hardgraves juggles school with parenting and an over hour-long commute to campus. “I’m so excited to be here,” she continued. “It’s a challenge, but this is my goal.” Hardgraves is one of the 104 students in the P1 class welcomed to campus this fall. The class of 2025 is one unlike any other. Just over a year ago, universities worldwide navigated online teaching, closures, and adjustments to make learning happen. As the new school year approached, the class knew the challenges they may face and decided to go forth anyway, in pursuit of a dream. For Darian Gamez, a first-generation college student who identifies as Mexican-American, the goal is to be the first doctor in her family. “I am the first of my siblings to graduate high school and to get a bachelor’s degree,” she explained. Gamez is also the first of her extended family to attend a university. The pandemic has especially taken a toll on first-generation students like Gamez. The Chronicle of Higher Education reported in August that total FAFSA completions by returning first generation students fell by 170,605 compared with the last cycle. That number represents a 4.7% drop in returning first-generation students. In times like this, a support system is incredibly important to succeed.
S t u d e n t and mom Gi na Har dgraves bal ances school and family.
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
“My family is so proud of me,” Gamez explained. “Just over the moon. They are so supportive.” She came to the pharmacy school on a mission to absorb as much as she can. “I’m excited about how much I am learning,” she said. “There are so many opportunities to learn about the pharmacy field. I want to take in all of the information I am getting.” After moving seven times to various places around the world, Yulia Nagai ultimately choose CU Pharmacy for its world-class medical campus and the opportunity to collaborate with other medical professionals. As the medical field evolves, collaboration between specialties is more important to provide patientcentered care. With new technology, care teams can access their patients faster and more accurately than ever before, potentially changing the way pharmacists do their jobs. For Nagai, the rapid pace of technology is part of her interest. “I grew up in Japan, and herbal medicine is not uncommon there,” she said. “I learned about drug lag, which is a delay in [pharmaceutical] approval process. That lag is significant in Japan compared to other countries, so many people will turn to herbal medicine. My interest in pharmacy started with that.” Nagai has been in the United States since she was sixteen and decided to stay for her graduate education to study pharmacy. “I don’t know what I want to do with my degree yet,” she says, “but I have time to find out.” Agreeing with her is Daija Johnson. Johnson is one of eleven P1 students who took advantage of the remote PharmD learning option offered this year. A newlywed based in Hawaii, Johnson is four hours behind Colorado’s mountain time zone and joins her classes at 4 a.m. “Can you see the bags under my eyes?” she jokes. Johnson applied when she was in undergraduate school and moving from South Carolina to Hawaii. She was specifically looking for a PharmD program that she could complete remotely.
Darian G amez celebrates the w h it e co a t ce r em o ny wit h h e r fa m ily.
The Class of 2025 by the numbers Enrollment “The field is so broad,” she said. “It’s not just ‘pushing pills.’ It can be anything. I found out that the head of poison control is a pharmacist, and wow, the fact that you can be the head of something like that, where everyone turns to you, is awesome.” As a remote PharmD student, Johnson faces different challenges than her peers, but her goals are the same – success. And like her peers, she is resilient. The class of 2025 is one like no other. They are innovative, determined, and because of the pandemic, ready to build a career differently than those who came before them.
104 1,972 hrs. * Average per student
Ethnicity American Indian 2%
Female 65% Hispanic 11%
Top Locations 1. Colorado 2. California 3. Florida 4. Illinois 5. Arizona Yu lia N a g a i was heav i l y i nf l uenced by her chi l dhood in Japan.
*Including Puerto Rico and Korea
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 1%
R e mo t e P 1 D a i ja J ohns on i s compl eti ng her degree f r o m H awa ii.
With fortitude :
The Class of 2024 Displays its Resilience Through Annual Story Slam “Story Slam always sticks out as this event, this kind of seminal event in their pharmacy training, where they really become a unified class.” Jay Bolan, Senior Academic Coordinator for Experiential Programs, reflects on the annual event typically done in the spring of the P1year. Story Slam is a friendly competition of amateur storytelling in which the audience selects the best story, or storyteller. Each year, the P1 class gathers in one group to each tell 5-minute stories using one of three prompts – How I got here; Confirming Experience; and Do-Over. The class then selects a winner. Bolan is hands-on in running the Story Slam and subsequent Reflective Practitioner Program, where students learn to share their experiences with their peers to process the emotional journey of a medical professional. “It’s really about getting the students to tap into, and get comfortable with, sharing their emotions freely, being vulnerable with that process … it is about being able to share deeply and honestly with their peers.” Building Connections No class, it seems, needed that connection quite like the class of 2024. Because of last year’s COVID-19 restrictions, the class began its academic journey online, where Zoom was the new normal and meaningful connection required extra effort. When the class was able to regroup this fall, Story Slam had an updated dynamic; no longer P1s, the class knew each other virtually, they had more education than the previous year, and their experience over the pandemic had changed them. This year’s finalists, Cody Alexander, Latifa Sharker, and Nick Perez; and eventual winner, Scott Ho, came to class with a variety of life lessons. “I applied to pharmacy school before the first COVID case was identified in the United States and interviewed in person so I had no idea I would begin my doctoral degree online in the fall of 2020 during the pandemic,” explained Sharker. “However, as cases rose, I started to realize that I wouldn’t begin my pharmacy degree the same as so many other student pharmacists had.” Perez, who moved from Miami to Colorado for graduate school, also had an adjustment to online learning, but he says he found a lot of opportunities to connect to his peers in
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Story Slam winner Scott Ho shares his experience wearing his white coat.
then-unorthodox ways and experienced a new-found appreciation for social opportunities when possible. Finding Common Ground “Appreciate your peers and the opportunities you have to connect with them,” he says. “They will help you socially, and in your career and education.” For his story, Perez reflected on a time when he also had to appreciate his peers. In a teenage wilderness camp tasked with staying out in the woods alone for the night, he built a single lean-to quickly to shelter for a coming storm. When he heard a bear approaching, his fear began to grow, quickly to discover the “bear” was a fellow camper, lost and in need of shelter. The two shared the tiny lean-to until dawn and realized they had much more in common than they thought. Finding common ground, and a meaningful connection, has been easier in person. Wearing the White Coat “The biggest adjustment this year was seeing people in person,” Ho said. “I had to literally tie people’s faces to their Zoom picture. That always takes a moment.”
Although unique the experience is invaluable, and I do believe it will help make me a better pharmacist in the future. - L A T I FA S H A R K E R
P 2 S t o r y S l a m f i n a l i s t s L a t i f a S h a r k e r, C o d y A l e x a n d e r, S c o t t H o , a n d Nick Perez.
Ho’s story was reflective in nature, about an experience he had while working at his community pharmacy. He explained that after being approached by a mugger in the back of a pharmacy, the mugger expressed pity on him when he learned Ho was a student and not an actual pharmacist and gave back his pocket change. “Several thoughts ran through my head; I was glad I wasn’t hurt but should I feel offended by this? That a crook conveyed his condolences to a student?” “I think the moral of my story would be that each and every one of my classmates are here biding our time for something big,” he said. “We’re here for the long haul and ultimately have a successful future ahead of us. We may be broke students now, but we’ll come out of this journey in a profession we all dreamed about all these years.” The Lessons of Little Things Sharker, a current pharmacy intern at the University of Colorado Hospital, says her story was inspired by the simplicity of the situation. “Every day we encounter little and big things that give as an opportunity to reflect and to learn,” she said.
“What I really love about Story Slam is that you never know what you’re going to hear,” said Bolan, “Every year is completely different, and just when you think you have heard everything, a student will tell a story that surprises you, or humbles you, and you realize that there is always so much more going on with the student body than you are ever aware of.” The Strength of Diversity “When I think about this class, the thing that struck me the most is that they have such diverse backgrounds from what we have seen in the past,” said Dr. Megan Thompson, PharmD,
Assistant Dean of Experiential Programs. “Hearing about their life experiences is exciting. From globe trekkers, to being multilingual, to interesting previous careers, to first generation college students, these life experiences will be important tools in helping them connect with their patients and communities.” Indeed, the class of 2024 stands apart from the rest. The most diverse class ever welcomed to the School also started fully remote during a pandemic. Bolan agrees with the class of 2024 being unique – and ready for a challenge.
Finalist Latifa Sharker shares her experience with the class about learning from the e v e r y d a y.
“With this class in particular, I cannot help but admire them for their resilience and fortitude. What they have accomplished is remarkable, and it has not been an easy road,” he said. “Instead of deferring enrollment to a later date, they forged ahead amid unprecedented circumstances. It’s commendable.” All of the students are here for the challenge, and Sharker gives the perfect summary of why. “Although unique,” she said, “the experience is invaluable, and I do believe it will help make me a better pharmacist in the future.”
Nick Perez shares his story about experiencing common ground.
With impact :
I WANT TO SUPPORT THEIR GREATNESS CU Pharmacy Welcomes International Pharmacy Leader
r. Tina Brock is excited to be the new Associate Dean of Education at the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. And she said every word in the name of the school, almost without having to pause. Almost. Brock is no stranger to pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. A small-town girl from McComb,Mississippi, she was heavily influenced by her community pharmacy and saw how integrated healthcare is a game-changer. She has a double bachelor’s degree in German and Pharmacy, because she says, “There is an art and a science to healthcare.” She continued in pharmacy and earned an MS in Pharmaceutical Marketing. As a pharmacist, Brock worked at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and while there she earned a doctorate in Curriculum and Instruction. Brock teaches pharmacists how to teach. She’s been on the forefront of pharmacy education since 1998, when she was starting to teach pharmacy students how to immunize and traveled to Colorado to give an invited talk on this work. Since that time, she’s lived and worked
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
around the world – with pharmacy education teams at University College London in the United Kingdom, University of California, San Francisco, and Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. She is in Colorado partly because during the pandemic, living in Australia meant she was unable to visit family regularly. She is at CU Pharmacy to create agents of change, who will prosper and grow in their field. Brock is a devotee to Michael D. Watkins’ book, “The First 90 Days.” “I have read this book probably seven times,” she said. “And each time I start a new position, I read it again.” She laughs, “When I follow this, fewer things go wrong.” According to Brock, “The First 90 Days” is a lot about relationships, culture, and getting to know people. “Sometimes when you start a new job, they go, ‘We have been saving some problems for you and here they are and please solve them’ and I say, ‘No, no, no, I will get to know you and I will elicit from you how you like to work and what your goals are, and then together we will solve those problems.'” Together is the key word. With her background in curriculum and instruction, collaboration is big. Intersystem approach is big. “Diverse teams make better decisions,” Brock explained. “They solve problems better. Not necessarily faster or easier, but the challenges in healthcare right now are really not simple. They are more systems-based, and it’s going to take all of us, working together, trusting each other, relying on each other, and creating a shared language to make healthcare better.” Arriving on a new campus during a pandemic is not lost on her. “Everyone is working so hard. Most people haven’t had a break. Many people are educating their kids at home, dealing with openings, closings. I get it. But I also think, so many times in history, when things were at their worst, so many great things can happen.”
“Over the last year and a half, the one thing that I learned is, it’s people first. So, support them. Advocate for them. Remove unnecessary roadblocks for them. And their internal motivation for mastery and autonomy and purpose will drive them. If I just help clear the path for them, they will achieve more than what we could ever envision.” Brock says that a shared bond will allow a team to achieve a goal together. In her vision, just like one brings a patient into the care model, she wants to bring the students into the teaching model. She doesn’t want buy in. She wants investors, and people to see themselves as part of what is done at CU Pharmacy. “It’s my job to bring those people to the table, she said. “And make sure that they feel valuable as well as valued, and that they can be individually successful by helping to achieve a team goal.”
Photo Credit: Monash University
I will get to know you and I will elicit from you how you like to work and what your goals are, and then together we will solve those problems. -DR. TINA BROCK ASSOCIATE DEAN OF EDUCATION
New Center for Drug Discovery Sets Path Toward Innovation Hub By Deb Melani
or today’s generation of medical researchers, the need for speed in the scientific world was never more pronounced than it was in 2020. As society hid from a deadly virus, the race for a treatment went full-throttle, pinning some scientists in their labs nearly 24/7. Now researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, with a new Center for Drug Discovery officially unveiled in September, can fast-track drug therapies all night long – and even go home and sleep while they’re doing it thanks to a specialized robotic drug discovery imaging system. Built by longtime corporate partner PerkinElmer and housed in the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences building, the high-throughput, highcontent screening system can do in minutes what would take one researcher hours to do. The system, actually a custom-built suite of integrated robotic and imaging systems, is the only one of its kind in the Rocky Mountain Region. The technology, which stands to advance education, innovation and partnerships for the campus, was made possible largely through a grant from The ALSAM Foundation, a longtime benefactor of the School of Pharmacy.
“The idea is to bring new therapies to patients much more quickly and efficiently. That’s the overall goal of everyone working here at the Anschutz Medical Campus,” said David Ross, PhD, Associate Dean for research and graduate studies. The sterile, HEPA-filtered system is encased in plexiglass and centered around a robotic arm that tracks back and forth doing the jobs a researcher programs it to do. The robotic arm can do everything from dispensing drugs and cell mediums (disease models), lidding and de-lidding plates, spinning plates on a centrifuge, incubating assays and washing pipettes and Petri dishes for a next round. The system can run multiple experiments simultaneously. The robotic system also eliminates human error, according to Dan LaBarbera, PhD, the new center’s founding director. Another benefit: Human beings need breaks; robots do not, LaBarbera said. “Like for me, I need coffee. We need to sleep. We need to eat. The robot doesn’t need to do that. We can program the robot and screen 100,000 compounds, and it won’t stop until it’s done.” With the talent of the biomedical community on campus and the expertise at developing disease models for testing individual drugs, the possibilities for the future are great.
J o h n L u c k o f P e r k i n E l m e r, D a n i e l L a B a r b e r a , C h a n c e l l o r Don Elliman, David Ross, and Dean Ralph Altiere cut the ribbon at the Center for Drug Discovery's open house.
“We help with prioritizing and validating lead drug therapies and providing feedback and expertise on optimization of those through medicinal chemistry,” said LaBarbera. LaBarbera’s aim is to become a drug discovery hub, working closely with CU Innovations and harnessing disease models for drug screening from all CU Anschutz research centers, the Fitzsimons Innovation Community and beyond. “Our goal is to increase the number of investigational new drugs with the potential to make it to the clinic that were developed right here at CU Anschutz and in Colorado,” LaBarbera said. “We hope to have a great impact.”
Moving forward :
New Research Could Anticipate Covid’s Next Move
hroughout the pandemic, we have struggled to get ahead of COVID-19. Now, with research from the Mallela Research Lab at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, scientists can take steps to be proactive instead of reactive – and possibly predict how the virus will act next. Dr. Krishna Mallela, PhD, along with his research team on campus, Dr. Vaibhav Upadhyay, PhD, and PhD student Alexandra Lucas, published an article this fall in the prestigious Journal of Biological Chemistry ( JBC) based on their research on the evolution of mutations in SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. Their article, “Receptor binding, immune escape, and protein stability direct the natural selection of SARS-CoV-2 variants”, is gaining national attention for its findings and their research illustration is featured on the November cover of JBC. “SARS-CoV-2 variants pose a major challenge for devising measures to counter the virus threat, as new variants continue to emerge, some of which are believed to be more infectious than the wildtype [original] virus,” they wrote. Simply put, if Mallela and his team can predict how the virus will mutate, researchers can develop new treatments, vaccines, and plans to counter its deadly path. Both SARS-CoV (responsible for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and SARS-CoV-2 enter the human body through interaction of its spike protein. The Mallela Lab, already a leader in researching protein stability and aggregation of disease-related and model proteins, was uniquely positioned to take on this work to combat the pandemic. “We were set back,” Mallela said. “The beginning of this pandemic we were all set back, we could not be in the lab. But when we got back to work in person, we knew we could do this research [with what they already had in place].” Upadhyay, a post-doctoral researcher, explained that they use human kidney cells to test variants of SARS-CoV-2 and its protein expression because it closely matches the natural infection scenario. But why, and how, does SARS-CoV-2 mutate in the first place?
We are scientists and it is very important right now that people are able to trust the science. -DR. KRISHNA MALLELA
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Drs. Vaibhav Upadhyay and Krishn a M a llela wo r k in t h e M a lle la la b . T h eir team is responsible for g roundbre a k in g r e s ea r ch o n COVI D-1 9 v a r ia n t s .
Viruses, like other life forms, mutate to stay alive. SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus, and we encounter RNA viruses fairly regularly, including the common cold and influenza, as well as more serious viruses such as HIV and hepatitis C. Some mutations occur to escape treatment. When a host, in this case a person, has low resistance to the virus it seizes the opportunity to change. Sometimes, these changes can make the virus more lethal or more contagious. This is why, Mallela said, it is important to be vaccinated. When SARS-CoV-2 encounters a strong immune response, it loses its opportunity to mutate. It was, and is, incredibly important to the team that their work be able to be replicated, reviewed, and published in reputable journals; and that it be simplified so that anyone can understand what they are doing.
“We are scientists,” Mallela explained, “and it is very important right now that people are able to trust the science.” So, when Discover Magazine called to talk about their work, Mallela was happy to do it. In ‘How COVID-19 Variants Could Outsmart Vaccines,’ the team explained how SARS-CoV-2 is so tricky. “On the surface of a human cell, the virus binds with its spike protein to the human ACE2 enzyme and “unlocks” it to gain entry,” Discover reported. The Mallela team says variants appear to be tweaking the protein structure in order to tightly bind with ACE2 and escape neutralizing antibodies. They also say that they will continue their valuable work, and to expect more papers on their research. “We report the facts,” Mallela said. “And the medical community can respond.”
Dr. Ma llela a n d P h D s t u d e n t Alex a n d ra Lu ca s collabo ra t e o n COVI D-1 9 r e s ea r ch .
TREATMENT GETS PERSONAL WITH ADVANCES IN PRECISION MEDICINE Pharmacogenomic experts use genome tests to customize medications
s there a way to reduce the time spent in trialing different medications, such as antidepressants? Is there a way to predict who may be at increased risk of experiencing medication side effects? This calls for personalized medicine, which is more than a buzzword. Pharmacogenomics, a subset of personalized medicine, is an exciting field of medicine dedicated to understanding how a person’s genes affect his/her drug response. It can potentially help patients know which drugs will more likely work for them, and reduce the frustration behind the trial and error approach to medicine. At the University of Colorado (CU) Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, assistant professor Yee Ming Lee PharmD, BCPS, ABCP, is focused on bringing pharmacogenomics into clinical practice to impact patient outcomes. “The current (prescribing) process assumes a one-size-fits-all approach,” Lee said. “We are looking at individual factors such as genetics to understand how it can affect a person’s drug response.” Dr. Lee, along with clinical pharmacogenomics fellow and CU Pharmacy alumnus James Martin, PharmD, ’20, offer a pharmacist-provided pharmacogenomic service at the University of Colorado Hospital (UCH) Patient Coordinated Services Clinic. Providers at the clinic refer patients looking to understand if there is a genetic cause to the medication side effects they have experienced, patients who have failed multiple medications and hope to find the right medication, and patients who just want to know their genetic profile in relation to drug response. This service, established in 2018, has seen about 25 patients since that time. Dr. Lee emphasizes that many factors affect an individual’s drug response, including genetics, environment, and lifestyle. However, our genetics do not change. Even though the
pharmacogenomic test is typically paid out-ofpocket, there is usually no need to repeat the test. Genetic results may be applied to certain drugs prescribed in the future, including new drugs under development. As such, there are many opportunities to personalize treatment plans for patients based on their genetic profiles. Before patients get tested, Drs. Lee and Martin explain to them the benefits and limitations of pharmacogenomic testing. Some of the benefits include using the results to inform providers which drug to use, how much to prescribe, and who is at risk of side effects and/ or toxicity. According to Dr. Martin, though they see patients seeking help with mental health-related medications, pharmacogenomics is also widely applied in other areas of medicine, including cardiology, gastroenterology, infectious disease, neurology, oncology, and pain management. The pharmacogenomic test involves a simple cheek swab that is sent off for DNA testing. Drs. Lee and Martin then gather the patient’s medical history, current medication list, and information on previous medications tried. Once the patient’s pharmacogenomic results are available, they will discuss the findings with the referring physician and come up with a treatment plan. The clinical use of pharmacogenomic results has been facilitated by pharmacogenomic guidelines produced by organizations such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium. Their roles as a pharmacists in this field are invaluable, and both Drs. Lee and Martin have the specialized training to not only interpret genetic test results, but explain why the patient may or may not be reacting as expected to treatment, and what are the alternative drugs to consider. With the widespread availability of genetic testing and interest in personalized medicine, Dr. Lee sees this field as a world of opportunities – and Dr. Martin sees it as the future of medicine.
“If we can bring this technology to more people and train more healthcare professionals on how to use this information, we will be much closer to realizing a more personalized approach to medicine. Patients may not need to be so frustrated with the trial-and-error method of having their medication prescribed,” he said. “This is the future of personalized, more accurate, treatment.”
Dr. Yee Ming Le e ex pla in s t o a pa t ien t h o w to collect the s a m ple t h a t will d et er m in e h is genetic match fo r ex is t in g ph a r m a ce u t ica ls
Dr.Martin expla in s t h e DNA r e po r t t o a pa t ien t .
Thought leaders :
CU PROFESSOR GIVES HAND AND HEART TO HELA LEGACY: MEDICINE’S GIFT UNGIVEN BY DEB MELANI
Her cells, nicknamed HeLa cells, changed medicine’s path. They became the most-commonly used cancer cell line in biological research history, making profound contributions to science and saving countless lives. Taken without her knowledge, it was decades before the woman’s story slowly emerged, shining light on patient rights. Today, as Henrietta Lacks’ tale recaptures the public eye, David Kroll, PhD, a professor in the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, watches the headlines with more curiosity than most. In October – days after some family members filed a lawsuit against a biomedical supply commercial giant – the poor Black woman who grew up farming the tobacco fields of Virginia was honored by the World Health Organization. The headlines bring mixed emotions to Kroll, who became entwined in the Lacks’ family story when he read an article 15 years ago written by a then-little-known science journalist named Rebecca Skloot. “In tiny, tiny print at the bottom, it said she’s working on a book on the cancer cells that came from Henrietta Lacks,” said Kroll, whose graduate work and dissertation were largely based on HeLa cells. Kroll emailed Skloot, launching a partnership and 15 years of “giving back.” He became a scientific adviser for Skloot’s best-seller, “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks,” and is a founding member of her Henrietta Lacks Foundation.
A u t h o r R e b e c ca Skl oot wi th f el l ow f oundati on me mb e r s D r. Dav i d K r ol l and B l ai r LM Kel l ey.
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
‘There’s almost a motherly quality to them’ Lacks’ cells were taken when she was treated for cervical cancer at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Diagnosed eight months before her death on Oct. 4, 1951, at age 31, Lacks endured a brutal – but then advanced – treatment regimen in the “colored ward” of the nonprofit hospital. Lacks’ case came during an era when conducting research on Black patients was looked at by some scientists as their due for care, and consent laws were nonexistent. George Gey, MD, who had been struggling for years to find human cells he could reproduce, cultured some of Lacks’ cells. The results were astounding. “They were the first human cancer cell line that was isolated and continually carried in culture,” Kroll said of Lacks’ unusually aggressive cancer cells that were so hardy and forgiving, they are now commonly used in teaching labs. Speaking at a ceremony in 2010, when Lacks’ unmarked grave finally received a donated headstone, Kroll told her gathered family members how the characteristics of her cancer cells that made them so deadly were what made them special to science. “They are so forgiving,” he told her children and grandchildren, “there’s almost a motherly quality to them. The cells can tolerate a lot of mistreatment and still survive in culture.” The cells led to cancer therapies, Jonas Salk’s life-saving polio vaccine and preventive AIDS drugs through the isolation of HIV. They launched the genomics revolution, went to space for zero-gravity studies and were integral in two Nobel prizes.
Bringing injustices to public attention No company profits made off the cells ever went back to the Lacks family, and no consent was ever requested. “Initially, the popularity of the book raised attention of both the general public and the medical community to injustices that medicine has inflicted on the African American community,” Kroll said. Then Oprah’s production company filmed a movie based on the book. Skloot has raised awareness through 11 years of speaking at medical campuses around the world, Kroll said. And Lacks’ story has taken on renewed life recently with the emergence of the pandemic and the Black Lives Matter movement – two events that reignited equity issues her story has long narrated.
Dr. Dav id K r o ll
Fulfilling a promise to give back to the family in some way once the book published, Skloot launched the Henrietta Lacks Foundation. Today, Kroll reviews grants and counsels Lacks’ progeny, largely on educational prospects. Lacks’ story has been partially responsible for regulatory changes supporting patients, Kroll said. And it has been one steppingstone toward his vision of equality for all in health and science. With his dissertation tucked in his desk drawer now signed by many grateful Lacks family members, Kroll can rest at night knowing he’s helped. “It’s just really touching to be part of this all.”
To this day, I think about how she pushed me outside of my comfort zone to reach the potential I couldn’t see for myself. For that, I will forever be grateful.
UPPING HER GAME: Associate Professor Gets Creative in the Classroom By Deb Melani Slaying creepy bugs with an arsenal of foreign firearms or being thrown into an escape room where the entire Front Range population dies if they fail are just average tasks for Meghan Jeffres’ students. Jeffres, PharmD, an associate professor in the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, has employed games in the classroom, from Cardio Go Fish to Infectious Disease Gin Rummy, since an early teaching job in Las Vegas. There, in the world of high-stakes poker games and flashy slot machines, classes at her previous university ran on a block schedule, putting instructors in front of one group of students from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. every day. “You can’t lecture for seven hours. You’ll absolutely lose your mind, and the students will hate you. You have to find new ways to teach,” said Jeffres, an award-winning instructor for excellence and innovation in education and this year’s winner of the President’s Excellence in Teaching award. Since then, Jeffres has upped her game, creating a mobileapp called Infectopede, an online cache of games titled BugOut, and numerous escape-room challenges for her students on the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. Jeffres’ Infectopede (similar to Centipede for those old enough to remember arcade games) pits students against invading bugs that can blow them up if they don’t kill the onslaught of pathogens first. The trick: choosing the right weapon in their arsenal (a spectrum of antibiotics) to shoot down the cascading germs (MRSA, C. diff, Legionella, etc.) with their movable gun (syringe). For recent graduate Zaynib Hassan, PharmD, Jeffres’ creative ways of reaching her students really stood out and Infectopede became a favorite way to study. “I actually still pull it out occasionally to refresh my knowledge,” Hassan said.
“I want them to fall in love with the content,” Jeffres said of her students. “To do that, you’ve really got to set down a solid foundation. So, almost all of my games are rudimentary, foundational knowledge,” she said, describing it as the road to “higher-level thinking.” Gaming works well in the health sciences, which requires a large amount of rote learning with the level of data increasing exponentially each year, Jeffres said. “You need to find a way to engage students in a way that the content will stick.” Rather than the all-too-often “binging and purging” of information as students go through the years, Jeffres seeks to teach her students how their educational journey becomes easier once that retention of the basics occurs. “So they are actually building upon what they’ve learned before,” she said. “Gamification helps when the content is interpreted as not exciting – these rudimentary skills
that are largely not taught; they are told,” Jeffres said. Instead, Jeffres will create classroom projects in a game format, such as an escape room-like challenge, that requires the use of medical references to solve puzzles to complete the task. “So, they spend time in all of these reference sites without sort of knowing that they are learning about them, or at least being way more willing to engage in that learning.” Jeffres tries to think of new puzzle concepts every year. “I give them a scenario like, ‘Someone broke into the CDC lab, and they stole anthrax, and they are going to spray it across the Front Range. Now you have to unlock the safety room where all of the anthrax antibiotics are underneath the Denver airport. You must solve all puzzles to unlock the door.” While her approach is fun, Jeffres is not all games, Hassan said. “She is the kind of professor that you can have an intensely cerebral conversation with and then have a great laugh with the very next moment,” she said. “To this day, I think about how she pushed me outside of my comfort zone to reach the potential I couldn’t see for myself. For that, I will forever be grateful.”
Student research :
P4’S RESEARCH LANDS HER NATIONAL FELLOWSHIP AND FACULTY’S ADMIRATION
or P4 Madison Ricco, pharmaceutical research has been a passion of hers as long as she can remember. As an undergrad, she led research projects at her institution. As a P1, she enrolled in the honors program for a research-intensive experience. And, as a P2, she enrolled in the Master of Science (MS) in Pharmaceutical Sciences degree; the first student to ever attempt both programs congruently.
Ricco was committed to taking every opportunity to develop her research interests. It would take such dogged commitment to convince her now-mentor to take her on as a student researcher. Many faculty researchers are hesitant to take on a PharmD student in their labs, and understandably so. The demanding Doctor of Pharmacy degree leaves precious little time to dedicate to a serious lab-based research project. Dr. Tom Anchordoquy was skeptical of such a young student taking on such a workload. “I tried to tell Madison this when she approached me as a P1, but she simply changed my mind,” he said. “She convinced me that she was passionate about the opportunity to do research and that she was committed for the long term. I could not refute her.” According to Anchordoquy, it was a decision he would not regret. “I gave her a chance and she has proven to be far and away the most dedicated pharmacy student I have ever had.” Ricco’s commitment not only opened the door to Anchordoquy’s lab, but it also paved the way for a prestigious national research award. Dr. Anchordoquy recommended she apply for a Gateway to Research Award offered by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education. This past summer, Ricco received the prestigious award along with a $5,000 stipend to support her research.
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
“I knew I wanted to do research,” Ricco said, “But the clinical side is so important. I’m looking at step zero, the patient, to identify what needs to be researched.” And just what patient-centered research has earned her national recognition? The technical term is milk exosomes for drug delivery, but some call it chemoo-therapy. The goal being that someday a patient could ingest chemotherapy carried by cow’s milk at home, as opposed to the current practice of being delivered through an IV in a clinic. Ricco’s research project started with the observation that mammalian mothers use exosomes in their milk to transfer large molecules (e.g., antibodies) from their baby’s gut into the blood. A mother’s milk helps the baby resist infection by giving the baby antibodies, which help the immune system to recognize and respond aggressively to certain types of infections. And, importantly, these antibodies contained in milk are not degraded by the digestive system. Instead, after they are ingested, they make their way intact into the bloodstream. Because bovine antibodies cross-react with the human Fc receptor, cow exosomes can be used to transport therapeutic molecules from a patient’s gut to their blood. This potentially would enable a variety of molecules (chemotherapeutics, peptides, RNA) to be administered orally instead of via IV infusion. Essentially, patients could drink their chemotherapy.
The Gateway Award is for pharmacy students who show a strong interest in pursuing research and the award stipend is funding Ricco’s drug delivery research through Summer 2022. “Madison has worked in my lab consistently for over three years, and she is now doing a research rotation,” Anchordoquy said. “Because she spent the past three years learning all the techniques and developing protocols, she is very productive, and I suspect that the work from her six-week rotation will form the basis of a publication.” “Going into pharmacy school, I always knew I wanted to research,” Ricco said. “I went to pharmacy school with the intention of applying my clinical knowledge to research.” Perhaps some day in the future, a cancer patient will have Ricco’s work to thank for finding a way to make their chemotherapy regiment easier to digest. For now, she is focusing on her research rotation, her Master’s degree, and plans to graduate with her PharmD in May 2022. She plans to finish her MS by Spring 2023; the extra time allows her to continue to research and finalize her milk exosomes findings funded by the Gateway Award. After graduation with both her PharmD and MS, Ricco is looking forward to exporing all options available to her. With her resume, the possibilities are endless.
AWARDS & ACHIEVEMENTS
Lyra Beltran, P4, made an outstanding showing at this year’s American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) student competition. Beltran won the 2021 Student ACCP Critical Care PRN Travel Award, the ACCP Annual Meeting Student Awards, and her research poster, “Evaluation of Anti-Xa Level Monitoring in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients on a Targeted-Intensity Thromboprophylaxis Protocol,” was nominated for the Best Student Poster Award. All of the wards are accompanied by monetary prizes which help support student travel and conference registration fees.
Riley Thompson, P4, won the ACCP Travel Award from the Infectious Disease (ID) Practice and Research Network (PRN) Committee. This award is one of only two $1,000 prizes given nationwide and acknowledges outstanding pharmacy residents or fellows who have shown an interest in infectious diseases through research and/ or publications in infectious diseases pharmacotherapy.
Julie Farrar, PharmD, won this year’s ACCP Best Resident or Fellow Poster Award for her presentation titled “Evaluation of a patient specific, targeted-intensity pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis protocol in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.” Dr. Farrar’s research was developed while she was a PGY2 critical care resident with faculty members Scott Mueller, Ty Kiser, and Toby Trujillo, PharmDs.
Jessica Brady, Tony Duong, and Riley Thompson, all P4s, were the School's representative team for the ACCP Clinical Pharmacy Challenge. The team advanced to the quarterfinals for this year’s competition, making them one of eight schools out of the original 114 to be moving forward. The ACCP Clinical Pharmacy Challenge is a team-based competition. Teams of three students compete against teams from other schools and colleges of pharmacy in a “quiz bowl”–type format.
F ACULTY SCHOLARS Skaggs Scholars Program Award Recipients Announced It's been said that two heads are better than one. That adage is especially true when it comes to scientific research and harnessing some of the most brilliant minds in the field. That collaborative spirit of discovery is the inspiration behind the Skaggs Scholars Program established in 2011.
According to its director, Louis Diamond, PhD, Dean Emeritus, the Skaggs Scholars Program has awarded 38 grants totaling nearly six million dollars to pharmacy faculty members at the University of Colorado and their colleagues at the six other Skaggs-affiliated institutions.
Centered at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center and funded by a generous grant from The ALSAM Foundation, the Scholars Program is designed to stimulate collaborative research between University of Colorado pharmacy faculty members and faculty members at one or more of the six other Skaggs-affiliated institutions: the University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy; the University of California at San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; the Idaho State University, College of Pharmacy; the University of Montana, Skaggs School of Pharmacy; the Scripps Research Institute/Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology; and the University of Utah, College of Pharmacy.
“By virtually any measure one might choose to adopt, the Skaggs Scholars Program has been a remarkable success,” Dr. Diamond said. Nearly 100 percent of grant recipients have remained in academic positions since receiving their award, and many have earned promotions or experienced other types of significant career advancements. Several dozen peer-reviewed publications have emerged from Skaggs-supported research projects. And in Colorado alone, faculty members who received Skaggs Scholars Program grants have gone on to secure approximately 20 million dollars in additional funding for their research endeavors.
The Collaborative Research Projects for 2021-2023 Dr. Heather Anderson, PhD, Associate Professor, Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research PhD Program Director
Dr. Shaodong Dai, PhD, Associate Professor
Dr. Laura Saba, PhD, Associate Professor
SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
DEPRESSION & ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS
Dr. Christina Aquilante, PharmD, Professor, Pharmacogenomics Implementation Committee Colorado Co-Chair
Dr. Jed Lampe, PhD, Assistant Professor CYSTIC FIBROSIS TREATMENT
PHARMACOGENOMICS & UNDERSERVED COMMUNITIES Dr. Vanessa Phelan, PhD, Assistant Professor Dr. Kristina Brooks, PharmD, Assistant Professor-Research HIV & PREGNANCY
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Access more information on all of the award-winning research projects here:
IMPACT AND ACHIEVEMENTS
Thanks to the tireless advocacy efforts of the Colorado Pharmacists Society (CPS) and School of Pharmacy leaders, Governor Jared Polis signed the Pharmacy Sunset Bill (SB21094) last week. The bill greatly expands the scope of practice for pharmacy professionals in Colorado allowing them to provide extended care for their patients and communities. As part of the signing ceremony, Gov. Polis reaffirmed the importance of pharmacists as frontline health care providers. Congratulations to SARA WETTERGREEN, PHARMD, on being the recipient of the Colorado Pharmacists Society Distinguished Young Pharmacists Award! Pictured L to R: Robert Willis, President-elect Colorado Pharmacists Society, and Sara Wettergreen, PharmD, DYP recipient.
Associate Professor DMITRI SIMBERG, PHD, released the results of a new study of the effectiveness of different types of fluorescent labels used to monitor the accumulation of liposomes in tumors. The new study was published in the prestigious journal of the American Chemical Society, ACS Nano. The findings of this research could open the door to improved cancer drug-delivery systems. Read a feature story on Simberg’s work here:
CINDY O’BRYANT, PHARMD, Professor in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy, received a Fulbright Specialist Program Scholar Award. A program of the U.S. Department of State, the Fulbright Specialist Program is a unique opportunity for U.S. academics and established professionals to engage in two to six-week, project-based exchanges at host institutions across the globe. Dr. O’Bryant spent time in Nigeria working with Project PINK BLUE – Health & Psychological Trust Centre, a cancer non-for-profit organization based in Nigeria, with the goal to improve cancer outcomes.
Assistant PROFESSOR PAUL REYNOLDS, PHARMD '11, was selected as the Distance Degrees and Programs (DDP) Educator of the Year. This award is a recognition voted upon by students and represents outstanding online engagement and teaching skills.
The COAST-IT program has been awarded a Social Innovation Award from the National Area of Agencies organization in Washington, DC. Developed by DANA HAMMER, PHD, and PATRICIA MEYER, of the School’s Experiential Programs, in conjunction with Dr. Sarah Tietz of the Department of Geriatrics, COAST-IT stands for Connecting Older Adults to Students through Interprofessional Telecare.
Once again, our pharmacy faculty are contributors to one of the major textbooks used in pharmacy schools across the nation. DOUGLAS FISH, ROBERT MACLAREN, TYREE KISER, TOBY TRUJILLO, all PharmDs, along with MELANIE JOY, PHARMD, PHD, wrote chapters for the 2nd edition of “Critical Care Pharmacotherapy,” published by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.
2021 HERALDS A BIG RETURN FOR THE ANNUAL CU PHARMACY HOMECOMING WEEKEND The CU Pharmacy Alumni Association scored the winning point with its offering of activity this fall. Homecoming Weekend saw a return to some normalcy marked by some significant moments in celebration of the School’s 110th anniversary and other milestones with the addition of more events to extend the weekend of activity.
Alumni Awards Approximately 50 alumni, students, staff and faculty gathered virtually on Thursday, Nov. 4 for the second annual Alumni Awards to honor alumni Boris Tabakoff (BS ’66, PhD ’70) and Lucas Smith (PharmD ’14). Tabakoff received the Distinguished Alumni Award, recognizing CU Pharmacy graduates for distinguished contributions to the practice of pharmacy and demonstrated major accomplishments in the profession of pharmacy or pharmaceutical research and development. The award is the highest honor bestowed by the Alumni Association. The Alumni Association presented the Horizon Alumni Award to Smith, the owner of two independent pharmacies in Salida and Buena Vista, Colorado. The award honors recent CU Pharmacy graduates within the last 10 years who have made outstanding contributions to the practice of pharmacy or demonstrated potential for major accomplishments in pharmacy practice or significant contributions in pharmaceutical research and development. “The body of work from both Boris and Lucas is truly indicative of the impact our alumni make in the professions of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. I have no doubt we'll see continued success from our accomplished friends," said Dean Ralph Altiere, PhD.
Boris Ta b a ko ff '6 6 , '7 0 , r e cipien t o f the Dis t in gu is h e d Alu m n i Awa r d
L uc a s S m it h , '1 4 , r ecipie n t of t h e Ho r izo n Awa r d
Virtual Tours Virtual tours of the Pharmacy building were offered on Friday, Nov. 5, spotlighting key areas in research and education with Dr. Dan LaBarbera offering an impromptu walk through the new Center for Drug Discovery, which opened in September. The tour also showcased the newest addition to the campus, the Anschutz Health Sciences building with 390,000 square feet of space for work in several areas including personalized and precision medicine, biostatistics and informatics, mental and behavioral health, health policy and health-outcomes research.
Homecoming Game The weekend continued with near perfect weather conditions in Boulder on Saturday, Nov. 6 for the annual Homecoming game. Over 60 CU Pharmacy alumni, students and other friends of the School gathered to cheer the CU Buffs to victory with a 37-34 win over Oregon State. Participants enjoyed complimentary food and beverage provided by Ralphie’s Corral and celebrated the stunning overtime win!
Alumni Board Dinner The Alumni Association celebrated 10 years of service to the School on Sunday, Nov. 7 as 20 current and former board members gathered at the Hotel Teatro for an evening of recognition and fine dining provided by the Nickel restaurant. Since its inception in 2011, the Alumni Association Board has provided leadership in adding to the efforts of furthering the School’s mission and vision.
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Don't miss out on alumni events! Contact Jaron Bryant to get involved. Please contact him by email (jaron.bryant@cuanschutz. edu) or phone (303-724-0415).
Alum Puts a Fresh Spin on Patient Education Pharmacists are known for being medication experts who take their role of patient education seriously. 2012 PharmD alum James Delk has created a way to make that serious message, well, fresh. During his “day job,” Dr. Delk serves as a Kaiser Permanente outpatient pharmacist, generally dealing with emergency discharges, oncology, and general pharmaceutical medication. When he’s not at work, however, he transforms into “The Fresh Pharmacist” and takes his healthcare knowledge to the masses via flashy YouTube videos and multiple social media channels. Tech Geek/Artistic Creator Originally from the LA area, Delk admits that he has always been equal parts tech geek and artistic creator. While at CU School of Pharmacy, photography was his go-to creative outlet. After graduation, he turned his love of the still image into the video platform that now carries his message of pharmaceutical education to D e lk r e c o r d s one of hi s educati onal v id e o s f o r Yo utube. close to 20,000 subscribers. “I can use my love of photography/videography and tech, mixed with pharmacy, to combine the things I love into an art which allows me to use my interests to serve an even broader group of people that I would normally be limited to in an individual pharmacy,” says Delk. “Now, I get to talk about medications, tech-related health and how it relates to people - and answer questions when needed to a larger amount of people.” Education for the Masses Go to Delk’s YouTube Channel and you’ll find tightly produced videos on everything from how you might be cleaning your ears wrong to which thermometer is best for your kids. His most popular video, racking up close to 550 thousand views, is an informative explanation of what is generally referred to as the Plan B contraceptive. As The Fresh Pharmacist’s viewing audience has grown, so have the opportunities to partner with a number of health-related businesses that want to get their product or message in front of Delk’s young and digitalsavvy audience. “I’ve been able to work with diabetic companies, online pharmacy, direct-to-consumer businesses, and multiple over-the-counter companies
Join the Alumni Book Club
who were interested in getting their products seen by the public,” Delk explains. “It’s been so fun getting to use new devices and give my take on its value to the public who may not be as well versed in the items that they may be purchasing. What a way to reach more people, in a way, that excites me the most!” Watch one of Delk’s videos and it’s easy to see why he has developed a following. His charming good looks and conversational style, coupled with his solid pharmaceutical knowledge, makes him just what the Doctor (of Pharmacy) ordered for those seeking understandable medical information in an entertaining package.
Now in its second meeting, The CU Pharmacy Alumni Book Club provides the space for alumni and students to discuss topics of interest through selected books. The book club was started as a collaboration between the Alumni Association and faculty member Katy Trinkley, PhD, who recognized the need to stay current on trends and put new knowledge into practice. Dr. Trinkley has facilitated the last two sessions on the book "The Adaptation Advantage." “My goal is not to be talking and asking all the questions. I really truly just want to have a discussion,” said Dr. Trinkley. Weigh in on the next book club discussion:
Delk edits a video in his home studio.
Check out all of The Fresh Pharmacist’s channels: Youtube: www.youtube.com/thefreshpharmacist Facebook: www.facebook.com/james.delk.5059 Instagram: www.instagram.com/freshpharmacist
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LEARN AND ADVANCE The CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences is a leader in the scientific investigation, quality assurance and clinical evaluation of plantbased medicines. Our latest offerings extend that expertise to three distinct Cannabis Science and Medicine (CSM) educational programs. From the 8-week Continuing Education introduction to the full Master’s of Science degree, all programs are designed to provide timely and evidence-based information and techniques to ensure patient safety, product quality, and accurate cannabis science. All programs are online, interactive and taught by international experts in the field.
CU Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
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