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What is ‘Extinction’ ?


“ Extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species “ Extinction in Biology and Ecology from Wikipedia.


The geological time scale units

SUPEREON

EON

ERA PERIOD

EPOCH

AGE


Precambrian

NOW

540 MYA

2420

SUPEREON

4030

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

Cambrian


SUPEREON

Precambrian

NOW

540 MYA

2420

4030

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

Cambrian

EON Hadean

Archean

Proterozoic

Phanerozoic


SUPEREON

NOW

540 MYA

2420

4030

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

Precambrian

Cambrian

EON

Phanerozoic

Neoproterozoic

Mesoproterozoic

Paleoproterozoic

Neoarchean

Mesoarchean Paleoarchean

Paleozoic

66

252

1000

1600

Proterozoic

2800

3200

3600

4100

4300

Archean

Eoarchean

Early Imbrian

Nectarian

Basin Groups

Cryptic

ERA

4500

Hadean

Mesozoic

Cenozoic


1.8 24 66 145 200 298 358 419 443

Cenozoic Nectarian

Early Imbrian

Eoarchean

Mesoarchean Paleoarchean

Neoarchean

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic Permian

Carboniferous Devonian

Silurian

Ordovician

Cambrian

Paleoproterozoic

Mesoproterozoic

Neoproterozoic

485

66 252 1000 1600 2800 3200 3600 4100

Phanerozoic Proterozoic Archean Hadean

Cambrian Precambrian

Mesozoic Basin Groups

PERIOD

4300

NOW 540 MYA 2420 4030

SUPEREON

Paleozoic Cryptic

ERA

4500

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

EON


1.8 24 66 145 200 298 358 419 443

Early Imbrian

Eoarchean

Mesoarchean Paleoarchean

Neoarchean

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Paleoproterozoic

Mesoproterozoic

Neoproterozoic

485

66 252 1000 1600 2800 3200 3600 4100

Cambrian Precambrian

Cenozoic Nectarian

EPOCH

Phanerozoic Proterozoic Archean Hadean

Mesozoic Basin Groups

PERIOD

4300

NOW 540 MYA 2420 4030

SUPEREON

Paleozoic Cryptic

ERA

4500

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

EON


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 5 4 443

419

358

298

3 2 1

Early Imbrian

Eoarchean

Mesoarchean Paleoarchean

Neoarchean

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Paleoproterozoic

Mesoproterozoic

Neoproterozoic

485

66 252 1000 1600 2800 3200 3600 4100

Cambrian Precambrian

Cenozoic Nectarian

EPOCH

Phanerozoic Proterozoic Archean Hadean

Mesozoic Basin Groups

PERIOD

4300

NOW 540 MYA 2420 4030

SUPEREON

Paleozoic Cryptic

ERA

4500

4600 MYA

THE PERIODS OF TIME MAKING UP THE GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE

EON


Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

4

Triassic - Jurassic Extinction

5

Cretaceous - Paleogene Extinction

6

The sixth extinction !!!

1.8 24 66

145 200

298 358

419 443

Ordovician-Silurian Extinction

Late Middle Early

Permian - Triassic Extinction

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

3

Cambrian

Late Devonian Extinction 2

6 5 4 3 1

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic The Great Extinction Events

2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


PHANEROZOIC EON 540 M.Y.A. - NOW

Types of life

Events

Extinct species

There were even many complex life forms in late precambrian time like as Bacteria, Archaea etc. *Fossils are found in many places ( Aus., British, Canada) 540 MYA

Paleozoic Era 540 M.Y.A. 542

Cambrian Period Terreneuvian Series 2 Series 3 Furongian

485

Ordovician Period Early Middle Late

Thousands of new life forms in the ancient seas In this era, most life had been in the sea.

The sea : New sort of cell structure call Eukaryotic cell (Cell membrane/wall ,central nucleus) - Phy. Anthropods* > Trilobites - Phy. Mollusks > Cl. Bivalvia - Sponges, worms (No backbones Yet) - Chordate > Pikaia - Anomalocaris (top of food chain) - Wiwazia - Halluciagenia - One celled algae - Bryozoans

The sea : — Phy. Anthropods > Trilobites - Phy. Mollusks > Cl. Cephalopoda > Gen. Orthoceras; a straight-shelled mollusk (Ancestor of squid) - Phy. Brachiopoda > Clade. Brachiozoa > Brachiopods: Bivalves, bottom dwelling living in ocean having two shells - Phy. Mollusks > Cl. Cephalopoda > Nautiloids - Phy. Echinodermata > Cl. Crinoidea > Crinoid - Sponges, corals, primitive fish (first animal with primitive backbones), red and green algae. The first land plants : groups of algae evolved into mosses and bryophytes.

Advancing glaciers would have lowered the temperature of the shallow seas where so many species lived.

Changes in the temperature and the amount of oxygen in the water would have meant the end for any species that could not adapt.

The climate was fairly warm. The land uplifted and the continents moved around. When Gondwana stopped its movement over the South Pole, glaciers formed. This caused the sea level to drop and the climate to change.

The changes of temperature led to a mass extinction at the end of the Ordovician Period. - Brachiopods - Bryozoans - Corals 1


Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of life

443

Silurian Period

Plants and animals first moved onto land but they didn't really flourish

Events

Extinct species

The climate was much warmer, caused the glaciers to melt and the seas to rise. There were places where the land was slowly rising as well. This was due to mountain building as

443 433 427 423

419

Liandovery/Alexandian

the continental plates collided. In these places the seas

Wenlock

moved away from the coasts or evaporated from the shallow areas. This left salt deposits.

Ludlow/Cayugan Pridoli

Devonian Period

The sea : — Nautiloids, Brachiopods, Bryozoans and Crinoids. Plants : Plants that had lived in the coastal water had to adapt to life on land or die.

The sea : -

Phy. Echinodermata > Echinoderms

-

Thousands of species of Fish that had specialized tissues for performing the functions of their bodies: eating, breathing, moving, and reproducing called Ostracoderms.

- The reef builder work of the sponges and corals for the largest reefs in the world.

Continents Gondwana was still located in the southern hemisphere, but it stretched from the Equator (Australia), to the South Pole(South America) The tectonic plate that contained North America was moving toward the southeast. By the end of this period it would collide with another plate and form a mountain range. Most of North America was covered by shallow seas during this time.

North America and Europe had collided forming a larger continent called Euramerica. This caused the formation of the Appalachian Mountain range Gondwana, the large land mass was made up of South America, Africa, Antarctica, India and Australia. These two lay close to one another near the equator to form the supercontinent Pangea in Permian Period.

Plants : Most development of seed - Ferns and the first trees began to cover the land. The land : Insects and other animals find homes on land because of the plant-covered lands - The first wingless insects and spiders - A primitive vertebrate - The tetrapod or four-footed vertebrate The climate was worm, made life on land particularly good for the plants to develop vascular tissues and the most development of seed. They could move further in land

2

The changes of temperature led to a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian Period. - Echinoderms - Ostracoderms. - Trilobites - Reef environment


Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of life

358

Extinct species

Carboniferous Period 358

Mississippian

The sea : — Phy. Echinodermata > Crinoid make up Limestone — Phy. Brachiopoda > Brachiopods > Phy. Lophophorata

The huge forests covered the land so much that oxygen was 35% of the atmosphere compared to present day levels of 21%. Shifting continents create mountains as Pangea.

325

Pennsylvanian

Move to the land - Amphibians called tetrapods lived at the waters edge and became the dominant life and very successful evolving many different forms in the lakes, rivers and swamps. - The first reptiles showed up. (Pelycosaurs)

- The land was rising up out of the waters because of lans mass moving and thickening of the earth’s crust. - Two ice sheets over the South Pole also took a large amount

Plants : Put the Carbon When the huge trees and ferns died, fell into waters and didn’t have bacteria to decompose >> formed peat beds >> coal

298

Events

Permian Period

The sea : — Trilobites — The placoderms

of water out of the oceans and water cycle. - The shallow seas became swamps between the ocean and the dry land.

Giant Insects :

The glaciers caused mass extinction of the

Gigantic arthropods called Meganeura that lived in the forest with high O2 like a dragonfly, Giant millipede like giant scorpions

invertebrates that lives in the shallows seas like horn corals, trilobites and some forms of crinoids were going to extinction.

The land - Amphibians died out and replaced by the reptiles with bodies could live in very dry and wide changes in temp. — Pelycosaurs >> Dimetrodon; with large sail its its back. >>Therapsid Plants : Adapt to dry climate Many of plants died out >> developed and adapted to dryer conditions, called Gymnosperms : had seeds >> Ginkgo

The continent of Siberia collided into the northern part of Euramerica Pangea was complete. Surrounded the Tethys Sea and the rest was covered by a huge ocean named Panthalassa. The Ural mountains were pushed up. Desert were places in the center of Pangea, where the temperatures changed from very cold to very hot and rarely or never rain. Over all the earth was dry

Most of trees were Conifers; trees with seeds in cones. Corals making huge reefs

The theorises from recent volcano eruptions: the volcanic activity that could caused by huge amounts of extinction and drop the temp. around the globe. A comet or Meteor, could have hit the planet

3

The largest mass extinction that had ever occurred. The seas, 90-95% were extinct or severely harmed. like as Trilobites, bryozoans, the rugose (horn) corals, tabulate corals and others coral were gone. The land was less severe but pelycosaurs completely died out


Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of life Mesozoic Era 252 M.Y.A. 248

Triassic Period

Events

Extinct species

A time of growing new species to repopulate the planet that so different from life during the Paleozoic Era.

The land : The Age of Reptiles, dominate the land sea and air. - First Dinosaurs*; Therapsids (mammal-like reptiles) - First Mammals but they were very small. - Pterosaurs; the flying reptiles (but not relatives of birds.) *

Dinosaurs were different from the reptiles - Warm-blooded, kept constant temp. - Bone structure was different in the hips, legs and hands.

The sea : — Ammonites >> Ceratitic ammonite

Pangea started to break by the middle of period, the continent was on its way to becoming two super continents. Laurasia, the part above the equator was North America and Eurasia. Gondwana moved to south and made up Africa, South America, India, Antarctica and Australia. Sierra Nevada, new mountain in western of North America made from one plate was being forced under another.

— Brachiopods — Cl. Cephalopoda > Mollusk >> Belemnites; no external skeleton and ancestor of squids. - Ichthyosaurs; a fish-like body, breathed with lungs and din’t have gills. - Plesiosaurs Plants : Conifers and Ginkgos replace Ferns and Lycopods.

4

The extinction of Triassic Period. 76% of life in the oceans and on land died out completely.


Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene

Carboniferous

Pennsylvanian Mississippian

Permian

Devonian

Late Middle Early

Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian

Silurian

Late Middle Early

Liandovery/Alexandian

Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock

Ordovician

Cambrian

Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of life 200

Jurassic Period

The land : Age of the Dinosaurs. - The sauropods; 4 legs and herbivores. - Brachiosaurus; the largest dinosaur - Diplodocus; the longest dinosaur - Stegosaurus; it had plates on two long rows along its back. - The theropods; 2 legs and carnivorous - Allosaurus; a fierce predator - The Ornithopods; bird hipped plant eaters - Archaeopteryx; a long tail, finger claws and feathers. It could be a link between dinosaurs and birds.(theory) - Mammal remained small. The sea : — Ammonites — Mollusk >> Belemnites >> Gastropods — Brachiopods and crinoids (not many) — Ichthyosaurs and Plesiosaurs - Early Crocodiles - Gastropods; sea snails. - Corals began to produce reefs in the warm seas. - Bony fishes, sharks and rays in tropical seas. Plants : Plants grew thick and tall Conifers and Ginkgos Cycads; a seed plant with leaves and heavy trunks that look like palms.

145

Cretaceous Period 145

Early

Events

Extinct species

Pangea splits, caused of volcanoes to erupt along the Tethys sea floor where it rift the continents. The warm sea touching the land, the climate became more humid and tropical. North American Mountain Building, on the ocean side of Pangea Warm Climate was warm and stable and fosters new species.

Laurasia and Gondwana continued to move apart The eastern side of Laurasia formed North Atlantic ocean, covered the east coast of North America and most western EU. Gondwana broke apart of south America and Africa, caused of the earth’s crust called a rift. Rising sea levels, The rift between the Africa and South America created a long chain of volcanic mountain underwater, grew as the Atlantic ocean got wider and displaced a tremendous amount of water.

A minor mass extinction Many species of bivalved mollusks (similar to clams) became extinct.

The land : Age of the Dinosaurs. - The Ceratopsian - The Ornithischian, bird-hipped and plant-eating. - The Triceratops; had 3 horns and a huge, bony frill that formed its skull. - The Tyrannosaurus rex; the king and the most famous dinosaur; a theropods, reptile-hipped with 2 legs walked. — Mammals >> placental mammals; developed their offspring inside their bodies. The infant mammal was fed through an organ called the placenta. The sea : same Jurassic period Plants : Nature invents the flower - Flowering plants (including Magnolia and maple) Insects : flower are a boon to insects Butterflies, ants, termites and bees, spread pollen from flower to flower to keep it reproducing.

98 5

Late

The land : Nearly of the dinosaurs' extinction are all remain of the animals that had ruled the planet for many millions of years.

The KT Event - the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous Period. (K) Cretaceous (T) Tertiary The theories 1. A meteor hit the earth in the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula, caused many geologic activities. 2. The erupted of volcanoes. Clouds, smoke and dust covered the sky and without the light from the sun for years, caused the huge changes in the climate and vegetation.

The major extinctions More that 70% of species live in the oceans. -The ammonites and belemnites were wiped out. -The large marine reptiles (Ichthyosaurs, Plesiosaurs and Mosasaurs) 15% on land become extinct.


Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic Permian

Cambrian

Ordovician

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Tertiary Period

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Late Middle Early Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock Liandovery/Alexandian

Late Middle Early Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of life

Events

Extinct species

Cenozoic Era 66 M.Y.A. 66

24

Paleogene Period Paleocene

54

Eocene

The land : - Bats - Elephant ancestors - Whales - Eohippus-the first horse

38

Oligocene

Plants : As the climate cooled, open woodlands and grasslands became abandon.

Neogene Period 24

Miocene

THE EARLIEST HUMAN SPECIES STARTED Sahelanthropus Tchadensis in West-central Africa (Chad)

7

S. Orrorin Tugenensis 6.2 S. Ardipithecus Kadabba 5.8

S. Ardipithecus Ramidus 4.4 S. Australopithecus Anamensis 4.2 S.Australopithecus Afarensis 3.8

The land : The rise of the mammals — Mammals >> become the dominant animals grew in size, numbers and diversity. They filled ecological niches in the sea, land and air. - Hominids started - The condylarths-ancestors of modern hoofed herbivores - Rodents -The first primates - Many species of birds The Oceans and lakes : - Fish species branched out : Sharks, Trout and Bass. - Mammals developed in the oceans too : Whales Plants : Palm trees grew as far north as Greenland Insects : Bees and others that lived on the pollen and nectar of flowering plant increasing and variety.

66

5

Pliocene

The beginning of the Paleogene Period was very warm and moist, tropical or sub-tropical The Atlantic Ocean is small because South America and Africa have just separated.

North america and Europe separate

The climate began to cool. - Australia separates from Antarctica - India crashes into Asia creating the Himalayan Mountains - Antarctica is covered by gainers - Sea levels are low

Plants : Grasslands replaced forests Animals : Needed stronger teeth and developed digestion, had more than one stomach called Ruminants to eat grasses. - The artiodactyl developed into many familiar species; camels, bison, sheep, giraffe etc. - Dominant predators had to adapt to become faster; dog and cat carnivores were able to run fast and use jaws and teeth Migration of Animal - Armadillos, Porcupines, Ground sloths and opossums migrated from South to North America - Dogs, Cats, Bears and Horses from North to South America. Ocean life : - Plant growth in the ocean; brown algae, kelp forests and corals - The dugong; a marine mammal related to elephant and modern manatees. - Charcharodon Megalodon; the world’s biggest shark

The climate became cooler and drier The continents were crashing into each other. Mountains pushed up in many places. - Italy moved north into Europe raising the Alps. - Spain crashed into France to form the Pyrenees. - North and South America formed the Rocky and Andes. - Sea levels were lower and drop until opened up the land bridges between continents, allowed animals to migrate between continents.

-

South America moved to North formed the Isthmus of Panama. The earth was locked in an Ice Age, cause of lower sea levels, new mountains and shifting ocean currents all contributes. Ice caps grew over the polar regions Glaciers grew from the ice caps reached down as far as Ohio,USA.

http://www.fossils-facts-and-finds.com


Types of life

Events

Extinct species

Cenozoic Era 66 M.Y.A. 66

24

Paleogene Period Paleocene

54

Eocene

The land : - Bats - Elephant ancestors - Whales - Eohippus-the first horse

38

Oligocene

Plants : As the climate cooled, open woodlands and grasslands became abandon.

Neogene Period 24

Miocene

THE EARLIEST HUMAN SPECIES STARTED Sahelanthropus Tchadensis in West-central Africa (Chad)

7

S. Orrorin Tugenensis 6.2 S. Ardipithecus Kadabba 5.8

S. Ardipithecus Ramidus 4.4 S. Australopithecus Anamensis 4.2 S.Australopithecus Afarensis 3.8

The land : The rise of the mammals — Mammals >> become the dominant animals grew in size, numbers and diversity. They filled ecological niches in the sea, land and air. - Hominids started - The condylarths-ancestors of modern hoofed herbivores - Rodents -The first primates - Many species of birds The Oceans and lakes : - Fish species branched out : Sharks, Trout and Bass. - Mammals developed in the oceans too : Whales Plants : Palm trees grew as far north as Greenland Insects : Bees and others that lived on the pollen and nectar of flowering plant increasing and variety.

66

5

Pliocene

The beginning of the Paleogene Period was very warm and moist, tropical or sub-tropical The Atlantic Ocean is small because South America and Africa have just separated.

North america and Europe separate

The climate began to cool. - Australia separates from Antarctica - India crashes into Asia creating the Himalayan Mountains - Antarctica is covered by gainers - Sea levels are low

Plants : Grasslands replaced forests Animals : Needed stronger teeth and developed digestion, had more than one stomach called Ruminants to eat grasses. - The artiodactyl developed into many familiar species; camels, bison, sheep, giraffe etc. - Dominant predators had to adapt to become faster; dog and cat carnivores were able to run fast and use jaws and teeth Migration of Animal - Armadillos, Porcupines, Ground sloths and opossums migrated from South to North America - Dogs, Cats, Bears and Horses from North to South America. Ocean life : - Plant growth in the ocean; brown algae, kelp forests and corals - The dugong; a marine mammal related to elephant and modern manatees. - Charcharodon Megalodon; the world’s biggest shark

The climate became cooler and drier The continents were crashing into each other. Mountains pushed up in many places. - Italy moved north into Europe raising the Alps. - Spain crashed into France to form the Pyrenees. - North and South America formed the Rocky and Andes. - Sea levels were lower and drop until opened up the land bridges between continents, allowed animals to migrate between continents.

-

South America moved to North formed the Isthmus of Panama. The earth was locked in an Ice Age, cause of lower sea levels, new mountains and shifting ocean currents all contributes. Ice caps grew over the polar regions Glaciers grew from the ice caps reached down as far as Ohio,USA.

http://www.fossils-facts-and-finds.com


Hominin species distributed through time

Million years

Source : http://www.worldsciencefestival.com/2014/12/earths-worst-mass-murderers-oxygen-volcanoes-and-humans/


1.8 24 200

145

66

6 298 358

419 443

Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic

5 4 3 2 1 485

66 252

SUPEREON

Cambrian Phanerozoic

Quaternary Neogene

Paleogene Cretaceous Jurassic

Triassic Permian

Cambrian

Ordovician

Silurian

Devonian

Carboniferous

Tertiary Period

Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Lopingian Guadalupian Cisuralian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Late Middle Early Pridoli Ludlow/Cayugan Wenlock Liandovery/Alexandian

Late Middle Early Furongian Series 3 Series 2 Terreneuvian

NOW 540 MYA 4600 MYA


Types of animals

S.Australopithecus Africanus 3.3

Events

Extinct animals

S. Paranthropus Aethiopicus 2.7 S. Australopithecus Garhi 2.5

Cenozoic Era

S. Homo Habilis 2.4

66 M.Y.A.

S. Paranthropus Boisei 2.3 S. Australopithecus Sediba 1.9 S. Homo Rudolfensis S. Homo Erectus 1.8 S. Paranthropus Robustus

1.8

Quaternary Period 1.8

Pleistocene Megafauna : Well-adapted to the cold climate with thick fur - The wooly mammoth Mastodon Wooly rhinoceros Reindeer Mush ox Giant Carnivores : Saber tooth tiger, Cave bear, Dire wolf Hominids : The rise of Humans

Ice Age - Polar ice sheets was far bigger than now. The glacial ice reached far down to North America, Europe and Asia; Called Ice Age - The temperatures were cooler but the polar ice advanced and retreated over 60 cycles because of changes in the Earth’s orbit, called Milankovitch cycles. - Glaciers lower sea levels caused of huge amounts of water become ice.

S. Homo Heidelbergensis 0.7

S. Homo Neanderthalensis 0.4

S. Homo Sapiens 0.2 S. Homo Floresiensis

0.09

The three waves of the Pleistocene - Holocene Extinction Event

Megafauna disappeared at the end of the Pleistocene, remains a few species of smaller, because of Climate change and proliferation of modern human. 0.11

Holocene

Age of man In this time has witnessed all of humanity’s recorded history and the rise and fall of all its civilizations. Humanity has greatly influenced the Holocene environment; while all organisms influence their environments to some degree,

Because of Human hunting and migrating some animal extinct. • Woodly mammoth • Dodo • Passenger Pigeon • Golden toad and other amphibians • Great Auk

http://www.fossils-facts-and-finds.com


The three waves of the Pleistocene - Holocene Extinction Event

S. Homo Sapiens 0.2

Gelasian 2,580,000 YA

Pleistocene

Calabrian 1,800,000 YA

Ionian (Middle) 781,000 YA

Late (Tarantian) 126,000 YA Homo Sapiens began migrating to lower of East Asia to Australia

0.07

to Japan Big game hunting move To Northeasthen Siberia To North America

0.03

Human Hunter 135 species of mammals extinct

0.011

0.06

70,000 YA 40,000 YA

The First Wave: The spread of modern humans. The first phase

0.035

0.02

11,700 YA

Holocene

40,000 YA. - 3,500 YA. End of Ice Age Extinctions were caused mostly by Hunting at first entered lands and by fire setting and introductions of dogs and diseases to the new areas. Stone age farmers found previously unpeopled islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans

Preboreal 10,300 YA

Boreal

Affect to Islands and On continents: Megafauna, Homo neanderthalensis Large marsupials, reptiles, Large mammals, birds, and reptiles.

9,000 YA

Atlantic

Human hunters with spears to the existing top predators (mostly saber-toothed cats, lions, and direwolves) very likely disrupted the equilibrium between large herbivores and their predators

7,500 YA

Subboreal 5,000 YA

Subatlantic

The second phase

2,500 YA

3,000 YA. -200 YA.

The Second Wave: Spread of Europeans The Third Wave: Overpopulation and Globalization


The three waves of the Pleistocene - Holocene Extinction Event

S. Homo Sapiens 0.2

Gelasian 2,580,000 YA

Pleistocene

Calabrian 1,800,000 YA

Ionian (Middle) 781,000 YA

Late (Tarantian) 126,000 YA Homo Sapiens began migrating to lower of East Asia to Australia

0.07

to Japan Big game hunting move To Northeasthen Siberia To North America

0.03

Human Hunter 135 species of mammals extinct

0.011

0.06

70,000 YA 40,000 YA

The First Wave: The spread of modern humans. The first phase

0.035

0.02

11,700 YA

Holocene

40,000 YA. - 3,500 YA. End of Ice Age

Preboreal 10,300 YA

Boreal 9,000 YA

Atlantic 7,500 YA

Subboreal 5,000 YA

Subatlantic

The second phase

2,500 YA

3,000 YA. -200 YA.

The Second Wave: Spread of Europeans The Third Wave: Overpopulation and Globalization


Older

2,500 YA

753 BC

Pre-roman Iron age

Ancient Rome

0 AC

Middle

500 AD

In the second phase of the First Wave, Stone Age farmers settled Hawaii, New Zealand, Madagascar, and other islands, and extinctions were caused by agricultural clearing, fire-setting, hunting, and introductions of dogs, rats, pigs, goats, and diseases into areas that had not previously experienced them.

The victims were primarily birds and reptiles. 90% of the marsupial species larger than a domesticated cat had become extinct there. PACIFIC AND HAWAII - Mao-nalos - NēNē-nui - Megapode - Mekosuchine crocodiles

NEW ZEALAND - Large flightless birds

Migration Period

Slavic migrations 1000 AD

High Middle Ages c.1001-1300

Younger

1250 AD 1300 AD

c.1301-1500

1500 AD

1800 AD

Youngest

Late Middle Ages

Early Modern Period

Hunting with guns, large-scale fishing, massive habitat destruction by agriculture, forestry, and domestic livestock grazing, river damming and diversion, introduction of exotic predators/ browsers/ grazers/parasites and diseases, and later by industrial pollution

Islands: lost birds, giant tortoises, and small mammals. On continents: Many species of birds have been driven into extinction. Freshwater fish and large mammals have had their numbers drastically reduced to possibly nonviable remnants. In the oceans: sea mammals, shellfish, and many fish have been wastefully exploited.

1970 AD

The human population exploded from about 10 million 10,000 years ago to over 6 billion today and a globalized agro-techno-economy spread.

Humans threaten everything from the last megafauna to plants, to insects, to coral reef ecosystems etc.

From Rewinding North America by Dave Foreman.


1500 AD

Youngest

1800 AD

Early Modern Period

NEW ZEALAND Ten species of Moa Harpagornis Adzebills

INDIAN OCEAN ISLANDS - species of giant tortoise - 14 species of birds ( Dodo, Rodrigues solitaire, Réunion Solitaire

MADAGASCAR - species of elephant birds, Gen. Aepyornis, Gen. Mullerornis - 17 species of lemur : Giant Ayeaye, Sloth lemurs, Koala lemurs, Arboreal lemurs, Monkey lemurs, Pachylemur - Giant Fossa - Plesiorycteropus - Malagasy Hippopotamus

The explosion in our global human population and our rapid technological development. - Cutting down forests - Changing the courses of rivers - Pushing wild animals and plants out of farm and urban areas - Polluting wetlands with pesticides and other man-made chemicals - Industrial-scale hunting of large land animals, whales, and fish.

1900 AD

- At least 40,000,000 bison roaming the Great Plains of North America. By the end of that century, there were only a few hundred remaining because of extremely hunted with guns.  The African elephant and rhinoceros, during the 20th century had been hunted near extinction with gun. - Likewise, commercial fishermen have depleted one species of fish after another during the last half century.  Governments have had to step in to try to stem the tide of these human population effects on other species. However, they have been only marginally successful.  -

The World Conservation Union conservatively estimates that 7,266 animal species and 8,323 plant and lichen species are now at risk of extinction primarily due to human caused habitat degradation. The endangered list includes 1/3 of all amphibian species, nearly 1/2 of the turtles and tortoises, 1/4 of the mammals, 1/5 of the sharks and rays, and 1/8 of the birds.  This list does not include the many millions of species that are still unknown to science.  It is likely that most of them will become extinct before they can be described and studied.

1970 AD 2000 AD

- 875 extinctions occurring between 1500 and 2009, by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources


The sixth great extinction


The causes and processes of the sixth great extinction

Habitat Destruction

We reduce, modify, degrade or transform natural habitat such as deforestation, agricolture and farming.

Non-native (Alien) Species

Humans have spread into new lands, we have brought with us disruptive alien species that well adapted to human disturbance but outcompete native species as a predators and left behind the diseases.

Disease

As humans have spread around the world, we have brought exotic diseases with us.

Pollution and deterioration

Poisoning the waters and soils that are habitat for sensitive species, or leach away needed nutrients. Global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion which is the major of treating to life form worldwide.

Overexploitation

Hunting, fishing, trapping, collecting and government “pest” eradication programs have caused the extinction of many species and seriously endanger others today.


A species can become “extinct” by evolving into a new species or several new species “speciation driven by natural selection” or a species can become extinct by dying out and not continuing its evolutionary experiment. Most great extinction events in the past are caused by 'normal' evolutionary dynamics, that occurred between the big catastrophes.


Are human activities causing a mass extinction?


"Modern rates of vertebrate extinction1 are much higher than the highest empirically derived background extinction rate2 of 2 E/MSY3. Most extinctions have occurred in the last 114 years (since 1900 AD.)"

1Data

deficiencies make it impossible to conduct empirical analyses (as was done for mammals) for nonmammal terrestrial vertebrates; therefore, assumed the background rates of other vertebrates to be similar to those of mammals. have identified a "background rate" of species extinctions from the fossil record, which allows for a comparison to the current extinction rate, thus allowing us to assess the human impact on the rate of species loss. A widely-used metric is extinctions per million species-years (E/MSY), in which background rates are estimated from fossil extinctions that took place in million-year-or-more timeframes.  2Scientists

3The

average E/MSY over the fossil record is approximately 1.8 (meaning on average, fewer than 2 species go extinct every million species-years), and the most common E/MSY over periods less than 1,000 years is zero.

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction”, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253 https://www.skepticalscience.com


Modern and background rates of vertebrate extinction.

Most occur in 114 years ago.

Modern extinction rates for vertebrates varied from 8 to 100 times higher than the background rate of 2 E/MSY

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction�, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253


"Modern extinction rates have increased sharply over the past 200 years (corresponding to the rise of industrial society) and are considerably higher than background rates"

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction�, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253


Modern extinction rates of vertebrate since 1500 AD.

Most occur since 1900 AD

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction�, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253


“The results indicate that modern vertebrate extinctions that occurred since 1500 and 1900 AD would have taken several millennia (about 800 - 10,000 years) to occur if the background rate (2 E/MSY) had prevailed.”

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction”, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253


Number of years of observed vertebrate species extinction in last 114 years.

Source : Research article “Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction�, 19 June 2015 Ceballos et al. Sci. Adv, 2015;1e 1400253


These estimates reveal an exceptionally rapid loss of biodiversity over the last few centuries, indicating that a sixth mass extinction is already under way.


What should we do for our ‘Future’ ?


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