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ISSUE

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

14

March 2012

Page 1

Almost Spring Inside this Issue Message from Emily ................ 1 Tubing a Calf.................... 1 & 3 Drought Monitor ..................... 2 Know a Native ........................ 2 Nitrates in Hay . ..................... 4 Event Announcements .......... 5-9 Calendar of Events ................ 10

Only a few days left until spring, which leaves a little time to get the winter moisture we need. I’ve listed the current drought monitor maps on page 2, where Pueblo County is listed as being in a moderate drought. Fingers crossed for spring precipitation! If you want to hear the latest predictions you will want to attend the Drought or No Drought, That is the Question! A workshop in Canon City on March 15, see page 6 for more information. If drought conditions persist, save May 15 for a drought management workshop in Pueblo. A new way to see what classes are being offered through the CSU Extension-Pueblo County office is on our facebook page. Go to www.facebook.com/CSUExtensionPueblo and “like” us! Best wishes,

Office Hours: Monday—Friday 8 a.m.—5 p.m. (excluding holidays) CSU Extension Pueblo County 701 Court St., Suite C Pueblo, CO 81003 Phone: (719) 583-6566 Fax: (719) 583-6582

Emily Lockard Extension Agent Range and Natural Resources Management

Proper Use of the Bovine Esophageal Feeder: Tubing a Calf Ragan Adams, DVM, CSU‐Extension and Eric McPhail, MS, CSU‐Extension The bovine esophageal feeder was designed to treat sick calves with fluids and to administer colostrum to newborn calves. Proper technique is critical to success. The esophageal feeder can cause damage to the animal if used improperly.

http://pueblo.colostate.edu

Start with the properly sized bovine esophageal feeder. They can be found at the local feed store in three different sizes: 1) calves, 2) yearling steers and 3) adult cows.

www.facebook.com/ CSUExtensionPueblo All articles written by Emily Lockard unless otherwise indicated.

Fig. 1

The calf esophageal feeder consists of a stainless steel or plastic ball probe with an attaching plastic tube and reusable plastic pouch or bottle which holds the fluid. (Fig 1.) Prior to tubing the calf each time, Continued page 3

Emily Lockard is the Extension Agent for Range and Natural Resources Management in the Colorado State University Extension Pueblo County office. She can be reached at (719) 583-6566 or Emily.Lockard@colostate.edu. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 2

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Drought Update

The following are maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu

As of Feb. 21 Pueblo County is classified as being in a severe drought. This map is updated weekly and can be viewed at http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/ DM_state.htm?CO,W From this website, if you are viewing the US map, click on the state of Colorado to view a more detailed map of Colorado.

Know a Native— Alkali sacaton, Sporobolus Warm season, native, perennial grass. Starts growing midspring, flowers in June until frost. Reproduces from seeds and tillers. Dry matter—100%, Protein—4.1%, Crude fiber—37.3% Forage value is fair to good for cattle and horses. Poor for sheep and wildlife while growing and poor for all animals when dry. Fair for hay when cut during or before flowering. Grows in alkaline or saline soils in meadows and valleys, sandy soils of desert foothills or roadsides, and dry and gravely slopes. Sources:

Wasowski, Sally and Andy, Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center

Jurgens, Marshall H. Animal Feeding and Nutrition. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 2002. Stubbendieck, James, Stephan L. Hatch, and L.M. Landholt. North American Wildland Plants. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.

USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 24 February 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 3

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Tube Feeding

examine the feeder to be sure it is clean and undamaged. The steel probe looks more intimidating to the operator, but it is less likely to kink, twist or turn back on itself than the plastic probe. The length of the tube and size of the calf will dictate how far to insert the tube. Measure this distance by comparing the tube to the distance between the mouth of the calf and the point of the shoulder (x). (Fig 2) This is the approximate distance that the tube should be inserted; if you prefer, you can mark this distance on the tube. The calf should be positioned so that the fluid administered is not aspirated into the lungs. It is preferable to tube the calf while it is standing. Put its rear into a corner and hold its head between your legs. (Fig 3) If the calf cannot stand, sit it up on its sternum and hold the head between your legs (Fig 4).

Fig. 2.

To insure that no fluid runs into the mouth of the calf that may be inhaled into its lungs, the rigid part of the feeder should be removed from the plastic pouch or bottle or the plastic tube must be kinked off while the tube is passed. Moisten the end of the feeder with colostrum or lubricant to make the bulb slippery. Stimulate the calf to open its mouth by putting pressure on its gums. Insert the probe end. (Fig 5). This rounded end when placed in the calf’s mouth at the back Fig. 3. Fig. 4. of its throat will stimulate the calf to swallow. Wait patiently. Once the calf swallows the end of the feeder, slide the tube gently down the esophagus to the mark that was placed previously on the tube. Prior to administering the fluid, check that you feel the tube in the esophagus on the left side of the calf’s neck. (Fig 6) You will distinctly feel two tube like structures in the neck. The trachea or windpipe is firm and has rings or ridges. The tube in the esophagus is firm but smooth. You can move the tube back and forth to identify it in the esophagus. (Fig 7)

Fig. 5.

Administer the fluid by raising the bag above the calf and allowing the fluid to flow by gravity. (Fig 8) The calf will begin to move about when it feels pressure in its filling rumen. Do not remove the tube until the fluid has had sufficient time to get to the rumen.

Fig. 6.

Fig. 7.

Prior to removing the tube, kink off the tube or remove the bottle. Gently pull the tube out in one swift motion holding the calf as still as possible. Immediately wash the tube and feeder in hot soapy water. Follow with a chlorine and hot water rinse. When feeding colostrum you must remove a fluid of fat and protein that tends to congeal in the feeders. Proper cleaning and disinfecting of the feeder is very important.

Fig. 8.

Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 4

Nitrates and Purchased Hay

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Marvin Reynolds, Pueblo County Extension Director Any purchased hay should be tested for nitrates. Alfalfa and grass hay may be an exception. Nitrates accumulate in plants during drought conditions or when water is restricted during irrigation. Since we don’t know the actual growing conditions of purchased feed, spending $1015 for a nitrate test is much cheaper than losing a $1,500 cow or $600 calf. Often, losses of animals from nitrates don’t stop at one. Several may die before symptoms are recognized. Nitrates are a normal part of forages. When they accumulate to too high a level in the forage, they can become toxic. The disease nitrates cause is called nitrate poisoning. Nitrates found in forages are normally converted by the digestive system to nitrite, and the nitrite is converted to ammonia. The ammonia is then converted to protein by the bacteria in the rumen. When large quantities of nitrates are ingested, the rumen can’t convert it all to ammonia. Nitrite accumulates in the rumen. Nitrite is 10 times more toxic to cattle as nitrate. Nitrite is absorbed into red blood cells and combines with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. Methemoglobin cannot transport oxygen in the blood as efficiently as hemoglobin. The animal’s heart rate and respiration increase, the blood and tissue of the animal take on a blue to chocolate brown tinge, muscle tremors can develop, staggering occurs and the animal eventually suffocates. Nitrate poisonings often occur with the feeding of Sudan or sorghum –Sudan hybrid or pearl millet feeds. There are other feeds that can accumulate nitrates such as perennial fescue or Johnsongrass. Also, weeds such as pigweed, kochia, mustard, nightshade and lamb’s quarters accumulate nitrates. There are ways that high nitrate feeds can be fed to cattle and other livestock. High nitrate feeds can be diluted with low nitrate feeds including concentrates. Also, animals that are in different stages of production are able to handle different levels of nitrates. Pregnant cows can handle fewer nitrates than open cows as high nitrates can cause abortions. Nitrates can be reported in a forage nitrate test in several different ways. They can be reported as nitrate (NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3), or nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N). There may be other ways to report nitrate levels as well. Be sure you know the way it is reported. A chart showing the safe and dangerous levels should be provided with the test results. If nitrates are reported to you and you want to understand them in a different reporting method, there are conversions that will put the numbers in a workable form. To find these conversions and more information about nitrate poisoning of livestock, call your local Extension Office or on the internet you can go to www.ext.colostate.edu and in the search box enter 1.610 or enter Nitrate Poisoning. This will redirect you so you can find the CSU Extension fact sheet on Nitrate Poisoning.

NOXIOUS WEED CONTROL PLAN  50% Cost Share is available to property owners who apply and are afflicted with a species of

weed listed on the Colorado Noxious Weed A or B List.  Turkey Creek Conservation District highlights their role in Pueblo County’s Noxious Weed Control Program.  User friendly method of making this cost share an easy reality for landowners.  Contact Turkey Creek Conservation District at 719-543-8386 ext. 116 or email: info@puebloweeds.com

website: www.puebloweeds.com Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 5

Event Announcements

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Forestry Webinar Series—Free! A webinar is an online seminar that can be viewed via any computer with internet access. Sessions are recorded for future reference.

Windbreak Design and Maintenance in Colorado March 1, 2012 from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. MT Participants will learn how to plan and plant a proper windbreak, including site selection, soil considerations  and species selection.  If you already have a windbreak in place, learn about proper care, maintenance, and  wildlife protection. Planting a windbreak on your property can provide numerous benefits including energy  savings and habitat for wildlife. Presented by Megan Lowery, Conservation and Education Tech. for West  Greeley Conservation District.    To register go to https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?hl=en_US&formkey=% 20dDRPN2JkVElSd1JJY2drQmFvLVBMWVE6MQ#gid=0

Proper Tree Care Practices for Small Acreage Landowners March 7, 2012 from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. MT Join Colorado State University Extension for a 1‐hour webinar to discuss suitable plant selection and planting  techniques, winter and summer watering, how to make proper pruning cuts, and when and how to apply    fertilizers.  Presented by Vince Urbina, Assistant Staff Forester, Colorado State Forest Service.  To register go to https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?hl=en_US&formkey=% 20dFFPbTB6QXppbk9MS3M4YkNIbnZwM1E6MQ#gid=0

Major Forest Health Concerns for Small Acreage Landowners March 14, 2012 from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. MT Sky Stephens, Forest Entomologist with the Colorado  State Forest Service will provide the most up to date  information on  what is affecting your forest lands and what to look out  for related to insects, disease, and  invasive forest plants including some great tips on what you can do to mitigate these impacts.  To register go to https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?hl=en_US&formkey=% 20dDIwRlhYSkVPTk1oa1JPVGd2YjdzMUE6MQ#gid=0

Best Management Practices (BMPs) on Small Acreages April 11, 2012 from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. MT In this webinar, you will learn about how to implement specific management techniques to ensure protection  of natural resources.  This topic will touch on preserving water quality, soil health, and how to accomplish   resource protection.  Presented by Greg Sundstrom and Rich Edwards with the CSFS.  To register go to https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?%20hl=en_US&formkey=% 20dDM5UkNJQkpKbXkxc0IyMWJFbWpRU3c6MQ#gid=0  

Wildlife Habitat Improvements for Forests In Colorado April 18, 2012 from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m. MT

Learn how to manage your woodland for habitat improvement of certain wildlife species.  The webinar will  also discuss what to do in case of encroachment and how to fence with wildlife in mind.  Riparian area live‐ stock impacts and in‐stream habitats will also be discussed by Russell Knight, Biologist from the NRCS.  To register go to https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?hl=en_US&formkey=% 20dGw3RUQ5YUdZX19ma0VSZmVYcGV3cXc6MQ#gid=0   Registration links can also be found under  Hot Topics at www.ext.colostate.edu/sam  Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 6

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Event Announcements

Drought or No Drought, That is the Question! Thursday, March 15, 2012 Fremont County Rodeo Grounds, 4H Building, 1450 South 9th Street, Canon City, Colorado Join us for an afternoon to gain insight into the weather, snowpack, marketing outlook and the economics of drought. AGENDA: 1:00 pm – Drought Forecast, Brian Bledsoe - Chief Meteorologist, KKTV 2:00 pm – Current Snowpack Report/Outlook, Mage Skordahl - Hydrologist, NRCS 2:20 pm – Break 2:30 pm – Marketing Outlook: Hay & Cattle, Dr. Stephen Koontz - Agricultural Economist and Extension Specialist, Associate Professor, CSU 3:30 pm – Economics of Drought: Tools & Decision-Making Aids Jeffrey Tranel - Agricultural & Business Management Economist, CSU Extension   Sponsored by Fremont and Custer Conservation Districts, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Colorado State University Fremont County Extension Cost: $5.00/person, Please RSVP to Carol at 783-2481 or Janet at 275-4465 x 101

Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Training Tuesday, March 13th, 8:30 a.m. to 12 noon. Otero County Fairgrounds 4-H Building in Rocky Ford.

Topics covered: - Worker training - Manure, compost, and wildlife management - Packing house safety and pest control - Record keeping and traceability

-

Water management Harvest and post-harvest safety Transportation Crisis management

Presentations by Jennifer Wells, CSU Extension SE Area Director Tracy Vanderpool, Colorado Department of Agriculture Pre-registration is not required. Educational materials, $30 per set. A set of educational materials will be available for each farm or group, but as many people as you want may attend from an individual farm or group. At the end of the training each entity/individual will receive a certificate indicating that they have been trained. Call Mike Bartolo (254-6312) or Jennifer Wells (254-7608) for information. Food Preservation Classes Offered Lois Illick, Family and Consumer Science Agent for CSU Extension-Pueblo County, will be offering a series of food preservation classes. The series called “Preserving the Harvest” offers a variety of classes (including some hands-on sessions) on water bath, pressure canning, freezing and dehydrating and jams and jellies. For more information, contact Christine at 719-583-6566 for a full brochure. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 7

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Event Announcements

Sixth Annual Western Landscape Symposium March 17, 2012 - 9:00 a.m. - 3:30 p.m. Pueblo Community College Fortino Ballroom 900 W. Orman Ave., Pueblo, CO 81004

Advance Tickets $18.00 each/2 for $30.00 Available at: CSU Extension-Pueblo County, 701 Court Street, Suite C ($20.00 at the door) Cash or check only – sorry, no credit cards Keynote Speaker: Scott Calhoun, Noted Author and Garden Designer Lessons from the Southwest: Strategies for Designing Water-Thrifty Gardens Other Sessions: Beyond Junipers: Beauty in Winter Landscapes, Cathie Schroeder, Colorado Gardening Enthusiast The Tomato: A Passion for Love Apples, Carol O’Meara, CSU Extension-Boulder County Pollinators Exposed, Marti Osborn, Pueblo Zoo Gaining Ground in the Turf Wars, Cheryl Conklin, Green Way Gardening Making Every Drop Count, Marcia Tatroe, Gardening Writer and Speaker Twenty Best for 2012, Diana Capen and Merrilee Barnett, Perennial Favorites

Save the Date! Drought Workshop Tuesday, May 15 in Pueblo If we are no longer in a drought… we will have a workshop focusing on management after a drought. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 8

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Event Announcements

INTRODUCTION TO PERMACULTURE Becky Elder, PCD & EC

Wednesday, April 11, 2012, 6:00-8:00 p.m. Pueblo County Conference Room 1001 North Santa Fe Ave., Pueblo, CO 81003

Becky will discuss: What is Permaculture? Ethics of Permaculture Outline Principles Based on Nature Time for Questions and Answers

Register by Friday, April 6. Cost is $10/person, $15/couple Bring/mail check or cash to: CSU Extension—Pueblo County 701 Court St., Suite C, Pueblo, CO 81003 Write Checks to “Extension Program Fund” Call (719) 583-6566 with questions or for more info.

What is Permaculture? Permaculture is a design system based on ecological principles. The ideas in Permaculture can be applied to many aspects of our lives, from designing a small garden or in a larger agricultural setting. It can be applied to our use of water and rain harvesting. It can incorporate animals and plants. Permaculture thinks of systems as a whole, in the sense that everything impacts other components in a system and that design systems are created for multiple purposes. In short, it is a method based on wisely using the resources we have and to design systems in an ecological manner. Farm and Ranch Business Class for New/Young Farmers and Ranchers Saturday, April, 21, 10:00 a.m.– 4 p.m. Are you interested in learning more about the risks you face? Your personal risk preferences? Ways to better manage those risks? Colorado State University Extension in Pueblo County will host a Farm and Ranch Business Management class. All current and prospective farmers and ranchers are encouraged to attend, especially new and beginning producers. Jeff Tranel, Agricultural and Business Management Economist with Colorado State University, will present information about managing your risks, crop insurance products available to all producers, assessing the feasibility of alternative enterprises, financial planning, record keeping, and tax issues for farmers and ranchers. Tranel has more than 27 years of experience helping farmers and ranchers better understand and manage their risks. He is known for his willingness to involve his audiences and address the issues of greatest concern to them. The workshop will be held on April 21st (Saturday) at the CSU Extension Regional Office located at 830 N. Main Street in Pueblo. The program will begin at 10:00 am and conclude by 4:00. Lunch will be provided. Please contact Emily Lockard at the CSU Extension Office in Pueblo County at 719-583-6566 or Emily.lockard@colostate.edu. Registrations should be received by April 16th in order that snacks and lunches may be ordered. There is no registration fee for this workshop, since it is being sponsored in part by the USDA Risk Management Agency. Call (719) 583-6566 for more information or with questions. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination. Colorado State University Extension, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Colorado counties cooperating. If you wish to participate in any Extension events/activities listed and need special accommodation, please notify CSU Extension—Pueblo County (719) 583-6566 at least 5 working days prior to the event/activity. Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Page 9

Event Announcements

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

Small Scale Poultry Workshop

June 23, 9 a.m.-12 noon CSU Extension-Pueblo County 701 Court St., Ste C., Pueblo For those interested in small scale production, from backyard to small business!

Kristy Pabilonia, DVM CSU, Assistant Professor of Avian Disease will discuss diseases, nutrition, housing & care. Emily Lockard, CSU Extension—Pueblo County will discuss local regulations.

Register by Monday, June 18 Cost, $15/per person, $25/couple sharing materials Bring/mail check or cash to: CSU Extension—Pueblo County 701 Court St., Suite C, Pueblo, CO 81003 Write checks to “Extension Program Fund” Call (719) 583-6566 with questions.

Poisonous Plants and Grazing Management Tuesday, June 19, 2012, 6-8:30 p.m.

CSU Extension Regional Office, 830 N Main, Suite 200, Pueblo Bring in plants you think are poisonous or have questions regarding their toxicity! Poisonous Plants to Horses and Cattle (including issues with Selenium) Anthony P. Knight, BVSc., MS, DACVIM Prof. Colorado State University, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Dept Clinical Sciences Horse and Cattle Grazing Management Emily Lockard, CSU Extension—Pueblo County Range/Natural Resources Register by Monday, June 12 Cost, $15/per person, $25/ couple sharing materials Bring/mail check or cash to: CSU Extension—Pueblo County 701 Court St., Suite C, Pueblo, CO 81003 Write Checks to “Extension Program Fund” Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.

Call (719) 583-6566 for more information or with questions.


Page 10

Calendar of Events

Southern Colorado Ag and Range Newsletter

March 7, 12-1 p.m. Webinar: Proper Tree Care Practices for Small Acreage Landowners 13, 8:30– noon. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Training. Otero County Fairgrounds 4-H Building in Rocky Ford. Call Mike Bartolo (254-6312) or Jennifer Wells (254-7608) for information. 14, 12-1 p.m. Webinar: Major Forest Health Concerns for Small Acreage Landowners 15, 1-5 p.m. Drought or No Drought, That is the Question, Fremont County Rodeo Grounds, 4-H Building, 1450 South 9th Street, Canon City, CO. Cost: $5.00/person, Please RSVP to Carol at 783-2481 or Janet at 275-4465 x 101 17, 9 a.m. - 3:30 p.m. Western Landscape Symposium, Pueblo Community College Fortino Ballroom, 900 W. Orman Ave., Pueblo, CO 81004. Advance Tickets $18.00 each/2 for $30.00 Available at: CSU Extension-Pueblo County, 701 Court Street, Suite C. Call (719) 583-6566 for more information.

April 11, 12-1 p.m. Webinar: Best Management Practices (BPMs) on Small Acreages 11, 6-8 p.m. Introduction to Permaculture, County Conference Room, 1001 North Santa Fe Ave., Pueblo, CO 81003. Register by Friday, April 6. Cost is $10/person, $15/couple. Bring/mail check or cash to: CSU Extension—Pueblo County 701 Court St., Suite C, Pueblo, CO 81003. Write checks to “Extension Program Fund”. Call (719) 583-6566 with questions or for more information. 18, 12-1 p.m. Webinar: Wildlife Habitat Improvements for Forests in Colorado 21, 10-4p.m. Farm and Ranch Business Class for New/Young Farmers and Ranchers. Call (719) 583-6566 for more information. 28, 9 a.m.-2 p.m. Essential Botany for Beginners and Beyond, SECWCD, 31717 United Ave. Cost $15/person, $25 for couples sharing materials. Call (719) 583-6566 for more information.

May 5, 8 a.m.—2 p.m. Zootastic Plant Sale, Pueblo Zoo– City Park, call (719) 583-6566 for details. 15, Drought Management Workshop. More details available in April, Check CSU ExtensionPueblo County’s website or call (719) 583-6566 for more information.

June 19, 6-8:30 p.m. Poisonous Plants and Grazing Management. CSU Extension Regional Office, 830 N Main, Suite 200 in Pueblo. Register by Tuesday, June 12. Cost is $15/person, $25/couple sharing materials. Call (719) 583-6566 with questions. 23, 9 a.m.-12 noon. Poultry Workshop, CSU Extension-Pueblo County 701 Court St., Ste C. Register by Monday, June 18. Cost is $15/person, $25/couple sharing materials. Call (719) 583-6566 with questions.

Monthly meetings: Pueblo County Stockmen’s Association meets the first Thursday of each month at Mesa Vet Clinic at 7:30 p.m. starting in April Turkey Creek Conservation District meets the 2nd Tuesday of every month, Time: 2:30 p.m. Location: 200 S. Santa Fe Ave., 4th floor, Call: (719) 543-8386 Ext. 116 for details South Pueblo Conservation District meets the 3rd Thursday of every month, Time: 7:30 p.m. Location: 200 S. Santa Fe Ave., 4th floor, Call: (719) 543-8386 Ext. 3 for details Colorado State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pueblo County cooperating. Extension programs are available to all without discrimination.


Southern Colorado Ag Newsletter