CSER Alphabet Book of Digital Technologies (Foundation to Year 6)

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A Guide for Teachers and Parents

Computer Science Education Research University of Adelaide

Introduction The following pages are a summary of some key concepts and ideas connected to the Australian Digital Technologies Curriculum. It is not exhaustive but includes commonly discussed topics in our workshops. This can assist both Teachers and Parents (F - 6) to find quick definitions, resources and activities of commonly used words and acronyms. Some ideas overlap with the ICT Capability and Cybersafety. All images were sourced from CANVA or creative commons sources and cited accordingly. Every effort was made to include links to resources and we thank Hello Ruby, Digital Technologies Hub, Code.org, CS Unplugged and other organisations for sharing their resources so generously. Our free online courses (MOOC’s) cover these concepts and many more in detail. Please see The University of Adelaide CSER MOOC’s website for more information.

This work has been funded through the Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment and is provided and licensed under Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


ABSTRACTION Abstraction is the ďŹ ltering out of information that you do not need when solving a problem. Using the Computational thinking process, abstraction occurs after you have broken the problem down into bite size pieces (decomposed the problem), collected data and found patterns. You then remove the data that is not relevant to solving the problem. By highlighting the important components and hiding the irrelevant parts, the problem can be solved more easily.

Guess Who? When playing “Guess Who?� each question removes elements of data and improves the chances of guessing the character (abstracting the irrelevant data).

See- Computational thinking | Decomposition | Pattern recognition

ACCELEROMETER An Accelerometer Sensor is a device that detects change in velocity in any direction (x, y & z axes). Accelerometers are used in handheld devices like mobile phones or iPads to change your view and rotate the screen. They are also used in wearable safety devices, detecting falls in the elderly, triggering airbags in vehicles and to measure the amount of G-force on a pilot in a ďŹ ghter jet. A BBC micro:bit incorporates an accelerometer and can be used by students to create simple pedometers - the accelerometer measures the movement and number of steps. Spheros also use accelerometer sensors and the data from the movement is recorded for analysis.

See- micro:bit | Wearables

ALGORITHM Algorithms are an exact set of instructions which need to be very detailed and in the right order. We use algorithms everyday. A recipe is a simple algorithm. It is the ďŹ nal stage in the Computational Thinking process. Algorithms involve working through steps and making decisions to solve problems. Sometimes processes are repeated (iteration or loops).


A visual representation of an algorithm to create a paper plane

See- Computational Thinking | Branching | Iteration | Flowcharts

ANTIVIRUS Antivirus software protects computers or networks against malware. Originally designed to protect against viruses, they now work against many malware types. Malware can damage computer ďŹ les and systems and often enter computer systems via email attachments, unsecure links or on removable drives. Antivirus programs are often set to automatically scan for malware and are designed to recognise and block threats before they cause harm, then remove them or warn users. It is essential to keep antivirus programs up to date as new malware are always being invented.

See- Malware | Virus

APPLICATIONS APPs (short for Applications) are small pieces of software programs that run on a hand held device, a computer desktop or a website. They are generally downloaded from the internet from an App Store. Typically represented by an icon on the screen, an app is designed to perform a task regardless of the device. Some apps require access to the internet when being used (e.g. weather apps) and others don’t (e.g. calculator). Apps are generally cheaper to develop and purchase as they offer a streamlined version of a full software program. Often Apps are provided in a free version with the option to have more features in a paid version. Mobile device Operating Systems come with their own suite of Apps. When using an App, users should be aware of the data collected and adjust security settings and permissions to minimise risks.

See- Software

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ArtiďŹ cial Intelligence or AI is the ability of machines to mimic human capabilities. Teaching a machine to see (recognise objects in an image) and listen (interpret and analyse sounds) are elements of AI. In a traditional computer program, an algorithm tells the machine exactly what to do (step-by-step), whereas, in an AI program, the machine is programmed to learn and make its own decisions. Intelligent machines mimic human behaviour as similar to how humans sense, reason, act, and adapt.

Quick Draw is a Google AI experiment and game which draws on machine learning.

See - Machine Learning

Teaching ArtiďŹ cial Intelligence in the Primary Classroom Online Course

AUDIO Audio is sound or noise that can be heard. The audio signal on a computer is measured in hertz and generated using a sound card. In a digital system, sound can be either output or input via peripheral devices. Any digital information with speech or music stored on and played through a computer is called an audio file or sound file. One of the most common types of audio file formats used today is the MP3 and others include WAV, MP4 and AIFF.

Output - speakers, headphones Input

- microphone, sound sensors

See- Hardware | Peripherals

AUGMENTED REALITY Augmented Reality or AR technology superimposes a digital layer of information onto a real world environment when viewed through an App on a camera enabled device. The AR interactive experience can increase understanding by allowing interaction with accurate 3D representations of enhanced real world objects. Google Sky map, for example, shows the names of stars and other entities in the patch of sky where the phone is pointing. They require a trigger image (like a QR code) or ability to track a surface (scanning an area) for digital content. AR is frequently used for training, design and prototyping opportunities. Merge Cubes allow 3D images to be displayed using AR. The patterns provide a trigger that launches an AR experience through a Merge app via a camera pointed at the cube. https://mergeedu.com/cube

CSER Lending Library Lesson Plans Merge Cubes

BACKUP A backUp is a copy of data or information. It can be used to recover files if they are deleted or become corrupted. The backup should not be stored in the same location as the original file. Backing up and saving files often is important. Backup files can be sent to the cloud, a USB memory stick or thumb drive, CD-R, DVD-R or an external hard drive.

See - Back Up | Cloud Storage | USB

BARCODE A Barcode is a visual representation of data that can be read by a scanner. The set of lines of different widths and sizes, along with the 12 digits, in the barcode give information or data when it is scanned. The numbers represent elements including the manufacturer or seller of the product and the type of product. The last number is a special digit called the "check digit" which ensures the data in the other numbers is correct. CS Unplugged has an Error Detection activity to examine this feature.

Provided from CSUnplugged.org

BEE-BOT® / BLUE-BOT® Beebots® are simple, battery operated floor robots that can be programmed to follow a sequence of steps (algorithms). Using the directional buttons to input instructions, the Bee-bot moves forward or backward, in 15 cm steps, and turns 90 degrees left or right. Blue-Bots® have a transparent shell and the added functionality of 45 degree movements and bluetooth which allows them to be programmed and controlled using an app.

Beebots were created by the TTS

See - Robotics | Algorithms

CSER Lending Library Lesson Plans

BINARY Computers have electrical transistors. These transistors can only be in one of two states - either 'on' or 'off'. 1’s and 0’s represent the 'on' and 'off' electrical states. Because there are only two states, computers cannot count in 10s or speak languages like humans, and instead, computers count in 2s. The images we see on a screen are really a representation of 0s and 1s, which are converted to symbols, characters, and numbers for our human eyes to see. Writing instructions for a computer using binary would not be an ideal way for humans to record instructions. Specific programming languages translate code into binary as a way of communicating with computers and describing algorithms.

See - Bit & Bytes





BITS / BYTES A bit is a binary digit - 0 (zero) or 1 (one) or off and on, false or true, low or high. Bits are the smallest measurement unit of computer data and are typically grouped together in bytes. A byte is usually 8 bits and can be used to represent a single letter or number.

Other groupings include: Kilobyte (KB) = 1000 bytes Megabyte (MB) = 10000 KM Gigabyte (GB) = 1000MB Terabyte (TB) = 1000GB Petabyte (PB) = 1000TB Exabyte (EB) sizes = 1000PB

See - Binary

Shared from Code.org under a Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

BLOG A blog is a website that can be regularly updated. Coming from the original idea Web-log, they often consist of a series of posts, ordered by date of publishing. Interactivity with readers is possible through comments. Online journaling of research or professional practice are common uses of blogs. Engaging in blogging allows students to actively practise cybersafe and ethical behaviours - e.g. not revealing personal information and using images ethically. Writing blogs also provides a real world audience with opportunities for feedback through comments.

BLUETOOTH Bluetooth is a wireless technology that enables the exchange of data between devices. Devices need to be paired and in close proximity. Bluetooth switches frequencies hundreds of times per second which reduces the possibility of hacking. Computer mice, printers, earbuds along with robots such as the Blue-Bot and Sphero can all be connected wirelessly via bluetooth.

See- WiFi

BRANCHING Branching is a fundamental concept of algorithm design and coding. Branching occurs when a decision is required in an algorithm. In programming, If - Then statements are conditional statements which illustrate the decision options. The program queries IF a condition is met, THEN an action is performed. A ow chart or decision tree is a way to illustrate branching. Writing the method for playing Noughts and Crosses in pseudocode illustrates branching (IF - THEN - ELSE) . Visual Programming uses the same concept in block format.

See- Pseudocode | Algorithm | Iteration | Flowcharts

BROWSER A browser is a software program used on computers to search the World Wide Web (WWW) for information and content. The content is varied and includes pictures, videos and web pages. Search engines or Web browsers such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Edge act as our entry door to the WWW content.

See- Internet | WWW

BUG A bug is an error found in a computer software program or system that prevents it working as it was meant to. When you ďŹ nd and ďŹ x a bug it is called "debugging". Most bugs are also caused by programmers writing errors in code and are often caused from ordering events incorrectly. Checking or tracing algorithms for errors is used for debugging.

Debug the path that has been created for the bee to get to the honey. Step forward 2 squares Turn left Step forward 4 squares Create your own paths and get a friend to test and de-bug

See- Software | Programming

CABLES Cables are used to transmit power or data between devices and components of digital systems, locally or across networks. Data can be any type of media that can be carried as binary electrical bits. Twisted pair, ďŹ bre optics and coaxial cables all have different features and uses. Fibre optic cables provide higher bandwidth and are used especially for telecommunications between world wide networks and internet providers.

Use your camera to record images of all the cables that make up a wired network at home or school. Create a pictogram or schematic map of all connected components. See- Networks

CIRCUIT A circuit is a path between two or more points. In electronics, a circuit is the path that electricity flows through. Circuits can be closed or open. A closed circuit means that the path starts at the power source (like a battery), flows through the path, and ends up back at the power source. To use electricity to power something like a light bulb or LED, a closed circuit is required. An open circuit means the path is broken so that the electricity can't flow back to the power source. A light bulb won't light up if there's an open circuit.

See- Makey Makey

Make a Simple Closed Circuit ● Cardstock ● Copper Tape ● 3mm LED Bulbs ● 3 Volt Coin Batteries ● Scotch Tape

CLOUD STORAGE Cloud Storage is an internet connected location used to store or host data on a remote server. Using the cloud for data storage is a method of backing up information. Cloud storage allows for easy access to ďŹ les from any internet connected device and is not typically restricted to just one device. Office 365, Google Drive, iCloud and Dropbox provide Cloud storage. Cloud Storage has some security concerns. Data breaches and data leakage are the most common security problems. Data on cloud services can be vulnerable to malicious attacks, natural disasters, or data loss. Keeping a downloaded copy of your ďŹ les as another backup is one way to protect against data loss.

See - Back Up

CODES There are many types of codes. Computing Codes are programming instructions. (See Programming) Codes or Cipher are a set of rules or instructions to encrypt or decrypt data in a system by replacing words, letters, ďŹ gures, or symbols with another word, letter, ďŹ gure or symbol to secure the message. These include: Substitution Codes - simple messages coded using the substitution of a number for each letter; for example, A=1 and Z=26. Braille code which uses a series of raised dots in cells to represent letters and numbers. Morse code represents the letters of the alphabet using dots and dashes. Write your own secret messages using a Substitution or Morse Code.

See - Programming | Cryptography | Encryption

COMPUTATIONAL THINKING Computational thinking is a problem solving process. Computational thinkers are logical, follow exact instructions, break down the problem into manageable tasks, look for patterns and remove unnecessary information. Computational thinking is useful when planning computer programmes but also assists in dealing with everyday tasks.

● ● ● ●

DECOMPOSE the problem by breaking it down into parts. Find the PATTERNS to see the similarities and repetitions. Use ABSTRACTION to remove unnecessary information. List the ALGORITHMS with steps and rules.

Find 3 friends and play a game with no instructions. Choose one piece of equipment - skipping rope, a ball, Beebot, Sphero or a pack of cards and play a game with no instructions.

See - Decomposition | Pattern Recognition | Abstraction | Algorithm

COMPUTER A computer is a digital system that works with information called data. It takes input from the user and gives output. It consists of software and hardware. The ďŹ rst computers were people who performed mathematical functions.

CPU or Central Processing Unit carries out the instructions of a computer program. It is very good with numbers and works like a calculator to process information.

Take photos of the computers in your home / classroom/ library / school office. Make a poster using recycled materials and fabric showing the different hardware and peripheral components (eg: buttons, ports, camera, keyboard etc) See - Digital System | Software | Hardware | Input |Output

CONCEPTS The Australian Digital Technologies Curriculum was written using key concepts that will stand the test of time as the technological world evolves. Considering these concepts also allows for connections to other areas of study.

Digital systems Hardware/ software (computer architecture and operating systems) and networks (wireless, mobile and wired networks

Data Collection Data collection describes the numerical, categorical and textual facts measured, collected or calculated as the basis for creating information and its binary representation in digital systems.

Data Representation Data representation describes how data are represented and structured symbolically for storage and communication, by people and in digital systems.

Data Interpretation Extracting meaning from data. Forming patterns and visualising

SpeciďŹ cation Definition of the problem. Defining and communicating a problem concisely and clearly

Implementation Specific choice of programming language or tech to implement the algorithm

Impact Analysing and predicting the extent to which personal, economic, environmental and social needs are met through existing and emerging digital systems and devices; and appreciating the transformative potential of digital systems in people’s lives. Consideration of the relationship between information systems and society and in particular the ethical and legal obligations of individuals and organisations regarding ownership and privacy of data and information.

Abstraction The process of reducing a problem to key points

Algorithms Describing and following a series of instructions. A precise description of steps and decisions needed to solve a problem.

Interactions Refers to all human interactions with information systems, especially user interfaces and experiences, and human–human interactions including communication and collaboration facilitated by digital systems. This concept also addresses methods for protecting stored and communicated data and information.

COOKIE An internet cookie is a small amount of plain text, stored as a data ďŹ le on your computer, after visiting a web page. The cookie gives the server the information saved from the web browser which helps to identify a computer the next time it is visited. The cookie data is presented like a ticket. As well as saving information, a cookie helps prepare customised web pages related to the information it has stored. Users can choose to accept them when they ďŹ rst land on a page and can clear them from your computer at any time.

See- Software

CREATIVE COMMONS The use of words and images that we ďŹ nd on the internet is governed by many laws including copyright. Most material is not free to use and is governed by rules that protect the people who created the material. Creative Commons (CC) is designed to give the creators of content the ability to determine how their work can be used. Content labelled with CC can be copied and shared within an education setting. It is important to check the CC licence to understand how the content may be used before using it in your own projects.

CRYPTOGRAPHY Cryptography simply means secret writing. The word cryptography comes from two Greek words, krypto (secret) and graphein (write). In Digital Technologies, it is the study of secure communication techniques that allow only the sender and intended receiver to understand the content of a message by keeping information secret from third parties. Even if an unintended receiver intercepted the communication, without knowing the secret key, the message would appear meaningless to them.


The Australian Computing Academy (ACA) has a classroom resource on Cryptography and Cipher Wheels available for download

See - Encryption

CYBERBULLYING Cyberbullying is bullying using digital technologies. Cyber bullying is invasive, can occur 24/7 and can be difficult to escape from. It can also include a large audience with materials shared in online communities being repeatedly shared. Cyberbullying behaviour might include: ● abusive texts and emails ● hurtful messages, images or videos ● imitating others online ● excluding others online ● humiliating others online ● spreading nasty online gossip and chat ● creating fake accounts to trick someone or humiliate them

https://www.esafety.gov.au/ Use the resources from eSafety Commissioner and produce a Cyberbully Watch Poster that lists at least 5 ways to avoid bullying online.

CYBER SECURITY Cyber security is how digital systems, networks and data is protected from being accessed by hackers and people without permission. Cyber Security has many layers and includes: ● Physical security measures - using facial & fingerprint recognition and keeping devices in a safe place User behaviour - using passphrases or two factor authentication to access online materials ● Security awareness - being aware of risks in opening links in emails or pop-up advertisements ● Being responsible with mobile devices, portable data drives (USB) or anything that contains information is another way of being cyber safe and cyber secure. Cyber security is the responsibility of everyone who uses digital systems to be cyber secure.

See - Passwords & Passphrases

DATA Data is a collection of facts that, when combined, provides information. Data can be categorical (such as colours or preferences) or numeric (such as measurements or numbers of items). Information is created when data is processed, organised and presented in a meaningful way. Information can help us make decisions, such as what to wear based on the weather or the fastest route to school. In Digital Technologies, data refers to numbers, characters, images, symbols and sounds that can be manipulated, stored and communicated by digital systems. Computers store data as a series of bits (binary digits 0 and 1) and can send data from one device to another using data transmission. What types of data can you record about yourself? Collect, organise and present data as a family or a class. When you combine all of the data, what information does it tell you about everyone? What is the same? What is different?

See- Binary | Bits & Bytes

DECOMPOSITION Decomposition is the process of breaking down a complex problem or a larger task into a number of smaller, more manageable tasks or problems. Decomposition is a skill necessary for programming, as it is fundamental in the design of algorithms.

See- Computational Thinking | Algorithm | Iteration | Abstraction

DESIGN THINKING Design Thinking is a human-centred, creative problem solving process. There is a strong emphasis on considering the needs of the end user of the solution. The empathising phase engages the end user early in the process. Whilst the steps are often presented as a linear process, the testing phase can provide feedback that requires returning to previous stages. Design Thinking underpins learning in the Australian Curriculum: Technologies and requires students to use a range of strategies to solve complex problems.

Explore Design Thinking on

See- Prototype | Systems Thinking


“Digital hardware and software components (internal and external) used to transform data into a digital solution. When digital systems are connected, they form a network.� (Glossary, 2017) Glossary. (2017). Retrieved November 5, 2020, from Australiancurriculum.edu.au website: https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/technologies/glossary/?letter=D

See - Input | Output | Peripherals | Software | Hardware

DRONE A drone is a ying device controlled in the air with remote control. They are unmanned and are also known as unmanned aerial vehicles. Drones have propellers mounted on their arms. A quadcopter has 4 arms and 4 propellers. Many drones are used for surveillance and have cameras mounted on them to capture photos or record videos. Some are operated with their own drone controller that works when radio signals are sent from the radio transmitter in the controller and received by the drone’s receiver, while other types of drones can be wirelessly connected and piloted from an app.

Read the Drone Safety Rules from CASA - Civil Aviation and Safety Authority and compile a Drone Flight Safety checklist.

ENCRYPTION Encryption is a security method for disguising data. Data can be encrypted (disguised) using ciphers, secret codes and private keys. Encryption or decryption keys are used to encrypt or decrypt, or encrypt and decrypt, data to make it appear random. The keys use algorithms to lock the data to anyone who does not have the key. The algorithms convert plaintext (unencrypted data) into ciphertext (encrypted data), and vice versa for decryption algorithms.

Can you think of examples of personal data that you would not like anyone to see?

See - Cryptography

ETHERNET An ethernet is a wired local area network (LAN). The original network was established at the University of Hawaii and was called the Alto Aloha Network. When network devices are connected to an ethernet, devices can communicate by sending data packets to each other via a protocol or set of rules or common network language. The Aloha network was the ďŹ rst to establish protocols that eliminated data collisions on the network.

See - Networks

FILE EXTENSIONS File extension or a file name extension is the ending of a file name and identifies the type of file. They often determine the type of software that will open the file. A ‘doc’ is a word processing document associated with MS Word. A ‘jpg’ is an image file that many different programs can use. File extensions are not automatically viewed on MacOS but can be viewed by using the Finder tool, selecting the Preferences menu - Advanced tab, and check the "Show all filename extensions" box.

Play detective. How many of these file types can you identify? Can you sort them into groups ? See- Software | GIF | JPG

FILE MANAGER File Manager helps you to list, search, find and manage the files on your computer. In here you will find storage, downloads, apps, cloud and access from your PC. In Apple devices, File Manager is known as Finder.

FIREWALL Firewall is a software or hardware security guard that ďŹ lters the data entering or leaving your computer. It offers protection against unauthorised access. Firewalls act to protect computer networks in the same way as a brick wall stops the spread of a ďŹ re.

See- Networks

FLOWCHART Flowcharts are a visual representation of an algorithm. They demonstrate the steps of an algorithm and the flow of logic. Flowcharts are used by programmers to plan their algorithms. They can be used to plan, test and debug ideas or programs. The flow chart on the right demonstrates branching (where a decision is made). Iteration (repetition) would occur if the same choice was made more than once.







What shape? Follow the simple flowchart on the left. What shape have you walked? Write a flowchart to walk another shape. See- Algorithm | Branching | Iteration



GPS GPS is short for Global Positioning System. Operating by radio communication, a network of satellites determine a location on Earth. GPS is used for providing locations, mapping spaces, navigating, tracking and even gaming. GPS are incorporated in navigation systems, wearable ďŹ tness monitors and also contact tracing Apps.

GYROSCOPE A gyroscope calculates the orientation and rotation of a device and when combined with accelerometers (acceleration sensors) give very strong direction and motion sensing. Gyroscope applications include: Car navigation systems, vehicle control and game controllers such as Playstation 3 and Wii Remotes and peripherals including VR headsets like Oculus Rift. Gyroscope design will help autonomous cars and robots. Spheros, commonly used in schools also have a gyroscope.

See - Hardware | Sensors

HACKING Hacking is a type of cyber attack which involves activities performed to gain unauthorised access to others’ computers and data. A hacker or cybercriminal is highly skilled. They require deep and creative knowledge about the programs or systems they plan to access in order to manipulate them. Hackers often engage in writing malware. Hacking can be performed with both good and bad intentions.

See - Malware

CSER Cyber Security and Awareness MOOC

HARDWARE Hardware is an element of a digital system. It includes the physical components and any housing containing electronic circuitry a computer system needs to work. There are pieces of hardware that are inside a computer - motherboards, hard drives and RAM, and others known as peripherals that are outside, including a mouse, printer or monitor Hello Ruby Resources for F-2

Explore this unit from Digital Technologies Hub

See - Digital Systems | Software | Peripherals

HYPERLINKS Hyperlinks are activated by clicking on a highlighted or underlined word or image. They can be added to many document types to create easy access to linked documents or websites. Web pages have embedded connections that allow them to link to other pages called hyperlinks.

See - Internet | WWW

INFORMATION SYSTEM An information system is the software that helps to organise and analyse the data so that it can be useful and used by people. Essentially information systems turn raw data into useful information. Some examples of information services are: Learning Management Systems, Staff Payroll, Library Borrowing Systems, Transport Management Systems, and so on. Information systems reduce the amount of manual effort required to collect, organise and share data. However, with that come potential issues. We are now vulnerable to network outages taking away information. We have so much information it can be hard to ďŹ nd what we are looking for.

INPUT An input device is a type of hardware peripheral device used to send information, such as sounds, images and text in a digital system. Some examples of input devices include: ● ● ● ● ●

Mouse: gives instructions through clicks. Microphone: provides digital sound data. Keyboards: provide input in the form of symbols, characters and punctuation. Cameras: scanning a QR code which is decoded. Network cards: input to the computer from the network connection and send information back.

See - Digital Systems

INTERNET The INTERNET (Interconnected Network) is a web of electronic, wireless and optical technologies connecting computers, digital devices and servers around the world. It is made up of billions of web pages containing information that we can search with a web browser.

Hello Ruby - Hiding in Plain Sight This activity encourages students to examine their environment and identify items that use the internet See - WWW | Search Engines | URL | Browsers

Hello Ruby Shared under Creative commons CC-by-NC-SA

INTERNET OF THINGS Internet of Things ( IoT) is a term used to refer to a device or physical object, connected to the internet and networked to gather and send or receive data. Often referred to as smart devices sensors, lightbulbs, fridges, watering systems, door locks, home security systems and wearables are some examples. The variety of IoT devices is increasing as they allow for automation and control of the environment and tasks in homes, businesses and vehicles. Along with the many positives, they can also be a security risk and can be targeted by hackers trying to access the data being collected by the IoT device.


Turn on tap

Counting Loop keep saying ‘Hello’ till you have said it 10 times

Check water level

Is bath full ?



Turn off water

END Conditional Loop Keep checking till the Condition is met, i.e. the bath is full

Iteration (repetition) is the process of repeating an action until a condition is met. Loops are used in code for iteration. A condition is a predetermined threshold (limit) or value that matches a desired outcome. e.g. keep adding one until you reach a total of 5. Loops help to make code more efficient by reducing the number of lines needed to complete a task where a repeated action is required. There are two types of loops - counting, where you repeat a certain number of times and conditional, where you repeat until a condition is met. A repeat loop (repetition) must include a condition to exit to prevent an endless loop or the continuous repetition of a program segment.

See- Computational Thinking | Branching | Algorithms

JPG / JPEG JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is one of the most popular digital image formats. It is also one of the most popular image types shown on the Internet or used with digital cameras. Every image editor, paint program, image viewer and web upload is capable of opening and viewing a jpeg file. Not only does the file include the pixels required to create the image but many other pieces of data are also included. The metadata or Exchangeable Image File (EXIF) embedded into the file at the time the image was captured, holds specific identifying and technical data - the exact day, time and location the photo was taken as well as the file type and size.

See - File Extensions

KEYBOARD A computer keyboard is a primary input device and part of a digital system. Users input data into a computer by entering letters, numbers and or symbols. The layout of the keyboard mimics typewriters. Touch screens on mobile devices also include keyboard functions.


LAN LAN or Local Area Network is a network of equipment or computers capable of communicating, sharing resources and information in one close location. If a network is located in more than one location it is called a WAN or Wide Area Network.

See - Networks | WAN

LED LED is short for Light Emitting Diode and is a two terminal electronic component that conducts current. A LED will light up when an electrical charge passes through it. The longer leg is the positive side of the LED (anode) and the shorter leg (cathode) is the negative side. LEDs are available in many colours and are used for a wide range of purposes such as medical and electronic devices, traffic lights, household lighting and in smart gardens.

Make a light up card or 3D pop up by using copper tape and surface mount leds to make your circuit.

MACHINE LEARNING Machine learning is a process of achieving Artificial Intelligence. In Machine Learning, we teach the machine by training it with lots of examples of data demonstrating what we would like it to do so that the machine can then perform the task on its own. The machine learns from these examples, identifying common features needed to make decisions from analysing potentially millions of data examples. Humans can teach the machine by providing meaningful labels on data (e.g. images, text) from similar categories that tell the machine about the attributes or features and how to group that data. For example, ‘cats’ and ‘birds’ are meaningful labels attached to categorise images of cats and birds. Features are the attributes that describe what is in the data (such as features found in images, audio, text). For example, in the images of cats and birds we can add attributes that describe the appearance of cats and birds such as the number of legs, the presence (or not) of a tail, fur, features, ears, height and weight.

See - Artificial Intelligence

Teaching Artificial Intelligence in the Primary Classroom Online Course

MAKEY MAKEY® Makey Makey® is an invention kit. By using the circuit board, alligator clips and a USB connection, you can take over from the keyboard and connect everyday conductive materials to computer keys. Using a Makey Makey® requires understanding of circuits and conductive materials.

CSER Lending Library Lesson Plans See - Circuits

https://makeymakey.com/ Makey Makey and GameBender are spin-offs of JoyLabz. Invented by Makers Jay Silver and Eric Rosenbaum. Makey Makey is a registered trademark of Makey Makey LLC.

MALWARE Malware is any malicious software designed to intentionally cause damage to a computer. It is possible for the malware attack to change your settings, delete software, cause errors, watch your browsing habits, or open a computer to other attacks. Viruses, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, and worms are types of malware. A virus will spread to other computers while worms burrow into the one computer.

See - Virus | AntiVirus | Phishing

micro:bit BBC micro:bit is a microprocessor (mini computer) which gives users the experience of programming a physical object either by block coding (MakeCode), JavaScript or Python. The microprocessor has many input and output devices including LED display, temperature sensor, compass and in the latest version, a speaker and microphone. By combining the hardware with the software, users can create solutions from simple pedometers or temperature alarms as well as quite complex designs. The ability to engage in a variety of programming languages also allows exibility and diversity.

See - Digital Systems | Programming


MOUSE A computer mouse is an input device that allows you to control the cursor on your computer monitor. Most mice are now optical and use at least one bright LED which is mounted on the bottom of the device and bounces light between the desk and a photocell in the mouse. Basically the mouse detects the movement in your hand as you move it on the desktop. Most mice also have two buttons which allow us to ‘click’ or select elements displayed on the screen. There are mice that operate wirelessly and those that connect via cable. A trackpad on a laptop replaces the tasks of a mouse.

See - Peripheral | Input | LED

NETWORKS Networks are a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices, peripherals, or other devices connected to one another for sharing data. The Internet is a network with connections around the world. Your home network is the collection of connected devices including desktop computers, printers, smart TV’s, laptops, etc. Devices within networks are connected by cable (wire and ďŹ bre optic), or by wireless technology.

See - LAN | WAN

OUTPUT DEVICES Output devices receive information and present these to the user. Some examples of output devices include: computer screens, printers, earphones and temperature sensor displays. Output is any information that is processed by and sent out from an electronic device. It can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, and video.

See - Digital Systems | Input

Create an input / output digital workow diagram.

OZOBOT© © 2020 Ozobot & Evollve, Inc. United States

Ozobots© are very small robots that are versatile in the classroom. The sensors read colours from digital sources (screens) and paper, meaning you can ‘code’ your Ozobot without a device. OzoBlockly allows the Ozobots to be coded using visual programming.

Explore OzoBot Educate Resources and See - Robotics

CSER Lending Library Lesson Plans

PASSWORDS / PASSPHRASES Passphrases and passwords are the most common security measures to protect our devices and accounts. A password is a secret word or combination of letters or numbers (a string of characters) used for authenticating a user to give them the right to access information on a computer system. A passphrase is similar to a password in usage, but it is longer and more secure. There are different guidelines to determine the length of a passphrase. Most passphrases have a minimum requirement of 14 characters. A passphrase can be a phrase that the user can easily remember but is difficult to be guessed by others.

PATTERN RECOGNITION Pattern recognition involves ďŹ nding patterns and similarities among smaller problems to help solve more complex problems. Pattern recognition is the basis for problem solving and designing algorithms. Software uses pattern recognition to identify patterns in text, numbers and images. Pattern recognition drives facial recognition and biosecurity measures..

See - Algorithm Design | Computational Thinking

CSER F-6 Digital Technologies: Foundations

PERIPHERAL DEVICES Peripheral devices are input or output components that add extra functionality to a digital system. Examples include a mouse, keyboard or printer. They are not part of the core computer components - the CPU, RAM, the motherboard, the case and the power supply. They are external to the computer and connected wirelessly or by cable. On mobile devices many items that are sometimes considered peripheral devices are built-in to the system, for example, cameras and microphones.

Explore this unit from Digital Technologies Hub

PHISHING Phishing emails (or email scams) are attempts to steal personal information or trick you into downloading malware. Phishing is, by far, the most common form of cyber attack and everyday millions of people click on fake links in phishing emails. Techniques that can prevent someone from being a victim of phishing attacks include two-factor authentication and automated spam ďŹ ltering. Some hints for identifying scam emails :

Is an Australian Government site with more information and advice

PIXEL Pixel, short for Pixel Element is an individual tiny, coloured square in a digital image. Images displayed on a screen are a combination of a series of coloured pixels, displayed in a grid pattern. Each pixel has a number that determines the colour and brightness.

A computer represents this by using two numbers: 1s and 0s. In the picture, 1 represents the white colour (on) and 0 represents the black colour (off).

The greater the number of pixels used to create an image, the higher resolution or quality of the image. This also relates to the size of the image ďŹ le.

PIXEL VIEWER from CS Field Guide

Shared by Australian Digital Technologies Hub under Creative Commons Licence BY 4.0

PRIVACY Protecting the privacy of our data when using information systems is crucial. Understanding the value and importance of private Information and determining what is appropriate to share in certain circumstances is an important consideration for all individuals and organisations. The collection, storage and dissemination of information needs to consider social and legal obligations at all times. Gaining access to our private information is the goal of hackers.

See - Hackers | AntiVirus

CSER Cyber Security and Awareness MOOC

PROGRAMMING Programming is the way that we communicate algorithms to a computer so that it can understand the sequences of instructions we want it to perform. Computers require instructions to be described using very speciďŹ c language, syntax and semantics. There are many different types of programming languages, and some have been designed to help children learn how to program, and to learn the concepts of computational thinking. Visual Programming platforms like Scratch, Blockly and Makecode are commonly used . Python and Java are text based styles. SCRATCH - Visual Block based programming

See - Java | HTML | Visual Programming

PROTOTYPE A Prototype is an early iteration of a design product. It can be modiďŹ ed during the process to improve performance. Prototyping is a stage in the design process that can be repeated until the design is successfully completed.

See - Design Thinking

PSEUDOCODE Pseudocode is text (plain English) which represents an algorithm. There are conventions for formal Pseudocode, however, any clearly written instructions that provide a draft format for a programme are acceptable. A Pseudocode for the ‘No Hat, No Play’ school policy could look like this: At Lunchtime: While playing If Term 1 or 4 = YES Wear sun hat Else No hat require

Write a set of pseudocode instructions for a friend to follow your exact steps explaining how to build a sandcastle, code a roller coaster, build a model or retell your favourite story or dance routine. See - Programming | Algorithms

QWERTY The QWERTY (Australian/ English/ American) keyboard is named after the ďŹ rst ďŹ ve alphabetic keys located under the row of number keys on the keyboard. The original alphabetical arrangement of the keys was found to be too confusing for translating morse code telegraph messages. The qwerty layout eventually made it faster for them to type.

See - Keyboard

RAM RAM (Random Access Memory) is a device for saving digital information. It is made up of an integrated circuit with memory cells that will only keep the data obtainable if the power is kept on. If the computer is turned off all data will be lost unless it has been saved.

See - Hardware | Networks

ROBOTICS Robots are machines, often designed to reproduce activities that humans can perform. They work as a combination of hardware and software. Robotic devices are improving productivity in many industries - robots performing precision surgical actions and in motor vehicle manufacturing. From a Digital Technologies curriculum perspective, robotics provide many opportunities, as they can be used to explore aspects of Digital Systems, including different system components and input and output. Programming skills are also important in robotics. INDUSTRY

See - Sphero | BeeBot


ROUTER A router is a hardware networking device used to receive, analyse and move data packets from one computer or device to another and over a network. Data packets are a basic unit of communication over a digital network. When data is transmitted over a network, it is broken down into data packets and reassembled to the original data when it reaches the destination.

See - WIFI | Hardware | Networks

SCRATCH Scratch is a drag and drop, block-based visual programming language. It was created by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group from the MIT Media Lab and is provided free of charge. It is one of the most common, entry level tools used in schools to introduce students to programming. Scratch can be used to create games, animations and interactive stories. Scratch can be accessed by web page or computer software download. Scratch can also be used to program physical hardware such as the Makey Makey, BBC micro:bit and some Lego devices. Scratch users are encouraged to share their programs and remix those of others. Scratch Jr is the entry level App version designed to introduce coding skills to young children aged 5-7 .

See - Visual Programming

SENSOR A sensor is an input device that collects data to be processed by a digital system. Automatic lights or doors are everyday examples. Sensors detect real-life conditions and changes to the surroundings and are able to translate what is detected into data. Sensors can detect motion, moisture, heat, light, radiation and sound. They are integral to many robotic devices and autonomous vehicles.

See - Input Devices | Hardware

SOFTWARE Software is a set of instructions that are used to program computer hardware for speciďŹ c tasks. . Operating systems, programs and applications (apps) are all types of software. 1. Operating systems are responsible for running the computer systems and networks such as programs, apps and the user interface tools such as the display and keyboard.. 2. Programs and applications (apps) perform speciďŹ c user-driven tasks such as word processing and web browsing. A digital system requires software to work by processing the inputs and outputs. Common software include Microsoft Office and the iWork productivity package.

See - Digital Systems | Hardware

SPHEROŠ A Sphero is a spherical robot commonly used in schools. Sphero RVR is an all terrain variation. They are strong and waterproof and can be used in a variety of innovative ways. Controlling a Sphero requires using bluetooth to connect it to an App on a device. Spheros can be manipulated by drawing or writing either block code or JavaScript. Programming Sphero involves mathematical skills, in particular geometry. There are many Apps which allow you to program a Sphero including Sphero Edu

See - Robotics | Bluetooth

CSER Lending Library Lesson Plans and https://sphero.com/

SYSTEMS THINKING Systems Thinking is a problem solving process used to understand the links, interactions and interconnectedness between the elements of a system as a whole. It is one way of thinking that underpins the digital technologies curriculum.

Explore Systems thinking on

See - Design Thinking | Computational Thinking

TROJAN HORSE A Trojan Horse is often disguised as a legitimate file (email attachment, image) to trick the user to up open a ‘backdoor’ access to the computer. To prevent the risk of a trojan horse, do not open any images, links or popups from unknown sources, through chat messages or email attachments even if they look genuine.

See - Malware

CSER Cyber Security and Awareness MOOC

URL URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It is found in the address bar at the top of a web browser window. A domain name is an internet address or website that points to an IP address. It is easier to read than large numbers. Domain names indicate characteristics of the websites they represent such as a country or region (AU / Australia) or a type of organisation which might be found at an internet address containing that URL extension. .gov / government .edu / educational .com / commercial .net / network .org / organisation

What can you tell about this website? https://digitaltechnologieshub.edu.au See - Internet | WWW

USB Universal Serial Bus or USB, is a standard type of connection found on many different kinds of devices. USB portable drives come with different amounts of storage space and can be useful for making ďŹ les portable. It is important to scan USB drives for viruses before using them.

See - Hardware | Peripherals

USER INTERFACE USER INTERFACE is a point where a user interacts and communicates with a digital system. This human to computer interaction can be through graphical icons, keyboard, mouse, touchscreens, buttons and more. USER INTERFACE DESIGN (human computer interaction) is important when designing digital products as designs need to be carefully selected to make the product easy to use. User Interface Design is about the functionality and processes. Designs should consider whether the information required by the user is easy to locate and if the steps needed to complete tasks are minimised for example, avoiding unnecessary clicks to achieve a result.

See -

VARIABLE Variable is a named unit of data and is used to label and reference a value when programming. These values can be deleted, changed, exchanged, or set as a different value. Changing directions when programming is a useful geometry learning activity while changing time and speed will help you create an interesting game. Height variables will be essential if programming an autonomous ying vehicle.

See - Programming

VIRUS Viruses are a type of malware which can enter a digital system in a number of ways, most commonly in email attachments and clicking on insecure links. Viruses cause damage to computers, ďŹ les can be deleted or lost, spam can be sent, and other harmful actions can occur. In some situations, a virus can use your computer to infect other computers.

See - Anti Virus | Malware

VISUAL PROGRAMMING Visual programming environments use coloured blocks, which are dragged and dropped to form a sequence of instructions. “Under the hood� of the blocks is general-purpose programming text. Scratch is a very popular visual programming platform. Visual programming environments allow learners to develop fundamental skills and knowledge of how programming works, focussing on core computational thinking skills and the creation of programs. Some coding programmes allow users to switch between text based and visual. MAKECODE

See - Scratch | Programming


VIRTUAL REALITY VR (Virtual Reality) is an artiďŹ cially created digital environment that may be similar to the real world or based on the creator’s imagination. When using VR you can become part of a simulated environment and view, play, paint, explore, and manipulate using input devices such as goggles, headsets, headphones, gloves, or a computer. VR tools used for simulations, visual representations of data, and interactive games can help you better understand the world you live in. They are useful in helping you understand whilst giving the (virtual) experience of travelling the world and the solar system or even the human body. VR is being successfully used for industry training and preparing for future careers. A VR time travel experience or even a journey into a favourite book, construction manual, architectural designed building, not only lets you take a virtual tour, but also features interactive elements for understanding history, art and construction.

See - Augmented Reality

WAN WAN is a Wide Area Network of computers connected over a wide geographical area - a collection of Local Area Networks (LANS) . The Internet is an enormous wide area network. Networks are connected via cables or wirelessly.

See - Networks | LAN

WIRELESS Wireless technology transmits data electromagnetically between devices without needing to be connected with wires or cables. WiFi and bluetooth are the most common types of wireless technology. Most modern devices support Wi-Fi (a wireless network) including computers, smartphones, tablets, smart devices, wearables and Internet of Things.

See - WIFI | Router | Internet of Things

WWW World Wide Web (www) is the graphical interface for the Internet. The web consists of billions of pages linked to each other that contain text, hyperlinks, graphics, multimedia ďŹ les, and other interactive software accessed by devices with a browser.

See - Internet | Browser


CC-BY-NC-SA This license requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows users to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only. If others modify or adapt the material, they must license the modiďŹ ed material under identical terms. This project has been supported by funding from the Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment.

Computer Science Education Research University of Adelaide www.csermoocs.adelaide.edu.au

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