Page 1

September 11 2013


Never forget 09.11.01

Year 45, No. 1

Presorted Standard US Postage PAID Liberal, KS Permit NO.114

Liberal, Kansas

Early Alert proves helpful in student success Kristy Flowers News editor

The ‘eyes’ have it. — Page 8

Early Alert emails went out to students at Seward County Community College and Area Technical School Monday. The alert is a system implemented by the college to send out alerts early in the semester. The notice is important to students so they can begin bringing up any low grades in order to pass classes. SCCC/ATS’s instructors and retention committee started sending out Early Alerts in the Fall of 2006 in the hopes of keeping students enrolled in college. Counselor and Retention Specialist Rhonda Kinser said this system is helpful because it gives students an awareness if they are not doing well in a class. The wakeup calls given by the Early Alerts can be the turning point in students’ grades and study habits. Notifying students during the fifth week of class allows them to make a change and get their grades back on track before the end of the semester. According to Kinser, without the Early Alert system, there would likely

be many more students failing classes and dropping out. Early Alert is a way for the college to help students push themselves to improve grades and stay in school. Students will know during the fifth week of classes whether they have an Early Alert. “They’ll get an email and it will state the name of their instructor, the name of the class and what their Early Alert is for because there are several different categories of why they might get one,” Kinser said. Institutional Research and Data Analyst Teresa Wehmeier stressed the importance of students checking their school email to look for an Early Alert message. In the email, it is recommended that students meet with their advisers in order to decide whether they can raise the grade or if it would be better to drop the class. “Ignoring it (the alert) does not make it go away,” Wehmeier said. Even if a student is failing a class by the fifth week, it is still possible to bring up a grade and pass at the end of the semester. Because it’s so early in the semester,

Early Alert Retention Rates

This graph shows yearly target and actual student retention rates at SCCC/ATS. With the help of Early Alert, retention rates have exceeded target levels in the last four years. The college received the Retention Excellence Award in 2013 for having one of the highest student retention rates in the nation. Kinser said. “There’s plenty of time to make whatever changes or adjustments” are necessary to bump up grades. Students shouldn’t feel bad if they receive an

Early Alert. “Just because they’re getting this letter, it’s not a bad thing…if they’re continuing on the path they’re on, they won’t be successful,” Wehmeier said.

Students have time to speak one-onone with instructors or take advantage of the free on-campus tutoring SCCC/ATS offers. Sending Early Alerts out has been helpful to students on campus since it first started. “We survey the students at the end of each semester,” Kinser said, “and we ask them ‘when you got this, what was the major thing that it did for you to help you’ and the number one response usually always is ‘it was a wakeup call…’” For the first year, SCCC/ATS is allowing the adjunct instructors, who teach general education courses part-time, to send out Early Alerts to their students. In previous years, part-time and fulltime students taking these general education classes would not know if they were in jeopardy of failing their classes with the adjunct instructors. Allowing the adjunct instructors to participate in Early Alert gives students all across campus the opportunity to better their grades and pass classes before the semester is over.

Batman has Ben there. — Page 5 Crusader photos/Makiah Adams

This greenhouse is the newest addition to the college ag department.

College expands Makiah Adams Editor

Sanchez hits on optimism — Page 6

Kim Nguyen rests during an adventure walk Saturday at Arkalon Park.

All the way from Vietnam Catching flag football fever — Page 7

Tweeter slams Facebook — Page 4

Kim Nguyen prospers in college environment They said their goodbyes, holding back the overwhelming tears that wanted to escape. Turning her back to her parents and her home country, Vietnam, then 14-year-old Kim Nguyen didn’t dare to glance back as she walked past the gates to her flight headed to a foreign land: America. For the next four flights, the anticipation of meeting her new guardians consumed Nguyen’s mind. “But when I saw them walking towards me, I was hit by feelings I’ve never felt before. I thought, ‘Oh, I’m not with my parents’.. and I knew from then on I was on my own,” Nguyen said. Now, four years later, 18-year-old Nguyen is an active freshman at Seward County Community College and Area Technical School. She is involved in choir and is interacting easily with the rest of the student body. Nguyen is also an active church member of Fellowship Baptist Church. There she participates in singing, playing volleyball and volunteering for the K-cafe. The K-cafe is a social gathering place for members to enjoy frappes or coffees and interact before and after church services. Since she was a small child, Nguyen had an interest in playing the guitar.

“My dad plays guitar and sings, so I started to have interest in it,” Nguyen said. Now she is rekindling her passion for it by taking lessons from a basketball player at Fellowship Baptist, Kaden Kessler. Nguyen is one of the 39 foreign exchanged students on the Seward campus. “I chose America because their economic levels of education are not as high as in Asian countries, but their quality is much higher. I would have more value in my diploma than in my home country,” Nguyen said. Nguyen plans on staying at the college for two years in order to further her education in the medical field and study to become a coding and reimbursement specialist. “I love working with paperwork and having all of that office work that is required. It’s one of my strengths,” Nguyen said. After receiving her certificate for her career field, Nguyen plans on attending a Bible college. “I hope this is not an emotional feeling, but I do feel God indicating me into going to a Bible college after I am done here,” Nguyen said. To get straight A’s is Kim’s goal for being in America, “and that is not impossible to me, being very competitive in the education field,” Nguyen said. Nguyen’s host family, the Knudsens, already have six children of their own. “What’s one more?” Nguyen’s host mother, Crystal Knudsen, said. Nguyen has enriched the family on many levels, “from seeing her try something American for the first time to seeing her grow faithfully in Christ at our church,” Doug Knudsen, Nguyen’s host father, said. •See Nguyen, page 3

Story and photo by Maria Lara

Federal grant money has made possible recent improvements on the Seward County Community College/Area Technical School campus, including a new greenhouse and a new microbiology lab. The greenhouse has a concrete floor used for a variety of plants. The microbiology lab has a more confined space for the students to work on their experiments rather than having it out in the open. Dr. Duane Dunn, college president, says more changes are to be made in the near future. An additional greenhouse, which will be used for food production, was mentioned. Along with the greenhouse, Dunn said through the STEM sustainable ag grant the college should be able to “establish a four acre growing area close to the ag sciences building...we are looking at growing alternative crops.” The alternative crops Dunn is

The newly remodeled microbiology lab in the academics building is still under construction. referring to are grapes, pumpkins and blueberries, to name a few. Also, SCCC/ATS is working with K-State in hopes of establishing a writing lab similar to the Math Resource Center which is now connected to the library. As far as programs go, a Food Safety in Science class will begin in the spring. Also, there are hopes for starting a bio-diesel program in the Automotive Tech program, as well as overlapping of some automotive courses. After several improvements at SCCC/ATS already taking place, the future looks busy as well.

Crusader file photo/Jose Medrano

Festival features chili and quackers Makiah Adams Editor Liberal’s 12th Annual Duck Festival is back on Sept. 21. The events will take place from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. at Blue Bonnet Park. The events will consist of a chili cook-off, a duck race and much more. The first place prize for the chili cook-off is $250 dollars in cash and the KSCB trophy. Dr. Duane Dunn, president of Seward County Community College and Area Technical School, will sponsor up to three

student or employee organizations who will promote SCCC/ATS at their booths. This would be a great opportunity to get Seward involved in the community, Dunn said, as well as to get the college’s name out there. If this interests an organization on campus, please fill out an entry form. The entry form is provided on the Crusader Facebook page. Print it out, fill it out, and turn it in to Dunn. A rubber duck race will also take place at Blue Bonnet park with a chance to win money and other prizes.



Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Mulanax moves to Seward After 23 years with the Liberal Police, Dennis Mulanax signs on to head security at SCCC. Maria Lara Crusader staff Seward County Community College recently hired Dennis Mulanax as head of security. Even though he is new, Mulanax is confident about improving the college campus. Mulanax has always lived with specific certainties. “I live my life knowing that I am not in control and that I must serve God the best I can with whatever Mulanax he puts into my life, wherever I am. Everything good and bad that has ever happened to me was not predicted that morning. Why Seward? Why not? I am here until God provides otherwise,” Mulanax said. Mulanax was a Liberal police officer for 23 years. He raised his children in Liberal and is now a grandfather. Mulanax grew up around the area in the summers when his parents sent him to help out with harvest season on his grandparents’ farm. Mulanax didn’t move to Liberal until after he graduated college. “I have since already seen the worst of this city and hopefully will still see the best of what is to come,” Mulanax said. “I have literally held life and death in my very own hands. I have cursed

this town only to come back around and admit that I love it. I trained my officers to save and take lives if they absolutely had to.” Mulanax has done more than he ever thought of doing after graduating college. He has seen how people really are and what they can and can’t do, both in good times and bad. The human spirit still seems to amaze the officer who has experienced the kindness and support of many people. Everyday is a new adventure for Mulanax, who is always ready to take on the next challenge. “Whatever happens, I’ll face it with as much courage and opportunity as the good Lord allows,” Mulanax said. In his office, he has a note written on his drawer that reads: “For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power and of love and selfdiscipline” (2 Timothy 1:7). Mulanax wants everyone to promote, encourage and demand compliance to rules and laws. “It’s not rocket science,” he said, “If we live an obedient life, we will more likely have a future of peace and prosperity.” He said that everyone is responsible for making this happen, not only the security team and himself. “Be a part of the solution and do something; report it and if you can help without bringing harm to yourself or others, then welcome aboard,” Mulanax said. “It was always obvious to me that the college didn’t just talk about good management practices, team work, employee participation and appreciation, they proved it,” Mulanax concluded. nTo reach Mulanax on campus, call 620-417-1180. The security office is located by the Wellness Center in the Student Union.

Financial aid info offered Kyleigh Becker Crusader staff

Crusader photo/Jakub Stepanovic

Robert and Jeanne Hutton learn to dance the Nightclub 2-Step and the West Coast Swing as instructor and Dean of Career and Technical Education, Janese Thatcher, looks on. The Business & Industry Office at SCCC/ATS put on the demonstration Friday in the hopes of attracting enough people to dance socially later on in the year. “Dancing is one of the best ways to keep your brain engaged,” Thatcher said. Gary and Kammy Downs enjoy themselves while participating in the dance demonstrations on Sept. 6. The courses will continue throughout the year and will include rumba, Nightclub 2-step, waltz and the West Coast Swing, which is different from regular swing because it stays within a track of movement while dancing and is to a slower and more bluesy beat. Expected dates for demonstrations are Sept. 20, Oct. 4 and Oct. 18. For more information, contact Janese Thatcher. Crusader photo/Jakub Stepanovic

Board of Trustees

Security Report Sept. 9 — a damage to college property investigation was initiated after damage was discovered at the Student Living Center. Administrative action is pending until the matter has been completely investigated. Sept. 6 — a private property accident investigation was conducted at the Liberal Area Technical School. There were no injuries and damage is estimated to be approximately $2500.00. No charges will be made and the incident is now considered closed. Sept. 4 — there were several reports of a natural gas smell in the evening. The Student Living Center was evacuated as a pre-

caution so that a full inspection could be done. The investigation revealed there had been too much chemical added to the natural gas from the gas company. This chemical is used as an identifier for noticing and, or locating natural gas, as in its natural state without the added chemical, has no smell. The incident is now considered closed. Sept. 4 — a personal injury incident was investigated at the Liberal Area Technical School. There was never any suspicion of criminal activity as this was purely accidental. The matter is now considered closed. Multiple warnings were given

for parking and speed violations on both the main college campus and the area technical school. If repeated violations are to happen with these individuals, administrative action may be taken. Security asks students to conform to all regulations. All students are reminded to please slow down and use caution when driving on all college properties. The speed limit is 20 mph on all properties. Security Report provided by Head of Security, Dennis Mulanax. n For a complete security report for Sept. 4-Sept. 9, visit:

At The Board of Trustees meeting on Sept. 3, the board discussed TRiO funding cuts, budget restraints for the whole college and EduKan enrollment among other things. Gayla Myers, director of Student Support Services, presented an overview of the federal SSS/TRiO grant program that is in its fourth year of the five-year grant. The original funding amount for this current five-year grant was to be $238,496 per year, Myers said. However, the program has received a reduction each of the last two years due to federal budget cuts. The funds

Phone: 620.417.1459

Fax: 620.417.1169

2012, 2013 -First Place Online - KCM 2008 - National Online Pacemaker Finalist - ACP 2003, 2004 - National Online Pacemaker Award

editor Makiah Adams news editor Kristy Flowers design editor

Jakub Stepanovic

new media director Diana Chavira sports editor Efren Rivero ad manager Dawn Shouse


CRUSADER 2013All-Kansas Award, Kansas Collegiate Media 2012-2013 Fourth Place Special Section - ACP 2012-2013 Sixth Place Section - ACP 2003-2004, 2010-2011 Newspaper Pacemaker Finalist - ACP 2008 First Place Certificate - ASPA

The Hansen Foundation has authorized $60,000 worth of scholarships for Kansas students studying at community or technical schools who plan to transfer to a four-year school in Kansas. The scholarships are worth $3,000 and are renewable for one year. The student must have graduated from a high school in one of the 26 counties in Northwestern Kansas that have been designated by the Hansen Foundation. Community college students must have 32 completed credit hours by Spring of 2014, and plan to transfer to an accredited four-year Kansas college or university. Technical school students must have an associate of applied science and plan to transfer to an accredited four-year college or university in Kansas. A 3.00 GPA, leadership qualities and good character are required, according to the Dane Hansen Foundation. Completed applications and three letters of reference are due no later than Dec. 13 to the Hansen Foundation. For more information on the Dane Hansen Scholarship, visit: For more scholarships and information, students should visit: ml “Any of those scholarships are going to assist with the tuition fees, books (and) housing,” Donna Fisher, head of Financial Aid, said.

Matthew Adkins Kyleigh Becker Kayla Delgado Marco Garcia Maria Lara Fabiola Pena Jeremiah Wilson

this year are $219,016. Myers said she was extremely pleased with the outcomes for the program in which they exceeded the required eligibility requirements. Dr. Duane Dunn, SCCC/ATS president, presented information on the administrative review of programs. With increasing budget restraints over the next few years, the college will review all programs and departments to determine efficiencies and effectiveness. The board was asked for their input as to what criteria they would like the administration to consider in addition to enrollment, placement of students, minimum numbers in classes and

graduation rates. With a possible drop in enrollment this semester on campus, Dunn told the board that the college needs to remind its own staff as to the importance of its online classes through eduKan. In addition, when a student is forced to drop classes due to personal reasons, they need to be reminded of the opportunity to take online classes. EduKan enrollment is expected to rise 20 percent this fall. The next board meeting is Monday, Oct. 7 in the board room. n For the full report, visit:

The official student newspaper of Seward County Community College/Area Technical School is published bi-monthly and has special editions by journalism students during the regular college year, except on school holidays and during examination periods. One copy of each issue is distributed free to each student, faculty and staff member, with subsequent copies available for purchase in the Crusader office at 50 cents each. Letters to the editor will be considered for publication if they are signed and the authenticity of the writer’s signature is verified. The staff reserves the right to edit for length. Opinions voiced in letters and editorials are not necessarily those of Seward County Community College/Area Technical School or the Crusader. Advertising is accepted. Rates are $4.25 per column inch or $5 pci for color ads. Insert rates are $50 per thousand. Classified ads are free to SCCC students, faculty and staff; classified rates for all others are $5 per ad, limit of 20 words. The Crusader staff reserves the right to refuse advertising. Mail to: Crusader, Box 1137, Liberal, KS 67905, or

Safeguard Your Assets AND Save Hundreds.

Free Wifi World's Best Mango Smoothie

The Best Place to Study Home of "The Spencer" Caramel Macchiato

Open till 9:00pm 7 Village Plaza Liberal KS 67901 •

"Next to North Pizza Hut"

Carry Outs Call (620) 626-5556

Scantlin’s Furniture

Open Mon.-Fri. 9 a.m - 6 p.m Sat. 10 a.m - 3 p.m In Downtown Liberal


211 S. Washington Ave. Liberal, Kansas C o m e t o us f o r a l l y o u r f u rn i t u re a n d ca r p et n e e d s Check out our inventory on Facebook


Wednesday, September 11, 2013

News Briefs BOOK SCHOLARSHIP recipients are reminded that they must write a thank you note in order for their scholarships to remain in effect. If students have any questions, contact Shannon Davis in the Financial Aid department. DUCK FESTIVAL is scheduled for Sept. 21. The Chamber of Commerce is hosting the Duck Festival in Blue Bonnet Park. Adopt a duck to win money prizes by contacting Dr. Duane Dunn in the academics building. CITIzENSHIP CLASSES are no longer being offered through the Adult Education office. They are now being offered through the Business and Industry office. BILLY’S BRISKETS are on sale as a fundraiser for the athletic department. The briskets prepared by Billy’s BBQ are $40 per smoked, vacuum packed brisket. Call or email Galen McSpadden at his office, 620-417-1550 or The briskets will be available for pick-up on Oct. 24. BASKETBALL BILLY’S Coaches Clinic will be Sept. 13 and 14 in the SCCC Green House. It costs $100 per school, which includes admission and lunch for coaching staff. wish to RSVP, contact Toby Wynn at RSVP by Sept. 9 with the number of coaches attending.

MARCUS JAMES, former SCCC Saints basketball player, has been selected as the 18th overall draft pick for the Canadian Professional Basketball League. EDUKAN NUMBERS are up by nearly 20 percent for fall of 2013, while on-campus enrollment in classes seems to have fallen since last year. SCHOLARSHIP AUCTION is on Sept. 21. This annual auction helps fund scholarships for SCCC students. Tickets cost $30 and must be purchased in advance. Students and guests must be 21 or older to attend. See full story below. MANAGE HEALTH through the Kansans Optimizing Health Class that is coming to Liberal. Learn about chronic health and disease symptoms and how to effectively manage them. The class begins on Sept. 26 and will meet every Thursday afternoon from 4:30-6:30 p.m. through Oct. 31. Sign up by calling the Seward County Extension Office at 620624-5604 or email DANCE DEMONSTRATION classes will be held on Sept. 20th, Oct. 4 and Oct. 18. Dances taught include: Nightclub 2-step, West Coast Swing, Rumba, and possibly the waltz. Contact Janese Thatcher at for more information.


Nguyen: Student living her dream • continued from page 1 Not many things have changed for the household of six kids, though Nguyen now has the duty of washing dishes along with other responsibilities that she did not normally have in Vietnam. Her host parents are happy to have Nguyen in their family. “We are definitely overjoyed that we decided to act upon this decision because it has changed our lives for the better. It has caused us to be more open to people, more accepting of them instead of according to stereotypes,” Doug said. Nguyen is also happy with her decision to come to America. “I was so brave traveling by myself that I did not feel anything. The passion that I felt for a new lifestyle in front of me, it was so overpowering that I was more excited, willing to face my dream, one flight at a time. Now I am living it,” Nguyen said. Crusader photo/Maria Lara

Performing one of her many solos at Fellowship Baptist Church, Kim Nguyen expresses her faith through a gospel song called, “When Answers Are Not Enough.”

Scholarship Auction theme reflects Liberal’s 125th anniversary Fabiola Pena Crusader Staff

Crusader photo/Marco Garcia

Nicole Kirk and Marissa Wiggins work to set up a display case to display items that will be sold at the 19th annual scholarship auction.

"Party like it's 1888" will be the theme for this year’s 19th annual party auction on Sept. 21. The annual party auction will be held at the Seward County Event Center. This year’s theme is for the celebration of Liberal's 125th anniversary. The tickets will be $30, and must be purchased in advance. Tickets can be purchased at the following businesses: First National Bank (main bank and Walmart branch), The Community Bank, Sunflower Bank, Bank of Beaver City, Al Shank Insurance, Mortgages Unlimited, Heritage Real Estate, Scantlin’s Furniture, Versus Signs, Southwest Agriculture Center (Kismet), Byron Bird & Associates, KSCB, Yoxall, Antrim and McCaffrey & Foreman. Tickets can also be purchased on campus in the development office, humanities division office, and the information desk. SCCC/ATS foundation board members are selling tickets as well. Tickets will include admission, dinner, dessert bar and beverages. The guests may also participate in the 50/50 drawing or lucky drawing for separate donations. The evening’s festivities will begin with a silent auction at 6 p.m. Dinner will be served from 6-7:30 p.m., Billy's Mexican Grill will

19th Annual Scholarship Auction Saturday, Sept. 21 at 6 p.m. Seward County Event Center, Liberal fairgrounds Tickets $30, Must be bought in advance. be catering the dinner. The buffet will include: pulled pork, donated by Seaboard Foods, and brisket, donated by National Beef Packing. Other sides include, ranch beans, coleslaw and potato salad. The dessert bar and chocolate fountain will be prepared by Great Western Dining. Soft drinks, beer and wine will be served. Following the dinner will be a live auction at 8 p.m. Items to be auctioned range from gift cards and gift certificates to jewelry and trips. Some of the gift cards and certificates will be donated from the Best Market, Browns Shoe Fit, Ellen's Photography and Golden Plains Credit Union. One trip included in the auction is to Las

Vegas. This package includes a 3 night stay in a two-bedroom, two-bath condo. The trip was donated by Chris McKinney. Another trip is to Winter Park, Colorado. The trip includes a 4 night stay in an Engelnook cabin, that sleeps up to 17 people. It was donated by John and Kathy Engel. Another prize package will be a "Top Gun Experience." This package, donated by Lyddon Aero, will include one-half hour jet ride in the Iskra Ts-11 fighter. The auction includes a great amount of prizes, homemade food, haircuts, electronics, quilts and more. What about parents with children? For their convenience, the Saints dance and cheer squad will be providing child care for ages 311. The reservations must be made in advance. Contact Nicole Nee at 620-417-1652 to reserve a spot. There will be a fee of $5 per child. According to Tammy Doll, last year’s Night of Good Fortune auction raised over $50,422. This year's goal is to raise over that amount. Doll is hoping to have 450-500 people attend the auction on Sept 21. “The auction is a lot of work, but it is always a fun activity that gives the college a lot of publicity while also raising much needed money for student scholarships", mentioned Doll.

L ib e r a l 20 E Tuck er Rd.

n oon t o 10pm

624 2045






Wednesday, September 11, 2013


Campus Rave Alert Important When attending school, it is always important to be in the constant know of what is going on. No matter what the situation may be, staff and students need to be alerted. Realizing the importance of this, Seward County Community College/ Area Technical School uses the Rave Alert system. After talking to other colleges who use this system, SCCC administration decided it was flexible enough, and a rather easy way to alert all students and staff members. Rave Alert is a multi-message delivery system in which a message is delivered to all of those in its system after being authorized by an administrator or security officer. Those receiving the alerts can choose multiple devices ahead of time in which the alerts are sent to. It can be sent either directly to cell phones through a text message, or to iPods, laptops, desktops and tablets through email. Alerts can also be sent to social

sites and shown on the TVs in the hall. An audio emergency paging system allows for all buildings across campus to be reached with one phone call as well. “In one of our campus closings due to weather, we sent out 1,291 text messages in 3 seconds plus another 2340 emails in only 2 minutes” said Doug Browne, director of Multimedia Technology. Although SCCC has only used the Rave Alert for weather purposes, it is comforting to know how little of time it takes to relay a single message to huge amounts of people. Because of the type of world we are living in, it is especially necessary to have a safety plan for any given moment. The faster word gets out, more people have a chance to take precautions, which can then lead to more lives being saved. Browne could think of only one flaw to the Rave Alert system. “Probably the only one that I

Steps to Rave Alert Devices Page

can see is that some of the smaller carriers are not connected to the Rave Alert system, so messages cannot be delivered to them. Most major carriers, like AT&T and Verizon are connected but smaller ones may not be. “If someone has a carrier that we cannot get a text to, please have them come see the tech department and we will request that the carrier be added to the system.” In creating a safe environment, the amount of concern the college has for its faculty and students is very comforting. The fact that every teacher and student is automatically set up with the system makes for a more effective safety system. Although an impressive and effective system is set up to give warning or information, it is strongly encouraged for you to stay aware and take all safety precautions. Stay connected through email and all devices.

Wanelo. (“wah-neeloh,” from Want, Need, Love) is an online community for all of the world's shopping. A dozen years after the attacks took place, we were curious to see what our students and faculty remember from that sorrowful September day. Most of this year’s freshmen were only 5 or 6 years old when this disaster took place, minimizing the amount of students in years to come who will actually have personal memories of 9/11.

1 2

Go to, and in the top right corner you will click mycampus. Login to your portal.



Click on the red Rave Alert icon.

Choose the devices you want the alerts to relay to.

Edmodo. Helps connect all learners with the people and resources needed to reach their full potential.

What’s better?

Reddit. A source where you provide all the content for what’s new and popular on the web.

Blogger. Start blogging, and keep updated with all of your posts wherever you go.

Kristy Blair

A: What I remember of 9/11 is how everyone was in a rush to go get gas because they thought gas would go up.

#dontcryonfacebook #thismeanswar #stop #stoptweeting #likeus #cantwegetalong #tweettweet #war #enemies #socialmedia #throwpunches #bothblue #choosingsides #ihatethis #sorrynotsorry #birdy #like #thenextbigthing #cagefights #juststopthis

Vine. A videosharing app, designed to record short films in seperate instances and then linked together in a total of six seconds.

Tumblr. A blogging app where you can post or reblog anything from anywhere. From images, text, video, links, and quotes.

Social Networking War

Crusader illustration/Maria Lara

Angel Dominguez A: I was in second grade during 9/11, and the first time I heard about it was when we were coming home from a bowling party from school, and when I got home my mom was crying.


Maria Lara Evan Allen A: I was in school in New Jersey when 9/11 happened and I remember our school getting locked down for two hours and they wouldn’t let you leave till your parents picked you up.

Alex Musgrove A: I was a freshman in high school when 9/11 happened. I remember being at school and going from one building to the commons area to see TVs lined up and turned to the news. I also remember going to work and trying to find a parking spot because there was a line outside because there was a gas station next to where I worked and everyone was trying to pump gas.

Photos and interviews by Zulema Duran

Becky Helm A: What I remember about 9/11 is working at the Dallas Fort Worth airport, and all I remember is there being silence, and it went on for days.

Crusader staff

It’s evident that Facebook is at the top of social networking charts worldwide. Though Twitter’s percentage of users is rising drastically. At the same frequency level, these two rival sites are attracting more and more users every day. Justin Smith stated on, “If Facebook were a country, it would now have the fourth largest population in the world”, while Twitter is receiving 135,000 new subscribers every day. Now, what is it that is making Facebook users turn to Twitter? Although these two networks share some of the same purposes, it’s the differences that attract certain users. Both Facebook and Twitter have advantages as well as downfalls. Facebook goes beyond the physical boundaries. It helps keep in touch with all your distant family members and still be informed on their day-to-day doings. You can also decide who to

share your personal information with. Although, No matter what your privacy settings are on, you can never be guaranteed complete privacy. Facebook is a place to share your ideas and expand on your thoughts to other fellow Facebook users. If used efficiently, Facebook can benefit in the education field and help students have discussions about school assignments. Regardless of all the pros of Facebook, every up has a down. For Facebook users, privacy can be on the top of people’s concerns. Even though you can set the account settings for extra privacy, many people overlook that tiny detail and then later rant on about the fact that they have little or no privacy online. And I’m sure we can all agree on the fact that Facebook can easily lead to procrastination. “It’s Facebook. I can post whatever I want,” people say. Misuse of that freedom to post does occur, and it leads to postings of absurd things and sharing inappropriate images or posts that, in all honesty, your friends do not need to see. Then there’s the whole bullying situations, especially the cases that involve kids committing suicide after being cyberbul-

lied on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter. “I only log in to Facebook to upload photos and keep in touch with my family. Twitter is just a quicker way to communicate with my friends,” Andrea Sitter, a sophomore at Seward County Community College, said. So does the good outweigh the bad? In all reality, we can never fully protect everyone from all of the violence in the world, whether it be online or in society. On the other end of the table, we have Twitter. Where life is sticky sweet and to the point. Twitter has the advantage of handling who you want seeing your tweets or who you want to access your profile by simply setting your profile on private. But just like Facebook, you can still see the retweets of those you are following, even when you are not following them to start with. Twitter allows you to follow your favorite celebrities and know for a fact that it is not some phony account by some obsessed fan, by simply looking for the verification icon next to the name of the celebrity. “Twitter is so much more efficient when it comes to communicating with other people. More direct,” Megan Armstrong, a freshman at Seward County

Community College, said. However, if you like posting novel long statuses, Twitter may not be right for you. Twitter limits users to 140 characters per tweet. You also cannot see videos on Twitter, or post more than one link on to your tweet, whereas on Facebook you can upload numerous video and photos at the same time. You can say that Twitter is more precise when you tweet because your followers can instantly see your tweet as soon as you press the send button. That creates a less of a privacy issue, but that is the beauty of having your profile set to private. You can choose who you want seeing your tweets. Love it or hate it, it doesn’t look like Facebook is going away in the distant future. Also, Twitter doesn’t look like it will be giving up the fight for runnerup anytime soon. In the grand scheme of these two opposing social networks, you can say that they both have contributions that benefit different people in different ways. It just depends on how you want to see it, use it, and access it. Facebook and Twitter will be up against each other for quite some time.

Ideal state involves some randomness, so plans are best left flexible Matthew Adkins Crusader staff

One of the biggest problems faced by young adults entering college is picking a major. Very few people have the luxury of knowing what they want to do for the rest of their life, and many of those that think they do

will end up changing majors at some point anyway. Not knowing such an important detail can be quite stressful to some. Having a five-year plan helps but sometimes things don’t go according to the plan. If I had followed the five year plan that I made five years ago, I would be in a Marine marching band in Japan right now. Instead, I’m in the process technology program here in Liberal, a program I didn’t even know about until a few months ago, and I will be teaching a col-

lege course at the age of 20. These things were definitely not part of any five-year plan I’ve made before now, but it has worked out very well for me. I am not where I thought I would be but I am glad that I am here. I still don’t know what I want to do for the rest of my life but I have come to realize that there are people who are 20 years into their careers who still don’t know what they want to do. My advice to new college students is to not panic about choosing a major or what job you will

have in five years. The worst thing a person can do is nothing, it won’t be a complete waste of time if you take a few philosophy classes before deciding to become a photographer or engineer. Try to plan, but be flexible in your planning and always take time to try something new. The best way to meet people and gain new skills is to try new things. It’s possible that in one year you will be in a place you didn’t expect you would be. This is a good thing and taking

advantage of new and strange experiences is a great way to grow and learn. Activities, clubs, events and meeting the wide variety of people who attend SCCC are all ways to put yourself out there and set yourself up for success and learn about yourself as well as others. Participating in the world is the only way to improve yourself and discover. Self improvement should be the goal of every young person and ideally you should be in an unexpected place or situation every so often.

A physicist might describe self improvement as reducing entropy, or randomness; however, I think the ideal state involves some randomness. The bottom line of everyone’s college experience should be learning and improving. The exact details cannot always be controlled or predicted, but as long as a person does not withdraw into their own world then he or she will learn and improve.


Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Steps for healthy fruit sandwich

Shining the light on the Ben-Batman story A rattling disturbance in the bat force has caused all kinds of ruckus. Hollywood picked Ben Affleck to portray Batman in the upcoming sequel to the most recent Superman rendition “Man of Steel.” Public opinion is weighing in heavily. Anyone who gives a bat has an opinion. Here is one fan’s arguments for both sides.

For a fruit sandwich: Use the following pictures as a guide to make a fast and easy treat for breakfast or a mid-day snack. Note: Bread tastes better when toasted.

No, he isn’t ready for the role. Ben Affleck has become a better actor than what he was, but I still don’t picture him in Batman’s cape and mask. The only superhero I picture Affleck as was as Daredevil, and that wasn’t a great role for

Step 1

Yes, he is ready for the role.

Supplies needed for sandwich.

Step 2


Ben Affleck has starred in various roles that have gained good reviews. He directed and starred in “The Town” (2010) and “Argo” (2012). He even won the Academy Award for Best Picture in his latest work, “Argo.” Another reason he should be given a chance is that other actors have been greatly criticized only to prove everyone wrong. One example would be Heath Ledger. No one believed he would play a good joker in “The Dark Knight,” yet he surpassed everyone’s expectations by winning the Academy Award for Best supporting actor. — Efren Rivero

him. Also, Affleck has some big shoes to fill after Christian Bale did such a good job portraying Bruce Wayne. The batman trilogy that just ended gave the fans really high expectations which is why so many fans dont see Affleck as Batman.

Cut the strawberries and bananas into slices.

Step 3

Goodwin at a glance

Fairy tales fodder for fall drama production Dawn Shouse Crusader staff

Place fruit slices on bread with peanut butter.

A collection of lesser-known fairy tales called “Story Theatre” will be the fall drama production. The play, adapted by playwright Paul Sills, has been performed on Broadway, according to drama instructor Gloria Goodwin, and the collection of stories was originally written by such artists as the Brothers Grimm and Aesop. “Story Theatre” will be the first performance under the direction of drama coach Gloria Goodwin, who is in her first year at Seward County Community College/Area Technical School. “Each one of the stories has potential for the actors to really stretch their comic abilities,” Goodwin said. She intends for the actors to learn improv during rehearsal in order to make their characters unique. Goodwin adds that the cast is a fairly large group of 15 students. “We are calling ourselves a company,” Goodwin said. The

Step 4

Yogurt is used to cover the fruit.

Step 5

Crush granola bar and sprinkle over yogurt.

play also features a small band accompaniment for between scenes and sound effects during the climatic parts. “We are excited to have SCCC/ATS music instructor Darin Workman and the band department collaborate with us in this project,” Goodwin said. One of the actors for the fall production, Killian Doze, freshman and engineer major, said, “It’s fun going from working calculus to working on stage.” Doze adds that he does not know what the play will be about yet, but he feels confident of the outcome. ”Ms. Goodwin was my theatre teacher every year in high school, and I know that any show that Goodwin directs will be a good one.” “Story Theatre” includes the lesser known stories of Henny Penny, the Robber Bridegroom and the Bremen Town Musicians to name a few. The play is scheduled to open at 7:30 p.m. on Nov. 7 and runs Nov. 8-9 in the Showcase Theatre on campus.





CrusaderNews Video


* Grew up in Plains on a wheat farm. * High school graduate of Southwestern Heights * First year of college spent at SCCC/ATS on debate team scholarship. * Won debate trophy for SCCC/ATS * Graduated college at Saint Mary of the Plains in Dodge City * Taught language arts, speech and drama in Minneola and Garden City

Crusader photo// Dawn Shouse

Drama coach Gloria Goodwin demonstrates to her students the art of improv as they prepare for the fall production.

* Radio personality and news anchor in Wichita, Kansas City, Omaha, Oklahoma City * Taught theatre and speech at Liberal High


Check us out! We are Mobile Friendly

New drama instructor enters stage left —



(620) 624-2559

24 W. 2nd St. Liberal

For all SCCC Up-to-date coverage on News, Sports, & Events

• Look in the Leader & Times • Look us up at • Download our Leader & Times App

LEADER&TIMES 16 S. Kansas • Liberal

Your daily news & views for 126 years

9 ly 9 . 5 $ out on

y carr

Phone: 620-626-6990

Location: 733 N. Kansas Ave • Sun.-Thur. 10:30 a.m.-10 p.m. •Fri.-Sat. 10:30 a.m.-11 p.m.



Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Crusader photo/Diana Chavira

Volleyball player Annelise Sanchez enjoys collecting giraffe memorabilia among her many hobbies.

Sanchez stretches to new heights Diana Chavira New Media Director

Photo by Jakub Stepanovic

Morgan Riley and Carolina Gasparini prepare themselves at the net for the returning ball. Lady Saints are now 2-0 for conference, having defeated Cloud County and Barton County. For more Lady Saints volleyball photos go to

Volleyball conference title up for grabs Diana Chavira New Media Director The Lady Saints volleyball team is staying on their toes this season when it comes to competition. According to Morgan Riley and Annelise Sanchez, the game that they’re looking forward to the most is against Hutchinson. “... they took first in conference,” said Sanchez, “and we took second, but we’re the only team that beat them last year.” As for the conference title this year, Sanchez believes that it’s up for grabs by anyone. The team has shown a lot of improvement since their previous season as well. Morgan Riley, sophomore, expressed that the team had made a great deal of improvement, particularly on passing. “...and being more aggressive also,” added Riley, “I feel like it’s something we’re still working and improving on everyday.” Freshman Kelci Bedingfield, Seward County’s

Photo by Jakub Stepanovic

Overall, Lady Saints are 6-4 in their season, and their intensity is rising with every game. libero, is showing just how new and improved the Lady Saints are this year. Bedingfield is the first player in program history to be awarded the new Defensive Player of the Week award, and she’s confident that she can do it

again if she puts in the right effort. “I wouldn’t be here without my team, they help me. They push me to do my best,” included Bedingfield. And the fans in the stands are the confidence boost that the

team needs for games at the Green House. The women mentioned that at most of their away games, they step on the court with large rowdy crowds supporting the opposing team. And when they play at home, they feel like the easiest team to play because of the lack of background noise from the crowd. The Lady Saints know that they do better when they have people cheering for them. Sanchez, Riley and Bedingfield agreed that a rowdy crowd would make a difference on their level of intensity, because sometimes the opposing team’s crowd can get intimidating. “Their crowds are so loud,” explained Sanchez, “especially Colby’s, they get in your face.” Sanchez speaks for the team when she says that they would appreciate all of their fans coming out and supporting them not just for the Colby game, but for every game.


! #" !




$ "

"$ % "


school. She plans to transfer her junior year of college and pursue her dream of becoming a lawyer. Nineteen year-old Annelise “She’s a go-getter,” said mother Sanchez was optimistic that the Lucy Sanchez, “She’s kind, and Lady Saints were going home passionate about everything she with a win. Having lost the first does.” Lucy also shared that one two sets to Barton County, of her daughter’s biggest Sanchez knew it was time to strengths is how focused she is take her positivity up a notch. on what she wants in life. “We really came back, and we Bert Luallen, head coach to fought, and won,” explained the Lady Saints volleyball team, Sanchez with undeniable happialso contributed attributes about ness. “... the entire Annelise. “She’s time I was posa better play“She wants to play itive.. there er than she wasn’t a doubt gives herself well..and she wants to set in my mind credit for,” a good example for her that we were commented team.” going to lose.” Luallen, “ - Coach Luallen Sophomore She has a Annelise whole lot Sanchez takes the world by more potential than she thinks storm. Her positive attitude she does.” This season, Luallen seems to get her through even expects a lot of leadership from the lowest of situations, like his outside hitter. Annelise is being behind the opposing team. one of only two sophomores on Sanchez is a passionate and enthe team, and she not only concouraging individual, who has veys leadership, but coach Lubeen playing volleyball since the allen added that her biggest 4th grade. She has tried her hand strength on the court is her dein other sports, but volleyball is sire to win. “She wants to play where her true interest lies. “ I well.. and she wants to set a did try soccer,” admitted good example for her team.” Sanchez, “ I choose not to reAnnelise shows leadership off live those days.” the court just as much as on the Sanchez is from Brighton, court. From the very beginning, Colorado, where her parents and she went out of her way to help two siblings live. She has an her teammates move in and get older sister, 22, who is soon to to know them. Her relationship be married this month, and a with her team shows just how brother —a four- legged family oriented she is even away Pekingese, Furby — who she from home. considers family. Sanchez not At first, Annelise’s parents only loves the game of volleywere concerned about her movball, she also enjoys other hobing away to college and being on bies as well. These include read- her own. Their family is very ing, swimming, collecting giclose, but Annelise continues to raffes and spending time with make them proud by stepping her roommate and friends out on her own and juggling around town. everything on her agenda like Although she might be bubbly the adult she is. and high-spirited, Sanchez has a no nonsense attitude about

Your home loan professionals

" #

" "!

SCCC/ATS Cosmetology


*Hair cuts - $5 OFF *Highlights or Lowlights $5 OFF *for Appointments Call:

The Community Bank offers Internet Banking 2320 N. Kansas in Liberal.


Wednesday, September 11, 2013

World Cup hopes fade for Mexico



Efren Rivero Sports editor

With the World Cup only a year away, the qualifications are well underway and are beginning to wrap up. Teams are claiming their way to Brazil. Yet one team who usually classifies with ease is watching its ticket to the 2014 Brazil World Cup fade away; that team is Mexico. Mexico has been playing poorly their last few games with losses to Honduras and to USA. On Friday Sept. 6, Mexico suffered an embarrassing loss to Honduras on home turf despite having the lead for the majority of the game. Tuesday against USA was the same story. Mexico’s poor play contributed to the 2-0 loss. USA claimed their ticket to Brazil while Mexico hasn’t. The coaching staff had a big role in choosing the players who start, yet I don’t blame the coaching staff for the bad results. I do blame the players. I simply don’t see them play with their heart. It seems that they do not know the importance of playing for your national team. The coaching staff has even tried using different players yet the results do not change. All these losses just add to the disappointing performances on behalf of Mexico in the Qualifying rounds this year. Mexico’s current record is 1-5-2. With just a few games left, Mexico’s possibilities of qualifying for the World Cup are quickly diminishing and hope of seeing them play in Brazil is disappearing.

Sports Briefs

Crusader photo/Maria Lara

George Fitzgerald looks for an open teammate while evading Alex Salgado for the sack during an intramural flag football game. The intramural flag football league kicked off this Tuesday afternoon with six teams participating. For more photos of the intramural games, go to

Intramural sports kick off with flag football Efren Rivero Sports editor The Intramural Flag Football league kicked off with three games on Tuesday afternoon. This year’s league was full of action that had a better outcome than last year’s league. Last year there were only four teams, but this year the number of teams increased to six. Wade Lyon, Director of Student Life and Leadership, said, “There are six teams [with] 10 to 12 players. Each team will play each other one time...[and] the team with the best record will win the tournament.” The six teams are “The Cunning

Stunts,” “Cat Daddy’s,” “Texas,” “The Disciples,” “Outlaws,” and “No Mercy.” The first showdown that started the competition off was between “The Cunning Stunts” and the “Cat Daddy’s.” After a close game, “The Cunning Stunts” defeated their opponents by one touchdown with a final score of 36-32. The next game was “Texas” vs. “The Disciples” with “Outlaws” vs. “No Mercy” following to wrap up the night. While intramural sports are just for fun, they serve as a new experience for some and also serve as a way to show some friendly competition on campus. Reymundo Juarez, a player for the “Cat Daddy’s,” said, “I really enjoyed

the different experience. I only played defense for my team but it was really fun. I enjoyed the competition even though we lost by one touchdown in the final moments.” The flag football league will last until every team has played each other once. The remaining games will be on Mondays and Thursdays starting Sept. 12 until Sept. 23. The first game starts at 5:45 p.m. while the last game starts at 7:15 p.m. Once every team has played, they will decide if the teams will just choose a winner or play a bracket to decide who will play for the championship. Right now, the only intramural sport being played is flag football, but they

are currently working on expanding to other sports. Juarez said, “I enjoyed playing flag football but I would like to see more intramural sports. I would like to have an indoor soccer league as well as other sports.” Whether it’s football or any other sport, intramural sports are a good way to get involved on campus. It allows students to meet new people and have a good time with friends. It is also an excellent way of exercising and staying fit. For anyone interested in seeing the remaining games, the games are played by the softball fields behind the dorms.

Fall baseball taking Saints to Albuquerque The Saints baseball team will be heading to Albuquerque, N.M., this weekend. Following their trip to Albuquerque, the Saints will be in Wichita Sept. 21 for the KJCCC All-Star Game. The next home games for the team will be Sept. 28-29 against Colorado State and Colorado Lightning. The Saints are currently undefeated in fall baseball play this year.

Seward tennis teams solid in opening tourney The Saints and Lady Saints tennis teams took part in the Wichita Intercollegiate Tournament Sept. 6-7. The men’s squad finished the tournament with a team record of 14-10, while the Lady Saints finished with a 10-13 record. Both squads will travel to Salina this weekend to take part in the Bethany Invitational Tournament.

Courtesy photo/Roy Allen Crusader photo/Jeremiah Wilson

Saints infielder Jake Fuller, No. 16, slides safely into second base in a fall baseball game Friday afternoon at Brent Gould Field. The Saints baseball team will travel to Albuquerque, N.M., this weekend. To see more photos of this baseball game, go to


"# #

Saints baseball player Grant Glaze shows off a trophy fish. The Seward County Saints baseball team relaxed Sunday afternoon at Tucker Lake for an evening of fishing with local youth from Big Brothers/Big Sisters.

& "

( (

$" (


!% (

"" $ # ( $ #


“Coldest Beer in Town”

LISTEN TO “THE SPORTS GUYS” 620-626-6100, H ome to Liberal H igh School & SC C C Sports

866-626-6100, w w w .her i ta gel i ber a l .com S. Ka nsa s, Su i te 2 P.O. Box 1736 L i ber a l , Ka nsa s 67905


s ’ l l Fa 8 CRUSADER

a t k o o L

n o i h s a F


Wednesday, September 11, 2013

4- eyed

Yesterday’s glasses frame today’s styles: eyewear from service to fashion accessory Jakub Stepanovic Design editor Some of the biggest names in fashion, such as RayBan, Oakley, Michael Kors, Dolce and Gabbana have a new trend to capitalize on: glasses. With today’s trend of wearing bulky, rimmed, retro glasses, some students even buy glasses without a prescription, simply as a fashion accessory. However, people who actually need glasses to improve vision create the highest demand for a multitude of styles and colors. This fall, the trendsetters say “bigger is better.” Jessica Rivero, optician and

spectacle lab manager at Jury, Farrar and Associates, said that while younger generations are going for the vintage look, the older generations would have to disagree with calling that “fashion.” Those who grew up before the 2000s and had to wear glasses were forced, almost without exception, to wear large “nerd” glasses. Despite many people going for bright, large, retro glass frames, the highest selling color for frames this fall is brown, Rivero said. Brown is a neutral color that matches most clothing. However, this summer, bright orange was the highest selling color for

frames. One of the downsides of glasses is the hassle of wearing sunglasses. Luckily, the companies that make glasses have figured it out: transition lenses. Transition lenses darken when exposed to UV rays, becoming sunglasses. This means that less money is spent on buying prescription sunglasses that are just simply sunglasses. Another way around the hassle of sunglasses is contacts. Contacts are a popular alterative to glasses, especially in professional and collegiate worlds. For those who play sports, contacts are both easier and safer than wearing glasses. Contacts

can also have an aesthetic appeal, as they can change the color of the iris. There is also the price aspect of glasses and contacts. Glasses and frames can cost anywhere from $80-$500. However, that pair of glasses will last a year, if not longer. A box of contacts can cost more than $200 a year. In addition to the contact lenses, contact solution and a case must be purchased so the contacts can be worn. Overall, it depends on a person’s eyes and tastes as to whether glasses or contacts are better.

The most popular glasses brands come in color and style variations, as seen in this selection at Jury, Farrar and Associates. Regular stores provides advantages over Internet shopping, giving customers the opportunity to try on glasses for the right fit and look before buying them.

Take care

Local glasses-sellers provide useful advice on how to care for contacts lenses and glasses. Yesenia Perez, of Optical 20/20, said the proper care will not only help improve vision but will also extend the service life of eyewear: • Do not use household cleaners to clean glasses or contacts.Chemicals, such as Windex, can ruin the coating on the glasses. Using chemicals, or even tap water, on contacts, will ruin them. • Use soft cleaning cloth. Others can hold dust particles that can scratch surface of the glasses. • Use proper cleaning liquid, don’t clean glasses dry. • It is not recommended to breath on glasses for cleaning purposes. • When wearing contacts, always take them out at night. • When contacts expire, dispose of them. • Buying non-prescription colored contacts can mess up eyesight. Use personal prescription colored contacts when wearing them. • When buying contacts from the internet, be aware. Wearing the wrong shape of contact can ruin vision. • Go to the optometrist for yearly eye exams.

Seward freshman Yesenia Perez, an employee at Optical 20/20, tries on a pair of glasses showing off a big rim trend that is being called Geek Chic.

Eyewear develops new looks through the generations DaVinci, Benjamin Franklin have insights into vision correction with contacts, bifocals Jakub Stepanovic Design editor The first mention of magnification to improve eyesight is recorded in Egyptian hieroglyphs, but the invention of actual glasses is dated to the late 1200s in Italy. Multiple sources credit the invention Salvino D’Armate, but

there are several others who deny this. Glasses were first pictured in the Gothic period, in medians such as painting and sculpture. At that time glasses were available only for a very limited group of people. Their widespread use among ordinary citizens took place during the Renaissance.

Photos and illustrations by Jakub Stepanovic

of attachment. Modern style frames with handles hooked behind the ears was invented in 1727 by British optician Edward Scarlett. Not far away from that time, in 1784, American inventor Benjamin Franklin is credited for the invention of bifocals. Bifocals enabled a correction for both nearsightedness and far-

sightedness in one. Nowadays there is possibility to correct vision also though surgery, but as Dr. Medow, ophthalmologist at the Manhattan hospital stated for New York Times: "There will always be a need for spectacles"

By the Medieval Age, in northern Italy, the use of dioptric glasses to correct vision is first recorded.





5000 BC

At the time, Leonardo DaVinci drew first diagram of contact lenses as anatomy research. French philosopher René Descartes made their connection with vision correction in 1636; however, it took until 1888 when German optician Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick constructed a working prototype of contact lenses. Glasses had different systems

Egyptians already know magnification improves eyesight. In the Roman Age, people started to wear colored stones in front of eyes, but just for decorative purposes.

Before the 16th century were glasses only farsighted.

The use and effectiveness of glasses is sometimes seen as one of the reasons for expansion of education during the Renaissance.

Year 45 issue 1  
Year 45 issue 1  

The Crusader's first regular issue of the 2013-2014 school year.