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Paso Robles HS Journalism


Staff Manual 2012-2013



Paso Robles HS Journalism

The Crimson Mission Our print and web journalism is dedicated to our readers above all else. We are committed to reporting worthy local, national, and global news, using our publications to update our community on local and pressing issues. We have made a pledge to “get it right” and to publish what is both true, pertinent, and fair. It is our mission to represent our school, community, and the individuals at PRHS while maintaining the utmost levels of journalistic integrity, passion, and discipline. —adopted August 2010

“Put it before them briefly so they will read it, clearly so they will appreciate it, picturesquely so they will remember it, and, above all, accurately so they will be guided by its light.” — Joseph Pulitzer

Staff Manual 2012-13 Edited & Revised by Cartoons by Sarah Wilson (2010-2013) & Joe Valdivia (2006-2008)

Nico Jolicoeur, Kelly Munns, Sarah Wilson, & Jeff Mount

Original HDN written by Sara Callahan, Rebecca Horne, Kelsey Garman, & Max Vermy (Class of 2008)

Rm. 604 Paso Robles HS

C Staff Manual Version 5.0 Created with Adobe InDesign, Photoshop, & Illustrator for the ’12 -’13 Journalism 2 Class. Crimson is an independently funded, monthly newsmagazine publication & weekly online portal produced by the Journalism 2 class of Paso Robles HS. Both are designated open forums intended for the exchange of ideas. We hold ourselves to the highest standards of scholastic journalism.


National Scholastic Press Assoc.

Jeff Mount, Adviser

(805) 434-8967

Journalism Education Assoc. of N. California

Staff 2012-13 3


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Editor-in-Chief Managing Editors


Nico Jolicoeur (12) Kelly Munns (12)

Sarah Wilson (12)

Cooper Austin . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 975-7379 . . . . . . . Maddie Berry. . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 712-8736 . . . . . . . Sara Bourgault . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 975-7459 . . . . . . . Analia Cabello. . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 769-7102 . . . . . . . Laura Callahan . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 610-5859 . . . . . . . Matt Camou. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 464-8526 . . . . . . . Carly Cargill. . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 602-6404 . . . . . . . Rachel Cole . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 975-5245 . . . . . . . Devin Corea. . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 286-0304 . . . . . . . Clarisse Dart . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 434-8002 . . . . . . . Aidan Farrell . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 878-3150 . . . . . . . Brandon Goddard. . . . . 12. . . . . 591-0574 . . . . . . . Garett Hanlon. . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 712-6562 . . . . . . . Anna Hernandez. . . . . . 12. . . . . 835-1594 . . . . . . . Michaela Iunker . . . . . . 12. . . . . 458-4868 . . . . . . . Nico Jolicoeur . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 975-7160 . . . . . . . Noah Levine. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 223-2604 . . . . . . . Andrea Lorenzo. . . . . . . 12. . . . . 610-4727 . . . . . . . Angela Lorenzo. . . . . . . 11. . . . . 286-7609 . . . . . . . Brigitte Maina. . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 835-3621 . . . . . . . Sydney Matteson . . . . . 11. . . . . 712-5619 . . . . . . . Sierra Mosely. . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 591-0009 . . . . . . . Kelly Munns. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 296-2593 . . . . . . . Olivia Musial . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . Jordan Nevosh. . . . . . . . 11. . . . . 975-7394 . . . . . . . Nikianne Ochoa. . . . . . . 11. . . . . 975-7513 . . . . . . . Danae Ontiveros. . . . . . 10. . . . . 975-7315 . . . . . . . Josh Orcutt. . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 423-7199 . . . . . . . Maria Petiy . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 286-2225 . . . . . . . Lauren Reed . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . 975-5555 . . . . . . . Stevie Stark. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . 975-7030 . . . . . . . Courtney Thompson. . . 11. . . . . 975-7153 . . . . . . . Matt Tyra. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . 423-2647 . . . . . . Sarah Wilson . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . .400-9650 . . . . . . Summer Volle . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . 975-2287 . . . . . . . Jenna Wookey . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . 975-7571 . . . . . .

4 Contents From the Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7

Section 1: Staff Tips and Policies Course Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Journalove Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 Code of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The First Amendment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 48907 Ed Code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Copyright. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Libel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Boot Camp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Fundraising Expectations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Selling Subscriptions + Ads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-21 Ad Contract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Invoicing and Business Tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Brielle’s Biz Advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Print Calendar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Brainstorming + content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Workflow Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Two Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Email = Groupwise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Google Docs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30-31 Monthly Blogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32-33 WDYDFMT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Philosophy of Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Deadlines + Late Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Editor Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37-38 Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39-40

Section 2: Writing Crimson Story Rubric. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 R1, R2 Minimums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Story Front Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Newsworthiness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Cloudseeding/Blog Ideas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Interviewing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47-49 Reporting w Facebook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50-51 Getting Started on a Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Factology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Nepotism as a reporter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Narrative Reporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 News First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Use Lingo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Appositives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Posting stories to the website. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Number Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Objectivity, Not Subjectivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 AP Style: Nuts and Bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Find the Extraordinary (Gay Talese) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 What You’re Doing Matters (Jimmy Breslin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Lede Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-69 Lede Sampler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68-69 The Dirty Dozen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71 Nutgraf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 SW2C Summary of What’s to Come . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Story Shapes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74-75 Attribution and Quotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Conciseness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..77 Sportswriting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78-79 Sinead’s Sportsfeature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80-81 Feature Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82-83 Feature Storytelling (Ira Glass). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Opinion Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Review Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86-87

Section 3: Design + Photography

Starting Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Crimson Design Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 PhotoShop Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 InDesign Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Camera Commandments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Photography Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95-96 Camera Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Shooting Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Controlling Photo Blunders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99


6 From the Leaders


Paso Robles HS Journalism


bviously a hello is needed here, so hellooooo. First of all, congratulations on officially being part of the Crimson staff of 2012-2013! Crimson is one of the most award-winning programs on campus and also one of the most prestigious. Being admitted is a big feat and you should be proud of that accomplishment! Journalism can be one of the most rewarding experiences that you will ever happen upon. In this class, you will learn skills that will stay with you forever. But more importantly, you will make memories that will last a lifetime. You will not only get to spend time with friends you have already made, but you will make friends who will be a major part of your high school life. This class will be, if you make it, one of the highlights of your school year. With your commitment, Crimson can change your life for the better. For some of you, this may be slightly intimidating at first. But before you know it, this whole program will come so naturally to you that you could do it in your sleep (which you might basically have to do by the end of layout week!) Crimson will become a part of your daily life in no time, but don’t stress out about it! Enjoy every good interview, every stellar picture, and every inside joke; leave the worrying to me and my fellow leaders. Crimson become one of the best newsmagazines in the nation through staffmembers who would always joke around and nerd out, and that’s what this program is really about. When

you look back on the 2012-2013 year, you will remember all the funny things that happened on late nights, not how many times you cropped a picture down to make it the perfect size, so enjoy Crimson! Make the best of your experience this year, and I promise you that as long as we get our work done, this class will always be fun. I wish you the best with all of your ventures with Crimson and everything else this year. I will always be here for a good talk, honest advice, or anything else! I’m looking forward to all the late nights, fatty foods, and random moments I will spend with all of you this year. With love,

Nico Jolicoeur Editor-in-Chief



Paso Robles HS Journalism


i 2012-13 Crimson Staff! Congrats on getting accepted into the coolest and craziest class on campus. If you let it, Crimson will influence you in so many ways. When I first joined journalism, I knew instantly that I was going to change for the better. Crimson will break you out of your comfort zone and test your limits, but if you believe that what we are doing matters, you belong in our family. We will laugh, cry, stress, and go insane together, but it is all worth it in the end. I encourage you to put all your effort into our paper because you will be rewarded in the end. You will leave room 604 with more knowledge, more creativity, and more love for everyone around you. I promise to help you when you’re in need, support you when you’re down, forgive you when you make mistakes, and lead you when you need guidance. Love yourselves, love each other, and love the paper. With much Journalove, Kelly Munns

Managing Editor


’m sure you’ve heard your fair share of rumors about this class being weird, wacky, stressful, and crazy. They’re all true. But it’s also true that Journalism is one of the best experiences and opportunities you’ll have in high school. This room will be the place where you worry about deadlines, grow as a journalist, and make lasting memories. Classmates will become friends, and friends will become family members. You will write stories, create layouts, and attend events…maybe even win an award or two along the way. I’m so excited to get to know all of you and see what you bring to Crimson. If you put your heart into Journalism, you won’t be disappointed with what you get out of it. Don’t be afraid to put yourself out there and try new things; you might even surprise yourself with what you can do. Welcome to the crazy cult of Crimson creepers!

Love, Sarah Wilson

Managing Editor

8 How they got up there


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Crimson leaders are picked officially in May, but they start catching everyone’s attention unofficially at multiple times of the year. All interested leader candidates present to a panel of alumni Crimson staffers, justifying why they are the best for the EIC or ME positions available. The panel chose the final leadership lineup and announced the results in late May.

Interested in being a Crimson leader? we recommend all of the following... • Serve as a section editor • Meet all deadlines always • Go to Convention to GROW • Pursue advanced work in layout, photography, or web mgmt

• Develop a reputation as a “finisher”

In Search of the EIC

A Facebook event...

Some years we invite graduates from past years to help us interview and objectively discuss candidates. Some years we interview them with just the graduating staff members. After candidates present-some years we have over six--we share observations in a confidential, Starbuck’d, snacky discussion and decide the 20132014 Crimson leadership team.

• Do more than what is expected • Serve on the core team who stays to put the issue to bed



1 ction



TIPS and policies


10 Course Objectives Be ready to learn the following:


Paso Robles HS Journalism

> Writing: News/Sports/Feature/Opinion/Review

1. write structured, probing, insightful stories 2. write newsworthy stories serving campus needs + interests 3. learn to satisfy the higher levels of the Crimson Writing Rubric 4. learn the art of telling a fact-dense story well 5. compose engaging ledes, headlines, metaphors, & puns 6. employ concise, fact-based, & narrative diction


> Design, graphics, + web publishing

1. learn Adobe software InDesign, Photoshop, + Illustrator 2. learn photography principles and camera handling for many settings and purposes 3. design creatively & according to Crimson style 4. practice do’s + don’ts of page design 5. post print + photography in Wordpress and Facebook for internet journalism

C > Reporting & Research

1. practice accurate, successful interviewing techniques & avoid pitfalls 2. interview & report responsibly & fairly 3. develop investigative skills for newsworthy stories 4. exercise my free speech rights as a student journalist 5. practice ethical journalism avoidingpitfalls of libel/obscenity/copyright violation

> People & Leadership Skills

1. develop my skills as a team player & project manager 2. meet deadlines set by other staff members 3. earn & give trust, respect, encouragement, & leadership 4. practice marketing, fundraising, & business principles 5. form deep bonds with classmates


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Journalove 11 Call it RESPECT if you don’t want to call it LOVE PEOPLE are always the most important aspect of any story, not only the 5Ws

Expressing Journalove The Crimson crew is a family. We care about our work, our school, and each member of our staff. We must be friendly. We must be encouraging. We must fight cliques that ostracize and hurt feelings. Many don’t want to put effort into a project when they don’t feel important or perceive that they only get noticed for their mistakes. Journalove is as simple as this: Love your family! Love your editors, writers, adviser—even your perceived enemies. Love the paper! Love your stories! Love the people you’re publicizing! You will be astounded at the results. Editors, don’t only edit stories & leave critiques, but tell your writers what lines were funny, or phrases were fact-deep. Everyone, put yourselves in the shoes of others. Have compassion on their story, whether they are a fellow staffer or a stranger you’re about to interview. Love is the most powerful force in the universe. If our staff operates from love, we will be powerful indeed. If we conduct ourselves as reporters with it, as designers with it, as photographers with it—all roles!—our work will last.

1. Say hi as you enter 2. Say bye as you leave. 3. Ask about what projects s/he is doing. 4. Try to get to know classmates outside of class on a more personal basis :) 5. Read someone’s R2 even when you don’t have to and encourage what s/he’s doing right. Care about his/her writing. 6. Talk to EVERYONE on staff not just people in your circle of friends, make sure everyone feels included 7. Celebrate/congratulate/enc?ourage someone when they’ve accomplished something significant in life/journalism 8. Sit in a new spot in the room for a change. You’ll be more likely to talk to other staffers. 9. Appreciate all ideas during discussions and give each consideration and value. 10. Ask a staffer how s/he is and care about the answer. 11. Bring random baked goods for the class! 12. Slip a nice, short note into a fellow staffmembers box. 13. Shout out during our in-class thanks we do at the end of a print cycle! 14. Speak thanks to everyone who helps you.

Editor-in-Chief ’07-’08 Gina Alessi (CSU Fullerton ‘12 created the term Journalove and first helped her staff achieve it in 2007-2008.

12 Journalove

Love can take the form of TIME:

Love can take the form of GIFTS:

Love can take the form of TOUCH:

J ou

what thanks you verbalize how you encourage others how you interview writing a thank you card going extra mile sacrificing time helping others the time you pour into research the time you spend at night the time you take to find one more interview the time you pour into your design/ layout each issue of Crimson is a gift each added item to the website is a gift wait til you see our staff holiday parties each bithday/baked good hug shake a hand throw an arm around their neck friendly arm wrestling match

Adapted from Gary Chapman, The Five Love Languages

For your fellow staff

For your school + its info

For your story itself + its facts

For Crimson as a program

For the persons in your story


Love can take the form of ACTIONS:

Reflect on how well you love others love exist what you write for our publication rna

s fo

Love can take the form of words:


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Code of Conduct 13

We require an agreement between you, your parents, & Mount so that we can trust you to: • • • • •

Travel on & off campus during school hours for journalism business Use cell phones & devices at all class times in 604 Use the PRHS network, software, & web access Use Crimson/PRHS cameras &laptops around school & at home Sell advertisements around town & service local accounts

The Bottom Line: Act professionally at all times as a Crimson staff member. Then you protect: • our reputation w/ readers, adults, & advertisers • your reputation • our campus privileges • your campus privileges • your job on staff • your parents’ pocketbook and • your happiness

The Crimson Code

Your signed agreement to this document is kept on file:

1. I agree to meet deadlines assigned to me for writing, photography, layouts, and projects. I understand missed deadlines may cause changes in my staff job or class grade. 2. I agree to work after school, evenings, & weekends to complete journalism responsibilities assigned to me. 3. I agree to learn and adhere to ethical journalism standards in my reporting in areas of libel, obscenity, disruption of school program, and copyright. 4. I will refrain from malicious, damaging words or behavior towards anyone, especially Crimson staff, but including PRHS students, and adult staff. 5. I will use of my cell phone, Facebook, & other websites for Crimson business while in Rm. 604. 6. I agree to follow equipment check out procedures listed in the staff manual (example on back) and to ensure prompt return and sensible care of this equipment. 7. I agree to pay for the repair or replacement of any PRHS equipment damaged at school or off-campus from my actions. This item includes, but is not limited to, computer & camera equipment. 8. I will preserve my privilege to leave campus for Crimson business (without supervision) by adhering to the California Vehicle Code, conducting myself professionally, fulfilling strictly Crimson business, and not departing from city limits. I will not run personal errands.

9. I agree to abide by the PRHS Acceptable Use Policy as I use the PRHS network, software, and internet in class and at home. 10. I will maintain a C or better in all my core classes and will not let journalism supplant my academic responsibilities. Your signed agreement to this code will be kept on file. Maintain this code to maintain your enrollment in the class.


14 First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, & to petition the government for a redress of grievances.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

THE TINKER CASE Tinker vs. Des Moine (1968):

Students do not shed their constitutional rights “at the school house gate.� High school journalism scored its most historic legal victory when the 1968 Supreme Court wrote the above opinion, which establishes that adults cannot strip students of unalienable rights such as their First Amendment free speech. Specifically, Mary Beth and John Tinker (pictured above) sued their Iowa high school when it suspended them for expressing their opinion with armbands about the Vietnam War. The Tinker case contributed predominantly in the CA Ed Code written soon after that guarantes California students their free speech rights. See right.

CA Legal 15


Paso Robles HS Journalism

CA Ed Code

48907 Students of the public schools shall have the right to exercise freedom of speech & of the press including the distribution of printed materials or petitions, whether or not such publications are supported financially by the school or by use of school facilities. But... Crimson expression shall be prohibited which is: 1. obscene 2. libelous or slanderous 3. inciting students to commit: a. unlawful acts b. violation of lawful school regulations c. disruption of the operation of school operation

There shall be no prior restraint of material prepared for official school publications except insofar as it violates this section.

This page is GOOD NEWS

If we play by the above rules, there will be NO PRIOR RESTRAINT. 40+ other states provide no such protection of free speech.

CA Ed Code

48950 School districts shall not make or enforce any rule subjecting any high school pupil to disciplinary sanctions solely on the basis of conduct that is speech.

Good news

You cannot be punished for your free speech-if it’s ruled to be free speech Any pupil enrolled in a school that has made or enforced any rule in violation of this section may commence a civil action. Nothing in this section prohibits the imposition of discipline for harassment, threats, or intimidation unless constitutionally protected. Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede or otherwise limit or modify the provisions of Section 48907.

16 Copyright


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Your journalism must prepare you for the real, copyrighted world where no longer is it acceptable legally to copy-paste graphics willy-nilly into your work. Publishing a photo or graphic that was copy-pasted from the internet without permission violates copyright even when we state the URL.

Copyright Rules We use the photo/graphic when: 1. We took the pic


2. We designed the graphic ourselves. 3. We received permission because we asked the owner. 4. We used a Creative Commons license (permission!) 5. We faithfully credit photographers.

EXAMPLE: YES to any of these: You’re 1. Shoot a photo yourself of the products at Walmart. doing a 2. Order a sketch from a cartoonist. story on over-the- 3. Create a photo-illustration that collages MANY graphics and counter photos. prego 4. Search FlikR for a Creative tests. Or Commons approval of a Romney photo. a story on Mitch NO to all of these: Romney. 1. Copy-paste a photo of prego test/ Romney from internet and write the URL below it. 2. Skip any photo/graphic because it’s too much extra work to get one—then Crimson excellence suffers. 3. Copy-paste a clip-art cartoon as decoration.

GETTING PERMISSION is easy. Write an email in Groupwise to the source, stating who we are, what we are using the photo for, and when it will run. If you gain permission, write the author’s name and “Used with permission” in the photo credit.

Libel 17


Paso Robles HS Journalism

You must understand libel principles since libel is probably the most dangerous mess your writing can create. Crimson has printed a libelous fact if the sentence is:

1) Untrue 2) Malicious intent 3) Reflects reckless reporting Courts have ruled in favor of libel claims when two or more of the above conditions have been met.

Libel: Your First Amendment freedom of speech as a writer becomes unprotected when you cross the libel line.

Case studies: Are these libelous acts? 1. Student newspaper prints headline + story: Police Nab Drug Dealer “In a sweep across campus yesterday, police arrested several students, charging them with dealing drugs. Arrested were Bill Jones, sophomore and a student from community college: John Renshaw.” 2. Crimson Chronicle prints headline + story:

PRHS shocked by suicide “Junior Amanda Cota ended her own life Mar. 8, 2009 at approximately 3 p.m. It was revealed that Cota shot herself while wearing her prom dress and holding notes pertaining to a recent relationship.”

Yes, Crimson can be sued in a court of law for libel printed on our pages.

The best defense when a reporter is accused of libel and/ or untrue printed material? —A printed retraction.

We enter contests that scrutinize our copyright and libel control—and downgrade for violations.

1. Yes 2. Yes


18 Getting you ready

C a m t o p o ! B Skill

1 2 3 4 5 6



Paso Robles HS Journalism

Basic Training required to advance to your job position

Deadline Passing Level

HDN page

Summer Reading Article

Posted, Score of 3

AP usage test

Written, Score of 85%


Partner Feature

Score of 3, on time


News Blog

Score of 3, on time


Photoshop skills test

Pass / Fail


In-Design skills test

Pass / Fail


Photography skills test

Pass / Fail


Review your summer novel following posted example Review

Interview an assignmed partner and write a proper feature article on the most newsworthy angle Research, interview, write and post a brief update about a newsworthy campus fact. Complete 3 basic PS tasks: artwork using type, photo cutout, and photo touch-up. Complete 5 basic InDesign tasks: text handling, headlining, photo handling, table building, textwrap. Shoot and crop two showcase photos: one portrait and one event using proper ISO, white balance, shutter speed, and f-stop.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Fundraising 19

Crimson staff contributes to business team efforts by bringing in the following by Octobe’s deadline, which balances the months ahead when ad income from the business team does not match print costs:

Fundraising Minimums See Mount to negotiate solutions to these if you have trouble fulfilling them

1. Three subscriptions, or $60, whichever is easier. See next page. 2. One sold advertisement in the paper (due in 2nd issue of your first semester)

3. Participation in fundraisers (carwashes, etc.)

4. $30 “Club Fee” ($15 per semester)

Most of the above are paid through income we receive from sold advertisements & subscriptions. The business team spends all year pursuing advertisements, often paying for the month’s paper from the ads sold. We need 200 addresses minimum to qualify for BulkMail rates at the post office. We cannot afford to mail the paper at standard rates.

The Crimson budget exceeds $12,000 per year. A basic breakdown: (1) printing costs + supplies

(2) Nat’l Convention (3) NSPA membership & contests (4) feeding + rewarding the staff (5) equipment repair/ replacement

Crimson opportunity

Several staffers paid for their trip to the Nat’l Convention by mining the richness of SERIOUS subscription & advertising effort

20 Subscriptions


Paso Robles HS Journalism

1. Selling subscriptions is pretty much one of the easiest things to do. Just like ads, the income from subscriptions helps cover the $900/issue print costs of our issues. However, unlike ads, we generally sell all our subscriptions at the very beginning of the year & then forget about them—except for the Circulation Manager.

2. You are required to sell at least three subscriptions, but they can be to whoever you want. The usual targets are extended family & family friends.

3. Try your best to sell the higher level (more expensive) subscriptions, they’ll bring in more money when we need it most. All of the addresses of the subscribers & their level of donation are saved in a database which we use to insure they receive their free ad next June if they are entitled to one.

The monthly student news magazine of Paso Robles High School

Crimson Policy

Every staff member brings in 3 ads or $60 worth of them by the end of September.

SUBSCRIPTIONS 2012-2013 Dear parents and business owners, We on the Crimson staff invite you to accompany us this school year in our insightful coverage of PRHS news and faces. Let us deliver keen, nationally-awarded teen journalism to your doorstep or business! A Crimson subscription keeps you informed about PRHS and its students and promotes quality journalism education. Please subscribe!


Think how thrilled grandma will be to see your stories each month... & Auntie & Uncley & on & on.

Nicolette Jolicoeur, senior Editor-in-Chief

Jeff Mount Adviser

Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $19.00

All 7 issues delivered monthly to your home by U.S. Mail

Patron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $40.00

7 issues above, with recognition in the paper AND free congratulatory advertising to a graduating senior. Especially appropriate for senior households next June! Ad size = business card.

Donor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $60.00

7 issues above with recognition in the paper, one month free advertising for your business or graduation advertising for a favorite senior (represents a $35 discount from regular advertising rates!). Ad size = 1/4 page.

Sponsor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $100.00

7 issues above with recognition in the paper, free advertising for two months for your business, and/or graduation advertising for a favorite senior (represents a $80 discount from regular ad rates!). Ad size = 1/2 page.



Circulation Manager

NAME _______________________________________

Crimson Newsmagazine Paso Robles HS 801 Niblick Rd. Paso Robles, CA 93447

STREET ______________________________________

769-1500 ext. 550033

PHONE ______________________________________

CITY, ST, ZIP __________________________________


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Selling Ads 21

Why, how, & what not to do We can’t have a program if we don’t sell ads. Therefore, you must help us sell the ads. And you must do it right. GOOD PRACTICES 1. Take with you (1) advertising contract (2) copy of our paper and (3) strategic thinking for how this is a WIN for the business.

If you don’t manage ads properly 1. We may charge a business twice. 2. We may not charge a business at all.

2. Introduce yourself & pitch so that it’s a WIN for them. Ex: Hello, I’m Brielle Siletti & I’m with Crimson newsmagazine for Paso Robles High School. Our newsmagazine circulates to 2000 students each month & hundreds on the internet at I’d like to give your business the opportunity to advertise to these thousands for the lowest price in town. (Show them the ad contract).

3. Recontact the business within 4 days as follow up. Businesses like to feel cared for and managed. 4. Contact repeating advertisers before every issue to verify their participation and details. Good chance to catch mistakes and appear profesh. 5. Write clear, dated, specific invoices on time. 6. Give advertiser addresses to the Circulation Manager. BAD PRACTICES

1. 2. 3. 4.

Assuming the business is happy w/ its ad. CHECK. Failing to follow up after a visit. CALL. Being lazy or thick about selling ads. THINK. Selling only 1-2 days per cycle. ACT.

3. We may bugger their ad, info, & reputation. 4. Crimson loses $$$ that it needs to operate. 5. You may burn the bridge with the business/indi-

22 Ad Contract


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Records + Communication

Use the following document to discuss advertising options with potential advertisers. We need a completed contract for every advertiser to reach them, invoice, and follow up.

Crimson Advertising Contract The student newspaper of Paso Robles High School

801 Niblick Road. Paso Robles, CA 93446. (805) 769-1500 ext. 50033


Biz Card

Circle the ad size and price you would like.


The more often you advertise, the more you save!


size = 3.5” W x 2”


1/8 Page 1/4 Page

Web Ads $65 1-month size = 300x200 $100 2-months

$65 Half Page

size = 5” W x 2.75” H

$95 Full Page

size = 5” W x 5.5” H


size = 10” W x 5.5” H


size = 10” W x 11” H

25% discount off the third purchased ad

Inserts must be photocopied (count = 2000) and delivered to PRHS.


Oct. 10

Feb. 13

Next, circle the best dates in our publication schedule.

Nov. 14

Mar. 20*

Dec. 19

May 29

Finished! Read the contract, give us your personal information, and sign on the dotted line! We prefer payment up front, but are happy to bill you after your ad has been published. You are now finished!

Agreement This contract constitutes an agreement between the client named

below and Crimson, a non-profit organization, to provide advertising according to the above specifications. Proof of publication will be sent with billing. Advertisement copy must be received a week (7 days) before publication. Advertisements created by the Crimson staff as a service will be subject to customer pre-approval only if this contract precedes publication by 5 business days. Contracts and ad copy may be delivered in person to the Paso Robles High School, room 604, or mailed to the address printed below.

Name of Business: Contact Person: Address: Phone:

Thank you for purchasing advertising with Crimson.


Email: Signature: Date:

Business Tasks 23


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Business Tools CONTRACT Records the deal & contact information for our records.

CASHBOOK Quick reference of the publication income & ad sizes & PAID’s.

ACCORDION Field folder to contain contracts & business cards. Take it with you when you sell.

I. When you have sold an ad and it will run in upcoming publication: 1. Record it and its size on the ad white board for the editors and Mount to remember. Decide the deadline for when an ad proof must reach the business owner and when we must have ad in hand. 2. Add the above dimensions into Ad Thumbnails doc so we can make it a part of the pagination...and know if your ad fits. 3. Record the ad information in the cashbook for later invoicing. 4. Verify that a contract exists for the ad in our files showing contact and mailing information.

II. Invoice the business to collect $$$ after publication 1. Open an existing invoice found in Ads&Business/Invoices.


2. Enter mailing and billing information.

Visual reminder of the publication’s ads & sizes & YES-WE-HAVE-IT’s.

3. Save as a new name: business_amount due into that month’s folder. The amount due in the filename helps us locate old invoices after the fact.


4. Print it, sign it, envelope it, stamp it. Mount has these supplies.

Shows all billings for the given publication.

AD THUMBNAILS on InDesign Shows editors & Mount visual footprint of the ads across the publication.

5. The Invoice Folder containing these docs should only show THAT MONTH’s INVOICES. Already-Paid’s do not need to be recorded here.

III. Maintain the current month’s INCOME TOTAL on the white board 1. We all need to know if you are AFFORDING the current issue.

IV. Maintain the current month’s INCOME TOTAL on the white board 1. We

Use Crimson billing history to get ideas for ads Look at all the success of your predecessors!

Renew old accounts or find the new PR equivalent of an old biz.



Paso Robles HS Journalism

Brielle Silletti ‘12 made thousands of dollars for Crimson through hard work, organization, and a commitment to succeed. She is majoring in business at Babson College in Boston.

Mount asked me to put together some advice for you! Here are my suggestions.

Planning your advertising reach

1. Contact past advertisers before every print cycle to remind them of the upcoming issue, and if they would like to advertise again, or if they have 25% off of their next ad. They like knowing what and when Crimson is doing with their company image. 2. Brainstorm other companies who MUST reach high school students or parents in order for their businesses to thrive (Senior pic photographers, driving schools, tutors, any place that gives student discounts, etc.). 3. Go through past Crimsons to get ideas, or PRHS Journalism email. 4. Family and friends might recommend a person to sell ad space to, even the business you work at could be interested. 5. Always keep an open-mind about potential customers. 6. Before each print cycle, set a date for businesses when all ad artwork will be due. 7. You can never contact businesses too often once they are on contract. They respect good communication.

What to say when making pitch: 1. Always ask for a Manager, or “whoever is in charge of advertising”. 2. Introduce yourself and explain Crimson would like to help them reach students and parents. 3. If the Manager isn’t there, “sell” the idea to an employee. (They can push an ad, too, or at least remind Manager about it). 4. Present ad pages in a past issue so they know what they’re getting, and present ad contract with prices. 5. While they’re looking at the paper, tell them the paper reaches 2,000+ students, over 1000 through Facebook, and 200 subscribers in Paso Robles. 6. Tell them the due date of ad artwork (people must know a date to push them), and that a signed ad contract will reserve their spot. 7. Make sure it is okay with them if you’re not able to “guarantee” a color ad. 8. Obtain their contact information to call and follow up if they have not already made a decision about purchasing an ad, or if you have not yet received artwork. Managers need reminders… they forget sometimes just like us.

Are we designing the ad? If so, leave enough time to email the ad to the business for them to proof ad and respond if there are any additional changes before it goes to print. They do not like being surprised how their ad looked and often will not pay as a result.

For in-person pitch, bring: 1. Past Crimson issues 2. Ad contracts 3. Business Cards for your contact info 4. Call before so you catch the manager. 5. Smile and cheerfulness

Print calendar 25


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Publication Calendar Publication Date

Production Deadline

Paso Robles High School Your monthly campus newsmagazine

2012-2013 Print Ad Deadline

Newspaper distributed to campus

@ Register-Pajaronian

1. Sept. 5 Wed

Aug. 27 Fri


2. Oct. 10 Wed

Oct. 5 Fri

Oct. 3 Wed

3. November 14 Wed

Nov. 9 Fri

Nov. 7 Wed

4. December 19 Wed

Dec .14 Fri

Dec . 12 Wed

5. February 20 Wed

Feb. 15 Fri

Feb. 13 Wed

6. March 27 Wed

Mar. 22 Fri

March 20 Wed

7. May 22 Senior Issue May 17 Fri PRHS Day 1: 8/27/12

May 15 Wed Other Important Dates

PRHS Last Day: 5/31/13 PRHS Winter Break: 12/11 - 1/4/13 PRHS Spring Break: 4/1/13 – 4/5/13 PRHS Prom: May TBA 2013

Ad copy received+approved

NSPA Nat’l Journalism Conv’n San Francisco 4/25-28/13



DSJNTPOOFXTNBHB[JOF We update daily with content from campus, sports, and nation. Advertising is available in 30-day increments on these webpages. Ad analytics (visitors, click-throughs) are reported with monthly statement. Print advertisements reach an estimated 1500 campus readers during the school day on these posted dates. A copy of the newspaper (and its advertising) is mailed with monthly statement. Advertisers must fill out our Ad Contract to confirm date(s) and mailing info.

Baby photos for Senior Issue 2013 May 17, 2013 Fri

Crimson Newsmagazine //

Plan your calendar with the above dates Rm. 604, 801 Niblick Rd., Paso Robles, CA 93446 769-1500 ext. 53003 Student journalism at Paso Robles High School

Jeff Mount, Adviser Don’t be absent during the critical weeks. Show advertisers the print dates. Plan your time according to these dates. Balance your personal life with your journalism life.

26 Brainstorming + The Editorial Board Bring us awesome ideas. Be creative. Be informed.

Brainstorming ideas for the paper & website must be incredible. They are the secret to success. We break up into three teams to develop newsworthy ideas & eliminate stale, predictable projects. Keep informed.

Process: 1.

Use our Cloudseeding form to record original , intelligent, edifying project ideas. Consider Journalove for your community as you plan: What do they need to know? Read, ask, think, & be creative. Fill out the form passionately.


Add design & photo details to your best ideas. Plan a packaged layout, web story, or photo shoot, envisioning the final product NOW. View inspiring publications that will deepen your ideas.

3. Pitch your ideas to your team. Believe in your ideas. 4.

If the team likes your pitch, the team leader sends your idea to the section editor, who you hope will add it to his/her section budget sheet.


Section editors compile all good ideas from teams and finalize their section budgets


Section budgets go to the Editorial Board, who approves or adjusts the projects that night and during lunch the next day.

7. All unadopted print stories will be posted on web! Section editors will be expected to write all non-print

ideas onto the web board in their section. Writers with one heavy story will likely pick on of these web stories to complete their 2-task workload for the week. See next ag


Section budgets return to the section editors, who will write down all print stories under the pagination section of the board and will encourage other staffers to take the stories of their section. u

Yo inking, th Observ , pitching ing sk a , g in


Your T, Thinking, g Listenin articipating ,P Asking


r n Edito Sectiog coverage + Plannin ing writers assign

ial Editor d Boar


to see

The Editorial Board is

comprised of EICs, MEs, section editors, and all interested staff members.

PURPOSE: To deepen coverage, protect against mediocrity, suggest adjustments to projects, solve redundancies

Stories can be constantly pitched to

the web by writing down the story idea under the appropriate section on the web part of the board.


es at h

all issu

The strategy of seeding clouds (w silver iodide or dry ice) so that they are more likely to rain.




Paso Robles HS Journalism

Your team (having multiple perspectives) helps you with your reporting ideas.

Editors determine BUDGETS for section

Using Budget sheet.

Editorial Board approves budgets; EIC paginates issue.

EB checks for overlapping, misjudgments, and weaknesses.


Editors design DUMMY of layout to anticipate design + sizes

Using Dummy form that portrays the length of each story & the photo/graphic needs, so assignments can be specific.


Editors ASSIGN no more than 2 stories to each staffer & complete SLUG forms to each writer. Unassigned stories go to ToDo board.

Section Editors summarizes budgets for the class; pitcher usually gets the story; volunteers also accepted; slug form is the written assignment from the editor to the writer which includes specifics.

All staffers post at least 2 Tasks they will accomplish this week on Workflow Board.

Tasks to choose: Write an assigned story.. Photograph an event... Write your blog (if it’s due)... Layout a print page... Produce a podcast... Complete a special project...

Reporters interview, dig, & research for stories in a 2-day sequence

Use your HDN! Work & communicate with your editor(s) and with leadership!

Editors guide & manage their reporters

You are not alone on your story. Get help.

R1 drafts uploaded to Google Docs by Tues. midnight

Tuesday is always a deadline night.


Editors/Mount edit R1’s in color by Wed. 3 p.m.

Reporters must continue fact-gathering even while waiting for edits.

Reporters revise, re-interview, dig to address R1 comments

Rewrite stories above existing draft & color comments. Include bar between R1 & R2.


R2 drafts uploaded to Google Docs by Thurs. midnight

Don’t be late! Chief checks whether you are on time!

Story Shares sent to interviewees

To invite them to read and to help us check accuracy.


Editors/Mount edit R2’s in color

Which is your last chance for written input before final drafts (FD’s) are due.


If story/project is complete, choose a new task + name it on Workflow Board. Unfinished stories

Everyone always has at least 2 Tasks going at all times.


Layout begins on 4th week of above cycle in InDesign: 3-5 day phase

Late Night = Mondays. Deadline for issue completion = Fridays.


Editors that are not done w/ layout ONLY. Don’t waste time. Painfully fun. Food is involved.

Post produce: Export InDesign files to PDF

To lock layout/fonts/levels for print processing. Section editors are responsible for this “after-layout” step.

FTP upload files to Vikki @ Register-Pajaronian

Handled by leaders

2 3


7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Start of Issue

Submit team ideas + story slips to S-Ed’s.


Pitch to your team. Discuss story ideas w/ them.



The Workflow Cycle 27

continue into next week.

18 19 20

Final week of cycle...


Delivery of 2000 copies to 604

Nice lunch activity for drivers w/ parent permission.


Distribute Crimson to campus Per. 2 on Wednesdays

The whole point. Circulation Manager is now more important than EIC.


Mail, invoice, eat, celebrate, tear-up

Maybe play some Mafia.

28 Your Weekly 2 Tasks


Paso Robles HS Journalism

We call it the 2-Do list to make clear that you must complete at least 2 projects per week, each one fulfilling the Tuesday and Thursday deadlines Declare your 2 TASKS on the Workflow white board at all times, and maintain their status across the week so leaders are aware , too.

1. Investigate/write an assigned story for a section You volunteer or are given a story from a section editor. We try to give you the story you pitched. You try to finish the story in R1 (Tues) and R2 (Thurs)—by Friday. If this is too quick, you can repeat the assignment into the next week. We discourage cowriting stories unless they are complex.

2. Investigate/write a Weekly Blog If your team is up. See BLOG pages.

3. Photograph an event/game/time-frame Learn the time, check out/reserve a camera, and attend. Apply photo principles taught in this manual. After the shoot, upload to Mother, and process the photos as described in this manual, which can take several hours. See pages 85+.

4. Layout a page for print This task becomes mandatory as we near the end of the print cycle, when write less and design for hours. Anyone can choose LAYOUT even if not a section editor—but would like to help on a project.

5. Produce a media package:

These are multi-step but EXCITING projects that come with experience and experimentation. You’ll train under our staff leader in each of these above departments. The process changes too often to describe here.



Paso Robles HS Journalism

Email = Groupwise 29 Groupwise is the school district’s web-based e-mail network, permitting you to have e-mail at school even when your GMail, Hotmail, etc. is blocked. Please utilize Groupwise to increase your productivity, communication, & storage!

Groupwise LOG IN: 1. 2. Click icon at bottom of above page 3. Select EMAIL - GROUPWISE 4. User: prhsjournalism 4. Ask Mount or a fellow staffer for password

Beneficial because Groupwise enables you to: 1. Send BACKUPS of your stories on deadline nights (NetStorage is not enough) as attachments. These can be accessed at school the next morning. 2. Contact teachers/administrators to set up appointments, ask followup questions, etc. Most PRHS adults LIKE EMAIL so use it during the school day. 3. SEND THE STORY SHARE (our feedback memo) to interviewees once the story is in its final drafting stages and is nearly ready for print & web. Story Share is CRUCIAL.

Groupwise and Interviewing 1. Generally, AVOID using Groupwise to interview. You look lazy as a reporter when you send an email that in effect says, “Here’s an assignment for you that’s convenient for me and creates WORK for you.”

2. Simultaneously, some adults prefer email interaction... Therefore a good reporter would set up the interview saying, “I would like to talk to you before Wednesday—or I can email you some questions if you prefer.”

28 Google Drive for R1


Paso Robles HS Journalism

We use our Crimson Google account to hold, organize, edit, and paste into Crimson journalism. Stories are therefore available to all staffmembers on any computer at all times. Reporters paste their work into Google Docs—even if they write in Word or Pages, etc.—then editors comment on these drafts, and reporters revise and improve them as our workflow moves through the week.

1. Login: Go to and SIGN IN.

We all use the same account to do Crimson work, even though many of us also use GMAIL for personal use.


crimsonnewsmagazine@gmail. com Password: (the usual)

2. Inside Google Drive, follow these steps 1. Click the DRIVE tab at the top of page. 2. On the left-hand side of the page, select the folder your document belongs in. BE SURE to put your file in a folder and not just anywhere. 3. Click CREATE > DOCUMENT or UPLOAD > FILE depending on what you prefer. You may always write in your preferred word processing application and paste into Google once you’re done. 4. TITLE your story for us Lastname.section.story by clicking “Untitled Document” and replacing with a correct file name:


5. Write the FRONT END items into your story (see p. 43). 6. Use the same filename above throughout the production process. Do not change the name to reflect a newer version of the story.



6. Logout.

If you complete the above steps by your deadline, you will not be marked LATE. Editors, Leaders, and Mount can see when you last worked on your story.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Google Drive: Edits + R2 29

The R1 created at left now goes through these steps: 1. LOGIN: Editors Login at The section’s stories are now collecting in a Google Docs folder as reporters write.

2. EDITING: Editors use the text color shown at right to edit and remark on the reporter’s work in a ALL AMERICAN way.

Editing Colors

Writer - BLACK Editor - RED Managing Editors - GREEN Chief - PINK Mount - BLUE

All-American Editing standards: 1. Use of Crimson Rubric (see p. 39)

4. STAIRS and next steps

2. LOTS of remarks (not minimal “good jobs”)

5. TYPOS and AP Style corrections (see p. 59)

3. STARS and celebrations

3. EDITING DEADLINE: If the editor completes the above quality editing by deadline, s/he will not be marked LATE. 4. R2 BEGINS: Following the Editing Deadline above, the writer HONORS the comments received and gets back to work writing and fact-gathering: new interviews, more research, better lede, etc. 5. R2 DETAILS: The reporter completes (4.) and writes the R2 into the same file by following these steps: a. Open the R1 in GoogleDocs. b. Create a line above your R1 by hitting “- - -” c. Paste/write your R2 above the line. Everyone can now see the original R1 and the editor remarks for it. d. Write another updated Front End (p. 43) for the R2, including Writer’s Note. 6. R2 DEADLINE: If the reporter completes the above quality R2 deadline, s/he will not be marked LATE.


Your story = your responsibility If Google Docs is not working for you, you must : (1) Come into the journalism room BEFORE school starts to upload it w/ a USB or to open it on Groupwise. (2) Transfer your story into Google Docs. It is not our responsibility to check email for your story.

We do not accept the excuse “my internet wasn’t working so I don’t have my story.”

The editor may need to make last minute changes in your story once it’s pasted into InDesign/Wordpress/FBook. S/he should always tell you if changes have been made. If they do not communicate on this, let Mount know. It can lead to dysfunction on the staff.

32 Your monthly blog


“Blog” (for us) means report factually and post within 5 days. It’s a sprint report, sometimes called a BEAT REPORT.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

You will write 1 blog during 1 of the weeks of a print cycle, separate from your other assigned stories. Your blog can be ONE of your TWO weekly tasks if it is your team’s turn to blog that week. With this system, Crimson cranks out fast stories-of-the-week for readers. They will trust a website and magazine that are CURRENT. The BEST blogs run in the print issue that month.

Writing your blog Monday

Find a current topic, mainly a NEWS 5W or a SPORTS 5W you’ll investigate further. See next page for ideas.

Fact gather + Interview

Ask, interview, learn. Get at least 2 fishing poles out, not one.

Reminders •

Attend the event. It will help you with description, information, and it will get you better sources and pictures.

Topics: Starters appear at right. See Mount for additional ideas.

Sources. You must have at least one interview to be precise. Talk to the person in charge, a participant, or both.

Picture. If you can get a picture, DO SO. Pictures draw interest to stories—web site especially.

Fact density. In 200 words or less, pack in as many facts as possible. What happened, who you saw, who was there, why it happened, etc.

Tuesday Deadline: R1

Write and post to Google Docs by midnight

Wednesday Edits

Your team leader edits your blog in Google Docs.

Thursday R2

New information from Wed + Thur, plus revise for comments.

Friday Post

to website and to Facebook. News editor also selects best Blogs to run in eventual print issue



Paso Robles HS Journalism

BLOG topics Friday

Keep the campus informed. Excellence—and judges— expects Crimson to be a steady source of CAMPUS NEWS.

School Clubs BCASE • Key Club • CSF • Principal’s announcements International • Skills USA Republican’s Club • BSU • Friday Night LIVE • 12th Fan Club

Sports Teams

FALL = Football • Tennis • XC Waterpolo • GirlsGolf JV team top performances WINTER = Wrestling • Boys Basketball • Girls Basketball Boys Soccer • Girls Soccer • Girls Polo JV team top performances SPRING = Track • Swimming • Boys Tennis Baseball • Softball • Boys Golf JV team top performances



Testing Results • Dates • Comparisons Homework Electives Performing ARTVisual . drama .

Principal = Randy Nelson • Asst Principal = Tom Harrington Asst Principal = Chris Jones •

College announcements/deadlines Guest speakers Assemblies Leadership events/projects Campus construction Campus facilities

46 N


RELIGIOUS GROUPS Christian . mormon . jW . muslim . atheism . etc

H a rd N ew s T h em es

1. Conflict

Is the stor y a Student vs. struggle between two opp student? Adm osing sides? inistration vs. students? A s Will the stor y cover something that has bee n improved? 3. Disaste r Will the stor y our control cover something that ? Car acciden hap t? Fire? Ear pened out of thq uake? Death? 4. Conseq Does the uence stor or a few peo y cover an issue that affe ple very dee ply? Food priccts many people es raised?

2. Progres

FFA Awards - Calendar - VIPs AWARD WINNERS Vapa . academic .

S of t N ew s T h em es

sports, endeavor .

Hispanic . . . African American . ..Asian

Discipline . campus crime Counselors’ announcements


Crimson has to ask itse lf what is wo choices we nominate rthy of bei each month ng printed read? Are from the ma . Are we wri we coverin ny ting what g the most ���intensifie people wa ne d” by how nt to local and cur wsworthy stories ? A story is rent it is! always Here are nin e areas tha t never fail :

ceramics . BANd . choir


Always as k what new value you s ’re supply ing for the re ader

Student health . nurse

5. Human


st/emotion Does it pull on Will it make our heartstrings? Is it al factors us angry, hap “Titanic” stat py, sad? us?

6. Promine



Connect your reporting to our PRHS community to estab lish newsworth . For instance: 1. Compare your topic to a similar even t locally 2. Get a local voice to comment abou t your topic 3. Conduct a surv ey showing local opinion abou t your topic. 4. Find + inte rview a student who has had a siml ar experience. 5. Find + inte rview a teacher or administrator for perspective

Is the stor y abo or celebrity? ut a popular/promin ent student, Did a student/ teacher teacher win an award? Is the stor y abo walking disa ut something unusual bility in a mar ? A wrestle r with chin g band? no legs? A 8. Romanc girl with a e and rel Humans ationsh find date is a perf interest in these topics. ips ect example. Did a teacher get married 9. Animals ? Blind It’s sim ple. Humans love Bald eagles off the endanganimals! Shark fin sou p? Endangered ered list? tigers?

7. Novelty

34 We shoot for daily

W D Y D F m t


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Hey, Crimson, WDYDF M




ou o

These dots mean we posted story/photo on Crimson’s Facebook page

or e


A steady stream of photos particularly, and stories steadily, keeps our audience close and large. Help Crimson produce this steady stream by hitting your deadlines with the 2-Task choices you make every week. Crimson leaders and the web team post on FB for the staff. We don’t post individually.

1. When we post photos especially... <here> the Facebook audience responds, reads, likes, shares, comments... <here> ...and they learn to TRUST Crimson

2. When don’t post... <here> the Facebook audience dies off... <here> ...and they learn NOT to trust Crimson.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Philosophy of coverage 35

Thanks, Jack! Jack Kennedy, one of the most beloved journalism teachers in the country, compiled this piece and shared it with us at a recent convention

36 Deadlines/Late work


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Don’t procrastinate during any phase of your reporting. Be productive during class; do not squander precious minutes socializing when you know you have a deadline. This also applies to editors who must edit stories after deadlines. Late stories are cancer. Evil. Unacceptable. This isn’t your math class doing textbook problems; you are making a real thing, costing real dollars ($900/issue), with real people who need written things from you by a real date. We cannot edit your story, check facts, design with enough time—we cannot be professional when you do not meet your deadline. Therefore, all late jobs—rough drafts, finals, photos, etc.—receive a deduction from the Issue Grade you should have received.

Lame rationalizations about deadlines 1. “The event I’m covering doesn’t happen until after my deadline.” You must still submit R1 and R2 Minimums (see next page) that show you have investigated, learned from sources, and fact-gathered. No story is only contained in one incident.

2. “I haven’t interviewed anyone yet, so I can’t turn it in.” Although your draft may not be stellar without quotes, you can still submit the narrative/fact portions of the story & insert brackets where your quotes will be (with explanations of who they’ll be coming from & why you haven’t interviewed them yet).

3. “Netstorage is down.” You are always to USB or Groupwise e-mail a backup to us. You can always print your story (oh wow) and bring us a hard copy to prove you met the deadline. We have pens to edit your work, you know.

3. “I know I will be late on this deadline, but I don’t want to admit it to anyone...” Have courage—and a backbone! Healthy communication lets Mount & editors know. Journalove and courtesy towards us would want us to know what to expect. WE RESPECT COURAGE. WE DISAPPROVE OF COWARDICE & HIDING.

All deadlines are @ midnight of a given night (usually Tuesdays). You will have a calendar for each production cycle so you will know the exact date. If your story is not on Journalism Mother by the time school starts you will be marked LATE. The EIC and Managing Eds will be CHECKING OFF who has their stories in on time & who doesn’t the morning after deadline.

Extensions on R2’s

may be granted by Mount and EIC (NOT EDITORS) when a key event must still transpire (a performance/game/interview). You should always fact-gather and write a draft even if you are waiting for another development

Reward if you have ALL of your stories in on time... Consequences if you don’t.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Editor Basics 37

Here is the fundamental, time-hallowed relationship crucial to meaningful journalism. This relationship is NOT to remain a written-only or silent understanding.

Editor behaviors 1. I can hand out thorough slugs: that is, I clarify the key points & questions I want in the story.

The Bottom Line

A great writer & editor relationship? communication

Editors, ask

2. I edit R1s & R2s for my section on time.

How’s your story?

3. I am not disconnected or unaware of my writers’ progress. I help find interviewees, answers, websites, or new angles.

What is giving you trouble? Joy?

4. I know whether my writers have completed their Story Share procedures and manage the missing ones. 5. I am an encouraging editor grateful for my writers’ efforts. I thank them for their work. I praise them. I don’t just point out what needs to change; I also tell them what I loved. 6. I understand that the stories are what make the page! I make sure they’re better than great.

Let ‘s read your current version together.

Your leadership

as an editor who sees yourself as a MANAGER can be the best contribution you can offer this program.

Writer behaviors 1. If I know I am going to be late, I tell the editor and/or Mount. I understand they need to know. 2. I explain conflicts & changes I am experiencing with the assignment— worries, dead ends, changes, disappointments. 3. I respect & address edits to my work. I change most things suggested by editors & Mount. I do not have to change all things. 4. I send Story Shares over email to my interviewees and related parties. I communicate this step to my editor.

38 Editor Tips 1. Speak to your writers THE NEXT DAY about your section’s deadlines. Show you care about the deadline. If you don’t show you care, why should your writers? 2. SLUGS: Be specific so you know what your writers are doing—and they know what they are doing. 3. Communication is CRUCIAL – writers will know what you want and also see that their work matters to you—so say Hi, Goodbye, Howzit, and have full conversations with them. 4. Make story comments in red in their stories that are meaningful and LONG. Do not generalize briefly with “good job!” etc. 5. Empower your writers: Be confident in them. Show them you trust and anticipate and care about their success. 6. Understand writers’ lives outside of journalism. Know what other deadlines and issues they are facing. 7. Always notify a writer if you have to make a change AFTER the FD has come in. Courtesy!


Paso Robles HS Journalism


is tested daily between editors and writers. How can you contribute to a healthy vibe?


You get a lot further with sugar than vinegar.

5 Most Overused Phrases by an Editor to their writer: Yes No Why? Thank you I’ll do it myself These are simplistic. : (

8. Choose something you can contribute to a writer’s assignment (a list, a phone#, the sidebar, etc.). 9. Lead by example by making all of your deadlines (your editor deadlines and your own story deadlines). 10. Be available and approachable to work with your writers during class. 11. If you don’t like something, tell the writer WHY. Unexplained NO is a put-off. 12. Help Mount & leaders recognize the outstanding work of your writers with a quick heads-up.

Not about you, Not about me, it’s about what’s


Awards - Contests 39


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Competing, comparing, and winning

keeps us sharp + builds program pride. Join in our program goals + see where you can one day earn distinctions yourself. NSPA Program Ranking

NSPA Nat'l Best of Shows

2012: All-American (2650)

2012, Spring (Seattle): Best of Show Newsmag = 6th

2011: All-American (2850)

2011, Spring (Anaheim): Best of Show Newsmag = 6th

2010: First Class (1350)

2009, Fall (St. Louis, MO) Best of Show 17p+ NPs = 6th

w 4 Marks of Distinction w 4 Marks of Distinction w 3 Marks of Distinction

2009: First Class (1200)

2008, Fall (Washington DC): Best of Show 16p NPs = 9th

w Marks of Distinctn

2008: First Class (1250)

C Journalist of the Year

C Reporters of the Year

2012: Megan Rodrigues Katie Wingfield

2012: Shanna Dowling 2011: Alicia Canales

2011: Monica Patel Alicia Canales

2010: Alicia Canales

2010: Karlee Anderson 2009: Rebecca Horne Kelsey Garman 2008: Gina Alessi Ryah Cooley 2007: Emma Kelley

w Marks of Distinctn

2006: Ryan Hagen

2004: Second Class (900)

2009: Karlee Anderson 2008: Jane Teixeira 2007: Hannah Huff 2006: Emma Kelley 2005: Ryan Hagen 2004: Julian Hein

NSPA Nat'l Convention Individual Awards Superior

2012 Seattle

2011 Anaheim

2009 St. Louis

2008 Wash DC

Amanda Hutchinson, Layout

Katie Wingfield, Editorial Monica Patel, Layout


Rebecca Horne, Newswriting

Paul Cleland, Headlining



Sydney Matteson, Infographic

Sinead Schouten, Sports

Madison Butz, Review Writing


Excellent H- Mention

JEANC (NorCal) State Individual Awards

1st Place



Morrison, Ads + Infographic Wilson, Newsphoto Musial/Munns/Wilson, News Wingfield, Illustrn Boswell, Nameplate Schouten, Sports

Patel, Coons, Centerspread

2nd Place

Matteson, Infogr Dowling, Editorial Hutchinson, Spread Orcutt, Sportsphoto

3rd + H- Mention

Boswell, Page1 Rodrigues, Illustrn Dowling, Feature Hutchinson, Infographic

Wingfield, Feature Cleland, Review Dowling, Infographic Canales, Nameplate Patel, Newswriting

40 Staff Awards + Rewards


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Monthly StudMuffins Mount’s Picks for Best Stories of the Issue

Monthly Issue Honors

Staff Votes for Best of Issue in 15+ areas

Christmas Party Secret Santas

Holiday laughs + joy as we celebrate the close of the Dec issue and the advent of break

End-of-Year Affirmations

Special tributes + awards from your staff mates

Wedding Vows

Sanctifying your new job on staff


We’ll call off business + sing to you. Just bring us sweets to motivate us.

End-ofIssue Thnks Hearing how you’ve made a difference


2 c

Se tion

Writing for


42 Story Scoring Rubric Goal Areas


Paso Robles HS Journalism

1 Unacceptable

2 Printable

3 Strong

4 Outstanding

C- / C / C+ 70-79

B- / B / B+ 80-89


A / A+ 93-100

Misleading / Noun labels / Try again

Reflects story generally / Less catchy

Reflects story well

Reflects story well & catchy

Flat. See manual pages for cleverness, zip, & idea / Lede #2 missing

Somewhat inspiring / Adequately 5W / Lede #2 missing

3. Descriptive Skills

No description included of persons, incidents, etc.

Some adjectives & sentences help paint a picture at one point

Descriptive writing enhances story & shows the topic / person meaningfully

Exceptionally so… reflects a talented writer

4. Fact Density / Newsworth

Vague, factless sentences exist / Few #-facts / Reader will have ?’s /

Basic 5W’s included; Needs research / Fewer # facts or Appositives

Generally informative & researched. Good # facts, appositives, & fact density

Exceptionally fact dense…exceeds research expectations

Missing: Check your choices in manual / No evidence of N-9

Attempted & needs work / Some hints about N-9

Effective nutgraf / Clear N-9 explanations

Only 1 source used (or none) / More digging required.

Still fewer sources & perspectives than the story deserves. Sources seem nonauthoritative.

Sources in story seem authoritative, complete, & diverse

Exceptionally complete reporting effort with proper, diverse, & effective sources

Quotes seem missing. Key voices need to be found.

Quotes are present but predictable or shallow

Quotes are relevant & interesting; they add flavor & voice to the story

Exceptionally so… reflects a perceptive interviewer

8. Organization + Transitioning

Need recommended story structure still… Need transitions between quotes/ ideas

Structure & order of paragraphs makes proper sense

Structure is noticeable, proper, & helps reader’s search for meaning

Exceptionally so… exceeds expectations

9. Style + Diction

Unacceptable editorializing / Ordinary (dull) diction / Wordy

Occasional bias / More work with Concision / WordCH / Sophisticat’n

Mostly concise / Shows flair + wit / Shows objectivity

Exceptional skill with objectivity, consision, style, & diction

More than 9 errors

Fewer than 6

Fewer than 3


1. Headline / Deck 2. Lead

5. Nutgraf & Newsworth (N-9) 6. Sources + Pursuit

7. Quote Quality

10. Grammar, Punctuation, + Spelling

Good! Reader likely to read on: Cleverness / 5W’s creativity are strong

Especially captivating; original or fact dense; flows effectively into story

Masterful, intelligent nutgraffing + sense of what makes the story newsworthy


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Draft Minimums 43

WRITERS: If you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t meet these requirements, you will be LATE even if your story is on Journalism Mother!

R1Minimum Standards TUESDAY NIGHT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

EDITORS: Hold your writers accountable! If you are not seeing these standards met, meet with the writer and develop a plan

FRONT END (see next page) One interview & quotes ONE lede Nutgraf 5W basic facts about the topic: Who-What-When-Where-Why Surveys/sidebars described with questions done and included.

R2 Minimum Standards THURSDAY NIGHT WRITE YOUR R2 ABOVE the text of your R1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

FRONT END #2 (see next page) TWO interviews Two ledes (alternate lede at the bottom) Nutgraf Fact density improved from R1 Surveys/sidebars (showing SOME results) Revisions reflecting comments from editor/leadership


44 The Front End


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Your R1, R2, and FD must include these seven items in the front text of your story when you upload your stories onto Journalism Mother. Remember your document filename DOES NOT CHANGE from R1 to FD. 1. Headline Yes: Juniors protest parking fees No: Griping about dough. No: Parking Protest

Run your catchy or cute one as headline (not deck) to grab the reader. Readers should know angle of story from your headline wording: work it until it’s clear. The only word that should capitalized is the first word or a proper noun. No periods at the end of the headline.

2. Deck

Write a subheadline for the above that announces further facts. The deck should further explain the headline. This one also is a sentence with verb, this time more summarizing, more 5W, less cutesy. NEVER NOUN LABELS IN DECKS.

3. Byline

Include “by MYNAME” under the headlines above. We’ll use this item in the layout process. The “b” in “by” is not captalized. Following your name, you must write your staff title (i.e. by Paul Cleland, Reporter).

4. Word count assigned

Write out the number of words assigned by your editor.

5. Word count actual

Write out how many words your story contains, not counting these front end items.

6. Alternate lede

At the end of your story, write another lede that you could use for your story. Please refer to LEDE pages in this manual for inspiration on both ledes.

7. Writer’s note

At the end of the draft, tell us editors what you think of your story, what changes lie ahead, what strengths/weaknesses. If you say it down here, we know we don’t have to nail you in our comments.

Remember to check your story against the C Rubric.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Newsworthiness 45

Crimson has to ask itself what is worthy of being printed from the many choices we nominate each month. Are we writing what people want to

read? Are we covering the most newsworthy stories? A story is always “intensified” by how local and current it is! Here are nine areas that never fail:


Hard News Themes

Connect your reporting to our PRHS community to establish newsworth.

1. Conflict

For instance:

Is the story a struggle between two opposing sides? Student vs. student? Administration vs. students? A cop vs. a

2. Progress

Will the story cover something that has been improved?

1. Compare your topic to a similar event locally

3. Disaster

2. Get a local voice to comment about your topic

4. Consequence

3. Conduct a survey showing local opinion about your topic.

Will the story cover something that happened out of our control? Car accident? Fire? Earthquake? Death? ExplodDoes the story cover an issue that affects many people or a few people very deeply? Food prices raised? Immigration

Soft News Themes 5. Human interest/emotional factors

Does it pull on our heartstrings? Is it “Titanic” status? Will it make us angry, happy, sad?

4. Find + interview a student who has had a simlar experience. 5. Find + interview a teacher or administrator for perspective

6. Prominence

Is the story about a popular/prominent student, teacher or celebrity? Did a student/teacher win an award?

7. Novelty

Is the story about something unusual? A wrestler with no legs? A girl with a walking disability in a marching band?

8. Romance and relationships

Humans find interest in these topics. Did a teacher get married? Blind date is a perfect example.

9. Animals

It’s simple. Humans love animals! Shark fin soup? Endangered tigers? Bald eagles off the endangered list?

46 Ideas for Cloudseeding+ Blogs Current Issues How prepared is PRHS for... Energy consumption by... Gun control/ assault weapons Terrorism & Preparedness Achievement Gap in schools based on race/econ/region/etc. USA vs other countries in the area of .. Environmental protection laws Advertising brainwash Materialism Apathy Community Service Success Stories Homeless./ hunger in America Waste disposal Lottery & gambling Welfare reform Health Care Reform Media censorship/1st Amendment studies Presidential races Animal testing & animal rights; dissection of animals in science labs College-university Trends Trace a career Whatever happened to (person) Recent legislation from DC/Sacramento Pollution Gas / energy topics College admissions Internet issues/scams/trends/ impact

Teachers & Students Lack of skills in an important subject Math scores down? Reading? What makes intelligence? School success? Tracking students Overtesting How teachers show the do/don’t care for students Teacher profile Recent fascinating lessons What did Leadership do recently? Club report/club studies

Ethnicity Racism found today Inequalities

Affirmative action & quotas Prejudice/discrimination Supremacy movements Interracial dating Gang warfare

School Culture Math/science gender gap Test mania PSAT bias against girls Grade inflation Cussing, insults, abusive speech The ‘glass ceiling’: inequitable treatment of girls in schools Discipline + Punishment PRHS Drop outs, At Risk Students Illiteracy: functional illiteracy & adult illiteracy Cheating by students Teacher absenteeism Race preferences & college scholarships Home schooling issues Dress code debates/school uniforms Taking courses for college credit What did the Board decide recently? What did the superintendent decide recently? The principal decide recently? Block Scheduling Alternatives Single-gender schools Year round schools What’s next for PRPS/PRHS PRHS secrets Four-day school week? Steroids & athletics

Health Issues Tanning salons/Sun burning Obesity / Anorexia/ Bulimia The Brain AIDS Substance Abuse Illegal drug use by junior high & high school students Illegal IDs Teen hotlines Peer counseling Teen courts Hunger Suicide Nutritional value of ... (school food?)

Crime School violence: family disintegration &

“There’s nothing happening this month.” If you

think there’s nothing going on, you are not reading nor talking to people enough. portrayals of violence in the media are the two leading causes of an “epidemic” of violence in public schools, school district leaders say. Gang Update PR crime trends Safety during the school day Safety at after-school activities, especially sports Shoplifting U Rape/Date Rape Vandalism/Graffiti Theft of school property by school employees

Economy Loss of Income by parents(s) Job availability/ part time work Shortage of jobs for teenagers Dangerous jobs for teenagers Job openings What would it be like to work at... (Job for a Day)

Teen Issues Curfews Party Scene Report Depression/Anxiety Male - female issues Dating Drop outs Driving topics

Society/Culture Poverty / Poverty Among Us Our violent culture Our materialistic culture Cars Animated movies Music Technology Religion


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Interviewing Steps 47

Choosing the person 1. NO NEPOTISM! (Favoritism shown to relatives or friends) It undermines our credibility as a professional, detached, fair source of information. Crimson is not our private affair! 2. Don’t write the story if you’re involved as

These steps reflect a professional, trained interviewer. a participant. Someone else can write it. Payoffs 3. Don’t print inside staff jokes. What for the story, the happens in 601, stays in 601. 4. DO reach underrepresented groups and topics. Letinterviewee, & their voices be heard too! Crimson reputation.

Before the Interview 1. Be PREPARED. Find out all you can about the person/event.

A. Have at least 10 questions already planned.


C. Gather statements ahead of time the person can comment on. (“Some have said ‘____.’ Do you have a comment about that?”)

During the Interview 2. Be ON TIME. Most people have other things to do, so the worst thing you can do is arrive late. 3. EXPLAIN your story and purpose. Don’t start questioning without giving the person the big picture. 4. ASK PERMISSION TO RECORD the interview. >>Also record a statement that protects us legally: “Please state your name. Do you know you are being recorded for this interview?” 5. Start EASY. Be ready with your prepared questions. Save the hardest/probing questions after a warm-up period. 6. Be PATIENT and QUIET. Pause after an answer to make sure the person has nothing more to add. Sometimes silence leads to better answers. >>Frame your questions in a way that will let him/her tell the story in his/her own words.

48 Interviewing, cont'd


Paso Robles HS Journalism


>Listen for the point where the conversation reveals the LIFEBLOOD to the person, to the issue at hand. This is the point where you hear the story within the story.

9. ASK FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS to dig deeper into the vein. 7. Be FLEXIBLE. Be ready to change your line of questioning if you can get more interesting information. 8. Be POLITE. No matter how rude somone may be to you, keep your cool. You are representing Crimson: our reputation is based on your actions. Always say “thank you” when you finish interviewing. 9. GET CONTACT INFO, so you can Story Share. 10. SAY THANK YOU! Thank the person for their time and let them know when the issue comes out.

After the Interview 11. WRITE A DRAFT of your story ASAP. Details fade away as time passes & inaccuracies creep in (DANGER!). 12. Once it’s done, STORY SHARE over email and/or deliver it to their box. 13. RELAX! (Only for a little bit).


Paso Robles HS Journalism

h W

Interviewing Tips 49

i r n b g o t at

>Recording devices are HIGHLY recommended! >Notepad & Pencil! Your recorder may give out in the middle of an interview so jot down important information.

>A Smile! People tend to feel more comfortable if they see you are not going to rip off their heads.

t ips t r e p x E

1. ATTEND: Go to the game/practice/performance before the interview—or it will be a dull conversation. 2. THE NOD AND WAIT: When the cliche, dull answer occurs, just nod and wait. You are making clear you want more. The person will gradually form the words. Fill the silence yourself and you’re stuck with the lame answer. 3. DRAMA IS THE VEIN: Peck around until you have discovered it. The fear, the challenge, the irony, the revenge, etc. Drama makes good features and good sports. 4. BE AN ORIGINAL REPORTER: Don’t interview so you can write the obvious story. Interview so you can tell the story that hasn’t been told.

Got a Tough INTERVIEW? 1. Talk PAST the “no comment” or the banal remark. Try “Can you confirm _______?” even after the person has dug his heels 2. Stoke their ego with additional questions that refer to position, achievement, power. You’re greasing the wheel.

in. their

3. Start a new vein because the old one isn’t going anywhere. 4. Seek out the CONFLICT the person understands/faces. Try to understand their understanding of the conflict at hand. 5. Ask “What would you love to see printed in this story? What would you hate to see printed?”

50 Facebook for the reporter


Paso Robles HS Journalism

You can get a lot out of reporting material out of your nightly social hijinx.

According to, the average teenager spends approximately 31 hours a week online. Even with busy lives, people make time for their Facebook fix. Interviewing via Facebook can be a simple and convenient way to add sources to an article. However, don’t be lazy! Facebook interviews are for when an interviewee is otherwise unavailable, not because you don’t feel like interviewing face-to-face!

Some important things to remember: 1. Use Facebook to schedule a face-to-face interview. Face-to-face interviews are not only the most professional, they make finding the vein easier. 2. Make your questions require specific answers. You will not be there to ask a follow up question, so be sure your questions “find the vein.” 3. Be complete, but not overbearing, your questions might not get answered at all if they see a mountain of text. 4. Always thank the interviewee, even over Facebook. 5. Again, don’t be lazy! Facebook interviews are for when an interviewee is otherwise unavailable, not because you don’t feel like interviewing face-to-face!

Other uses for Facebook 1. Storyshare on Facebook! It’s effective and convenient for most students. 2. Send mass surveys over Facebook using SurveyMonkey to your friends. Either send the link to the survey to your friends and students in a message or just simply set it is as your status! 3. Start a “GROUP” for your story idea and invite NONfriends to join it. Include a note with the invitation: “Welcome to a discussion group for Crimson to discuss __(story idea)___. For the next 10 days I will be posting questions...” 4. Use “events” to your benefit...if everyone is rsvp-ing to a school dance/game then it should be covered somehow in that issue. 5. FB stalk people to see what PRHS students are talking about/ interested in...if our students are talking about it then we gotta cover it.

FB Tips 51


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Don’t Hide Behind social media You can even follow up your face-toface interview with some facebook questions messaged to your interviewee!

When you see your facebook interviewee in person, don’t act like you have no idea who they are! Walk up to them, tell them who you are, let them know how the story is going, and ask if they wanted to add anything else. This is important for keeping Crimson’s rep as friendly people who want to get the story right. This is also applied to e-mail interviews with teachers and faculty.

Strategy for the Facebook Interview 1. Ask the person you need to interview if an in-person interview would be better or an over Facebook interview. If they say in-person, schedule the interview for whenever is best for the two of you. 2. If they say over Facebook, start by saying ‘thank you for taking time out of your day to answer these questions’, ask the questions you need answered, let them know when Crimson photographers will be taking their pictures (if applicable), and tell them you will follow up with more questions in the near future. 3. Collect their responses and write your story. Either you will see what else you need to ask them, or your editor, ME’s, EIC and Mount will. 4. Ask the other questions that need to be asked and let them know that you will send them the finished product as soon as possible. 5. Don’t forget to storyshare.

If your facebook interviewee gave you lame, one sentence answers where you needed paragraph long responses, don’t be afraid to tell them that you need an in-person interview. You can even say your EIC wants you to do only in person interviews if you don’t want them to think you are being rude.

Don’t Overplay It, Dude

Don’t do every interview over facebook! You will be known as the person who takes the easy way out all the time. You might possibly even lose your keen edge in face-to-face interviews!

Live is better than FB

Facebook interviews often don’t produce the same quality results as a face-to-face. Don’t be afraid to ask deeper questions over Facebook, especially for feature stories.

52 Starting a story


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Don’t just sit there and chat during 2nd period! Your stories need to explode with facts, quotes, and storytelling authority! Here are some ways to get those interviews done.

1. Read other journalism about your

Best stories bring us info we DID NOT know beforehand.

2. Make an appointment with a teacher/

Check their schedule on the teacher board.

3. Make an appointment with a student.

Make it for lunch, periods 1 & 3-5, whenever they’re available. Even a heads up that you’ll reach them on FB is good communication.

4. Interview during 2nd period or Advise-

Don’t rely on just 2nd period! We’re busy with other agenda too.

topic. You’ll learn facts, raise questions, + develop information to bring to interviews with persons.

administrator. Learn their prep period on the TEACHER LOCATOR, send an email, etc. Late interviews mean late stories. Text or call or intercept him/her ahead of time so they can think about what to say. Intercept him/her outside class if you can’t reach them otherwise. But choose students who aren’t nepostistically your friends

ment. Use yellow call slips with Mount’s signature

and write “when convenient.” Interviews can only happen after free time begins and official biz is over.

5. Interview during periods 1 & 3-5 in

604. Neither of you goes to your assigned classes.

Mount writes a re-admit once you’re done. Arrange this in advance with the student.

You’ll probably need to meet them at the door of their class to remind them.

6. Interview during nutrition/lunch/

Remember we want 2-3 sources per story.

7. Get phone numbers from the Magical

Say you’re from Crimson. Otherwise you’ll just sound like a stalker—oh, wait...

Students are just eating or hanging out. They aren’t busy. Interview them! Arrange this ahead of time so you know where to meet.

Green Binder/ “The Green Bible.” Then you’ll be ready when you get home.

8. Go watch the event/performance/

game. You will write authoritatively when you have

seen it with your own eyes. Learn the game schedule, the practice time—even attend the person’s class.

We always want narrative, descriptive details in your reporting, which come from such observational journalism.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

What is a fact?

You need to know what you’re looking for as you investigate, interview, and write.

1. It’s a fact if it’s one of the 5 Ws. WHO - WHAT - WHEN - WHERE - WHY Margie Lambie, who formerly coached drama students in over six campus performances, passed away on March 13, 2010 due to bacterial brain infection.

2. It’s a fact if it’s a quote a person actually said. He’s is by far the best player on our team. He is the most consistent and truely tries harder then everyone else,” teammate senior Kenny Romero said, who has known Jones since they played Little League in 2004.

Factology 53 ABC’s of FACT SUCCESS A

Fact Density

The saturation of facts that you provide as the writer. We should be able to find 75% of each sentence to be factual.

B Specifics, please Exactly WHO? Exactly WHEN? Exactly WHERE? etc.

C Opposite of fact? Opinion Interpretation Rumor Assumption

3. It’s a fact if it’s a number. Wookey has pitched to 128 opponents as of May 5, and her ERA (Earned Run Average) is .205.

If you filled your story with #1, #2, & #3, you’ll be set!

D Get the quote RIGHT! Print the quote wrong & obviously it stops being a fact.

You now live & die on your facts. If you have them, you may have a good story. If you don’t, you can’t fake it.

54 Nepotism: not our friend


Paso Robles HS Journalism

nep·o·tism    noun

patronage or favoritism shown on the basis of family or friendship in business and politics: She was accused of nepotism when she made her nephew an officer of the firm. How professional is it to merely cover our own affairs?

Crimson definition


How objective is that? How ethical?


patronage or favoritism shown in interviewing, story budgeting, or bylining in which the reporter covers stories, quotes persons, and functions as a self-centered journalist who produces work pertaining to his/her own interests in the PRHS community. She was accused of nepotism when she wrote the editorial about mistreatment of cheerleders and interviewed her friends for the story—being on the squad herself.




YES: Avoids nepotism

NO: Guilty of nepotism

Editor budgets a story about the volleyball team—which has her best friend on the team—because they are second in league so far. Reporter asks her friends who she should take to for a story about, say, thift shopping.

Same editor writes the story. But s/he can edit the story and discuss facts with the reporter who gets the assignment. Reporter quotes her friend and her friend’s friend in the story.

Reporter uses FACEBOOK to message Reporter uses FACEBOOK to chat and friends she is not friends with to gather infor- message within her friends list to get information for a story about, say, dating. mation about a story about dating.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Narrative reporting 55

56 Write like a reporter


NeWs FiRsT


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Do you want your story to sound like essay or journalism? It comes down often to your ORDER OF DICTION, meaning your order of words in the sentence itself.

Put the most important news FIRST in the sentence, not last in the sentence.

Looks like this: NO On May 2nd, swimmers from Arroyo Grande, San Luis Obispo, Atascadero, Righetti, St. Joseph, Pioneer Valley, and Paso Robles PAC-7, competed in the Arroyo Grande Pool. There were 13 CIF qualifying times, compared to 2 last year. Sophomore Ryan Springer broke a league record in the 100 meter freestyle, with a time of 54.28, even though she placed second in the event. *never lede with WHEN

This draft is a very slow, delayed workaround to the better news at the end that-GEEZ!--a school record was set! That’s the news that must come earlier. It is NOT news that the usual schools in PAC7 swam in AG’s pool.

YES Thirteen Bearcat swimmers qualified for CIF Wed., May 2 at PAC-7 Finals, eclipsing last year’s two, as sophomore Ryan Springer swam a blistering 54.28 to set the PRHS 100 yd. record. It was Springer’s second meet of the year, and the final meet for over 30? other Bearcat swimmers. Collin Moore’s 53.65 100 yd butterfly shone as the top boys performance of the meet. *relocated from later in story

Put news first, literally in the wording of the sentence. The reporter weighs what matters most and wisely words these facts earlier than before: • 13 swimmers not 2 • school record, event, time, swimmer name • best boys performance • etc.

Write like a reporter 57


Paso Robles HS Journalism

use the LINGO

Learn and use the LINGO of your topic. Create PUNS using the vocabulary. Choose VERBS that match the topic

Clever DICTION entertains the reader and shows you have learned about your topic expertly. Weak reporters do not know the language of their topic.)

This concept is closey related to the fact that predictable, common word choice and verbs are unacceptable. Learn as a reporter about the surprising, electric, spot-on diction that makes you sound like an expert about your topic/event.

Looks like this: NO


The football team played... The band performed... The crowd cheered... The choir sang... etc. This reporter sounds foolish, uninformed, naive...

The football team roasted in the 3rd down huddle as temperatures cooked both the evening air and their October adoption of the option. Her ad lib in the second act dazzled her castmates, who worried offstage if she’d remember the unbelievable 300 lines her antonist role required.

This reporter sounds informed, authoritative, detail-oriented...

See for lingo pertaining to your sport...or google “lingo for ____...”

58 Write like a reporter


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Love the appositive

d 5Ws! The ere you can infuse FACTS an wh ce ten sen ur yo of rts pa Find the here. APPOSITIVE is your friend ually), mini on that follow your nouns (us ati orm inf ed ert ins the are Appositives on which to ing. They are PL ATFORMS ort rep d an on ati orm inf of ns add-i place additional facts. always with the attribution. We want an appositive almost d Nelson, who has supervised “We were definitely surprised,” sai . over 11 Prom events in his career



APPOSITIVES in italics offer more facts about the circled nouns on the sentence

Although they were victorious, pulling out the win in the final two minutes in Wednesday’s 55-degree weather, the 12-member varsity team has had some struggles during the record season, which boasts eight more wins than last year.



U se s

adjectives rather tha n app ositi ves. ..

Although they were victorious in Wednesday’s 55degree game, the 12-member Varsity team has had some struggles during the record season of 14 wins and one loss.



Although they were victorious in this *fact opportunity game, the *fact opportunity Varsity team has had some struggles during the *fact opportunity record season.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Campus surveying 59 Increase your story’s FACT DENSITY by

1. Go to: 2. Sign In: Username: prhsjournalism, Password: (the usual)

3. Top right in green box: click on “+ Create Survey”

using this method or a simple “clipboard survey” during your week. Ask a veterans for how they have handled surveys before.

4. Title the survey and click “Add Question” and select the type of question you would like to ask your survey takers. Every question on your survey DOES NOT have to be the same type.

*Your survey is only able to have a maximum of 10 questions – If you have more questions to create a “Part II” for your survey.


5. Finished making your survey? Scroll up and click on the second tab “Collect Responses.” 6. Pick the “Share your survey on Facebook” to post it on your Facebook wall. 7. How many people have taken your survey? Their responses? Click the pie chart under “Analyze” tab.

Validity? Hmm:

SurveyMonkey does not let a computer station take a survey more than once. But it cannot stop a person from taking your survey on his laptop AND, say, on his phone...

Other ways to survey: 1. PERIOD 2

Take printed versions of your survey to classrooms. In the past, this has been the surest way to receive the highest amount of survey-takers (sometimes hundreds of students!) OR


Grab a pen, paper, and clipboard during lunch or nutrition and ask students your questions directly. Remember to avoid nepotism and talk to people you don’t know. This is a great way to get opinions of people who have never been in the paper.

60 Posting stories to website/Wordpress

1 2 3 4 5


Go to Your username is the first letter of your first name and your last name. Ex: Sarah Wilson = swilson Ask a leader or Mount for your password. Now that you’re logged in, you should see a tab called the “Dashboard” at the top left of the screen. Click on “Posts” underneath it and then “Add New.” Copy and paste the headline into the box labeled “Title.” Then go to the most recent layout of your story in Journalism Mother and copy the story from there, because it will have the maximum edits. Break up the story into the correct paragraphs. Bold names of students and staff of PRHS. Where it says “Excerpt” put the first part of your lede (no more than one sentence). This is the portion of the story that will be displayed on the front page. On the right, find and select the section that the story would have been (or was) published in. If the section isn’t there, pick the closest to it. Ex: Feature HOW TO POST A PHOTO/GRAPHIC for your post

To upload a picture: Find a picture in the Photos folder that was not printed in the issue. But carousel In Photoshop, change the image size to: web photos are 6 in wide a. width of less than 4 inches (Image>Image Size) b. Resolution to 150 ppi c. Make it an RGB (Image>Mode>RGB) d. JPEG, saved to Web folder (Journalism Mother>Web>Web Photos) To upload a graphic: Find the Graphic in the layout section folder and follow same steps OR... If the graphic is compiled on layout in InDesign open the page PDF Go to tools>Select & Zoom>Snapshot Tool Select the area you need for the web Paste into Photoshop and follow the photo steps above Click “Publish.” The story and image should now be visible on the front page of! Double check bold names and paragraph spacing.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Number facts 61

62 Objectivity, please


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Example 1. Strongly avoid first person 2. Remove words that suggest your opinion as the writer. 3. Choose objective, factual words free from added meaning/connotation. 4. Often clarify your wording with “s/he said” so readers understand the origin. 5. Shorten your sentence counts—shorter is less biased.

Feature on Will Venturini, Dancer YES: Objective

Page communicates FACTS about his skills, what OTHERS SAY, and what WILL says. It’s accurate.

NO: Subjective

Page communicates what the writer thinks, offers opinion (positive or negative) about his skills, or generalizes without evidence.

You must limit and often strip your writing of its

6. Do not write fictionalized subjective words as a journalist. scenarios. YES



When Jessica graduates from PRHS, San Fransisco will be gaining one aspiring guitarist.

When Jessica graduates from PRHS, San Fransisco will be gaining one incredibly cool girl.


Sam sets weekly expectations for himself hoping to someday write for a magazine.

Sam sets great expectations for himself hoping to someday write for a magazine.


See Tiexiera walking by on campus? She says she’ll be glad to talk more.

So if you find yourself standing nonchalantly around during lunch or nutrition, and Ms. Teixeira just happens to walk by, take it upon yourself to approach her and engage in a conversation.

AP Style 63


Paso Robles HS Journalism



a) First time you use a person’s name, give Principal Randal Nelson his/her TITLE + FIRST + LAST NAME

sophomore Forest Erwin

WRONG Mr. Nelson Forest Erwin

b) Use the LAST NAME of the person Leadership teacher Denise Conte afterwards. agrees. “It’s the best in the West,”

Mrs. Conte stated...

c.) Always LOWERCASE student titles Senior Todd Dylan... unless it’s the beginning of the sentence. After the game, junior Teyvon

The award went to Sophomore Brittany Klavin.

Conte said.


Time of Day

11 a.m. 2:30 p.m.


Abbreviate month always; never day. Monday Jan. 5 Use numbers for the day.

Saturday, Feb. 14,

Composition Titles

Put quotation marks around books, “Hey Soul Sister” is very catchy. movies, etc. except for the Bible and PRHS AP seniors will read “The reference books. Brothers Karamozov.”


Mon., Jan. 5 Monday, January fifth Jan. 5th The band played Michael Jackson’s Thriller.

“I like Taco Bell,” senior Ethan Baietti

Orwell stated it was “the best food they’ve ever made”.

“Blah,” junior Bob Taylor said.

“Whatever,” says/said freshman Lucy Blake.

a.) Put periods and commas INSIDE the said. quotation! b.) Name, then said. ALWAYS said.

11 this morning, 2:30 PM, 2:30 pm

School Name

Abbreviate and capitalize school with First time: Atascadero High School no periods unless it’s the first time After: PRHS, AHS, CA they’re mentioned.


P.R.H.S., A.H.S., C.A.

Write out all numbers less than 10 Eight students

8 students

Write out all numbers beginning a Fifty-two seniors objected. sentence

52 seniors objected.

Use numerals/hyphens for sports scores The Bearcats won 21-3. Use numerals for ages, times, dates, 1 p.m. and money larger than a dollar 15 years old $1.01

Spell out percentages

57 percent, 1 percent

21 to 3. One o’clock fifteen years old It costs one dollar and fifty cents 68%, anything %

64 Find the EXTRAordinary


Paso Robles HS Journalism

The best stories are about how the ordinary becomes the extraordinary. —Gay Talese, NYT, USC The school play is this weekend. Girls basketball is second in league. Class elections are next month. There’s the kid in your 3rd period. Oh, an assembly next week. Students don’t like a certain school rule.

—Another month, another newspaper.

Is there anything extrordinary in such mundane events?

Gay Talese (born February 7, 1932) is an American author who wrote for The New York Times in the early 1960s. He helped to define literary journalism or “new nonfiction reportage,” also known as “New Journalism.” His most famous articles are about Joe DiMaggio, Dean Martin, and Frank Sinatra. Talese is a visiting writer at the Master of Professional Writing Program at the University of Southern California each spring.

The true journalist can find it.

“Well, I tried to interview him, but he is so boring and there is no story there.” Sorry, that’s not the full truth. There are no boring answers. Only boring questions—often asked by journalists.

Yes, you can throw a dart at a map and find a great story. The high impact writer will elevate the story into an artistic masterpiece about the human condition.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

What you're doing matters 65

“A job on a newspaper is a special thing. Every day you can take something you just found out about, & you put it down & soon it becomes a product. Not just a product like a can or something. It is a personal product that people—a lot of people— take the time to sit down & read.” —Jimmy Breslin

Breslin’s accomplished pen: “Speaks cheerful English & in the past has written this language with a paintbrush that talks. “ “Media, the plural of mediocrity. “ “Rage is the only quality which has kept me, or anybody I have ever studied, writing columns for newspapers. “ “The first funeral for Andrew Goodman was at night & it was a lot of work. To begin with they had to kill him. “

Jimmy Breslin, “New York’s Columnist,” won the 1986 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. Perhaps the best known story was published the day after John F. Kennedy’s funeral, focusing on the man who had dug the President’s grave. Breslin often highlighted how major events affect the common man.

“The number one rule of thieves is that nothing is too small to steal. “

Pulitzers matter These 15 or so prizes every year, awarded by Columbia U are the highest honor for professional journalism in the nation. “Every issue of the paper presents an opportunity and a duty to say something courageous and true; to rise above the mediocre and conventional; to say something that will command the respect of the intelligent, the educated, the independent part of the community; to rise above fear of partisanship and fear of popular prejudice.” Read this year’s winners and their works at

66 Ledes


Paso Robles HS Journalism

The LEDE is your SHOWCASE. It is one of the most hallowed, scrutinized elements in journalism. Even the most seasoned Crimson veteran must continue to sharpen this skill. They say that if you don’t show any style here, it can correctly be assumed that you haven’t got any.

Crimson lede writing targets 1. Write 2 ledes for every story you submit. Put the 2nd lede at the bottom of your story where we can decide if we like it better than your first. 2. Go for wit, pun, smiles, color. Readers are the bees; your lede is the flower. 3. Thirty (30) words or less in the lede sentence. 4. Ask your editor/team mates about your ledes for feedback. 5. Keep tuning your lede throughout the R1 > R2 > FD process. Don’t work on it 1x-2x and expect readers and us to be impressed.

Why “LEDE” not “lead”?

A: Newspapers used to be produced using lead (metal) dividers, and it became helpful among journalists to distinguish between the sentence opener and the metal part

Great ledes 67


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Tristan Aird: lede writer extraordinaire Tristan served on the CC three years, culminating as Chief & Journalist of the Year in 2003. He majored in journalism at Cal Poly, interned at the SLO Tribune, & now is paid staff with the Las Vegas Review Journal.

Watch Him Work...and try it yourself 1. Pun 2. Plays-on-words 3. Alliteration

4. Metaphor 5. Allusion 6. Descriptiveness

7. Who-What-Where-When 8. Setting 9. Irony

Tristan's Ledes 2003

Top Ledes 2010 - 11

1. Paso Robles High crowned homecoming kings & queens last week, but it was the San Luis Obispo Tigers who held onto their throne Friday night.

1. *A disproportionately large man with a hood and cut off T-shirt, revealing ripped biceps, stands at the edge of a cliff, looking at mountains floating higher and higher into oblivion. He’s also under senior Hunter Gay’s fingers etched into the white paper laying below —Maddi Coons

2. The Paso Robles Bearcats expected a slugfest Friday night, but instead feasted on the sluggish Santa Monica Vikings. 3. The wrestling team has been pulling its weight with class this season. 4. Who needs stunt men? (Cheerleading story) 5. Katherine Suderman made herself the center of attention last Tuesday. (Basketball story) 6. Drug testing in sports may not be as dope as you think. 7. Do some individuals find themselves guilty by association, or do they associate themselves with guilt? 8. The marriage of gang presence & law enforcement is older than crime itself, but the threat posed at the present is a bold one. 9. After the visiting Hanford Bullpups backed out of a non-league preseason scrimmage Nov. 27, the St. Joseph Knights made sure to show up for a season opener against the Paso Robles Bearcats 10. .At the end of a timeless season, the Paso Robles Bearcats simply ran out of time 11. .The Atascadero Greyhounds played to the finish Friday night, but it was the Paso Robles Bearcats who finished them off.

2. *Text “PATRIOT” to 41411 and enter one of the greatest grassroots movements in modern American politics. The Tea Party updates will keep phones—and the press— buzzing. —Sinead Schouten (tea party story) 3. *It’s easy enough to Ctrl+X to cut the “k” in “kangaroo,” and in a “z” in its place. But creating a business at the age of 15 doesn’t have a keyboard shortcut. —Amanda Hutchinson (senior feature) 4. * Glass shattered. It poured into the truck and scattered on the asphalt. It felt like a simple push, she said, but before she knew it, her leg was through the windshield of her father’s truck parked in downtown Paso. —Caitlyn Curran (feature story) 5. *Playing with clay doesn’t have to stop after age six. Senior Desiree Bond has worked and mastered the doughy substance for the past two years. —Alicia Canales (ceramics story) 6. *For Tim McGraw, spending “two point seven seconds ona bull named Fu Man Chu” was an essential bucket-list item achieved whil e he was “living like he was dying.” For sophomore Austin Russel, it’s everyday life. —Katie Wingfield (rodeo story) 7. * Blood, gore, and spine-tingling screams: not exactly what most people want on a first date, but for this month’s blind daters that is exactly what they got. —Sheridan Cook (blind date)

68 Lede sampler 1


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Put a Face on (1) Last year’s star goalie, senior Juan Sanchez, isn’t eligible the Situation to play this year. He was born too early. Sanchez can’t play because of the University Interscholastic League policy… (Hillcrest Hurricane, Hillcrest HS, Dallas, TX) (2) On Thursday, senior Matt Chang seemed to be his normal self. His quick wit brought laughter from friends & his smile was omnipresent. But by 1 p.m. Friday, Chang had succumbed to meningococcal meningitis at the age of 17. (The Churchill Observer, Winston Churchill HS, Potomac, MD)


Could-Be- Two possible changes in state legislation currently under Important Lede discussion in Springfield could have an impact on teens who drink & drive. (XRay, St. Charles HS, St. Charles, IL)


Give ‘em the Defying conformity, over 65 percent of 46 teachers indicatStats Lede ed on a recent survey that they don’t follow the attendance policy all the time. (Maroon, Stephen F. Austin, Austin, TX)


Who’s-the- Coach Jeff Jones is back coaching football this fall even Conflict Lede though a parent/citizen group fought to get him removed during the summer. (Arlingtonian, Upper Arlington HS, Upper Arlington, OH) “Then & Now” Many children long to become fire-fighters but only a few Lede actually grow up & get the chance to hose down a major blaze. “When they put a five-gallon pump & 40 pounds of equipment on your back & say, ‘Put that out,’ most would probably change their minds,” said senior Jason Stegall, a third year Emergency Fire-Fighter for the Nevada Division of Forestry. (Red & Blue, Reno HS, Reno, NV) Using-the- Meetings held recently indicate that soon students “making Colloquials a run for the border” at lunch won’t have to run very far. In Lede fact, they won’t even have to leave the building, thanks to a new cooperative program between Taco Bell & the school district’s food service. (Argus, Gresham HS, Gresham, OR) “Allusion” Lede It’s a bird. It’s a plane. It’s Super… Well, no, maybe it was just a bird. In an action-packed beginning of the end series, Superman has died. (Lion’s Roar, Gahanna Lincoln HS, Gahanna,





Lede sampler 69


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Challenge-the- The land of the midnight sun can be yours this summer for Assumption a lot less than you may think.(XRay, St. Charles HS, St. Charles, Lede IL)


“Surprising Would you consider murder a public service? Most people Question” Lede would not, but Abbey & Martha Brewster are not like most people. They are characters from Joseph Kesselring’s “Arsenic & Old Lace,” which…(Little Hawk, City HS, Iowa City, IA) “Noise” Lede Squeak. Squeak. The student store is being forced to pack up & move out due, in part, to a problem with sweettoothed mice. (The Academy Times, Charles Wright Academy,


Seattle, WA)


“Storytelling” Creaking to a stop outside the University of Illinois at Lede Chicago’s pool building, the old yellow school bus brought U-High’s 6-1 boys swim team to the site of a Jan. 27 meet with St. Ignatius. The wolves’ meets take place at the Circle Campus, across Roosevelt Road in the Near South Side neighborhood, because Ignatius doesn’t have a pool of its own. Leaving the bus, everyone briefly headed back out into the sunny but chilly afternoon, past various broken bottles & empty cans into the huge brick pool building, which looked like a warehouse.(U-High Midway, University High School, Chicago, IL)


“Then-and- Protesting students brought DISD to a near standstill last Now-Update” year after the district cut hundreds of teaching positions. Lede Now, with students back in class & teachers rehired, many people wonder what has been learned from last year’s chaos. (Hillcrest Hurricane, Hillcrest HS, Dallas, TX)


Dialogue Lede Hey Ashley, this is Michael. How would you like to go out with me tonight? I’d love to Michael; where are we going? Well I was thinking we’d just go see a movie. Click. (The Trojanier, Rigby HS, Idaho Falls, ID


Common “If you’re having sex, use a condom.” These words have Quote Lede dropped out of celebrities’, teachers’ & even parents’ mouths to save young people from creating a bomb many fear is just waiting to go off. (U-High Midway, University High School, Chicago, IL)

70 The Dirty Dozen


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Classic News Story Elements are contained here: Learn them. The Dirty Dozen are 12 elements used by journalists to structure a complete & organized story. The DD are most crucial in the news-oriented stories, but DD elements belong in all stories.

The first 5 of the dozen are: 1. The LEDE

Make the first sentence the NEWS. No delays. News is the newest thing that is known about the given story, presented in a package of the 5 Ws. The lede should be SHORT.

2. Second sentence/more facts

Here’s where you put the other details needed to understand the lede. We put them here to avoid overloading the lede.

3. Best Quote

Make sure it relates to the lede & the second sentence.


WHY DOES THIS STORY MATTER? The NUTGRAF steps back from the immediate details to provide context/ perspective. It tells how the current news fits into the larger picture. It tells what’s been happening lately or elsewhere.

5. Summary of what’s to come (SW2C)

Here, the writer lays out the varying points of view, foreshadowing the details of the rest of the story. This summary is key to FAIRNESS: no one’s point of view is paramount.

Teen drivers may be blocked from using cell phones Teen drivers would be barred from driving while using cellphones of any kind--even if fitted with hands-free equipment--under legislation that passed the state Assembly today. The bill would also prohibit drivers younger than 18 from using text-messaging devices, laptop computers or pagers. If signed by the governor, the bill will take effect in July. Violators would be fined $20 for a first offense; repeat offenders could be punished with a $50 fine. “A new law is necessary,” said author of the legislation, state Sen. Joe Simitian (D-Palo Alto) Car accidents are the No. 1 cause of death among teenagers. & an estimated 11 million teens own CA phones. Yet the bill concerns some adult drivers, who feel they may be next, as the teen measure marches through remaining hurdles in Sacramento. Tully Lehman, insurance industry spokesman with the Insurance Information Network of California, an organization that represents about 70% of property & casualty insurers in California, supports the legisla-

DD continued 71


Paso Robles HS Journalism

‘Teen drivers’ cont’d... 6. Supporting quotes

This quote should support the last point of view summarized in the previous graf.

7. Transitions between quotes

Quotes from two people should never be back to back. A transition is needed as a bridge from one idea to another. Then follow up with the relevant quote.

8. Transition, then final supporting quote

Notice that the supporting quotes go in reverse order from the way they were summarized.

9. Real-time color, anecdotes

“Color” means brief descriptions of sights, sounds, & mood. Reporters should use all their senses.

10. The Past

Is there additional history that can help the reader understand more about the subject? Has this sort of thing happened before? How is this different or similar?

11. The Future

Wind up the story by looking toward the future. What is the next step? Or if an anecdote is used up toward the top, a useful technique is to refer back to the beginning, or to the anedote, to look to the future.

...increase the safety on the roadways for not only the teen drivers who are driving while using their cellphones but also for other drivers on the road as well,” she said. Arian Moreh, 19, a third-year law student at UCLA, agrees. “I think it’s better for safety. I think it’s being put out there for a reason, probably I’m one of them, but I haven’t got into an accident. I think I’m OK. You’ve just got to be good at it, you’ve got to be talented. I do text while I drive. I think that it’s just part of a routine. As long as I’m being safe it doesn’t matter. I think there’s a lot more things they should be thinking about before this, & it’s not that important.” But Teresa Martinez, of Reseda, laments the possibilities for her phone use as a driver. “My performance at work is improved when I can make calls & drive,” she said. Martinez received two calls, in fact, while driving during the interview on southbound 101. The legislation marks the five year effort of senator Abel Maldonado to make public roads safer, according to the senator’s webpage. Lawmakers will make their decision April 2007. Teens have four months free before their phones might be pulled

12. The Kicker

Usually a short, high-impact sentence. It may be a poignant or telling quote. It may also be a surprising bit of information that works better at the end than at the beginning.

72 The nutgraf


Paso Robles HS Journalism a NUTshell... paraGRAF ...that explains HOW THIS STORY IS NEWSWORTHY

You must tell readers why your story matters in a larger context. Any of these choices will work:

1. Why does this event matter? Why is it printed in the paper? 2. How does it compare to past events?

According to an authority?

According to a fact-based analysis of it?

3. How is it likely to affect the future? What’s ahead? 4. What’s the historicity of your story? First ever? Third? Worst? Learn the history. 5. Many are saying that your event is… This majority approach is enough to establish nutgrafism The Crimson publishes relevant information; this graf helps readers see the relevance.

CRIMSON POLICY: Every Crimson writer provides a nutgraf in each story printed in the paper & web.

“The writer must share with the reader: ‘Here’s what the story means. Here’s what it says to all of us.’” —Ira Glass

The SW2C 73


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Summary of Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2 Come ...later in your bou ncceeif un Readers will bounce they do not know where a story is heading. Therefore, give them a foreshadowing sentence somewhere in the first 3 grafs that reveals hints of what-comes-later-in-the-story.

HOW: 1. Pick the top 2-5 facts/revelations that your story contains (across the entire story). 2. Compose a separate SW2C sentence: a condensed, hintoriented summary of the above facts/ revelations. 3. Insert your SW2C early in the storyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; within the first 4 grafs.

Every weekday AP Physics teacher Mark Fairbank arrives in room 302 at 5 a.m. Students walk in first period to see him grading tests and interactive notebooks, checking e-mails, planning each class, and most importantly, helping the 17 students that come in on average to receive help in physics or chemistry. Fairbank is no average teacher, but an awarding winning one. On Tuesday, Dec. 14, 2010, Fairbank had a

different kind of morning 20 months after he was nominated for a prestigious award. He woke up in the Willard Intercontinental Hotel to begin a four day event

honoring recipients of the Presidential Award for Excellence in

Mathematics and Science Teaching (PAEMST). JEANC Winner: The above

news story by Monica Patel won a 2011 state award for its reporting

74 Story shapes


Paso Robles HS Journalism

PYRAMID: Narrative

Start with the small and build in detail and significance. Develop conflict. Develop setting & character. Time follows chronological order. End with something BIG. This story shape is the STORYTELLING shape, but can become unjournalistic and overwrought.

INVERTED PYRAMID: Journalism classic

Most important details & quotations told first, then the next most important, lessening in significance as story unfolds. Works best with news-oriented topics: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Earthquake kills three.â&#x20AC;? Quote, transition, quote, transition. Efficient story shape, but can be unimaginative and old fashioned.

HOURGLASS: Award winner, always works

Combine the above, such that the IMPORTANT details (inverted pyramid) serve as a teaser, but the bulk of the story provides STORYTELLING (narrative pyramid). The intersection requires a key transition sentence. This story shape permits journalistic prioritizing of facts combined with the satisfying qualities of storytelling.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Shape examples 75

76 Attribution + quotation ATTRIBUTION means the places in your story where you attributed a quotation to a speaker.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Quotations are the bread-n-butter of journalism. Avoid buggering them.

1. Punctuate & capitalize correctly WRONG: “I don’t agree with the school”, one student said. “Because freshmen matter”. RIGHT: “I don’t agree with the school,” one student said, “because freshmen matter.” 2. Use indirect quotation to replace long, boring sections of a quote that would be better if summarized. WRONG: “We welcomed them as soon as they arrived,” Smith said. “We all waited for three hours in the rain for the buses to come. We were excited to see our partners.” RIGHT: “We welcomed them as soon as they arrived,” Smith said, who along with others waited for three hours in the rain for the buses to come. “We were excited to see our partners,” he said. 3. Stricly use “said” as the verb in your attribution. Don’t get narrative on us with distracting verbs such as “muttered,” “mused,” “observed,” etc. unless it is essential for the narrative writing you’re intentionally creating for effect. 4. Use normal SUBJECT-VERB order in the attribution. WRONG: “The club was not satisfied with the proposal,” said Principal Randy Nelson. (You wouldn’t say “said he”...) RIGHT: “The club was not satisfied with the proposal,” Principal Randy Nelson said. 4. Attributions go strictly at the end of the quotation. WRONG: Said Principal Randy Nelson, “The club was not satisfied with the proposal.” WRONG: When asked about the incident, Principal Randy Nelson said, “The club was not satisfied...” RIGHT: “The club was not satisfied with the proposal,” Principal Randy Nelson said.

Conciseness 77


Paso Robles HS Journalism

In journalism, you must use clear, direct, factual language. Choose the perfect word, not ANY word. Your sentences & phrasing must be crisp. Active, visual verbs are essential.

Excellence is weakened by any of the following: A vague words + phrases—not specific

B overstated,


C subjective,

unfactual words that “open the gate” to varied meanings

D tell not show writing

E ostentatious

words—you’re trying too hard, honey

... simple is best

Crimson Conciseness Standards 1. Take off your Essay Writer hat when you walk into P14. Lose the flowers. 2. IF YOU CAN SAY IT SHORTER, DO SO. Count your words, therefore. 3. Choose the perfect word. If it’s not perfect, keep working. 4. Don’t be satisfied with the first version of a sentence. 5. Verbs are the secret: Pick lively, exciting, punchy verbs. Avoid passive is-are-was-were-bebeen-being. 6. Make the suggested changes from your editors. 7. Be ready to practice Conciseness Drills monthly. 8. Read a lot.

Do not use “There IS/ARE/WAS/WERE/WILL BE.” It’s a terrible combo of words for a writer whose trying to be sharp. YES

Twenty three students depart Tuesday Oct. 28. If laws did not govern society, crime would… NO

There are 23 students going on the field trip Tuesday Oct. 28. If there were no laws in society, crime would flourish.

78 Sportswriting


Paso Robles HS Journalism

1. DESCRIPTION/COLOR: Sports writing is cool because you can be cre-

ative, humorous, subjective, & COLORFUL. It varies from weather, sensory detail, action, metaphors, to alliterations... you name it.

2. ORIGINAL LEDES: Reread Tristan’s Ledes elsewhere in the manual. 3. ANALYSIS: Write about more than just the games: combine games’ results & look for trends. Strong defense? Weak offense? Talk to loyal fans who have been watching for more than one season and ask them to compare seasons or players. 4. INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCES: If you are writing an athlete profile, watch that person

in competition & in practice on several occasions. Do not only talk to them though, speak with their coaches, teammates, and family.

5. STATS: Keep up with team & individual statistics & use them frequently in stories. or speaking with the coach is the best! Also know your teams’ ranks in the conference, state, etc. Know team & individual records, best season times, etc. Know historic stats.

6. GAMES: Go to them (and take notes)! 7. COMMITMENT: Embrace yourself in the sport and follow them throughout the season. Don’t just cover them once for something to do. Learn the lingo, too!

1. LAME ATHLETE QUOTES: “We want to get to CIF.” & “We’re working really hard.” Find the vein! What is the team doing to get there? How are they comparing to other teams? What are they doing to go over the top? Basically, why are they different from every other team?

2. STORIES THAT JUST REPORT SCORES: Look for opportunities to report on more than games: sports outside of school, different training regimens, the pre-season, benchwarmers, etc.

3. WRITERS WHO DON’T GO TO THEIR GAMES: fulfill your commitment to your story and to your journalism class. Text messages are a LAST RESORT!

Synonyms: WON and LOST

Sports writers must be articulate, eloquent, clever. VERBS are the secret. annihilate abandon beat blast blitz bowl over butcher crush cut defame demolish

despoil desolate destroy down drill enslave extinguish fail flatten forsake maim

maraud marr mutilate numb overpower overwhelm pound prevail pummel punish quash

ravish raze rout shatter stamp out subdue subjugate subvert succeed suffer

terminate thrash trounce upset vanquish wallop whip


Paso Robles HS Journalism

SPORTS are important! “Sports do not build character. They reveal it.” —Haywood Hale Broun

“What counts in sports is not the victory, but the magnificence of the struggle.” —Joe Paterno

“Players win games, teams win championships.” —Bill Taylor

“It’s all about chemistry. Talent alone won’t get it done. “ —Brett Favre

Sports Tips 79 1. Find an angle beyond a “game summary:” what’s the story within the story? A problem? A record? A new offense? The player on fire? 2. Have a good system for keeping notes: keep stats, use abbreviations, circle the big plays, and use different colored pens so you know the differences. 3. Play by play: put the KEY plays in the story, not all of them. Start a story with one of the LAST plays. 4. Focus on a trend, i.e. poor tackling. Focus on it by getting the plays for proof and quotes. 5. Get quotes from the OPPOSING team. Get both sides. Talk to the opposing team’s coach and get their views on the game, etc. 6. Ask the coach specific questions so you can get good info. Don’t interview coaches for quotes that often. Readers want the JUICE… not lame quotes from the coach. 7. Get stats, but don’t OVERDO it. Don’t just throw them in there. The stats should help prove a point. 8. Don’t write game stories on the sports pages. Turn it into trends or feature stories (sneak in key plays though). 9. Plan a fact box in the final package to showcase something. 10. Sports columns: features with a little bit of an opinion. 11. Teams that are struggling: write WHY. 12. Go the team’s practices. Find time to sit down with the coach or assistant coach to learn about the sport if you don’t know the sport very well. Create a good relationship with them. Do your homework on the sport before the game/match. 13. Try looking at sports outside of school. 14. No one cares about wins/losses… Write FEATURES instead! 15. Focus on an individual.

80 Sports

BEARCATHLETES <<ZANDERSOUZA track cross country, basketball, ) 800m (2011) & 1600m (2012

SPORTS PLAY ED: REC ORDS BROKEN: ) 4:18.11 (1600), 8:48 (3000 PR’s: 0:50.6 (400), 1:56.04 (800),

Photos by Kim Boswell

and Amanda Hutchinson

All pistons firing: Sportswriting at its best. Statistics of the athlete’s performance Coach perspective Puns Metaphors Knows the season progression Uses Nutgraf Stellar verbs Helpful transitions

colleges, from other interested he had received letters ed to generic titles like “Dear they had all been address Son/Daughter.” It was Sac “Your Prospective Athlete” or he wasn’t “just that and e, nicknam State that knew his ” It was then a whole mass of people. another number out of by the deal was sealed. visit, including a stop After an official campus future facility, Souza met a the Olympic-quality track High School runner Emily teammate: Arroyo Grande fantastically, he emailed hellos it off were Johnson. As the two hit ctions introdu that e , unawar Coast to roommate DJ Jackson met two years prior at West a win unnecessary. The pair had where Souza squeaked Relays during the 800m, the finish line.” out of a “dead sprint to for neighboring rooms All the track kids are slated family. Everything big happy on the third floor, one is was falling into place. The future Hornet currently looking forward out to making the most se, very an year. But He is very inten . freshm to differ. his lose of to n't like more Sports Co-Editor “From his freshman year competitive, does quality. by Sinéad Schouten, although he has five Zander Souza That's a good he had some talent. years of running ahead in .26 seconds, but senior Souza broke a I knew , did ional Not a lot can happen He ran cross country and hopefully a profess half of a breath, bit of a blink, his Ivan Huff, coach found an exception. In this a 2011 junior track season. pretty well, but it was sponsorship afterwards d crowne had he and e. that record tracksid track school missing first year in ing. will be one crucial person Huff feat as there ,” a Huff was It success with of fell. ip That was only the beginn bit a time quite his friendsh ions. , and the 800 meter When Souza describes it barely had said, who has been a PRHS coach for generat and 1:56.30 became 1:56.04 universe has ever seen,” ng about, but administrators three years, “the best relationship the many spend a career dreami into the Gil Asa Gym displays. Only a “I was looking forward to the next time I actually imagined.” has to be special. time to fix his name and Dad,’” Souza explained, they’ve turned out like was also shattered. ng seasons, 4 PAC“Everyone calls him ‘Huff year later, the mile record overachiever on the track, after all. truck is the sevenSouza thrived in the followi CIF. An all-around coach’s the of plate an license and the titles and 6 visits to Souza always has been ates got to know to have. But for me because it’s a good goal g your personal 7 League ran everything from the exhausting e. “As me and my teamm “You go for that record he ng a lettered nicknam Dad meant that he was an important team, it’s just about betterin veteran said. athlete, anchor of the 4x100m relay. Quickly becomi Huff was him, I thought ing and he won’t varsity and the other guys on the 3000m to Souza proved his name I’m going to be graduat happen to match up,” the times. The two goals just I’m the fastest miler, fastest half-miler that local standout, it wasn’t long until records, and a legacy was coach. Now that re, I know what Huff Dad means. It’s that coach anymo 100 here to stay. As times fell, so did the my about be for e “It’s still weird to think around distanc The school has been seen since former Bearcat talent, literal.” Paso High has ever had. created that hadn’t been and a natural helping of And thanks to Huff Dad a lion-haired star Travis Hallanan. years. It’s pretty crazy.” to lose. morphed Souza from competitive, doesn’t like miles ahead look bright. Although the years have the smile and up-beat attitude remains “He is very intense, very ed to help his the many is the one thing I want to do,” declared Souza. senior, on the That’s a good quality,” Huff said, who continu more serious “Track freshman to a buzz cut like, ‘What do you do? wasn’t leading the pack things star say became the people time Things a how was ranks. night, all in “You know the same. But there that matter. runner rise through the time I’m lying in bed at started coming in. One on the varsity roster, for Who are you?’ Well, every team his freshman when the recruitment letters track - or even had a spot Bearcat cross country track.” State. r. Souza went out for the said, I think about is particular stood out: Sac come true. practices through summe it said, ‘Zander,’” Souza Now life’s perhaps a dream .org year, unaware that the squad Souza recalled, “I came out here with my “They really knew me because given one of Jordan. While www.crimsonnews “The first week of school,” I first met [head coach Ivan] Huff. He who prefers his middle name to his and School long hair, wearing pants, Paso Robles High

’ RUNNIN k the pac

run?’ But I be on the team. Ready to assed said to me, ‘Yeah, you can with me. I was totally embarr didn’t have any of my gear the second and unprepared.” only By party. a social Running was no longer “the hardest run nced experie Souza workout of the season, river bed and exhaustingly along the the system of [his] life,” weaving breaks. It was a shock to school being forced to take walk 400s, dominating the middle after years of 57 second completely different. competition. Things were top; countless hours of running It was a slow climb to the athlete knows, it only takes one every were clocked in. But as ing. everyth break out night to change during freshman year,” “I was pretty average all a sudden, at the last all of Souza said. “And then won League. Everyone meet, I was on JV and the hell?’ We were all ‘What like, me at looked surprised.” Although his coach begs

46| Crimson 05.30.12

Sinead Schouten ‘12 is one of the best sports writers in the history of the school, winning awards nationally (NSPA Superior) and statewide (First Place) for pieces like these.. She was a double 5 on her English APs, too.



Uses lingo of running/track

Not a lot can happen in .26 seconds, but senior Zander Souza found an exception. In this half of a breath, bit of a blink, Souza broke a school record and crowned a 2011 junior track season. That was only the beginning. 1:56.30 became 1:56.04, and the 800 meter time fell. It was a feat many spend a career dreaming about, but administrators barely had time to fix his name and time into the Gil Asa Gym displays. Only a year later, the mile record was also shattered. Souza always has been an overachiever on the track, after all. “You go for that record because it’s a good goal to have. But for me and the other guys on the team, it’s just about bettering your personal times. The two goals just happen to match up,” the varsity veteran said. “It’s still weird to think that I’m the fastest miler, fastest half-miler that Paso High has ever had. The school has been around for about 100 years. It’s pretty crazy.” Although the years have morphed Souza from a lionhaired freshman to a buzz cut senior, the smile and up-beat attitude remains the same. But there was a time the star wasn’t leading the pack on the track - or even had a spot on the varsity roster, for that matter. Souza went out for the Bearcat cross country team his freshman year, unaware that the squad practices through summer. “The first week of school,” Souza recalled, “I came out here with my long hair, wearing pants, and I first met [head coach Ivan] Huff. He said to me, ‘Yeah, you can be


Paso Robles HS Journalism

on the team. Ready to run?’ But I didn’t have any of my gear with me. I was totally embarrassed and unprepared.” Running was no longer a social party. By only the second workout of the season, Souza experienced “the hardest run of [his] life,” weaving exhaustingly along the river bed and being forced to take walk breaks. It was a shock to the system after years of 57 second 400s, dominating the middle school competition. Things were completely different. It was a slow climb to the top; countless hours of running were clocked in. But as every athlete knows, it only takes one break out night to change everything. “I was pretty average all during freshman year,” Souza said. “And then all of a sudden, at the last meet, I was on JV and won League. Everyone looked at me like, ‘What the hell?’ We were all surprised.” Although his coach begs to differ. “From his freshman year I knew he had some talent. He ran cross country, did pretty well, but it was his first year in track that he had quite a bit of success,” Huff said, who has been a PRHS coach for generations. “I was looking forward to the next three years, and they’ve turned out like I actually imagined.” Souza thrived in the following seasons, 4 PAC-7 League titles and 6 visits to CIF. An all-around athlete, he ran everything from the exhausting 3000m to anchor of the 4x100m relay. Quickly becoming a local standout, it wasn’t long until Souza proved his name was here to stay. As times fell, so did the records, and a legacy was created that hadn’t been seen since former Bearcat distance star Travis Hallanan. “He is very intense, very competitive, doesn’t like to lose. That’s a good quality,” Huff said, who continued to help his runner rise through the ranks. Things became more serious when the recruitment letters started coming in. One in particular stood out: Sac State. “They really knew me because it said, ‘Zander,’” Souza said, who prefers his middle name to his given one of Jordan. While he had received letters

81 from other interested colleges, they had all been addressed to generic titles like “Dear Prospective Athlete” or “Your Son/Daughter.” It was Sac State that knew his nickname, and that he wasn’t “just another number out of a whole mass of people.” It was then the deal was sealed. After an official campus visit, including a stop by the Olympic-quality track facility, Souza met a future teammate: Arroyo Grande High School runner Emily Johnson. As the two hit it off fantastically, he emailed hellos to roommate DJ Jackson, unaware that introductions were unnecessary. The pair had met two years prior at West Coast Relays during the 800m, where Souza squeaked a win out of a “dead sprint to the finish line.” All the track kids are slated for neighboring rooms on the third floor, one big happy family. Everything was falling into place. The future Hornet is currently looking forward to making the most out of his freshman year. But although he has five more years of running ahead - and hopefully a professional sponsorship afterwards - there will be one crucial person missing trackside. When Souza describes his friendship with Huff as “the best relationship the universe has ever seen,” it has to be special. “Everyone calls him ‘Huff Dad,’” Souza explained, and the license plate of the coach’s truck is the seven-lettered nickname. “As me and my teammates got to know him, I thought Huff Dad meant that he was an important coach. Now that I’m going to be graduating and he won’t be my coach anymore, I know what Huff Dad means. It’s literal.” And thanks to Huff Dad and a natural helping of talent, the many miles ahead look bright. “Track is the one thing I want to do,” declared Souza. “You know how people say things like, ‘What do you do? Who are you?’ Well, every time I’m lying in bed at night, all I think about is track.” Now life’s perhaps a dream come true.

82 Feature Writing


PasoRobles RoblesHSHSJournalism Journalism Paso

1. ANGLE: Search for a more surprising angle. Never be predictable • • • • •

DRAMA? >> (tragedy, comedy, discovery, victory, loss, etc.) Conflict in their life >> and how it may be overcome? Award/achievement >> and what it took? Humor >>theirs or yours? Little-known facts >> or secrets?

2. NUTGRAF: Needs to answer the following. (Could be a reference to any of the above newsworthy items.) • • • •

How this person compares to other students in some statistic, achievement, or other fact? How does this person compare to the past? How is this person a change from the norm/from other people? What does this really means if you get behind the facts?

3. At least 2 MAJOR paragraph-length quotes by the person 4. Connect reader’s senses S-S-S-T-T to the person: the person’s voice, hair, colors, dance moves, nose, etc. It helps if you

5. Another perspective on the person’s life & times? (Friend, teacher, parent, coach, etc…) 6. Future plans—as detailed as possible

HELP! We get a lot of stories about

students that keep matters overly simple:

“So-and-so is a nice person who likes to have fun & works really hard.” Don’t make the person look ordinary and bland; such traits are NOT newsworthy.

The bottom line Newsworthy standards should guide your feature writing angle. Give THE NINE a review.

83 JEANC WINNER In three hours she would stand Katie Wingfield won 1. ANGLE: in front of 600 pairs of eyes and ears JEANC 3rd Place in state for this feature on alongside Michael Nowak, the composer behind a Bearcat violinist. “King Kong,” “The Hangover,” and 13 other iconic films. With a 100-year-old violin in hand and 4/4 time on the brain, Matthews would do what she had been studying since fifth grade: pour out her heart. Matthews is principal second chair violin in the

2. NUTGRAF: SLO Youth Symphony, an organization founded in

1965 that she has been a part of since her humble beginning as fifth chair at age 10. A performance with the Damon Castillo band, tours through southern California, appearances in the upcoming documentary “Botso,” and other opportunities have encouraged and inspired Matthews in her life-long pursuit of challenging herself through mastering the “international language” of music. “The band is playing and we’re backing them up so you get this really full sound; it’s a really different experience than playing just classical music. It’s rock music! It’s a very unique experience,” Matthews said, who loves the collaboration of two separate musical worlds. “There was a point where I was not very good, but I wanted to believe I was. The conductor had to tell me, ‘That person is better than you.’ It was such a lesson in humility; I realized that if I wanted to be good, I had to make myself good. You can’t not practice and expect to be good. You can’t expect people to just hand things to you.”


Fellow symphony members, including coprincipal cellist George Major, acknowledge Matthews’ unique contributions to the program. “She’s genuinely an encouraging person. She makes everyone feel welcome,” Major said, who has befriended Matthews through the symphony.

4. persp.

“There are lots of people who have a job but are also part of the symphony, and I can see myself on that path. I love music, and my heart is in it, even if it’s not my main source of income,” Matthews said. Matthews plans to continue chasing the rush of performing and the moments where “things just work” well into the future and devote her life to perfecting her own musical language.

5. future

84 Feature: Tell a Story


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Ira Glass’s story telling tips CRIMSON is looking for memorable, remarkable features. Here’s insight from one of America’s best feature writers. They gave him the radio show This American Life because he’s so good.

1. Show a Back Door to a Deep Place “The best stories are a back door into a really deep place within us. We feel we are less alone. We live in a world where things make sense & we are like each other. They make us less crazy. They make the world less crazy.”

2. Explore its meaning “The writer must share with the reader: ‘Here’s what the story means. Here’s what it says to all of us.’” This is the NUTGRAF.

3. Surprise & humor, please

Ira Glass is the host & producer of the radio & television show This American Life. He attended Northwestern University & Brown University. He began as an intern at National Public Radio. He was a reporter & host on several NPR programs, including Morning Edition, All Things Considered, & Talk of the Nation.

“If the story is surprising or funny, it sticks in your head.”

4. Use humor to create meaning “The funny part of the story is the most telling part of any story.”

Visit NPR for free iPod downloads where you can listen to award winning features.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Opinion story structure 85

Key Principle:

Opinion still requires digging for facts, numbers, authorities. EDUCATE your readers about the facts that support your opinion. Story Element 1. SITUATION

Start your story giving background. Fill in the reader: what has happened (the 5 Ws)? What has CAUSED your reaction? It’s factual, objective, & 1-2 ¶s long. Don’t give your opinion before this step. Plus, WHY DOES THIS MATTER? a sense of NUTGRAF belongs here…


What it would sound like When sophomore Mike Edwards opened his CA HS Exit Exam last February, he was surprised & a little entertained, he said, to find—finally—a writing prompt a little less blasé than the previous timed essays he’d faced as a student. 2012’s test asked California’s estimated 750,000 sophomores what they looked for in a “romantic partner.” Of course, multiple parents & teachers have since protested the 2012 CAHSEE writing prompt, calling the writing question too unprofessional, opinionated, or inappropriate…

Don’t save it for the climatic conclusion. It probably should enjoy its own ¶. Be sure it’s in a single sentence, much like you’ve learned to write a thesis sentence. >> NO 1st PERSON <<

Yet the thing that seems to have been skipped: students need something interesting to write about. There is therefore nothing wrong with Sacramento’s test. Except of course that we don’t want to take it.

3. SUPPORT (Facts, Authorities, Research)

Writers have told us for years that we must pick something we know about. “If you can’t write about something close to you, don’t pick up the pen,” Mark Twain said. He’s right. And mandated tests are notorious for their dryness. “I barely even try,” one junior said. PRHS test results suggest students need a carrot, as well. From 2001 through last April, results were…

Have figures & quoted authorities support your opinion. Opinion stories in the middle are just like news stories: the reporter still digs for facts & quotes. This section will need several ¶s.


Talk a little about what the other side says. Give some facts & quotes that support that counter side. This section shows the reader you are fair & understand all the spokes of the wheel.


Return to your opinion & reinforce it. End with clipped finality. Or a clever ironic observation. Or an echo from the first ¶.

Now it is true that California’s Ed Code 48950 prohibits surveys of student sexual preferences. And yes, many who attempted the test question don’t have a special someone. As one critical teacher put it, “No one was hurt.” These are valid concerns. But in the end, only the best topics are worth writing about. So the prompts like 2006’s should remain. It’s hard to believe we should argue for a test. But if we consider the nonsense around this test issue, it’s one worth sticking up for. Even when we don’t want to take it. Now please excuse me. I’m going out--with my girlfriend.

86 Review writing


Paso Robles HS Journalism

“ A review is a grand total of nothing if it’s not backed up with facts: the color, the textures, the words and gestures and music that came to life on the stage, and which must again come to life in your prose, if the critique is to mean anything.” —Judith Green, San Jose Mercury News In your review, write with... 1. knowledge of the subject and a respect for the genre 2. Intense observation and recording of details 3. reflection about the meaning of the experience 4. style! You should delight us with your writing 1. Knowledge

You should also know something about the following to write a good review and leave the reader feeling educated: The previous work of the band/actor/etc. Trends and styles within the field you’re dealing this performance with other performances What other critics have said about it What other attendees/readers/listeners are saying

2. Observation Specific examples should appear so we get a taste of the performance: Quote lyrics, lines, titles, passages Describe the character, singer, or actor Rarely let criticism stand without an example Pack in the adjectives! We want you to color this picture for us.

3. Reflection This is the Reviewer’s version of the nutgraf: Why does this performance matter? Where does it fit in to the big picture? You talk first person about how it mattered to you. You could admit what the performance will do for the reader. What other critics have said about it.

4. Style Irony, humor, sarcasm, cleverness, puns, jokes...these should appear in a good review...and that’s why they’re fun to write.


“I’ll be the first to admit that, frankly, I don’t like female rappers. It’s simply agitating to hear the insane rhymes Missy Elliot comes up with or how promiscuous songs about Foxy Brown and Lil Kim are.”

Batman at His Best A gang of thugs has just looted the Gotham City Stock Exchange and crashed out through the front doors on motorcycles, hostages in tow, as police pursue them through city streets and into an underground highway. Suddenly, the tunnel goes dark. A familiar vehicle with monster-truck wheels, driven by a man in black cape and cowl, has joined the chase. Batman is back. A veteran cop sees the intervention and says to a rookie, "Boy, you're in for a show tonight, son." The Dark Knight Rises, Christopher Nolan's mesmerizing climax to his trilogy reboot of the DC Comics character, is a show, all right. But not in the way of the standard summer action-fantasy. Although the movie contains elaborate fights, stunts, chases and war toys, and though the director dresses half his characters in outfits suitable for a Comic-Con party, Nolan is a dead-serious artist with a worldview many shades darker than Batman's cave. The year's most eagerly anticipated movie was well worth waiting for. The battle in Nolan's 2008 The Dark Knight was between two solo artists: Batman (Christian Bale) and the Joker (Heath Ledger in the crazy-cunning role that earned him a posthumous Oscar). TDKR posits all-out war: a terrorist attack on Gotham by the League of Shadows, the vigilante band that threatened so much mischief in Nolan's 2005 Batman Begins. Its leader is Bane (Tom Hardy), an immense hulk wearing a respirator that makes him look as if a small creature from the original Alien has been permanently strapped onto his face. Bane intends to liberate--enslave--Gotham by offering its poorest citizens the chance to trash the mansions of the wealthy. His most persuasive motivator: a four-megaton nuclear device that could be detonated at any moment. If only the city had a hero. But Batman,


by Richard Corliss, Time Magazine


a.k.a. Bruce Wayne, has lived in morbid seclusion ever since his lifelong love Rachel Dawes was blown to bits in the previous episode. The daring theft of his fingerprints by pretty petty thief Selina Kyle (Anne Hathaway) rouses Bruce from his torpor. Selina, the Catwoman, leads Bruce to Bane, who thrashes the debilitated hero and consigns him to the hellhole Bane grew up in. This time the masked man who runs the city will be purely evil. Several characters in TDKR--Bruce, Bane, Selina, the idealistic cop John Blake ( Joseph Gordon-Levitt) and the lovely philanthropist Miranda Tate (Marion Cotillard)--are orphans who express or repress their true nature by playing roles, wearing masks. And Nolan? His mask is that of a director of comic-book entertainments, when he's really out to excoriate Americans' greed, laziness and implicit yearning for a demagogue. Hidden in plain sight are allusions to the Patriot Act, the decadelong detention of terrorist suspects in Guantnamo and the Occupy Wall Street movement. Nolan mercilessly details the corruptibility of both class and mass and suggests that the only salvation is in a nearly invincible hero--a rich man with the strength and altruism to save desperate America from itself. (In this allegory, is Mitt Romney Bruce Wayne? Or is he the boss of Bane Capital?) Beneath the pulp fantasy of the infallible fixer is a warning that in the real America, a superhero will never fly out of our dreams and into the night sky.

88 Story help


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Hunt for inspiration and examples! While your HDN gives you tips, you can also: 1. Get into the Crimson Archives cabinet to study last year’s attempts at a _______________. 2. Read and study professional reporter’s stories about your topic and how s/he went about co vering it. 3. Ask Mount for help or examples. He’s seen your topic covered before. 4. Discuss your story with your editor, team, or J-Buddy.

Play review Football game Principal interview Question person Blog Opinion story Staff editorial etc.


3 c

Se tion

Design TIPS

90 Starting your layout


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Suggestions to get you started I. Check out the Best of High School Press. II. Ideas surround us whether it’s designs online or in magazines or other papers; if you saw it and liked it, we can create it. III. Check out the books on the design rack: The Graphic Design Cookbook, Newspaper Designers Handbook, and several other design idea books are available.

Layout Requirements 1. Must have a Dominant Item: big, use of color, vibrancy, weight, powerful. 2. Choose your Balance: symmetrical balance is formal/ normal; asymmetrical is informal/modern/cool. 3. Watch Proportion: how items interact w/ each other (i.e. BIG story = BIG headline). 4. Where’s the Variety? Keep reader interest. 5. Contrast: It’s artistic, helps POP!, and prevents things from blending. 6. Create UNITY among fonts, lines, repeated elements. 7.

Repetition: guides the reader, creates movement, & helps unity.

8. Simplicity: Have restraint! If you don’t need it, don’t use it! Communicate but don’t decorate. 9. Color & VALUE: can add weight. Pick colors/grays that are compatible.

Another important thing to remember is even when you think you’re done, prepare yourself, because you’re just getting started.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Crimson Layout Standards 91



Photos shall have 1 pt. stroke


Advertisements shall have 1 pt. stroke


Photo/Graphic credit shall be OUTSIDE picture, not on picture


Picture resolution in PShop shall be 300 ppi (not 72)


Photo size in PShop shall be approximate to printed size in InDesgn


Photo/Grfx shall be in Tiff format w/ LZW compression


Grayscale pages shall only place grayscale graphics


Color pages shall only place CMYK graphics


All photos/graphics shall be credited to source


All photos shall be improved in LEVELS (Image > Adjust > Levels)


All photos shall be improved in SHARPNESS (FIlter > Sharpen)


Gray-fills shall be 18% when text also appears


Pull-quotes shall use Pull Quote Template (Mother > Templates-Graphics)


Photos shall be resized in proportion—not free hand (shift-ctrl-drag)


Photos shall be cropped to maximize content & focus (blackarrow resize)


Photos & graphics shall honor copyright and/or be used with permission only. If we did not create it or get OK, we do not use it.


Photo cutout of background shall not occur if background includes important elements/context


Fonts shall maintain Crimson Styles; “spot” fonts may occur within a line


Dominant graphic/photo shall occur on page


Points of Entry shall be numerous & tasteful with strong eye-flow


Pica space (.1 in) shall surround all page elements


“First person” & “Staff Editorial” and other logos shall clarify stories with opinionated voice or special content


Lists of text shall “left-offset” the numbers/bullets for reading aid


Page size = 10 in. W x 11 in. H


Text shall not be printed on top of a photo or graphic


Crimson page numbers shall appear on “out” side of folio, not in gutter

Center page size 20 in. W x 11 in. H

92 PS and ID tasks


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Photo Cutouts 1. Select the “Polygon Lasso Tool” and carefully trace the image by clicking to keep an anchor point. 2. Once the image’s outline is blinking right click and click “Select Inverse” then press delete. 3. Once the image is surrounded by the white fill go to “Magic Eraser Tool” and click on the white fill. 4. The little gray checkers means it is transparent—which is good. Save the image as a “TIFF” and a box will pop up and you NEED to check the box that says “Save Transparency.” Then save the image in your proper section folder and you’re done!


1. Go to “Image” at the top of the screen, and click mode. Click on “Grayscale” and your picture will become black and white. 2. Right below mode will be “Adjustments” and then “Levels.” Once in levels you can adjust the levels of contrast so that the picture looks appropriate.

Use this tool to quickly re-apply TEXT and PARAGRAPH settings to additional page elements

3. To make the image the right size, go to “Image” then “Image Size” and change the width to 5 inches and height to 8 inches. The resolution must be 150. 4. Finally, go to “File” and click on “Save As” to save the image as a “TIFF” and in the correct folder.

How to place a photo/graphic 1. To place text, make a text box with the “T” tool. Copy and paste the story into the box. (It is important to make separate text boxes for the headline, deck, byline and article). 2. To place a photo/graphic, press Ctrl+D. Pick your specific photo/graphic.


Paso Robles HS Journalism

InDesign tasks 93

1. Fonts for the headline, deck, byline, and article there is a tab named “Character Styles” off to the righthand side where you may find the correct font. 2. Near “Character Styles” locate “Paragraph Styles” and click on “Article.” 3. To adjust the photo to your desired size for the article select the photo with the black arrow tool. Press ctrl+shift then grab the corner of the photo/graphic to adjust. If you dont press ctrl+shift then your photo/graphic will end up either short & chunky or tall & skinny. You don’t want that.

1. On the righthand side of the template go to “Links.” All of your photos and graphics will appear in a list. Double click on the first item. Check the “File Type” which must be “TIFF” and the “Color Space” which must be “Grayscale.” Check all of them by clicking “Next.” 2. Also in “Links” make sure there are zero yellow caution symbols or maroon explanation point symbols beside the name of your photo/graphic. If there is you need to click “go to link” and find it in the server. 3. Once this is complete print out a copy. Make sure your layout has been copy edited multiple times in the final stages. Then call over the Chief or Mount to make a PDF of your wonderful creation!

94 Want a camera?


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Camera Commandments 1. Thou shalt sign thy name on the holy SIGNOUT clipboard before asking for cameras or equipment. 2. Thou shalt ask an EIC, ME, or Mount for the camera cabinet to be unlocked to obtain thy camera/lens/bag/etc. 3. Thou shalt understand that it is thy financial responsibility to pay for any damage or loss that occurs to the equipment while it is checked out to thee. 4. Thou shalt check that thy equipment is functioning before thy departure from the worthy journalism room (batteries, AF, card, etc.) 5. Thou shalt apply photography principles as thy finger presses the shutter button (see next pages). Thou shalt actively delete photos during thy session that do not fulfill such principles. 6. Thou shalt photograph AND TAKE NOTES on names, event facts, and information that will be needed in captions. 7. Thou shalt return thy camera and equipment the same day or before 1st period the next day. Thy responsibility continues until it is locked up. 8. At check in, thou shalt:

A. Witness its lock-up

B. SIGNOUT on the clipboard

C. Charge the battery for the next person if itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s low

8. Thou shalt upload thy images immediately, not vaguely later. Others will shoot on the card and files get needlessly mixed. 9. Thou shalt name photos obediently using year_month_event_lastnamephotographer.

Example: 2012_09_lunchgames_orcutt_01


Paso PasoRobles RoblesHS HSJournalism Journalism

Get good results 1. Find the emotion in the scene. Pictures tell a story, so show the readers a glimpse of it. Put a face on it. 2. Position yourself and the camera to capture an ORIGINAL perspective on the scene. > BIRD’S EYE: Get the camera looking down on the scene > WORM’S EYE: Get the camera looking up at the scene. 3. Fill the viewfinder with gusto. Zoom in. Stand close. Hold the camera in his/her face. Do not take distant, uncommitted photos. 4. Always show the ball in sports photos. Always. 5. Use lines and patterns that make up the scene. 6. Use the Rule of Thirds: that is, shoot so that the focus lies at the intersection of the “third-lines,” shown at the X’s below.

Photo principles 95

96 Photo principles cont.

Get good results 7. Position the camera to show foreground/background, which shows what else is happening in the scene. To BLUR the background, set Av on the dial and fingerwheel as low as possible (2.8 - 5.6) 8. Anticipate the moment. You can: > Prefocus the lens so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ready for the moment. > Position yourself where the moment will occur. 9. Do not always shoot mugshots with the person looking at the camera. Some shots s/he should be looking away. 10. Pan the camera with the motion of the performance. To BLUR the background but focus on the performer, set Tv on the dial and finger-wheel down to 1/20 through 1/80. 11. Set the WHITE BALANCE WB for the light of the situation (must be on Creative Zone (P, Tv, Av, M)


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Camera settings 97


Paso Robles HS Journalism

Photo Mode Dial

Creative zone = more control; Basic zone = more automatic

Aperture/f-stop Depth of field factor

Large f-stop# = large depth of field, more is in focus Small f-stop = narrow, limited depth of field is in focus

Shutter speed

shown as fraction of sec. Shorter time (1/1000) = less motion + light exposure


Lower # (100-200) = richer color, less sensitivity WB WHITE BALANCE to light... High# (1600) = Adjusts the blueness/ better, sensitive results in yellowness/whiteness of darker light the photo. AWB = auto.

MODE SETTINGS P = you set WB, ISO; camera sets shutter

Size of file

L’s are too large for Crimson business

speed + f-stop

Tv = TIME VALUE = you set shutter TIME; camera sets f-stop

Longer time (1/100) = more motion + light exposure

Av = APERTURE VALUE = you set f-stop; camera sets shutter time M = MANUAL = you set both Av and Tv

Mug Shot Board

File Locations for photos

1. Editors, put the mugs you need under your section.

1. Name your files correctly. The editor uses the filename for the photo credit.

2. Photographers, when you take a picture, cross the name out and write your initials. 3. If someone’s mug has already been taken and it is ordered again, go in the archives and use the old one. Don’t flood the folders!

year_month_subject_photographer_# Ex: 2012_09_lunchgames_orcutt_01

NOT: 2012_9_lunch

2. Place photos in the Mother/PHOTOS folder. Create a folder also named the above. 3. Delete bad photos at all times, both from the card as you’re shooting AND when you view them on Mother. We have 1000s of bad photos. 4. Once they’re uploaded, follow Photo processing steps described on next page.

98 Sports photos Whatta Blast: Sports are not only the

most challenging to shoot, but some of the most important and FUN. With a few rules of thumb, your sportsphotography will be some of the most rewarding.

1. Respect: This means respect the

players, coaches, and officials. If you are asked to stand back or move, do it. Also, remember that being on the field is a privilege. Never abuse your press pass, and remember that you are at the event to shoot pictures, not socialize.

2. Always have the ball in the shot. It gives the picture a sense of action, and a story to tell.

3. Anticipate the moment. Always aim where the ball is going to be, or else you will always miss the play.

4. Look for emotion. Sports can

easily become emotional: capture those moments of sportsmanship, victory, defeat, and friendship.

5. Don’t be afraid. Get close, fill the

frame! If you’re in the way, someone will ask you to move. Don’t be afraid to ask professionals to help, either. If you see someone shooting for the Tribune and you need help with your settings, ask for help! Most likely they will fix your camera’s settings for you, and you’ll have a new friend.


Paso Robles HS Journalism


scored a state 2nd Place state award with this baseball shot. Well done, sir.

Photo tips 99


Paso Robles HS Journalism



o Problems

ISO: controls the amount of light the camera takes in. Higher ISO = more light = brighter—and maybe washed out. High ISO also can create grainy results. High ISO is 800 and up. Must be in Creative Zone to control ISO

SHUTTER SPEED: Faster shutter speed = darker picture BUT faster capture of movement. In many cases, if you go to a shutter speed lower than 1/60, movement will be blurred. Fast shutter = 1/200 and up

Problem 1: underexposed/dark


Solution: Increase ISO to 800 and/or Slow shutter to 1/60

Problem 3: overexposed washed out Solution: Decrease ISO to 200 and/or Speed up shutter to 1/200

WHITE BALANCE: controls the WHITE quality and you must match it to SUN, FLORESCENT. etc. Use AWB for Auto White Balance if you are unsure.

Prob 2: Blurry action Solution: Increase ISO to 3200 and/or Increase shutter to faster than 1/60

Problem 4: too much sun Solution: Shoot in the shade when you can! ISO = 100 Speed = 1/500

Problem 5: Fill frame!

This photo is 90% pointless background that does not tell the story. Solution: Take longer lens and/or Put yourself closer to subject and/or Bird’s Eye, Worm’s Eye, or other original angle



Paso Robles HS Journalism


Paso Robles HS Journalism


Handy Dandy 2012 Staff Manual