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BA in ELT

Study Guide EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1

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Educational Technology In this unit

1.1 What is Educational Technology? 1.2 Why Integrate Technology in Our Schools? 1.3 A Vision for Technology in Education (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/vftie.html): Learning in the 21st Century 1.4 Technology impact on education and Learning. 1.5 Building Schools of the Future 1.6 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using technology in language teaching and learning? 3.1 What is Educational Technology? Before looking at what Educational Technology is and what it does for us, let’s start with you and your own knowledge about it. Try to describe the following terms. Education ________________________________________________________________ Technology ________________________________________________________________ You probably found yourself a good definition for education. According to some dictionaries education is..... …the process of teaching and learning in a school or college, or the knowledge you get from this (Cambridge Learner’s Dictionary, 2001, CUP) …the study of methods and theories of teaching (Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000, CUP) …”What survives when what had been learnt has been forgotten” (B.F. Skinner in New Scientist, 1964) - Cambridge International Dictionary of English, 1995, CUP) …The activity of educating people in schools, colleges, and universities, and all the policies and arrangements concerning this.-...someone’s experience of learning or being taught.-...the process of providing people with information about an important issue (Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners of American English, 2002, Macmillan).

©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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BA in ELT

Study Guide EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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A definition of technology is used to mean a tool or instrument which helps us to organize and accomplish specific tasks and goals. Old technologies in school include: learning spaces, learning schedules, learning frameworks (subject areas), learning assessments. For technology to serve the purposes of education and change, it must be tied to a coherent, school-wide instructional agenda. Barbara Means, Kerry Olson, Ram Singh (article in Kappan, September 1995; SRI Report for OERI, April 1993). Now, combining the terms. How could you define Education Technology?

In order to help yourself to expend your ideas about Education Technology let’s now read something about it. After reading, you might want to go back and make some changes to your responses previously given. Overview of Technology and Education Reform In the past, application of technology to education was often motivated by a desire to implement "teacher proof" instruction. Technology was viewed as a "black box," something that could be bestowed on schools and classrooms from above. An increasing body of literature on technology implementation efforts suggests that this goal was not only unrealistic but also fundamentally misguided. To be effective, technology and teachers must work together to provide challenging learning opportunities. Technology serves the goals of education reform by contributing to: Education Technology

 Student learning through involvement with authentic, challenging tasks  New roles for students and teachers  Professionalization of teachers  Creation of a culture that supports learning both in the classroom and

beyond the school walls

Of great concern is the use of technology as a catalyst for changing schools in ways that better support the acquisition of higher-order skills by all students. Such uses of technology can have a particularly significant impact on the schooling of economically disadvantaged students, whose educational experiences frequently have stressed repetitious rote drill on lower-order skills, ©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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BA in ELT

Study Guide EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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with relatively little attention to the areas of comprehension, problem solving, composition, and mathematical reasoning that will support both higher education and effective functioning in the real world.

How do you thing education technology affects teaching and learning a language? List some of the effects technology have had on your own development.

Technology impact on education Technology is making a significant impact on education nowadays. How learners are been affected by technology is a question we would like to answer. You probably noted that: 

Education technology has been found to have positive effects on student attitudes toward learning and on student selfconcept. Students felt more successful in school, were more motivated to learn and have increased self-confidence and self-esteem when using computer-based instruction. This was particularly true when the technology allowed learners to control their own learning. Positive changes in the learning environment brought about by technology are more evolutionary than

revolutionary. These changes occur over a period of years, as teachers become more experienced with technology. 

Courses for which computer-based networks were use increased studentstudent and student-teacher interaction, increased student-teacher interaction with lower-performing students, and did not decrease the traditional forms of communication used. Many students who seldom participate in face-to-face class discussion become more active participants online.

Go to additional resources 1 to find some of the effects technology has had on

learners.

©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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BA in ELT

Study Guide EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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Technology’s impact on learning From a US Department of Education (http://inet.ed.gov/)1995 forum, some panelists contended that rather than debating the connections between technology-based instruction and test scores, schools should focus on the most obvious and compelling reason form implementing technologynamely, that students need strong technology skills to succeed in the world of work. This section will provide you with the impact technology has on learning. You can find the following in this section:  How Does Technology Enhance Student Achievement? (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Enhanced)  Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#ACOT)  Effects of Educational Technology (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Effects)  Information Superhighway (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Superhighway)  Multiple Intelligences and Multimedia (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Intelligence)  Connecting Students to a Changing World (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Connecting)  Better Students Through Technology (http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/#Better)

ED Report The Costs and Effectiveness of Educational Technology "Through the use of advanced computing and telecommunications technology, learning can also be qualitatively different. The process of learning in the classroom can become significantly richer as students have access to new and different types of information, can manipulate it on the computer through graphic displays or controlled experiments in ways never before possible, and can communicate their results and conclusions in a variety of media to their teacher, students in the next classroom, or students around the world. For example, using technology, students can collect and graph real-time weather, environmental, and populations data from their community, use that data to create color maps and graphs, and then compare these maps to others created by students in other communities. Similarly, instead of reading about the human circulatory system and seeing textbook pictures depicting bloodflow, students can use technology to see blood moving through veins and arteries, watch the process of oxygen entering the bloodstream, and experiment to understand the effects of increased pulse or cholesterol-filled arteries on blood flow." (page 16) "We know now - based on decades of use in schools, on findings of hundreds of research studies, and on the everyday experiences of educators, students, and their families - that, properly used, technology can enhance the achievement of all students, increase families’ involvement in their children’s schooling, improve teachers’ skills and knowledge, and improve school administration and management."

©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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BA in ELT

Study Guide EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

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How Does Technology Enhance Student Achievement? Basic Skills Instruction 

Computer assisted instruction to drill

Multi-media software - teach to a variety of learning styles

Videodiscs - strengthen basic skills

Video and audio technologies - bring material to life

Distance learning - at least as effective as traditional methods of instruction

All forms - develop new skills related to use of technology itself, necessary in workplace

Advanced Skills Instruction 

Interactive educational technologies, including: 

Computer-generated simulations

Videodiscs

Internet

CD-ROM

Students learn to: organize complex information, recognize patterns, draw inferences, communicate findings

Learn better organizational and problem-solving skills

Assessment of Student Progress 

More comprehensive with multimedia

Assessments which require student’s active participation

Electronic portfolios

Student Motivation 

They like it better

Increased family involvement

Improved teachers’ skills

Improved School Administration and Management

"We know that successful technology-rich schools generate impressive results for students, including improved achievement; higher test scores; improved student attitude, enthusiasm, and engagement; richer classroom content; and improved student retention and job placement rates. ©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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Of the hundreds of studies that show positive benefits from the use of technology, two are worth noting for their comprehensiveness. The first, a U.S. Department of Education-funded study of nine technology-rich schools, concluded that the use of technology resulted in educational gains for all students regardless of age, race, parental income, or other characteristics. [GET THIS] The second, a 10-year study supported by Apple Computer, Inc., concluded that student provided with technology-rich learning environments ‘continued to perform well on standardized tests but were also developing a variety of competencies not usually measured. Students explored and represented information dynamically and in many forms; became socially aware and more confident; communicated effectively about complex processes; became independent learners and self-starters; knew their areas of expertise and shared that expertise spontaneously.’" (ACOT) Success Seen in ED Study:     

Rising scores on state tests Improved student attendance Increased student comprehension Motivation Attitude

   

Strong study Parent and teacher support Improved student retention Improved placement in jobs.

©2004 Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Formatted and corrected by Carlos Raúl López Reátiga December 2006

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Unit 1