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THE STUDY OF TYPOLOGY

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THE FOLLOWING IS AN ANALYSIS OF HOUSING TYPOLOGIES. THE FEATURED PROJECTS INCLUDE; COURTYARD HOUSES IN MATOSINHOS, CASA RUSTICI, FORMOSA, UNITE D’HABITATION. EACH PROJECT PORTRAYS A SET OF UNIQUE QUALITIES THAT DISTIGUISH THE VARIETY OF EXISTING TYPOLOGIES. FOR THIS ANALYSIS SLAB HOUSING, BLOCK HOUSING, INFILL AND COURTYARD WERE STUDIED.

INTRODUCTION 2


COURTYARD HOUSES AT MATOSINHOS .................4 FORMOSA...........................................................................16 UNITE D’HABITATION...................................................29 CASA RUSTICI...................................................................42

TABLE OF CONTENTS 3


COURTYARD HOUSES IN MATOSINHOS EDUARDO SOUTO DE MOURA

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ARCHITECT: EDUARDO SOUTO DE MOURA DATE BUILT: 1999 LOCATION: MATOSINHOS, PORTUGAL TYPOLOGY: COURTYARD NUMBER OF UNITS: 10 UNIT TYPES: 3 PARKING SPACES: 1-2 CAR GARAGE PER UNIT PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE:

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PLAN

A PORTION OF AN ARISTOCRATIC VILLA WAS SOLD OFF TO DEVELOP THE EXISTING COURTYARD HOUSES. THE EXISTING ROAD CUTS THROUGH A PORTION OF THE VILLA GARDEN CREATING A SINGLE TRIANGULAR UNIT. THUS, ALLOWING SPACE FOR 3 UNIT TYPES WITHIN THE COMPOSITION.

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SITE PLAN

MAIN ROAD

GROWING FIELDS

COURTYARD HOUSES

EXISTING VILLA

N

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SCALE 230'-2"

48'-5"

THE SCALE OF THIS PORJECT CAN BE INTERPRETED AS IT WAS DESCRIBED BY THE ARCHITECT HIMSELF: “THE SPACES BETWEEN THE WALLS ARE COURTYARDS, WHERE VEGETATION WILL GROW UP ABOVE THE WALLS TO MERGE WITH THE NEIGHBORING GARDENS AND FIELDS. I BELIEVE THAT THE PLACE, LAID OUT WITH WALLS AND TREES, WILL RETAIN ITS IDENTITY. “ - EDUARDO SOUTO DE MOURA

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CIRCULATION

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PRIVATE V. PUBLIC

PRIVATE UNITS

PUBLIC AREA

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ORGANIZATION OF UNITS

LARGE UNITS

SMALL UNIT

SINGLE TRIANGULAR UNIT

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PEDESTRIAN

VEHICULAR

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MATERIAL

ARCHITECT EDUARDO SOUTO DE MOURA IS KNOWN FOR HIS USE OF CLEAN AND MINIMALIST LINES AS WELL AS THE USE OF LOCAL MATERIAL

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STRUCTURAL

PARALLEL WALLS DIVIDE THE LARGER AND SMALLER UNITS AND ALSO WORK AS STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. THE WALLS HOLD THE THREE CONCRETE PLANES WHICH MAKE THE ROOF.

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230'-2"

48'-5"

ENOUGH GLAZED AREAS ALLOW FOR NATURAL SUNLIGHT TO ENTER EACH UNIT. THE UNITS ARE ALSO FLATS THUS ALLOWING WIND TO FLOW THROUGHOUT AS WELL

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1140 FORMOSA LORCAN O’HERLIHY

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ARCHITECT: LORCAN O’HERLIHY DATE BUILT: 2008 LOCATION: WEST HOLLYWOOD, U.S TYPOLOGY: INFILL PROJECT DENSITY: 11 UNITS /0.3 ACRES = 36.67 NUMBER OF UNITS: 11 UNIT TYPES: 3 PARKING SPACES: 2 GARAGE PER UNIT PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE: 4,600 SF OF PUBLIC PARK

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CONCEPT: THE LOS ANGELES REGION IS NOTORIOUS FOR ITS LACK OF URBAN PUBLIC SPACE. IN WEST HOLLYWOOD, THE NEED FOR PARKS IS DIRE: THE CITY IS SATURATED WITH HOUSING, 90% OF WHICH COMPRISES MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENCES, WHILE ONLY 1% OF TOTAL LAND IS ALLOCATED TO PARKS.

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HOUSING UNITS

PUBLIC PARK

SITE:

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SCALE: THE IMAGES ABOVE SHOW THE FORMOSA BUILDING NEXT TO ITS NEIGHBOR, ALONGSIDE TREES, AND CARS. THIS IS AN ATTEMPT TO SHOW THE SCALE OF FORMOSA BUILDING.

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CIRCULATION: WHEN IT COMES TO CIRCULATION, THE FORMOSA HAS A CIRCULATION BLOCK FOR VERTICAL CIRCULATION AND HALLWAYS TO ALLOW YOU TO ACCESS EACH UNIT.

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PUBLIC AND PRIVATE: 1140 FORMOSA HAS A CLEAR DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPACE. AS SEEN IN THE DIAGRAM, THE PARK IS A PUBLIC ONE, ONE OPEN TO THE COMMUNITY AND RESIDENTS.

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Private Kitchen Living Room

UNIT ANALYSIS: FORMOSA HAS THREE DIFFERENT UNIT TYPE, A CERTAIN UNIT TYPE ON ONE FLOOR, WHICH IS MIRRORED, AND ANOTHER UNIT TYPE ON THE UPPER FLOOR WHICH THEN AGAIN, IS MIRRORED.

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PEDESTRIAN AND AUTOMOBILE: PEDESTRIANS STAY TO THE SIDEWALK LOCATED ON A RESIDENTIAL ROAD, MEANING IT IS NOT TOO BUSY, AND THE CIRCULATION WITHIN THE BUILDING. AUTOMOBILES ON THE OTHER HAND ARE RESTRICTED TO THE STREET AND UNDERGROUND PARKING. BESIDES THE ENTRANCE TO THE PARKING GARAGE WHICH IS ON A NOT SO BUSY STREET, THERE IS NOT MUCH INTERACTION BETWEEN PEDESTRIAN AND AUTOMOBILE.

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LORCAN O’HERLIHY’S MATERIAL IS SEEN WITH BLACK WOODEN PANELS, AND A VARIETY OF RED PERFORATED METAL.

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STRUCTURE: WHEN YOU FIRST SEE 1140 FORMOSA, YOU NOTICE THE RED SKIN OF THE BUILDING. IT IS NOT PART OF THE STRUCTURE RATHER IT IS A SCREEN SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOLLOWS A BASIC GRID SYSTEM.

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FIRE EXISTS

HUMAN SAFETY: FIRE EXIST CORRELATES DIRECTLY WITH THE CIRCULATION DIAGRAM AND SHARES A LOT IN COMMON.

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NATURAL LIGHT AND VENTILATION: FORMOSA USES THE SCREEN SYSTEMS AS A WAY TO PROVIDE PRIVACY, AND WITH THE HELP OF THE APERATURES AND OPENINGS, IT ALLOWS FOR NATURAL LIGHT AND VENTILATION TO THE BUILDING.

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UNITE D’HABITATION LE CORBUSIER

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ARCHITECT: LE CORBUSIER DATE BUILT: 1952 LOCATION: MARSEILLES FRANCE TYPOLOGY: SLAB HOUSING NUMBER OF UNITS: 337 UNIT TYPES: 23 PARKING SPACES: PARKING LOT ON GROUND LEVEL +/- 80 PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE: 53 SQFT BALCONY PER UNIT


THE PLANS FOR UNITE D’HABITATION WERE DESIGNED TO ACCOMODATE AROUND 1,600 RESIDENTS. LE CORBUSIER MAXIMIZED SPACE IN A VERTICAL FASHION TO ALLOW EACH UNIT TO HAVE THEIR OWN PRIVATE SPACE, ALONG WITH COMFORTABLE SPACES WITHIN THE UNITS. THE OVERALL CONCEPT OF THIS PROJECT WAS ALSO BASED AROUND THE MODULAR MAN AND THE IDEA OF MODERN LIVING AT THE TIME.

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THIS WAS LE CORBUSIER’S FIRST LARGE PROJECT AND THE FIRST LARGE PROJECT IN THE CITY OF MARSEILLES. IT WAS BASED AROUND THE MODULOR.

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DN

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UP


PUBLIC AND PRIVATE: THESE DIAGRAMS DISPLAY THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SPACES WITHIN THE BUILDING. THE PLAN SHOWS HOW THE UNITS ARE THE PRIVATE SPACES WHILE THE YELLOW IS MORE PUBLIC, BUT STILL MAINILY SHARED BY THE RESIDENTS CONSISTING OF COMMUNAL AREAS AND HALLWWAYS. THE DIAGRAM ON THE RIGHT SHOWS A SECTION THAT SHOWS THAT THE PILOTI AREA IS THE MOST PUBLICS, AND THERE BEING SOME SHARED COMMUNAL PUBLIC SPACE.

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UNIT ORGANIZTION THE UNITS WERE ORGANIZED AROUND A CENTRAL HALL WAY. THIS ALLOWED THE UNITS ENOUGH LIVABLE SPACE AS WELL AS PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE. THIS PROJECT REVOLVES STRONGLY AROUND THE EMPHASIS OF VERTICALITY.

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PEDESTRIAN: THE SITE PLAN OF THE UNITE D’ HABITATION SHOWS HOW A PEDESTRIAN IS ABLE TO INTERACT WITH THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE BUILDING AND WALK UNDER IT.

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MATERIAL: LE CORBUSIER USED THE PROCESS OF BETON BRUTE WHEN IT CAME TO CONCRETE. THIS STYLE IS A STYLE THAT DISPLAYS HOW THE CONCRETE WAS FORMED AND MADE. WITH THAT BEING SAID, THE MAIN MATERIAL FOR THIS PROJECT WAS CONCRETE.

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

LE CORBUSIER ONCE STATED THAT A HOUSE IS A MACHINE TO LIVE IN, TO WHICH HE APPLIED IT TO AN ENTIRE COMMUNITY WHICH ESTABLISHED A CONCRETE VESSEL ELEVATED ON COLUMNS. THIS ALLOWS FOR THE GROUND PLANE TO BE CLEAR AND THE REINFORNCED CONCRETE STRUCTURE SERVING AS THE SHELF OVER THE TOP. THE STILT SYSTEM ALLOWS FOR COMMUNICATION SPACE BETWEEN THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR TO WHICH IT CORRELATES VERTICALLY. 39


FIRE ESCAPE

EVACUATION PATH

HUMAN SAFETY

ALTHOUGH THE BUILDING IS CONSTRUCTED OUT OF REINFORCED CONCRETE, HUMAN SAFETY IS A PRIORITY, SUCH THAT THERE ARE THREE FIRE ESCAPES ALLOWING ACCESS FOR UNITS FROM END TO END TO SAFELY ESCAPE THE BUILDING.

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THE UNITS ARE ORGANIZED VERTICALLY ALONG THE LARGEST FACES OF THE BUILDING. THIS ALLOWS FOR NATURAL LIGHT AND AIR TO ENTER EACH UNIT. THE UNITS CONTAIN LARGE GLASS WALLS THAT AID WITH LIGHT AND VENTILATION.

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CASA RUSTICI

GIUSEPPE TERRAGNI / PIETRO LINGERI

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ARCHITECT: GIUSEPPE TERRAGNI / PIETRO LINGERI DATE BUILT: 1937 LOCATION: MILAN, ITALY TYPOLOGY: TOWER PROJECT DENSITY: HIGH DENSITY NUMBER OF UNITS: 21 UNIT TYPES: 5 PARKING SPACES: 8 SPACES TOTAL PRIVATE OUTDOOR SPACE: BALCONIES / COURTYARD

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GROUND FLOOR PLAN SCALE: 1/32” = 1’

FIFTH FLOOR PLAN SCALE: 1/32” = 1’

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A

A

A

A


SECTION A-A SCALE: 1/32” = 1’

FRONT ELEVATION SCALE: 1/32” = 1’

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FRONT FACADE FROM THE MAIN ROAD

A VIEW FROM THE LOBBY

A VIEW FROM THE INTERIOR BRIDGE

A VIEW FROM THE INTERIOR COURTYARD

A VIEW FROM THE TERRACE

A VIEW FROM THE LIVING ROOM


AXONOMETRIC OF CASA RUSTICI

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CONCEPT

GIUSEPPE TERRAGNI AND PIETRO LINGERI DIVIDED THE SITE INTO THREE 40’ X 80’ SECTIONS WHICH SEPARATED TWO VOLUMES CREATING A INTERNAL COURTYARD WHICH IS CONNECTED BY A SERIES OF SUSPENDED BALCONIES. THIS ALLOWED FOR A STYLE TO BE ESTABLISHED BY UNIFYING THE TWO UNITS WITH THE BALCONIES. 48


SITE ANALYSIS

CASA RUSTICI IS LOCATED ON A TRAPEZOIDAL SITE IN MILAN, ITALY, ALONG CORSO SEMPIONE. THE MAIN FOCUS OF THE SITE IS TO CONNECT WITH THE URBAN SPACE OF THE STREET. TERRAGNI USED THE BUILDING’S FACADE TO ALLOW TRANSPARENCY TO TAKE PLACE SUCH THAT IT IS NOT A SOLD OBJECT ON THE SITE, BUT INSTEAD IS AN OPEN BUILDING THAT HAS A COURTYARD WITHIN ITSELF. THIS FACADE AIDED IN SOLVING THE ISSUE WITH THE CORNER OF THE BUILDING AND REFLECT IT BACK ONTO THE MODERN CITY. 49


SCALE

THE SCALE OF CASA RUSTICI IS REGULATED THROUGH URBAN CONTEXT OF THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENT. TERRAGINI USED THE TREES OFF THE MAIN AVENUE AS A DETERMINATIVE FACTOR ON THE MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING. IN ADDITION, IT ALIGNS WITH ITS NEIGHBORING BUILDING TO CREATE A SINGLE ROOF SURFACE THROUGHOUT THE BLOCK. 50


CIRCULATION

THE CIRCULATION OF CASA RUSTICI BEGINS ON THE GROUND LEVEL WITH ELEVATED STAIRS ONTO THE CENTRAL AXIS OF THE BUILDING THAT SERVES AS THE MAIN HUB OF THE INNER COURTYARD. THE BUILDING CONSISTS OF SYMMETRICAL STAIR AND ELEVATOR CORE IN EACH VOLUME. EACH UNIT IS ACCESSIBLE THROUGH THE STAIRCASE WITH A PASSENGER AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR SERVING BOTH AS UTILITY AND CIRCULATION. MUCH OF THE CIRCULATION IN CASA RUSTICI IS OUT IN THE COURTYARD WHICH UTILIZES THE BALCONIES. 51


PRIVATE SEMI

PUBLIC

PUBLIC VS PRIVATE

THE ORGANIZATION OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACES IN CASA RUSTICI IS THROUGH PUSHING THE PRIVATE SPACES ONTO THE LONGITUDINAL SURFACES OF THE BUILDING. MOST OF THE PRIVATE SPACES ARE JOINED BY A SEMI-PRIVATE SPACE THAT CONSISTS OF EITHER A STUDY ROOM OR BALCONY. THE PUBLIC SPACE IS ALL THE INFILL LEFTOVER FROM THE PRIVATE SPACES WITH CONSISTS OF THE CIRCULATION, LIVING SPACES. THE INNER COURTYARD IS ALSO CONSIDERED A PUBLIC SPACE THAT IS SHARED WITH ALL THE RESIDENTS. 52


STAIR / LIFT

SERVANT’S ROOM

STUDY

KITCHEN

BEDROOM

BALCONY

ENTRY / HALL

LIVING ROOM

BATHROOM

TWO BED A TWO BED B

THREE BED

ONE BED

UNIT ANALYSIS

THE UNIT ORGANIZATION OF CASA RUSTICI IS DONE THROUGH A METHOD OF STACKING EACH UNIT ON TO ONE ANOTHER. THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BUILDING CONSISTS OF TWO BEDROOM UNITS WHILE THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BUILDING CONSISTS OF THE ONE BEDROOM AND THREE BEDROOM UNITS. EACH UNIT CONTAINS A LARGE LIVING SPACE WHICH SPILLS OUT ONTO THE EXTERIOR INTO THE BALCONIES. THE BEDROOMS ARE SHIFTED TO THE OUTER SURFACES FACING THE STREET SIDES WHILE THE LIVING SPACES ARE FACE EITHER INTO THE COURTYARD OR OUT ONTO THE STREET. THERE ARE 21 UNITS IN THIS BUILDING, WHILE THERE ARE ONLY 5 DIFFERENT UNIT TYPES FROM A STUDIO, ONE BEDROOM, TWO BEDROOM, THREE BEDROOM, AND PENTHOUSE UNITS. 53


AUTOMOBILES PEOPLE

PEDESTRIAN AND AUTOMOBILE RELATIONSHIPS

SINCE CASA RUSTICI WAS BUILT BACK IN 1937, NOT MANY PEOPLE OWNED CARS, ALTHOUGH IN THE SUBTERRANEAN PLAN, THERE WERE 6 GARAGES THAT CONSISTS OF 8 PARKING SPACES. TWO GARAGES CAN HOLD TWO CARS WHILE THE OTHER FOUR ARE JUST FOR ONE CAR. THE DRIVEWAY IS A U-SHAPE SUCH THAT THERE IS EASY ACCESS FOR THE CAR TO ENTER AND EXIT. THE PEDESTRIAN CORE CIRCULATION IS LOCATED NEXT TO THE DRIVEWAY ALLOWING ACCESS INTO THE GARAGES. 54


40’

40’

10’

WHITE MARBLE

10’

5’

5’

5’

5’

5’

15’

15’

OCHRE-COLOR PLASTER

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM & MATERIALS

THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF CASA RUSTICI ORGANIZED THROUGH THE 40’ X 80’ MODULE SYSTEM WITH 40’ SHEAR WALLS TOWARDS THE BACK OF THE BUILDING WITH OTHER SHEAR WALLS FOLLOWING A LENGTH MULTIPLE OF FIVE. THE MATERIALS USED TO ESTABLISH CASA RUSTICI CONSISTED OF WHITE MARBLE, OCHRE-COLORED PLASTER, AND GLASS. THE EXPOSURE OF THE WHITE MARBLE ONTO THE FACADE SHOWCASES THE STRUCTUAL GRID INDICATING THE PILLARS AND WALLS THAT RUN THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING. 55


FIRE ESCAPE

EVACUATION PATH

HUMAN SAFETY

THE SAFETY OF THE RESIDENTS IN CASA RUSTICI IS ACCESSED THROUGH THE TWO SYMMETRICAL CIRCULATION CORES WITH THE STAIRS ACTING AS THE FIRE ESCAPE THROUGHOUT THE ENTIRE BUILDING. THE PATH OF EVACTUATION LEADS OUT FROM THE FIRE ESACPE ONTO THE GROUND FLOOR AND SPILLS OUT ONTO THE MAIN ROAD. 56


NATURAL LIGHT

VENTILATION PATH

NATURAL LIGHT & VENTILATION

THE FACADE FROM THE FRONT ALLOWS FOR A LEVEL OF TRANSPARENCY TO BE ESTABLISHED WHICH ALLOWS FOR WIND AND NATURAL LIGHT TO ENTER THE INNER COURTYARD. THE BALCONIES ALSO PROVIDE SHADE INTO THE INTERIOR THAT PROVIDES A LEVEL OF COMFORT.

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CONCLUSION

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CASA RUSTICI IS A PROJECT THAT DEVELOPED A NEW STYLE THAT INTEGRATED TWO ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS, MASSING AND BALCONIES. THE TWO ELEMENTS ENABLED IN ESTABLISHING A GRID ONTO THE SITE WHICH WAS REFLECTED ONTO THE FRONT FACADE FACING THE STREET. WITH USE OF THE BALCONIES, IT ALLOWS A SENSE OF TRANSPARENCY AND STRESSES THE EXPRESSION OF THE STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK. TOGETHER, THE UNITS CORRELATE TO ONE ANOTHER THROUGH THE USE OF THE BALCONIES AND THE INNER COURTYARD WHICH SERVES AS THE COMMUNITY SPACE BETWEEN THE TWO VOLUMES. AS TIME GOES ON, THE LIVABILITY OF CASA RUSTICI STILL REMAINS UPMOST LUXURIOUS WITH LOTS OF SPACE, ALTHOUGH WITH ADA BECOMING A STANDARD, MUCH OF THE BUILDING HAS NOT ADAPTED WELL WITH THESE NEW STANDARDS.

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STUDY OF TYPOLOGY  

STUDY OF TYPOLOGY  

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